q
, and we assume that the termal
conductivity does not vary with temperature.
Steadystate onedimention heat flow with heat sources
!
k
"
dr
T d
2
2
= +
#or the boundary conditions we specify the temperatures on either side of the wall, i.e.,
T $ T
w
at x $ % L
The general solution this e"uation is
=
k
"
dx
T d
2
2
dx
k
"
dx
dT
d
&
' x
k
"
dx
dT
+ =
(dx ' x
k
"
) dT
&
+ =
!
k
"
dx
T d
2
2
=
T
o
T
w
T
w
x
$
!
q
L L
x
a
' x ' x
2k
"
T
2 &
2
+ + =
b c
*ecause the temperature must be the same on each side of the wall )$T
w
(, so symmetric axis
is at x $ !. the symmetric axis is
mathematical e"uation
=
2k
"
2
'
!
&
! '
&
=
)'
&
must be +ero(
The temperature at the midplane is denoted by T
o,
and for x $ ! the e"uation becomes
2 o
' T =
The temperature distribution is therefore
T x ! x
2k
"
T
o
2
+ + =
=
=
=
L
o
L
!
dx L 2 , " dT , k 2
L L( 2 , " ) ( T )T , k 2
o w
=
"
L
( T )T k
2
o w
=
insert into e"uation 
#or two sides of the wall as
x
k 2
( " ) 2
T T
2
o
=
( ) [ ]
=
=
2
2
o w 2
2
o w
o
L
x
k 2
( T )T k 2
x
k 2
L
T T k
2
T T
,n energy balace
2a
b
x =

x
2k
"
T T
2
o
=
2
o w
o
L
x
T T
T T
.
T
w
L
T
o
T
/
Temperature
2
o w
o
L
x
T T
T T
x
Total energy generated $ the heat lost at the faces
L 2 , "
dx
dT
, k 2
L x
=
=
L "
dx
dT
k
L x
=
=
The temperature gradient at the wall is obtained by differentiating 0" .
( )
o
2
2
o w
T
L
x
T T T +
=
( ) ( )
2 ! w
L x
2 o w
L x
L
2L
T T !
L
2x
T T
dx
dT
= +
=
= =
( )
L
2
T T
! w
=
L "
L
2
( T )T k
! w
=
2k
L "
T T
2
! w
=
The e"uation for the temperature distribution could also be written in the alternative form
2
w
2
w
w
2
L
x
T
2k
"L
T
T
2k
L "
T
2
2
w
2
L
x
k 2
L "
T
k 2
L "
T
k 2
L "
L
x
k 2
L "
T T
2
2
2
w
=
w !
2
T T
2k
L "
=
from e" 1
2
2 2
w
L
x
&
k 2
L "
T T
( )
=
2
2
w ! w
L
x
& T T T T
2
3 2
3
w
2
!
T
2k
L "
T + =
1
1 .
2
2
4 !
w
L
x
&
T T
T T
2.4. CYLINDER WITH HEAT SOURCES
'onsider a cylinder of radius 5 with
uniformly distributed heat sources and
constant thermal conductivity. 6f the
cylinder is sufficiently long that the
temperature may be considered a function
of radius only, the appropriate differential
e"uation may be obtained by neglecting
the axial )xy(, a+imuth )+(, and time
dependent )t( terms.
!
k
"
dr
dT
r
&
dr
T d
2
2
= + +
temperature profile
The boundary conditions are
T $ T
w
at r $ 5
7eat generated e"uals heat lost at the surface
5 r
2
dx
dT
L 5 28 k L 5 8 "
=
=
Since the temperature function must be continuous at the center of the cylinder, we could
specify that
!
dr
dT
=
at r $ ! )constant temperature at the center of the cylinder(
7owever, it will not be necessary to use this condition since it will be satisfied automatically
when the two boundary conditions are satisfied.
4e rewrite
k
"
dr
dT
r
&
dr
T d
2
2
= +
k
"r
dr
dT
dr
T d
r
2
2
= +
k
"r
!
dr
T d
r
2
2
= +
9 r
:
T
w
T
!
T
w
T
!
5
!
k
"
dr
dT
r
&
dr
T d
2
2
= + +
k
r "
dr
dT
r
dr
d
dr
k
r "
dr
dT
r d
'
k
r
2
"
dr
dT
r
&
2
+ =
dr (
r
'
k
r
2
"
) dT
&
+ =
From eq : from eq ;
5 r
2
dx
dT
L 5 28 k L 5 8 "
=
=
'
k
r
2
"
dr
dT
r
&
2
+ =
=
=
k
5
2
"
dx
dT
5 r
r
'
k
r
2
"
dr
dT
&
+ =
5
'
k
5
2
"
dr
dT
&
+ =
0" : $ ;
5
'
k
5
2
"
k 2
5 "
&
+ =
5
'
!
&
= '
&
$ !
#or '
&
$ !, thus
' r ln !
k .
r "
T
2
2
+ + =
so that
k .
5 "
T '
2
w 2
+ =
The final solution for the temperature distribution is then
' r ln !
k .
r "
T
2
2
+ + =
k .
5 "
T !
k .
r "
T
2
w
2
+ + + =
' r ln '
k .
r "
T
2 &
2
+ + =
9
r
dr
;
,t r $ ! )centre( T $ T
!
!( )5
.k
"
T T
2
w !
=
=
2
w !
5
T T
k .
"
7ollow cylinder with uniformly distributed sources the appropriate boundary conditions
would be
<eneral solution is still
2 &
2
' r ln '
k .
r "
T + + =
( r )5
.k
"
T T
2 2
w
=
&!
w
2
!
T
k .
5 "
T + =
&&
2
w !
w
5
r
&
T T
T T
5
r
T
!
T
T
w
T $ T
i
at r $ r
i
)inside surface(
T $ T
o
at r $ r
!
)outside
surface(
T
o
T
i
T
r
r
i
r
!
T$f)r(
T
o
T
i
2 &
2
' r ln '
k .
r "
T + + =
6(
2 &
2
' r ln '
k .
r "
T + + =
66(
2 ! &
2
!
o
' r ln '
k .
r "
T + + =
( ) ( ) ! r ln r ln ' r r
k .
"
T T
! &
2 2
! !
+ + =
#or condition
where constant '
&
is given
( ) ( )
!
2
i
2
! !
&
ln
r r
k .
"
T T
'
r
r
i
( ) ( )
+
=
!
2
!
2
i !
&
ln
r r
k .
"
T T
'
r
r
i
Exampe 2!4 heat source with connection
, current of 2!! , is passed through a stainless wire )k $ &; 4=m>(  mm in diameter. The
resistivity of the steel may be taken as 1! ?@ cm, and the length of wire is & m. The wire is
submerged in a li"uid at &&!
!
' and experiences a convection heattransfer coefficient of .
k4=m
2
>. 'alculate the center temperature of the wire.
Solution
,ll power generated in the wire must be dissipated by convection to the li"uid
or
( ) !
r
r
ln ' r r
k .
"
T T
!
&
2 2
! !
+ + =
T $ T
i
at r $ r
i
)inside surface(
T $ T
o
at r $ r
o
)outside
surface(
( ) !
r
r
ln ' r r
k .
"
T T
!
i
&
2
i
2
! !
+ + =
where B is the resistivity of the wire. The surface area of the wire is 8.d.L, so from e" )a(
( )
= T T L d h 8 5 6
w
2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) &&! T & &! x  8 .!!! !.!;; 2!!
w
 2
=
( ) ( ) ( ) &&! T & &! x  8 .!!! 4 ;3!
w

=
' 2&2 T
o
w
=
The heat generated per unit volume
q
is calculated from
L r 8 " C " D
2
= =
So that
L r 8 " 4att 3;!
2
=
( ) ( )

2
 
2
4=m E 23!.2
& &! x &.2 8
;3!
L r 8
4 3;!
" = = =
#inally, the center temperature of the wire is calculated from e" &&
w
2
!
T
k .
5 "
T + =
( )( )
( )
' 2&.3 ' 2&2
&; .
&! x &.2 &! x 2.3!2
T
o o
2
 :
!
= + =
i
( (.......)a T )T , h " 5 6 D
w
2
= = =
2!! ,
T $ &&!
o
'
i