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Campbell's Biology, 9e (Reece et al.

)
Chapter 34 The Origin and Evolution of Vertebrates
A little more than 40% of the questions in Chapter 34 are scenario- or art-based or a combination
thereof. There are two new sets of scenario questions, one pertaining to the air sacs of birds and the other
to a deastating disease of bats in the eastern !nited "tates and Canada, thought to be caused b# a
fungus new to science. The new set of art questions pertains to swim bladders.
$ultiple-Choice %uestions
&' Chordate phar#ngeal slits appear to hae functioned first as
A' the digestie s#stem(s opening.
)' suspension-feeding deices.
C' components of the *aw.
+' gill slits for respiration.
,' portions of the inner ear.
Answer- )
Topic- Concept 34.&
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
1' 2hich of the following statements would be least acceptable to most 3oologists4
A' The e5tant lancelets are contemporaries, not ancestors, of ertebrates.
)' The first fossils resembling lancelets appeared in the fossil record around 630 million #ears ago.
C' 7ecent wor. in molecular s#stematics supports the h#pothesis that lancelets are the most recent
common ancestor of all ertebrates.
+' The e5tant lancelets are the immediate ancestors of the fishes.
,' 8ancelets displa# the same method of swimming as do fishes.
Answer- +
Topic- Concept 34.&
".ill- "#nthesis0,aluation
3' 2hich e5tant chordates are postulated to be most li.e the earliest chordates in appearance4
A' lancelets
)' adult tunicates
C' amphibians
+' reptiles
,' chondrichth#ans
Answer- A
Topic- Concept 34.&
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
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4' A new species of aquatic chordate is discoered that closel# resembles an ancient form. ;t has the
following characteristics- e5ternal armor of bon# plates, no paired lateral fins, and a suspension-feeding
mode of nutrition. ;n addition to these, it will probabl# hae which of the following characteristics4
A' legs
)' no *aws
C' an amniotic egg
+' endotherm#
Answer- )
Topic- Concept 34.1
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
6' <ow man# of the following statements about craniates is =are' correct4
&. Craniates are more highl# cephali3ed than are noncraniates.
1. Craniates( genomic eolution includes duplication of clusters of genes that code for transcription
factors.
3. The craniate clade is s#non#mous with the ertebrate clade.
4. :har#ngeal slits that pla# important roles in gas e5change originated in craniates.
6. The two-chambered heart originated with the earl# craniates.
A' one of these
)' two of these
C' three of these
+' four of these
,' fie of these
Answer- +
Topic- Concept 34.1
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
>' 2hat do all craniates hae that earlier chordates did not hae4
A' brain
)' ertebrae
C' cartilaginous pipe surrounding notochord
+' partial or complete s.ull
,' bone
Answer- +
Topic- Concept 34.1
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
?' 8ampre#s differ from hagfishes in
A' lac.ing *aws.
)' haing a cranium.
C' haing phar#ngeal clefts that deelop into phar#ngeal slits.
+' haing a notochord throughout life.
,' haing a notochord that is surrounded b# a tube of cartilage.
Answer- ,
Topic- Concepts 34.1, 34.3
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
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@' The feeding mode of the e5tinct conodonts was
A' herbior#.
)' suspension feeding.
C' predation.
+' filter feeding.
,' absorptie feeding.
Answer- C
Topic- Concept 34.3
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
A' The earliest .nown minerali3ed structures in ertebrates are associated with which function4
A' reproduction
)' feeding
C' locomotion
+' defense
,' respiration
Answer- )
Topic- Concept 34.3
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
&0' A team of researchers has deeloped a poison that has proen effectie against lampre# larae in
freshwater cultures. The poison is ingested and causes paral#sis b# detaching segmental muscles from
the s.eletal elements. The team wants to test the poison(s effectieness in streams feeding 8a.e
$ichigan, but one critic worries about potential effects on lancelets, which are similar to lampre#s in
man# wa#s. 2h# is this concern misplaced4
A' A chemical poisonous to lampre#s could not also be to5ic to organisms as ancestral as lancelets.
)' 8ampre# larae and lancelets hae er# different feeding mechanisms.
C' 8ancelets do not hae segmental muscles.
+' 8ancelets lie onl# in saltwater enironments.
,' 8ancelets and lampre# larae eat different .inds of food.
Answer- +
Topic- Concepts 34.&, 34.3
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
&&' The lampre# species whose larae lie in freshwater streams, but whose adults lie most of their
lies in seawater, are similar in this respect to certain species of
A' chondrichth#ans.
)' actinopter#gians.
C' lungfishes.
+' coelacanths.
,' hagfishes.
Answer- )
Topic- Concept 34.4
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
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&1' Baws first occurred in which e5tant group of fishes4
A' lampre#s
)' chondrichth#ans
C' ra#-finned fishes
+' lungfishes
,' placoderms
Answer- )
Topic- Concept 34.4
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
&3' 2hich of these might hae been obsered in the common ancestor of chondrichth#ans and
osteichth#ans4
A' a minerali3ed, bon# s.eleton
)' opercula
C' bon# fin ra#s
+' a spiral ale intestine
,' a swim bladder
Answer- A
Topic- Concept 34.4
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
&4' To which of the following are the scales of chondrichth#ans most closel# related in a structural
sense4
A' osteichth#an scales
)' reptilian scales
C' mammalian scales
+' bird scales
,' chondrichth#an teeth
Answer- ,
Topic- Concept 34.4
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
&6' 2hich of these statements accuratel# describes a similarit# between shar.s and ra#-finned fishes4
A' The s.in is t#picall# coered b# flattened bon# scales.
)' The# are equall# able to e5change gases with the enironment while stationar#.
C' The# are highl# maneuerable due to their fle5ibilit#.
+' The# hae a lateral line that is sensitie to changes in water pressure.
,' A swim bladder helps control buo#anc#.
Answer- +
Topic- Concept 34.4
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
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&>' 2hich group(s members hae had both lungs and gills during their adult lies4
A' shar.s, s.ates, and ra#s
)' lungfishes
C' lancelets
+' amphibians
,' ichth#osaurs and plesiosaurs
Answer- )
Topic- Concept 34.4
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
&?' There is eidence that ra#-finned fishes eoled
A' in response to a crisis that wiped out the chondrichth#ans.
)' directl# from lampre#s and hagfish.
C' earl# in the Cambrian period.
+' directl# from lancelets.
,' the swim bladder from a lung.
Answer- ,
Topic- Concept 34.4
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
&@' The swim bladder of ra#-finned fishes
A' was probabl# modified from simple lungs of chondrichth#ans.
)' deeloped into lungs in saltwater fishes.
C' first appeared in shar.s.
+' proides for regulation of buo#anc#.
,' Two of the options listed are correct.
Answer- +
Topic- Concept 34.4
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
&A' 2hich of the following belongs to the lobe-fin clade4
A' chondrichth#ans
)' ra#-finned fishes
C' lampre#s
+' hagfishes
,' tetrapods
Answer- ,
Topic- Concept 34.4
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
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10' Arrange these ta5onomic terms from most inclusie =most general' to least inclusie =most specific'.
&. lobe-fins
1. amphibians
3. gnathostomes
4. osteichth#ans
6. tetrapods
A' 4, 3, &, 6, 1
)' 4, 3, 1, 6, &
C' 4, 1, 3, 6, &
+' 3, 4, &, 6, 1
,' 3, 4, 6, &, 1
Answer- +
Topic- Concepts 34.4, 34.6
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
1&' A trend first obsered in the eolution of the earliest tetrapods was
A' the appearance of *aws.
)' the appearance of bon# ertebrae.
C' feet with digits.
+' the minerali3ation of the endos.eleton.
,' the amniotic egg.
Answer- C
Topic- Concept 34.6
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
11' 2hat should be true of fossils of the earliest tetrapods4
A' The# should show eidence of internal fertili3ation.
)' The# should show eidence of haing produced shelled eggs.
C' The# should indicate limited adaptation to life on land.
+' The# should be transitional forms with the fossils of chondrichth#ans that lied at the same time.
,' The# should feature the earliest indications of the appearance of *aws.
Answer- C
Topic- Concept 34.6
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
13' 2hich of these are amniotes4
A' amphibians
)' fishes
C' egg-la#ing mammals
+' placental mammals
,' $ore than one of these is correct.
Answer- ,
Topic- Concept 34.>
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
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14' 2h# is the amniotic egg considered an important eolutionar# brea.through4
A' ;t has a shell that increases gas e5change.
)' ;t allows deposition of eggs in a terrestrial enironment.
C' ;t prolongs embr#onic deelopment.
+' ;t proides insulation to consere heat.
,' ;t permits internal fertili3ation to be replaced b# e5ternal fertili3ation.
Answer- )
Topic- Concept 34.>
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
16' 2hich era is .nown as the Cage of reptilesC4
A' Ceno3oic
)' $eso3oic
C' :aleo3oic
+' +eonian
,' Cambrian
Answer- )
Topic- Concept 34.>
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
1>' 2hich of these characteristics added most to ertebrate success in relatiel# dr# enironments4
A' the shelled, amniotic egg
)' the abilit# to maintain a constant bod# temperature
C' two pairs of appendages
+' bon# scales
,' a four-chambered heart
Answer- A
Topic- Concept 34.>
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
1?' 2hich of the following is characteristic of most e5tant reptiles and most e5tant mammals4
A' ectotherm#
)' diaphragm
C' shelled eggs
+' .eratini3ed s.in
,' conical teeth that are relatiel# uniform in si3e
Answer- +
Topic- Concept 34.>
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
1@' At the end of which era did most dinosaurs and pterosaurs become e5tinct4
A' Cretaceous
)' :ermian
C' +eonian
+' Drdoician
,' Triassic
Answer- A
Topic- Concept 34.>
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
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1A' 2hich of the following are the onl# e5tant animals that descended directl# from dinosaurs4
A' li3ards
)' crocodiles
C' sna.es
+' birds
,' tuataras
Answer- +
Topic- Concept 34.>
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
30' ,5amination of the fossils of Archaeopteryx reeals that, in common with e5tant birds, it had
A' a long tail containing ertebrae.
)' feathers.
C' teeth.
+' Three of the options listed are correct.
,' Two of the options listed are correct.
Answer- )
Topic- Concept 34.>
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
3&' 2h# is the discoer# of the fossil Archaeopteryx significant4 ;t supports the
A' ph#logenetic relatedness of birds and reptiles.
)' contention that birds are much older than we originall# thought.
C' claim that some dinosaurs had feathers well before birds had eoled.
+' idea that the first birds were ratites.
,' h#pothesis that the earliest birds were ectothermic.
Answer- A
Topic- Concept 34.>
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
31' +uring chordate eolution, what is the sequence =from earliest to most recent' in which the
following structures arose4
&. amniotic egg
1. paired fins
3. *aws
4. swim bladder
6. four-chambered heart
A' 1, 3, 4, &, 6
)' 3, 1, 4, &, 6
C' 3, 1, &, 4, 6
+' 1, &, 4, 3, 6
,' 1, 4, 3, &, 6
Answer- A
Topic- Concepts 34.3E34.>
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
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33' Among e5tant ertebrates, a sheet of muscle called the diaphragm is found in
A' birds.
)' monotremes.
C' marsupials.
+' placentals.
,' Three of the options listed are correct.
Answer- ,
Topic- Concept 34.?
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
34' 2hich of these would a paleontologist be most li.el# to do in order to determine whether a fossil
represents a reptile or a mammal4
A' 8oo. for the presence of mil.-producing glands.
)' 8oo. for the mammalian characteristics of a four-chambered heart and a diaphragm.
C' )ecause mammals are eutherians, loo. for eidence of a placenta.
+' !se molecular anal#sis to loo. for the protein .eratin.
,' ,5amine the teeth.
Answer- ,
Topic- Concept 34.?
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
36' 2hich of the following represents the strongest eidence that two of the three middle ear bones of
mammals are homologous to certain reptilian *awbones4
A' The# are similar in si3e to the reptilian *awbones.
)' The# are similar in shape to the reptilian *awbones.
C' The mammalian *aw has fewer bones than does the reptilian *aw.
+' These bones can be obsered to moe from the deeloping *aw to the deeloping middle ear in
mammalian embr#os.
,' $ammals can hear better than reptiles.
Answer- +
Topic- Concept 34.?
".ill- "#nthesis0,aluation
3>' Female birds la# their eggs, thereb# facilitating flight b# reducing weight. 2hich Cstrateg#C seems
most li.el# for female bats to use to achiee the same goal4
A' la# shelled eggs
)' limit litters to a single embr#o
C' refrain from fl#ing throughout pregnanc# =about > wee.s long'
+' gie birth to underdeeloped #oung, and subsequentl# carr# them in a pouch that has teats
,' feed multiple embr#os internall# using placentas
Answer- )
Topic- Concept 34.?
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
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3?' ;n which ertebrates is fertili3ation e5clusiel# internal4
A' chondrichth#ans, osteichth#ans, and mammals
)' amphibians, mammals, and reptiles
C' chondrichth#ans, osteichth#ans, and reptiles
+' reptiles and mammals
,' reptiles and amphibians
Answer- +
Topic- Concepts 34.6E34.?
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
For the following items, match the e5tant ertebrate groups with the descriptions.
3@' Their scales most closel# resemble teeth in both structure and origin.
A' amphibians
)' nonbird reptiles
C' chondrichth#ans
+' mammals
,' osteichth#ans
Answer- C
Topic- Concepts 34.4E34.?
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
3A' ;nternal fertili3ation, leather# amniotic egg, and s.in that resists dr#ing are characteristics of
A' amphibians.
)' nonbird reptiles.
C' chondrichth#ans.
+' mammals.
,' birds.
Answer- )
Topic- Concepts 34.4E34.?
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
40' 2hich of the following are the most abundant and dierse of the e5tant ertebrates4
A' ra#-finned fishes
)' birds
C' amphibians
+' nonbird reptiles
,' mammals
Answer- A
Topic- Concepts 34.4E34.?
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
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4&' 2hat is the single unique characteristic that distinguishes e5tant birds from other e5tant ertebrates4
A' endotherm#
)' feathers
C' an amniotic egg
+' flight
,' a four-chambered heart
Answer- )
Topic- Concepts 34.>E34.?
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
41' Arrange the following ta5onomic terms from most inclusie =most general' to least inclusie =most
specific'.
&. apes
1. hominins
3. Homo
4 anthropoids
6. primates
A' 6, &, 4, 1, 3
)' 6, 4, &, 1, 3
C' 6, 4, 1, &, 3
+' 6, 1, &, 4, 3
,' 6, 1, 4, &, 3
Answer- )
Topic- Concept 34.@
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
43' 2hich of these traits is most strongl# associated with the adoption of bipedalism4
A' fingerprints
)' enhanced depth perception
C' shortened hind limbs
+' opposable big toe
,' repositioning of foramen magnum
Answer- ,
Topic- Concept 34.@
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
44' 2hich of the following statements about human eolution is correct4
A' $odern humans are the onl# human species to hae eoled on ,arth.
)' <uman ancestors were irtuall# identical to e5tant chimpan3ees.
C' <uman eolution has occurred within an unbranched lineage.
+' The upright posture and enlarged brain of humans eoled simultaneousl#.
,' Fossil eidence indicates that earl# anthropoids were arboreal and cat-si3ed.
Answer- ,
Topic- Concept 34.@
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
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46' 2hich of the following are considered apes4
A' lorises
)' Gew 2orld mon.e#s
C' Dld 2orld mon.e#s
+' orangutans
,' tarsiers
Answer- +
Topic- Concept 34.@
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
4>' 2hich of these species was the first to hae been adapted for long-distance bipedalism4
A' Australopithecus garhi
)' H. erectus
C' H. ergaster
+' H. habilis
,' H. sapiens
Answer- C
Topic- Concept 34.@
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
4?' 2hich of these species was apparentl# the first to craft stone tools4
A' Australopithecus garhi
)' H. erectus
C' H. ergaster
+' H. habilis
,' H. sapiens
Answer- A
Topic- Concept 34.@
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
4@' 2hich of these species was the first to hae some members migrate out of Africa4
A' Australopithecus garhi
)' H. erectus
C' H. ergaster
+' H. habilis
,' H. sapiens
Answer- )
Topic- Concept 34.@
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
4A' 2hich of these species is currentl# thought to hae coe5isted =at the same time and places' with H.
neanderthalensis4
A' H. erectus
)' H. ergaster
C' H. habilis
+' H. sapiens
Answer- +
Topic- Concept 34.@
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
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60' 2hich of these species had members who moed out of Africa4
A' H. erectus
)' H. ergaster
C' H. habilis
+' H. sapiens
,' both H. sapiens and H. erectus
Answer- ,
Topic- Concept 34.@
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
6&' 2ith which of the following statements would a biologist be most inclined to agree4
A' <umans and apes represent diergent lines of eolution from a common ancestor.
)' <umans eoled directl# from Dld 2orld mon.e#s.
C' <umans represent the pinnacle of eolution and hae escaped from being affected b# natural
selection.
+' <umans eoled from chimpan3ees.
,' <umans and apes are the result of disruptie selection in a species of chimpan3ee.
Answer- A
Topic- Concept 34.@
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
61' 2hich of these statements about human eolution is correct4
A' The ancestors of Homo sapiens were chimpan3ees.
)' <uman eolution has proceeded in an orderl# fashion from an ancestral anthropoid to Homo sapiens.
C' The eolution of upright posture and enlarged brain occurred simultaneousl#.
+' +ifferent species of the genus Homo hae coe5isted at arious times throughout hominin eolution.
,' $itochondrial +GA anal#sis indicates that modern humans are geneticall# er# similar to
Geanderthals.
Answer- +
Topic- Concept 34.@
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
63' The oldest fossil remains of Homo sapiens found so far date from about
A' > million #ears ago.
)' &.> million #ears ago.
C' &A6,000 #ears ago.
+' >0,000 #ears ago.
,' &>,000 #ears ago.
Answer- C
Topic- Concept 34.@
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
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64' 2hich of the following statements is correct in regard to Homo erectus4
A' Their fossils are not limited to Africa.
)' Dn aerage, H. erectus had a smaller brain than H. habilis.
C' H. erectus had a leel of se5ual dimorphism less than that of modern humans.
+' H. erectus was not .nown to use tools.
,' H. erectus eoled before H. habilis.
Answer- A
Topic- Concept 34.@
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
66' 2hich of the following is the most inclusie =most general' group, all of whose members hae
foramina magna centrall# positioned in the base of the cranium4
A' hominoids
)' Homo
C' anthropoids
+' hominins
,' primates
Answer- +
Topic- Concept 34.@
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
6>' 2hich of the following is the most inclusie =most general' group, all of whose members hae full#
opposable thumbs4
A' apes
)' Homo
C' anthropoids
+' hominins
,' primates
Answer- C
Topic- Concept 34.@
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
6?' 2hich of the following is the most specific group that includes both the Dld 2orld mon.e#s and the
Gew 2orld mon.e#s4
A' apes
)' Homo
C' anthropoids
+' hominins
,' primates
Answer- C
Topic- Concept 34.@
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
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6@' At least one of these has been found in all species of eumeta3oan animals studied thus far.
A' Hox
)' Dlx
C' Otx
+' FOXP2
,' more than one of these
Answer- A
Topic- Concepts 34.&E34.@
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
6A' 2hich of the following is a cluster of genes coding for transcription factors inoled in the eolution
of innoations in earl# ertebrate nerous s#stems and ertebrae4
A' Hox
)' Dlx
C' Otx
+' FOXP2
,' more than one of these
Answer- )
Topic- Concepts 34.&E34.@
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
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Art %uestions
Figure 34.
Fishes that hae swim bladders can regulate their densit# and, thus, their buo#anc#. There are two t#pes
of swim bladder- ph#sostomus and ph#soclistus. The ancestral ersion is the ph#sostomus ersion, in
which the swim bladder is connected to the esophagus ia a short tube =Figure 34.&'. The fish fills this
ersion b# swimming to the surface, ta.ing gulps of air, and directing them into the swim bladder. Air is
remoed from this ersion b# Cbelching.C The ph#soclistus ersion is more deried, and has lost its
connection to the esophagus. ;nstead, gas enters and leaes the swim bladder ia special circulator#
mechanisms within the wall of the swim bladder.
>0' The presence of a swim bladder allows the t#pical ra#-finned fish to stop swimming and still
A' effectiel# circulate its blood.
)' be highl# maneuerable.
C' use its lateral line s#stem.
+' use its swim bladder as a respirator# organ.
,' not sin..
Answer- ,
Topic- Concept 34.4
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
>&' 7an. the following fish, from most to least, in terms of the amount of energ# it must use to maintain
its position =depth' in the water column oer the long term.
&. ph#soclistus fish
1. ph#sostomus fish
3. chondrichth#an fish
A' &, 1, 3
)' 1, 3, &
C' 1, &, 3
+' 3, &, 1
,' 3, 1, &
Answer- ,
Topic- Concept 34.4
".ill- "#nthesis0,aluation
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>1' ;f a ph#soclistus fish remoes gas from its swim bladder, this fish(s densit# cannot actuall# change
until that gas arries at the
A' mouth.
)' gills.
C' s.in.
+' heart.
,' anus.
Answer- )
Topic- Concept 34.4
".ill- "#nthesis0,aluation
>3' 2hich shar. structure is most analogous to a swim bladder full of gas4
A' its lateral line s#stem
)' its spiral ale
C' its lier
+' its dead-end nostrils
,' its gills
Answer- C
Topic- Concept 34.4
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
>4' 2hen a shar. stops swimming, it does which of the following4
&. sin.s
1. quic.l# dies
3. o5#genates its blood less effectiel#
A' & onl#
)' 1 onl#
C' 3 onl#
+' & and 3
,' &, 1, and 3
Answer- +
Topic- Concept 34.4
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
>6' 2e should e5pect the inner wall of the swim bladder to be lined with tissue that is deried from
A' ectoderm.
)' endoderm.
C' mesoderm.
+' mesoglea.
,' neurectoderm.
Answer- )
Topic- Concepts 31.3, 34.4
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
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>>' 7egarding its position in the water column, the same thing that happens to a shar. when it stops
swimming also happens to a
A' ph#sostomus fish when it gulps air.
)' ph#soclistus fish when it moes gas from the blood into the water.
C' ph#soclistus fish when it moes gas from the swim bladder into the blood.
+' ph#soclistus fish when it moes gas from the blood into the swim bladder.
Answer- )
Topic- Concept 34.4
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
>?' ;n coelacanths, a swim bladder is present, but the swim bladder is full of adipose tissue =fat', which
is there on a fairl# permanent basis. ;f such a swim bladder is used b# coelacanths to affect buo#anc#,
then it does so in much the same wa# as does the
A' lier of a shar..
)' ph#soclistus swim bladder.
C' ph#sostomus swim bladder.
+' lung of a lungfish.
Answer- A
Topic- Concept 34.4
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
&@
Cop#right 9 10&& :earson ,ducation, ;nc.
>@' 2hich graph properl# depicts the relationship between the amount of gas in the swim bladder and
the densit# of the fish4
A'
)'
C'
+'
,'
Answer- C
Topic- Concept 34.4
".ill- "#nthesis0,aluation
&A
Cop#right 9 10&& :earson ,ducation, ;nc.
>A' ;f a ra#-finned fish is to both hoer =remain stationar#' in the water column and entilate its gills
effectiel#, then what other structure besides its swim bladder will it use4
A' its heart
)' its pectoral fins
C' its lateral line s#stem
+' its caudal =tail' fin
,' its opercula
Answer- ,
Topic- Concept 34.4
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
10
Cop#right 9 10&& :earson ,ducation, ;nc.
?0' 2hich graph below best represents the wa# that densit# changes oer time in a ph#soclistus fish and
in a ph#sostomus fish, respectiel#4
A'
)'
C'
+'
A' A and )
)' ) and A
C' ) and C
+' C and )
,' + and )
Answer- +
Topic- Concept 34.4
".ill- "#nthesis0,aluation
1&
Cop#right 9 10&& :earson ,ducation, ;nc.
?&' At 6, &0, and &6 hours in the graph below, which of the following statements should be true4
A' This fish is in the process of adding gas to its swim bladder.
)' This fish is in the process of remoing gas from its swim bladder.
C' This fish has a swim bladder that is relatiel# full of gas.
+' This fish has a swim bladder that contains relatiel# little gas.
Answer- +
Topic- Concept 34.4
".ill- "#nthesis0,aluation
The following questions refer to the ph#logenetic tree shown in Figure 34.1.
Figure 34.!
?1' 2hich number represents the birds4
A' 3
)' 4
C' >
+' @
,' &0, if it were at the end of a branch emerging from the dinosaurs
Answer- ,
Topic- Concept 34.>
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
11
Cop#right 9 10&& :earson ,ducation, ;nc.
?3' 2hich pair of numbers represents e5tinct reptiles that had returned to an aquatic life4
A' & and 1
)' 3 and 4
C' 6 and ?
+' > and @
,' ? and A
Answer- A
Topic- Concept 34.>
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
?4' ;f circle 3 includes all of the e5tant reptiles that are ectotherms, then what do circles 4 and >
represent4
A' crocodiles and birds
)' turtles and birds
C' ratites and carinates
+' mammals and birds
,' There is not enough information to sa#.
Answer- ,
Topic- Concept 34.>
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
?6' 2hich number represents the closest relatie to the parareptiles4
A' &
)' 1
C' 3
+' A
,' ;t is not possible to sa#.
Answer- +
Topic- Concept 34.>
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
?>' 2hich of these numbers represents ectotherms that were able to fl#4
A' &
)' 1
C' ?
+' @
,' ;t is not possible to sa#.
Answer- C
Topic- Concept 34.>
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
??' 2hose +GA would hae had the most sequence homologies with amphibian +GA4
A' 6
)' >
C' ?
+' @
,' A
Answer- ,
Topic- Concept 34.>
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
13
Cop#right 9 10&& :earson ,ducation, ;nc.
?@' ;n order for the four-chambered hearts of birds and mammals to be homologous, which other
organisms would hae to hae had four-chambered hearts4
A' dinosaurs
)' thecodonts
C' plesiosaurs
+' s#napsids
,' stem reptiles
Answer- ,
Topic- Concept 34.>
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
?A' The organisms represented b# number @ are
A' birds.
)' mammals.
C' nonbird, terrestrial reptiles.
+' aquatic reptiles.
,' all mammals e5cept humans.
Answer- )
Topic- Concepts 34.>, 34.?
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
"cenario %uestions
The following questions refer to the description below.
Terr# catches a ra#-finned fish from the ocean and notices that attached to its flan. is an equall# long,
sna.eli.e organism. The attached organism has no e5ternal segmentation, no scales, a round mouth
surrounded b# a suc.er, and two small e#es. Terr# thin.s it might be a marine leech, a hagfish, or a
lampre#.
@0' 2hich feature e5cludes the organism from possibl# being a leech4
A' elongated shape
)' lac. of scales
C' lac. of e5ternal segmentation
+' round mouth
,' anterior suc.er
Answer- C
Topic- Concept 34.1
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
14
Cop#right 9 10&& :earson ,ducation, ;nc.
@&' Terr# detaches the sna.eli.e organism from the fish and uses a .nife to cut off its head. ;n doing so,
its brain slides out onto the dec. of the boat. Terr# peers into the cut end of the head and notices that the
brain had lain in a sort of panli.e structure that onl# partiall# surrounded the brain. 2hat is the structure
Terr# is obsering, and what is it made of4
A' s.ull, made of bone
)' cranium, made of bone
C' cranium, made of cartilage
+' ertebral column, made of bone
,' ertebral column, made of cartilage
Answer- C
Topic- Concept 34.1
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
@1' Terr# ta.es the bod# of the sna.eli.e organism and slices it open along its dorsal side. ;f it is a
hagfish, what should Terr# see4
A' a well-deeloped series of bon# ertebrae surrounding the spinal cord
)' a well-deeloped series of cartilaginous ertebrae surrounding the spinal cord
C' a tube of cartilage =surrounding the notochord' with dorsal pro*ections on both sides of the spinal
cord
+' a notochord, located underneath the spinal cord
Answer- +
Topic- Concept 34.1
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
@3' The sna.eli.e organism turned out to be a hagfish. Consequentl#, wh# should Terr# throw the fish to
which the hagfish was attached oerboard, rather than haing it for dinner4
A' ;t has mucus on its s.in.
)' ;f it had an ectoparasite, then it must also hae endoparasites.
C' The bite of the hagfish introduces paral#tic neuroto5ins, which Terr# wants to aoid.
+' ;t was alread# sic. or d#ingH otherwise, the hagfish would probabl# not hae attac.ed it.
Answer- +
Topic- Concept 34.1
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
@4' <aing caught and handled a hagfish, what will Terr#(s shipmates most li.el# require Terr# to do
before returning to further fishing4
A' 2ash his hands and then don gloes to preent the spread of harmful microbes that lie onl# on
hagfish s.in.
)' Clean the buc.etsful of hagfish slime from the dec. of the boat.
C' +ispose of the fishing tac.le that had been poisoned b# coming into contact with the hagfish.
+' Cut up the remaining hagfish and share pieces of this highl# sought-after baitfish.
Answer- )
Topic- Concept 34.1
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
16
Cop#right 9 10&& :earson ,ducation, ;nc.
@6' Terr# saed some of the tooth-li.e ob*ects within the hagfish(s round mouth to anal#3e their
composition in his mentor(s biochemistr# research lab. Terr# will find that the# are composed of the
same protein found in tetrapod
A' s.in.
)' teeth.
C' bones.
+' cartilage.
,' muscles.
Answer- A
Topic- Concepts 34.1, 34.>
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
The following questions refer to the description below.
2hile on an intersession course in tropical ecolog#, /ris pulls a large, sna.eli.e organism from a burrow
=the class was granted a collecting permit'. The &-m-long organism has smooth s.in, which appears to
be segmented. ;t has two tin# e#es that are hard to see because the# seem to be coered b# s.in. /ris
brings it bac. to the lab at the field station, where it is a source of pu33lement to the class. /ris sa#s that
it is a giant oligochaete wormH "haun suggests it is a legless amphibianH /ell# proposes it belongs to a
sna.e species that is purel# fossorial =lies in a burrow'.
@>' The class decided to humanel# euthani3e the organism and subsequentl# dissect it. <aing decided
that it was probabl# not a reptile, two of their original h#potheses regarding its identit# remained. 2hich
of the following, if obsered, should help them arrie at a conclusie answer4
A' presence of a closed circulator# s#stem
)' presence of moist, highl# asculari3ed s.in
C' presence of lungs
+' presence of a nere cord
,' presence of a digestie s#stem with two openings
Answer- C
Topic- Concept 34.6
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
@?' The organism was found to hae two lungs, but the left lung was much smaller than the right lung.
/ell# added that the herpetolog# instructor had said that in most sna.es, the same condition e5ists. ;f the
si3e difference between the lungs in this organism is not a shared ancestral characteristic with its
occurrence in sna.es, then its e5istence in this organism is e5plained as which of the following4
&. a result of conergent eolution
1. an e5ample of homologous structures
3. a similar adaptation to a shared lifest#le or bod# plan
4. a result of haing identical Hox genes
6. a homoplas#
A' 3 onl#
)' & and 6
C' &, 3, and 6
+' 1, 3, and 6
,' 3, 4, and 6
Answer- C
Topic- Concept 34.6
".ill- "#nthesis0,aluation
1>
Cop#right 9 10&& :earson ,ducation, ;nc.
@@' The adaptation of the bod# shape of sna.es has resulted in one of their lungs becoming estigial.
Another adaptation =to a fossorial lifest#le' is sna.es( absence of limbs. ;f the Cm#ster# organismC has
also become adapted to a fossorial lifest#le, though its ancestors moed about on the surface, then which
structures should one e5pect to find upon dissecting the organism4
&. reduced or absent pelic and0or pectoral girdles
1. metanephridia
3. h#drostatic s.eleton
A' & onl#
)' & and 1
C' & and 3
+' 1 and 3
,' &, 1, and 3
Answer- A
Topic- Concept 34.6
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
@A' 2hich one of these, if found, should clear up an# remaining doubt as to the identit# of the organism4
A' estigial pelic girdle
)' blood essels carr#ing o5#genated blood from both the s.in and the functional lung to the heart
C' closed circulator# s#stem
+' abilit# to produce to5ins from glands located on the s.in, or that empt# into the mouth
,' two-chambered heart
Answer- )
Topic- Concept 34.6
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
+ue to its s#stem of nine air sacs connected to the lungs, the respirator# s#stem of birds is arguabl# the
most effectie respirator# s#stem of all air-breathers. !pon inhalation, air first flows into posterior air
sacs, then into the lungs, and then into anterior air sacs on the wa# to being e5haled. Thus, there is one-
wa# flow of air through the lungs, along thousands of tubules called parabronchi.
A0' ;f the inner lining of the air sacs is neither thin nor highl# asculari3ed, then what can be inferred
about the air sacs4
A' The# must not belong to the respirator# s#stem.
)' The# cannot be deried from endoderm.
C' The# cannot be sites of gas e5change between air and blood.
+' The# must obtain nutrition from some source other than the bloodstream.
,' The# cannot effectiel# moisturi3e the air before it reaches the lungs.
Answer- C
Topic- Concept 34.>
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
1?
Cop#right 9 10&& :earson ,ducation, ;nc.
A&' "ome bird bones are hollow rather than hone#combed. The hollow bones mostl# contain air sacs.
The replacement of bone marrow with air sacs is properl# understood as an adaptation to
A' reduce the weight of the bird.
)' facilitate flight.
C' eliminate the functions that marrow performs.
+' All three of the options listed are correct.
,' Dnl# two of the options listed are correct.
Answer- ,
Topic- Concept 34.>
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
A1' )irds generate a lot of heat, especiall# during flight. Iet the adipose tissue under their s.in and the
feathers atop their s.in ma.e it difficult to eliminate e5cess heat across the s.in. 2hich of the following
alternaties can absorb bod# heat and eliminate it from the bird most effectiel#4
A' air in the air sacs
)' l#mph in the l#mphatic essels
C' blood in the essels
+' blood in the heart
,' urine in the bladder
Answer- A
Topic- Concept 34.>
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
A3' ;f Archaeopteryx had air sacs, then which of its features would hae had the opposite effect on
enabling Archaeopteryx to fl# long distances from that proided b# air sacs4
&. teeth
1. contour feathers
3. wing claws
4. long tail with man# ertebrae
A' & and 1
)' & and 4
C' 1 and 3
+' &, 1, and 4
,' &, 3, and 4
Answer- ,
Topic- Concept 34.>
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
A4' 2hich feature of some carinates has the same effect on weight as the presence of air sacs4
A' presence of a large, heail# .eratini3ed bea.
)' absence of a urinar# bladder
C' presence of a carina =.eel'
+' number of chambers in the heart
,' presence of large pectoral muscles
Answer- )
Topic- Concept 34.>
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
1@
Cop#right 9 10&& :earson ,ducation, ;nc.
A6' The moement of air along parabronchi is most similar to the moement of
A' air in the lungs of other amniotes.
)' food0waste in a gastroascular cait#.
C' food0waste in a digestie s#stem with separate mouth and anus.
+' the frog tongue during feeding.
,' air in lungs of terrestrial amphibians.
Answer- C
Topic- Concepts 33.3, 34.>
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
A>' 2hich t#pe of bird is most li.el# to need air sacs to reduce its weight4
A' birds that migrate long distances
)' waterfowl that float on water, but do not die
C' birds that spend much of their time underwater
+' ratites
Answer- A
Topic- Concept 34.>
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
A?' The one-wa# flow of air along parabronchi ma.es what t#pe of e5change mechanism possible, at
least theoreticall#4
A' the same as that occurring in fish gills
)' the same as that occurring in insect tracheae
C' the same as that occurring in mammalian lungs
+' the same as that occurring in echinoderm s.in gills
Answer- A
Topic- Concepts 33.4E34.>, 41.6
".ill- "#nthesis0,aluation
;n the !nited "tates and Canada, bats use one of two strategies to surie winter- The# either migrate
south, or the# hibernate. 7ecentl#, those that hibernate seem to hae come under attac. b# a fungus,
Geomyces destructans =Jd', an attac. that is occurring from $issouri to southern Canada. $an#
infected bats hae a delicate, white filamentous mat on their mu33les, which is referred to as white-nose
s#ndrome =2G"'. The fungus inades the bat tissues, causes discomfort, and awa.ens the bat from its
hibernation. The bat fidgets and wastes calories, using up its stored fat. The bat then behaes
abnormall#, leaing its cae during da#time in winter to search for food. Their food, primaril# insects, is
scarce during the winter, and the bats ultimatel# stare to death. "ince 100?, it is estimated that up to &
million bats hae perished from 2G".
A@' The Jd mat on the fur of the bats should be e5pected to consist of
A' h#phae.
)' haustoria.
C' arbuscules.
+' #easts.
,' basidia.
Answer- A
Topic- Concepts 3&.&, 34.?
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
1A
Cop#right 9 10&& :earson ,ducation, ;nc.
AA' Jd is a cold-loing fungus. Thus, which characteristics of normal bat behaior can be most e5pected
to faor the growth of this fungus4
A' southward migration during the winter
)' communal roosting in tightl# pac.ed clusters during hibernation
C' reliance on fat reseres for calories during hibernation
+' much-reduced metabolic rate during hibernation
,' hibernating in parts of the cae that are farthest awa# from the mouth of the cae
Answer- +
Topic- Concept 34.?
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
&00' Jd is a cold-loing fungus. Thus, which characteristics of abnormal bat behaior can be most
e5pected to faor the growth of this fungus4
A' shifting roosting location to the mouth of the cae during winter
)' searching for food during winter
C' searching for food during the da#
+' All three of the options listed are correct.
,' Dnl# two of the options listed are correct.
Answer- +
Topic- Concept 34.?
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
&0&' Jd is a cold-loing fungus. Thus, which characteristics of normal bat behaior can be most
e5pected to faor the spread of this fungus to uninfected bats4
A' southward migration during the winter
)' communal roosting in tightl# pac.ed clusters during hibernation
C' reliance on fat reseres for calories during hibernation
+' much-reduced metabolic rate during hibernation
,' hibernating in parts of the cae that are farthest awa# from the mouth of the cae
Answer- )
Topic- Concept 34.?
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
&01' Almost all Gorth American bats are insectiores, with one notable e5ception being a bat that bites
and then laps blood from the wound. The blood-lapping bats are limited to the warm, southwestern
!nited "tates. Thus, if 2G" continues to decimate bat populations in the !nited "tates and Canada,
then we can e5pect
A' liestoc. bites from ampire bats to increase in frequenc#.
)' plant diseases that are spread b# insects to increase in frequenc#.
C' plant diseases directl# caused b# insect feeding to increase in frequenc#.
+' human and liestoc. diseases that are spread b# insects to increase in frequenc#.
,' all but one of these are correct.
Answer- ,
Topic- Concept 34.?
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
30
Cop#right 9 10&& :earson ,ducation, ;nc.
&03' 2hich feature=s' allow=s' hibernating bats to consere heat without using calories4
A' shiering
)' fur
C' fat la#er below the s.in
+' All three of the options listed are correct.
,' Two of the options listed are correct.
Answer- ,
Topic- Concept 34.?
".ill- Application0Anal#sis
,nd-of-Chapter %uestions
The following questions are from the end-of-chapter KTest Iour !nderstandingL section in Chapter 34 of
the te5tboo..
&04' Mertebrates and tunicates share
A' *aws adapted for feeding.
)' a high degree of cephali3ation.
C' the formation of structures from the neural crest.
+' an endos.eleton that includes a s.ull.
,' a notochord and a dorsal, hollow nere cord.
Answer- ,
Topic- ,nd-of-Chapter %uestions
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
&06' "ome animals that lied 630 million #ears ago resembled lancelets but had a brain and a s.ull.
These animals ma# represent
A' the first chordates.
)' a Cmissing lin.C between urochordates and cephalochordates.
C' earl# craniates.
+' marsupials.
,' nontetrapod gnathostomes.
Answer- C
Topic- ,nd-of-Chapter %uestions
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
&0>' 2hich of the following could be considered the most recent common ancestor of liing tetrapods4
A' a sturd#-finned, shallow-water lobe-fin whose appendages had s.eletal supports similar to those of
terrestrial ertebrates
)' an armored, *awed placoderm with two pairs of appendages
C' an earl# ra#-finned fish that deeloped bon# s.eletal supports in its paired fins
+' a salamander that had legs supported b# a bon# s.eleton but moed with the side-to-side bending
t#pical of fishes
,' an earl# terrestrial caecilian whose legless condition had eoled secondaril#
Answer- A
Topic- ,nd-of-Chapter %uestions
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
3&
Cop#right 9 10&& :earson ,ducation, ;nc.
&0?' !nli.e eutherians, both monotremes and marsupials
A' lac. nipples.
)' hae some embr#onic deelopment outside the uterus.
C' la# eggs.
+' are found in Australia and Africa.
,' include onl# insectiores and herbiores.
Answer- )
Topic- ,nd-of-Chapter %uestions
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
&0@' 2hich clade does not include humans4
A' s#napsids
)' lobe-fins
C' diapsids
+' craniates
,' osteichth#ans
Answer- C
Topic- ,nd-of-Chapter %uestions
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
&0A' As hominins dierged from other primates, which of the following appeared first4
A' reduced *awbones
)' language
C' bipedal locomotion
+' the ma.ing of stone tools
,' an enlarged brain
Answer- C
Topic- ,nd-of-Chapter %uestions
".ill- /nowledge0Comprehension
31
Cop#right 9 10&& :earson ,ducation, ;nc.