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Product Catalog

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Table of Contents
Technological Expertise 119
Innovative Smith Bits technology for every stage of drilling
Fixed Cutter Bits 2133
A wide range of PDC and diamond-impregnated bits
Roller Cone Bits 3754
A comprehensive selection for various applications
Percussion Hammers and Bits 5559
Impax hammer products designed for oilfield applications
Specialty Products 6167
Reference Guide 6990
1
Technological Expertise
2
Engineering and Modeling

IDEAS* Integrated Drillbit Design Platform

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis

i-DRILL* Engineered Drilling System Design

Advanced Services Engineering (ASE)

DBOS* Drillbit Optimization System

YieldPoint RT* Drilling-Hydraulics and Hole-Cleaning Simulation Program

DRS* Drilling Record System
Technological Expertise
Innovative Smith Bits technology provides analyses, optimization, and support for every stage of
the drilling program, from planning to execution
Fixed Cutter Technology

Stinger* Conical diamond element

ONYX 360* Rolling PDC cutter
Roller Cone Technology

Hydraulics

Inserts
Diamond-Impregnation Technology

Grit Hot-Pressed Inserts (GHIs)
3
The IDEAS* design platform uses
advanced simulation and modeling to
design and certify every new Smith Bits
drill bit. It has five basic elements that
enable it to optimize bitperformance.
Comprehensive drilling
systemanalysis
The design process takes into account the
effects of the lithology at the rock-cutter
interface, the drillstring, the drive system,
individual BHA components, and the total
system on bit behavior in a dynamic drilling
environment. It also takes into account
the specific operating parameters and the
interaction between individual elements of
the drilling assembly.
Engineering and Modeling
IDEAS Integrated Drillbit Design Platform
Delivering application-specific drill bits with higher performance and greater reliability
Holistic design process
Smith Bits design engineers account for
every critical variable. Virtually every cone
or cutter position is selected to create a
stable bit that rotates around its center, a
key requirement for efficientdrilling.
Application-specific enhancements
Continuous improvement results in bits
for a specific application that consistently
outperform previous designs when
measured against the same parameters, for
example, ROP, durability, and specific bit
behavior with a rotary steerable system.
Drill bits that are certified by the IDEAS
platform are dynamically stable within
the operating envelope for which they are
designed, leading to longer bit runs and less
stress on the BHA.
Each certified bit undergoes rigorous
design evaluation and testing to produce a
detailed application analysis of how it will
perform for a specific drillingprogram.
Rapid solutions with
reliableresults
By using sophisticated modeling tools and
by accounting for a multitude of dynamic
variables in a virtual environment, the
IDEAS platform moves bits through the
design process much quicker, while
ensuring better reliability and performance
than ever before. The traditional trial-
and-error approach is replaced by
laboratory tests and simulations to quantify
variables such as cutter forces and rock
removalrates.
Advanced material integration
Stronger and more durable advanced
cutter materials are used more effectively
by working in conjunction with IDEAS
design and simulation capabilities. The
resulting bit has abrasion- and impact-
resistant cutters, and an optimal design for
highperformance.
IDEAS platform eliminates the costly and
time-consuming trial-and-error methods of
the traditional drillbit design process, enabling
SmithBits to deliver a better solution faster.
Define
Performance
Objectives
IDEAS Platform
Simulation

Design

Test

Analyze
Build
Bit
Test
Bit
Certify Bit
Integrate
new bit into
product line
The IDEAS Platform
www.slb.com/IDEAS
4
Extensive analyses of drill bits designed
for directional applications using the
IDEAS* integrated drillbit design platform
shows that a single design can provide
exceptional performance with a variety
of directional drilling systems, if it is
dynamically stable. Often, the range
of special features incorporated into
conventional directional bits merely allows
an intrinsically unstable bit design to drill
acceptably for a specific application. If
the bit is subsequently used with a slightly
different BHA or in a different application,
it becomes unstable and a new or
significantly modified bit is required.
Bits for directional drilling that have IDEAS
certification remain stable and provide
superior performance with different
types of steering systems in a wide range
of applications. Changing the system
configuration or operating parameters
does not diminish the performance of
the bit. Drilling with a stable bit reduces
costs and equipment failures in addition to
providing a smooth, high-qualitywellbore.
Engineering and Modeling
IDEAS Design Platform Certification for Directional Applications
Improving performance, reduces risk, and keeps directional wells and drilling budgets on target
www.slb.com/IDEAS
5
Efficient hydraulics for improved performance and lower drilling costs
Smith Bits design engineers use CFD to
model the interaction of drilling fluids
with the bit and the wellbore. Complex
algorithms enable the simulation of a
wide variety of downhole conditions,
allowing engineers to evaluate various
blade and nozzle configurations in order
to optimize flow patterns for cuttings
removal. Ensuring the cutting structure is
always drilling virgin formation improves
bit performance. Extensive use is made of
this sophisticated technique to maximize
the available hydraulic energy, providing
bits that will drill at the lowest possible
costperfoot.
Using CFD to visualize flow patterns enables
designers to analyze design modifications affect
bit performance and choose the optimum solution.
Engineering and Modeling
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Analysis
6
i-DRILL* engineered drilling system design
uses predictive modeling to identify
solutions that minimize vibrations and
stick/slip during drilling operations, and
optimize BHA performance for a given
environment. Specially trained engineers
simulate the behavior of the bit, as well
as each component of the BHA and the
drillstring. They evaluate a range of
options to reduce harmful vibrations, thus
increasing equipment life, minimizing
failures, increasing ROP, improving
hole condition and directional control,
and decreasing overall drilling cost.
Various combinations of drillbit options,
drilling assembly components, drillstring
designs, surface parameters, component
placement, and overbalance pressures
can be examined for the specific lithology.
Advanced graphics capabilities illustrate
the results with clarity.
Reliable simulation of downhole
behavior eliminates trial-and-error
The i-DRILL drilling system design enables
quantification of vibrations and ROP
produced by a virtual drilling system as a
function of time. This is accomplished by
combining a bit-drilling-rock model with
a finite element analysis of the bit and
drillstring.
Analyzing the dynamics of the drilling
assembly through multiple formations of
variable compressive strength, dip angle,
homogeneity, and anisotropy is feasible,
a critical factor in obtaining optimal
performance through formation transitions.
Virtual testing of new technology and
unconventional approaches eliminates
the risk and expense of trial-and-error
ontherig.
Integration of data from diverse
sources improves accuracy
Using offset well data, surface and
downhole measurements, and a thorough
knowledge of products and applications,
Engineering and Modeling
i-DRILL Engineered Drilling System Design
www.slb.com/iDrill
the i-DRILL design process creates a virtual
drilling environment. Detailed geometric
input parameters and rock mechanics data
are also taken into account. Simulating the
drilling operation enables evaluation of the
root causes of inefficient and damaging
BHAbehavior.
i-DRILL design capabilities

Identify the true technical limit of
performance without risking lost rig time
associated with exceeding the limit or
inefficiencies resulting from operating
too far below the limit.

Eliminate unnecessary trips to change
BHAs when trying to identify the
optimum drilling system.

Predict the performance of new drillbit
designs.

Predict the dynamic behavior of
directional BHAs in space and time.

Identify weak areas in the drillstring and
BHA to help prevent the loss of tools
downhole.

Minimize harmful lateral, torsional, and
axial vibrations; and stick/slip, through
the selection of dynamically stable
drilling assemblies.

Balance drillbit and underreamer cutting
structure loading to maximize dual-
diameter BHA stability.

Develop improved drilling program
schedules with reduced risk of
unplanneddelays.
i-DRILL design analyses

Drilling system check to evaluate
dynamic behavior; identify issues with
vibration, bending moments, and torque;
and select the optimal system

Bit analysis to identify the design that
will yield the highest ROP under stable
conditions

Bit durability and ROP through different
formations

Bit-underreamer balance to determine
the combination that will result in the
highest ROP under stable conditions

BHA comparison to investigate
directional behavior while minimizing
vibrations

Range of weight on bit (WOB) and
drillbit revolutions per minute (rpm) for
maximum ROP under stable conditions

Postwell follow-up to determine usage
and effectiveness of prewell i-DRILL
design recommendations
Maximize performance with a dynamically stable drilling assembly.
7
The ASE team has an established track
record of lowering drilling costs through
improved performance, by recommending
the ideal bit for the applicationa vital
aspect of a comprehensive well plan. Bit
recommendations and operational advice
are based upon the technologies and
operating parameters best suited for a
particular application.
Expert drillbit selection
The ASE group provides an experienced
bit application specialist for the clients
drilling team, to deliver engineered bit
recommendations and advice to both the
operator and the service providers on the
day-to-day requirements for maaintaining
superior bit performance. ASE engineers
consider the entire drilling environment,
including the formation, the components
of the BHA, drilling fluids, rig capabilities,
rig crew, and any special drilling objectives
in their search for the optimum bit and
subsequent maintenance of its efficiency
throughout its life.
The engineer uses several proprietary
tools, such as the

DRS* drilling record system, which
includes detailed bit runs from oil, gas,
and geothermal wells around the world

DBOS* drillbit optimization system,
which helps determine the appropriate
combination of cutting structure, gauge
protection, hydraulic configuration, and
other bit optimizing features

YieldPoint RT* drilling-hydraulics and
hole-cleaning simulation program for jet
nozzle optimization.
Optimized drilling plan
The DBOS program uses knowledge gained
from an analysis of offset wells from the
DRS system and a spectrum of other
relevant information. It provides a thorough
reconstruction of expected lithologies
Engineering and Modeling
Advanced Services Engineering (ASE)
In-house bit recommendations and operational advice
www.slb.com/ASE
(gleaned from well logs from the closest
offset wells), a formation analysis, rock
strength analysis, and both roller cone and
fixed cutter bit selections.
The YieldPoint RT program creates a
graphical user interface to aid drilling
engineers in specifying mud types and
properties that satisfy rheological models
of drillstrings and well annuli. The software
can answer questions about hole cleaning,
with data from the formations to be
encountered. Using a cuttings transport
model, the program can help assess
potential hole-cleaning difficulties during
the well planning stage, thus minimizing
problems during actual drilling operations.
Operational needs and the well plan are
also taken into consideration, including
casing points and hole sizes, well
directional plot, and expected formation
tops. The result is an optimized minimum
cost per foot program, often with multiple
options and alternatives.
Continuous evaluation
whiledrilling
To establish measurable goals, the ASE
engineer prepares a comprehensive plan.
During drilling, performance is evaluated
continuously against this plan. Upon
completion of the well, a postwell analysis
measures the success of the plan and
provides a permanent formal reference for
future wells.
The appropriate rig and office personnel
are briefed on the drilling program
and monitor the well prognosis during
implementation of the well plan.
Unexpected performance or events that
arise are identified and investigated, and
decisions are made to correct the issues,
subject to the objective of maintaining peak
drilling efficiency and safety.
8
Postwell Analysis
A thorough performance assessment is conducted upon
completion of the well evaluating every part of the drilling
operation. The ASE engineer, as part of the drilling team, makes
recommendations for improvements related to bit selection and
drilling for future well plans.
The ASE team provides value by recommending the best bit for
the specific application, which will deliver the most efficient and
economical drilling performance.
Engineering and Modeling
Advanced Services Engineering (ASE)
www.slb.com/ASE
9
Engineering and Modeling
DBOS Drillbit Optimization System
To achieve the minimum cost per foot with a higher degree of
certainty and reduced risk, the DBOS* Drillbit Optimization
System identifies the best drill bit for the interval to be drilled.
This software based system uses offset well data to choose
a fixed cutter, roller cone, or turbodrill drill bit that has the
appropriate combination of cutting structure, gauge protection,
hydraulic configuration, and other critical characteristics. Since
its inception, the DBOS system has provided significant cost
and time savings for operators around the world, while creating
a supporting database of more than 20,000 wells. The system
incorporates a thorough analysis of offset well data including well
logs, formation tops, mud logs, core analysis, rock mechanics,
drilling parameters, drillbit records, and dull bit conditions.
DBOS comprises

a petrophysical log analysis program

proprietary algorithms for rock compressive strengths, drillbit
performance analysis, and drillbit selection

well log correlation and statistic analysis software

a geologic mapping program.
The flexibility of the system allows engineers to analyze various
levels of information and deliver a bit strategy based on input
from a single offset well, a multiwell cross section, or a full-field
mapping and regional trend analyses.
www.slb.com/DBOS
DBOS system evaluation process
1. Evaluation of expected formation types and their section
lengths from offset logs.
2. Determination of unconfined compressive strength, effective
porosity, abrasion characteristics, and impact potential.
3. Identification of one or more potentially optimal bit types and
various applicable features.
4. Prediction of the cost per foot for each bit and configuration.
5. Drillbit selection for planned hole (simulation).
Operator deliverables
Various levels of analysis are offered, and for each level, data
is presented graphically in log plot form, and statistically in the
interval analysis plots. The analysis evaluates key bit performance
variables over the given intervals, identifying which bit will be the
most successful for drilling through specific single intervals or over
multiple intervals, based on experience data and the knowledge
based heuristics.
Parallel analysis for roller cone bit options, PDC bit applications
and high-speed turbodrilling options are all considered. The final
proposed bit program combines this input for optimized Interval
cost per foot.
10
Engineering and Modeling
DBOS Drillbit Optimization System
Input parameters include

drillbit record information

directional surveys

real-time ROP and mud log data

wireline or LWD formation evaluation data

rock type and strength data

hydraulic and mechanical energy factors.
Neural networks, planned run simulation and
real-time optimization
Neural networks have been used in DBOS system for synthetic
log generation since 1997, and serves as the principal modeling for
on-time, real- time DBOS system. Artificial neural networks (ANNs)
have proven accuracy generating synthetic logs (used primarily for
sonic log generation) with R^2 (goodness of fit) values in the high
90 percentiles, compared to traditional offset correlation methods.
Neural networks provide system response characteristics, very
valuable in non-linear multi-input solution.Drillbit performance can
be predicted prior to drilling (ROP, dull grade) in run simulation. In
predrilling simulation, drilling systems can be tested in advance to
find the most efficient way to drill.
Real-time applications
Optimized drilling parameters can be assessed and delivered to
the driller and rig floor in realtime, giving predictions ahead of the
bit. The results can be monitored with respect to improved ROP,
longer drillbit life, or reduced downhole shock and vibration. DBOS
system has contributed to improvements in bit run performance
on the order of 20 to 40% or better in ROP, longer bit life, reduced
incidents of drillbit related failures.
www.slb.com/DBOS
11
Engineering and Modeling
YieldPoint RT Hydraulics and Hole-Cleaning Simulation Program
Optimized hole-cleaning solutions
The YieldPoint RT* program identifies potential problems with hole
cleaning in the planning stage, rather than during drilling operations
when they can have a significant impact on the cost of the well.
It aids drilling engineers in specifying mud type and properties to
satisfy rheological models of drillstrings and well annuli.
This comprehensive program uses sophisticated algorithms to
deliver solutions for conventional jet nozzle optimization and
selection. It creates simulations of mud properties, flow rate,
ROP, and total flow area. The virtual model then demonstrates the
effects on observed bit hydraulic factors and on hole cleaning.
Diverse inputs for real-time assessment
YieldPoint RT program allows data to be input and retrieved via
an Internet connection and the Web-based wellsite information
transfer standard markup language (WITSML), by authorized
wellsite providers and off-location users such as

the well operator

drilling contractors

mud loggers

rig instrumentation and wireline companies

drilling fluid service companies

casing running service providers

directional drillers

drilling and exploration engineers and managers

reservoir engineers

management personnel

seismic survey companies

process optimization consultants

materials suppliers.
Wellsite service providers can contribute expertise to the
common store via the WITSML interface, and then query the
data store for combined information from other wellsite services.
This information can support program analysis, visualization,
and potential corrective actions, decision making in drilling and
production operations in real time. Hydraulics can be optimized to
maximize efficiency as the well is being drilled.
Operating company personnel can compile information from any
mix of vendors, view and monitor current wells via Web-based
applications, and extract reports at any time. The result is a real-
time solution that substantiall y reduces costs.
www.slb.com/YieldPointRT
12
Engineering and Modeling
DRS Drilling Record System
An extensive library of bit run information
The Smith Bits DRS* drilling record system is a collection of
nearly 3 million bit runs from virtually every oil and gas field in the
world. The database was initiated in May 1985 and since that time,
records have been continuously added for oil, gas, and geothermal
wells. With this detailed data and the capabilities of the IDEAS*
integrated drillbit design platform, Smith Bits engineers can
simulate bit performance and make changes to their bit designs to
optimize performance in a specific application.
In addition, the system enables the DBOS* drillbit optimization
system to ensure that the right bit is run in a given formation. With
this plan in place prior to drilling the well, customers are able to
reduce risk, lower drilling costs, and shorten the total time required
to drill their wells.
The inclusion of bit record data from the client wells in the DRS
system contributes to better drillbit selection and application for
your drilling program. The system can be accessed through Smith
Bits applications engineers or sales representatives.
www.slb.com/records
13
Stinger
Conical diamond element
Beyond shear performance
The Stinger* conical diamond element provides an innovative
cutting structure enhancement that significantly increases a
PDC bits performance. Located at the bits center, the element
enables high-point loading to fracture rock more efficiently for
increased durability and ROP across a wide range of formations
and operating parameters.
In field tests comparing conventional PDC bits and PDC bits
fitted with a Stinger element across a wide range of rock
types and operating parameters, bits with a Stinger element
demonstrated greater durability and stability while increasing
ROP as much as 46%.
Borehole center challenges
conventional PDC bits
Because the rotational velocity of cutters decreases with their
proximity to the center of a bits cutting structure, rock removal
by the center-most cutters of conventional PDC bits is much
less efficient, especially in hard formations. And since the
center cutters bear the highest load, operational and formation
changes can cause large variations in depth of cut, inducing bit
torquefluctuations.
Stinger element increases
PDC bit drilling efficiency
To decrease PDC bit damage and increase performance at the
center of the cutting structure, bit design engineers selectively
removed the PDC bits center-most cutters to position the Stinger
element. The absence of these cutters allows a stress-relieved
column of rock to develop that is continuously crushed and
fractured by the Stinger element, improving drilling efficiency.
By reconfiguring the bit with the Stinger element, a column of rock is allowed
to form at the center of the cutting structure, which is continuously crushed
and fractured, increasing drilling efficiency.
The Stinger element combines a unique conical geometry with synthetic
diamond material that is engineered to provide impact strength and superior
resistance to abrasive wear.
www.slb.com/Stinger
M S i Z 6 19
Cutter size
Blade count
Z Stingerconical diamond element
i IDEAS certified
S SHARC
M/S Matrix or steel
Stinger nomenclature
14
ONYX 360
Rolling PDC cutter
The next revolution in PDC cutter durability
The ONYX 360* rolling PDC cutter substantially increases PDC bit
durability by revolving 360. Strategically positioned in the highest
wear areas of a bits cutting structure, the rolling cutters entire
diamond edge is used to shear the formation.
Fixed cutter limits diamond edge contact
Because most of its cutting edge is fixed into the bit blade, very
little of a fixed cutters edge contacts the formation. Accordingly,
more than 60% of the cutters circumferential edge is unused
during a bit run.
The ONYX 360 cutters rotating action allows the diamond edge
to stay sharper longer, extending cutter life far beyond that of
premium fixed cutters. When compared with fixed-cutter-only bits,
PDC bits that included ONYX 360 rolling cutters demonstrated run
length increases of up to 57%.
Inventive design increases cutter life
To integrate a rolling cutter into a PDC bits cutting structure would
require a novel and robust design. Smith Bits R&D engineers
developed a cutter system composed of a housing that is brazed
into the bit blade, and within which a sleeve encloses and
completely secures the cutter while allowing it to rotate.
The rolling cutters orientation in the bit blade relative to its
contact with the formation, coupled with the bits drilling force,
drives efficient rotation of the cutter. This reduces wear for more
sustained rates of penetration and fewer bit replacement trips.
The ONYX 360 cutters shaft is fully contained within an integrated housing to
ensure continuous rotation and cutter retention during drilling.
www.slb.com/ONYX360
M S i R 6 19
Cutter size
Blade count
R ONYX 360 rolling cutter
i IDEAS certified
S SHARC
M/S Matrix or steel
ONYX 360 nomenclature
15
ONYX 360
Rolling PDC cutter
www.slb.com/ONYX360
Comprehensive evaluation validates rolling concept
The wear that fixed cutters incur is concentrated on only a small
percentage of the cutters entire diamond edge. As a result, after 90 passes
on a test formation, premium fixed cutters developed extreme wear flats.
Because 100% of the ONYX 360 rolling cutters diamond edge engaged the
test formation, wear was evenly distributed, resulting in virtually no wear
after 300 passes and very little wear after 540 passes.
Rock cutting passes
P
r
e
m
i
u
m

f
i
x
e
d

c
u
t
t
e
r
O
N
Y
X

3
6
0

c
u
t
t
e
r
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600
120
90
300 480 540
Based on analysis using IDEAS design platform, ONYX 360 rolling cutters
can selectively replace fixed cutters in the highest wear areas of a PDC bits
cuttingstructure.
In abrasive formations, the bits shoulder area (between the center of the
cutting structure and gauge) is where cutters typically experience the
greatest amount of wear. The ability IDEAS drillbit design platform has to
predict the degree and precise location of this wear makes it an invaluable
design tool.
Distance from bit center, in
ONYX 360 cutters
Premium fixed cutters
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
W
e
a
r

F
l
a
t

A
r
e
a
,

i
n
2
0.14
0.12
0.10
0.08
0.06
0.04
0.02
0
Distance from bit center, in
Wear Flat Area After 150 hours
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5
High wear area
16
Roller Cone Technology
Adaptive Hydraulics System
Because of the wide range of drilling
applications for roller cone bits, no single
hydraulics configuration is optimal for
every situation. Different applications
require each of the three primary functions
of bit hydraulicscutting-structure
cleaning, bottomhole cleaning, and cuttings
evacuationto varying degrees. With
the Flex-Flo* adaptive hydraulics system,
Smith Bits offers the ideal configuration for
each application.
Zone 1
Very soft and/or
sticky formations
that generate very
large volumes of
cuttings with Milled
Tooth bits and very
soft TCI bits.
Zone 2
Low strength
formations that
generate large
cuttings volumes and
drill with soft TCI bits.
Zone 3
Medium strength
formations that
generate moderate
cuttings volumes
with medium hard
TCI bits.
Zone 4
High strength
formations that
generate low
cuttings volumes
with hard
TCI bits.
Soft / Sticky Hard/Abrasive
Cutting Structure Cleaning
Bottom-Hole Cleaning Cuttings
Evacuation
Hydraulic Function vs. Formation
H
y
d
r
a
u
l
i
c

F
u
n
c
t
i
o
n

N
e
e
d
V-Flo
V-Flo* vectored-flow
nozzle configuration uses
three directed nozzles
to allocate available
hydraulic energy for
improved penetration
rates through superior
cutting-structure
cleaning and efficient
cuttings evacuation.
X-Flo
The many variations of
X-Flo* crossflow nozzle
configuration allocate
available hydraulic energy
to improve penetration
rates through cone
cleaning and dramatically
increased impingement
pressure, needed for
superior bottomhole
cleaning.
S-Flo
In applications with
high percentages of
solids in the mud and
in abrasive formations,
S-Flo* standard-flow
nozzle configuration uses
three identical nozzles to
allocate hydraulic energy
for increased bit life.
To help select the most suitable bit
hydraulics system, typical applications
have been divided into four categories
or zones determined by formation types,
ranging from very soft to very hard. Within
each zone, the relative importance of
the three hydraulics system functions
can be seen on the graph. Bit hydraulics
performance can be enhanced by using
this guide to select an appropriate system,
which can then be refined for specific
applications by consulting a Smith Bits
representative.
17
Insert Options
A large selection of insert geometries and material options,
diamond or tungsten carbide, help to optimize bit characteristics
for specific applications. A key focus of the Smith Bits R&D
program, enhancements to inserts are constantly being
incorporated into new and existing bit designs.
Geometry Choices
Smith Bits pioneered the use of specific insert shapes in 1995, and
uses proprietary tools to determine the best geometry for a given
bit design. These are available in four options:

Conical and chisel inserts are designed for hard and soft
formations respectively.

The unique geometry of the DogBone* durable and aggressive
drillbit insert is designed for maximum ROP and impact
resistance.

The asymmetric conic edge (ACE) insert is a hybrid of the
conical and chisel inserts. It has an offset conical top for
increased strength, and a flatter leading side to enhance
scraping. The design is highly resistant to breakage and impact
damage, yet more aggressive and effective in softer formations
than a standard conical insert.

Incisor* concave drillbit insert combines the benefits of
the ACE, chisel, and DogBone designs. With a sharp offset,
C-shaped crest and larger corner radii, it is designed for soft to
medium-hard formations.
Material Choices
Insert material grades are not specific to a particular design.
Materials can be optimized for individual applications to maximize
performance, reliability, and durability.
Smith Bits was the first company to offer diamond-enhanced
inserts (DEI) in roller cone bits, and remains the performance
leader in this technology, which helps ensure maximum durability
in the most challenging applications. Diamond inserts can be used
in the heel row, the gauge row, and on the bit leg.
Incisor DogBone ACE Relieved
Gauge Chisel
Chisel Conical
Coarse Carbide Microstructure
Diamond-Enhanced Insert
Roller Cone Technology
Inserts
18
Roller Cone Technology
Typhoon Hydraulics
Smith Bits engineers use sophisticated computational fluid
dynamics (CFD) analysis to ensure optimum flow for cuttings
removal, so that the cutting structure is always drilling virgin
formation. Typhoon* hydraulics is a feature offered for roller cone
bits with a diameter of 16 in and larger, that uses both vectored
extended (VE) nozzles and dome jet (J3) nozzles.
Shamal* carbonate-optimized TCI drill bits with Typhoon hydraulics
incorporate three vectored extended (VE) nozzles and three dome jet (J3)
inner nozzles to apply maximum hydraulic energy to the bottom of the
wellbore, enhancing cuttings removal and increasing ROP.
CFD analysis allows Smith Bits engineers to optimize available hydraulic
energy for maximiumROP.
Superior Hole Cleaning for Large OD Boreholes
www.slb.com/Shamal
VE nozzles direct the fluid flow with precision to the leading
edge of the cones, while the J3 nozzles direct flow towards the
intermesh area between the cones. The combined effect of these
six, precisely oriented nozzles is a flow pattern that significantly
improves cone cleaning, optimizes the displacement of cuttings
from the bottom of the hole up the drillstring, and maximizes ROP.
19
Diamond-Impregnation
Grit Hot-Pressed Inserts (GHI) Technology
GHIs are individual cylinders of impregnated material used in
Kinetic* diamond-impregnated bits. Each insert is manufactured
using a proprietary granulation process that ensures a much more
uniform distribution of the diamond material than the conventional
pelletization process. The result is a more consistent GHI, which is
significantly more durable, maintains its shape, and drills faster for
a longer period of time.
Individual GHIs are similar to small grinding wheels, so the depth of
cut with each rotation of the bit is very small. While drilling, GHIs
continuously sharpen themselves by grinding away the bonding
material to expose new diamonds. Smith Bits GHIs are customized
with different bonding materials and diamonds to match the
formation being drilled and the drive mechanism used. Because
the GHIs are raised and allow a greater flow volume across the
bit face, they enable Kinetic bits to drill faster in a wider range
offormations.
Uniform diamond distribution and
optimized material wear rates.
Smith Bits GHIs are more durable than
conventional GHIs, and will drill faster for
a longer period of time.
21
Fixed Cutter Products
22
Directional PDC Drill Bit
Matrix or steel bits for improved directional response
Fixed Cutter Bits Product Line
SHARC* High-Abrasion-Resistance PDC Drill Bit
Matrix or steel bits for improved durability and wear resistance
Spear* Shale-Optimized Steel-Body PDC Drill Bit
Steel-body PDC drill bits for improved performance in shales
Standard PDC Drill Bit
Premium performance with excellent durability
Kinetic Drill Bits
Matrix bits for high rotary speed applications including positive
displacement motors (PDMs) and turbodrilling
23
IDEAS* integrated drillbit design platform
and field experience have shown that a
single bit design can provide exceptional
performance with a variety of directional
drilling systems, if it is dynamically stable.
The earlier perception was that each
type of rotary steerable system (RSS)
or steerable motor BHA required its
own bit design with highly specialized
directionalfeatures.
Directional bits with IDEAS certification
are stable and produce less torque and
stick/slip in transitional drilling. The risk
of time-consuming and costly trips due to
vibration and shocks is greatly reduced.
IDEAS certification for directional bits ensures excellent
steering response and improved performance
Fixed Cutter Bits
Directional PDC Drill Bit
www.slb.com/directional
Type Size Availability, in
SDi613 17
SDi616 13
MDi416 6
1
8
MDi513 5
5
8, 6
1
8, 6, 7
7
8, 8
MDi516 6
1
8, 8
MDi519 8, 14
MDi613 6, 8, 8
5
8, 9, 9
7
8
MDi616 8, 14
MDi619 12, 14, 16, 17
MDi713 5
7
8
MDi716 8, 12, 14
MDi719 8, 10
5
8, 12, 14
MDi813 5, 8, 12, 14, 14, 16
MDi816 8
3
8, 8, 10
5
8, 12, 13, 17, 18
1
8, 18
Type Size Availability, in
SD519 16, 17
MD519 8, 12
MD611 5
7
8
MD613 6, 6
1
8
MD616 6, 8
3
8, 9
7
8, 12, 14
MD619 8, 9, 12, 17
MD813 8
MD816 6, 6
1
8, 8, 9, 12, 16
MD819 12
MD913 8, 12
MD916 8, 12
MD919 12, 13
M D i 6 16
Cutter size
Blade count
i IDEAS certified
D IDEAS directional
certified
M/S Matrix or steel
Directional nomenclature
12-in MDi616
24
Fixed Cutter Bits
SHARC High-Abrasion-Resistance PDC Drill Bit
The cutting-structure layout of a SHARC* PDC drill bit features
two rows of cutters set on certain blades. Each row reinforces
the other to provide maximum durability over the critical nose
and shoulder areas of the bit, ensuring that ROP capability is
notcompromised.
Additionally, the double rows are oriented to ensure that hydraulic
cleaning and cooling efficiency are maintained. This feature is
important not only in abrasive interbedded sands, but also in
surface intervals with high ROP or when hydraulic energy is
compromised, for example, on motor runs.
When drilling hard, highly abrasive formations, SHARC PDC bits
maintain maximum ROP over the target interval. Drilling faster
and staying downhole longer, these bits are achieving superior
performance in challenging applications all over the world.
The key to achieving both bit durability and maximum ROP is
maintaining drillbit stability across a broad range of downhole
conditions. SHARC bits are designed using the IDEAS* integrated
drillbit design platform, specifically to eliminate vibration, resulting
in maximum stability for superior wear resistance. Their durability
eliminates unnecessary trips, saving time and costs for the operator.
Bit durability and maximum ROP in abrasive formations
www.slb.com/SHARC
Type Size Availability, in
MDSi613 5
7
8, 6, 6
1
8, 6, 7
7
8, 8
MDSi616 7
7
8, 8, 8, 9
7
8, 12, 12, 16, 17
MDSi716 7
7
8, 8, 8, 9
7
8, 12, 12, 16, 17
MDSi619 14, 16
MSi416 6
1
8, 6, 7
7
8, 8, 8
MSi513 6
1
8, 6, 7
7
8
MSi516 6
1
8, 6, 7
7
8, 8, 8, 9
7
8, 12
MSi519 7
7
8, 8, 8, 9
7
8, 12
SDSi519 12, 17
MSi611 6
1
8
MSi613 6, 6
1
8, 6, 6, 6, 7
7
8, 8, 8, 12
MSi616 6, 6
1
8, 6, 6, 7
7
8, 8, 8, 8, 9, 9
7
8, 10
5
8, 12, 14, 16
MSi711 5
5
8, 5
7
8, 6
MSi716 7
7
8, 8, 8, 9
7
8, 12, 12, 16, 17
MSi816 7
7
8, 8
3
8, 8, 8, 9
7
8, 12, 16, 17
MSi1013 12
M D S i 6 13
Cutter size
Blade count
i IDEAS certified
S SHARC
D IDEAS directional certified
M/S Matrix or steel
SHARC nomenclature
8-in MDSi613LBPX
25
Fixed Cutter Bits
Spear Shale-Optimized Steel-Body PDC Drill Bit
Design based on proven drilling performance
Introduced in 2011, the Spear* shale-optimized steel-body PDC drill
bit significantly reduced bit balling and cuttings that tended to pack
around the blades of matrix-body bits.
Characterized by its distinctive bullet shape and smaller diameter
steel body, the streamlined Spear bit put more distance between
the bit body and borehole. This helped increase cuttings evacuation
by minimizing blade packing and nozzle plugging, allowing the bit
to drill more efficiently. After more than 5,000 runs, the Spear bits
innovative capabilities have proven to increase drilling performance
and lower drilling costs of curve- and long-lateral sections in
unconventional shale plays.
Next-generation shale-optimized steel-body
PDC drill bits
Based on Spear bit performances, and a redesign program
conducted by Smith Bits using IDEAS integrated drillbit design
platform, the next-generation Spear shale-optimized PDC bit has
demonstrated greater directional control and ROP increases of as
much as 40%.
www.slb.com/Spear
The next-generation Spear bits feature a smaller
body profile that promotes the movement of
cuttings around the body and into the junk slot.
Type Size Availability, in
SDi513 6, 6
1
8, 6, 6, 6, 7
7
8, 8, 8
SDi611 6, 8
SDi613 8, 8
SDi711 6
1
8, 6, 6
SDi713 6
1
8, 6, 7
7
8, 8, 8
S D i 6 13
Cutter size
Blade count
i IDEAS certified
D IDEAS directional certified
S Spear shale-optimized steel-body
Spear nomenclature
26
Fixed Cutter Bits
Standard PDC Matrix and Steel Bits
Features such as cutter types, cutter
layout, and blade geometry are
continuously being evaluated and improved
to deliver value and drive down drilling
costs. Certification with IDEAS* integrated
drillbit design platform ensures these bits
offer optimum performance.
The workhorse of the oilfield, delivering premium performance with superior durability.
www.slb.com/pdc
Type Size Availability, in
S619 8, 12, 17
S716 14
S719 12
S816 16, 17, 26
S819 26
Si419 8
Si519 8, 12
Si613 16
Si616 12
Si619 13
Si819 23, 24
M413 7
7
8
M416 6, 7
7
8
M419 8
M509 3
M511 4
M513 4, 4
7
8, 6
1
8, 6, 7
7
8
M516 5
7
8, 9
7
8, 11
5
8, 12, 16
M519 6, 9
7
8, 12
M609 3
5
8, 3, 4
1
8, 4, 4
M613 6, 8, 11
5
8, 12
M616 6, 9
7
8, 12
M619 7
7
8, 17
M711 5
7
8
M713 8, 8, 9, 12
M716 6, 8
3
8, 12
M809 6, 6
1
8, 6
M813 6, 7
7
8, 9, 12
M816 16
M909 4, 5
7
8, 6, 6
M916 8
M1609 8, 8
Type Size Availability, in
Mi413 6
Mi416 6
1
8, 6, 6, 7
5
8, 7
7
8
Mi419 6
1
8, 8, 9
7
8
Mi513 6, 6, 7
7
8, 8
Mi516 6, 8, 12
Mi519 8, 9
7
8, 12
Mi613 6, 7
7
8, 8
Mi616 7
7
8, 9
7
8, 12
Mi619 12, 17
Mi713 6
1
8
Mi716 7
7
8, 8, 12, 12, 14
Mi811 6
Mi813 6
1
8, 6, 10
5
8, 17
Mi816 12, 17
Mi913 7
7
8, 12
Mi916 12, 14, 16
Mi919 16
Mi1016 12
S416 6
S422 6,12
S516 8,12
S519 8, 10
5
8, 12, 13, 14, 16, 17, 17
S522 12
S613 16
S616 8, 12, 17
M i 6 16
Cutter size
Blade count
i IDEAS certified
M/S Matrix or steel
Standard PDC nomenclature
8-in Mi616MSPX
27
Designed for superior performance when drilling at high rotary
speeds through the toughest, most abrasive formations, Kinetic*
bits are built with precisely engineered grit hot-pressed inserts
(GHIs) and thermally stable polycrystalline (TSP) diamond inserts,
premium PDC cutters, and proprietary diamond-impregnated
matrix materials. Each element is chosen to optimize both
durability and ROP.
Application-specific design
Most Kinetic bits use strategically placed premium PDC cutters in
the cone area to improve drillout capability and maximize ROP, while
the impregnated matrix material enhances durability. TSP diamond
inserts are positioned on the gauge to ensure that the bit maintains
a full-gauge hole. In extremely abrasive applications, TSP diamond
elements are also placed on the bit shoulder for increased wear
resistance in this critical area. Kinetic bits can be customized with
different bonding materials and diamonds to match the formation
being drilled and the drive system used, making the bits ideal for
exploiting the higher rotational velocities possible with turbodrills.
The bit uses a combination of center-flow fluid distribution and
precisely placed ports to enhance bit cooling and to ensure efficient
bit cleaning. These functions are particularly important in softer
formations, enabling the bit to drill mixed lithologies effectively.
There is no need to trip to change the type of bit. Kinetic bits are
able to drill PDC-drillable shoe tracks. They are cost-effective in
overbalanced applications, where drilling with a conventional fixed
cutter or roller cone bit results in low ROP and reduced footage.
A hybrid design, designated with an H in the bit nomenclature,
is a combination of a traditional PDC bit and a diamond-
impregnated bit. Hybrid Kinetic drill bits are suitable in
borderline-PDC-drillableformations.
High performance with turbodrills
Because of the inherent power and longevity of a turbodrill
compared with a positive displacement motor (PDM), a Kinetic bit
delivers a particularly high performance when combined with a
Neyrfor* high-performance turbodrill system.
Fixed Cutter Bits
Kinetic Diamond-Impregnated Bit for High-Speed Applications
Kinetic bits have established world and numerous field records for the most footage drilled
and the highest ROP.
Type Size Availability, in
K503 512
K505 3, 5
7
8, 6, 6
1
8, 6, 8, 12, 14, 16
K507 6, 6, 8
3
8, 8, 8, 12
K703 48
K705 3, 612
K707 8, 14
KH613 5
7
8, 6
KH813 8
3
8, 8, 9, 12
K H 8 13
Cutter size
Blade count
H Hybrid
K Kinetic impreg
Kinetic nomenclature
Central flow
Open face for optimum clearing
Brazed-in GHI
Cast-in GHI
Dedicated
fluid port
Application-tuned
impregnated
body material
www.slb.com/Kinetic
28
Fixed Cutter Bits
Optional Features
L Feature
Low Exposure
(MDOCManaged Depth Of Cut)
Feature: Cutter backing raised to minimize excessive depth of
cut because of formation heterogeneity
Advantage: Reduces cutter loading; minimize torque in
transitionaldrilling
Beneft: Minimizes cutter breakage to extend bit life
L
M Feature
Replaceable Lo-Vibe Inserts
Feature: Lo-Vibe* depth of cut control inserts that can be
replaced when needed (wear, breakage, etc.)
Advantage: Limits excessive depth of cut and helps reduce
torsional vibration
Beneft: Provides superior ROP and bit life
M
V Feature
Lo-Vibe Option
Feature: Lo-Vibe depth of cut control insert
Advantage: In applications that produce bit whirl, Lo-Vibe option
improves bit stability and reduces potential for damage
to the cutting structure by restricting lateral movement
and reducing the effects of axialimpacts
Beneft: Optimized ROP and bit life to drill long drilling intervals
eliminates tripping
V
29
Fixed Cutter Bits
Optional Features
Z Feature
Stingerconical diamond element
Feature: Element fails rock more effciently than conventional
PDC bit cutters
Advantage: Improves bit stability and decreases vibration
Beneft: Increases drilling effciency for greater ROP
Z
K Feature
Impregnated Cutter Backing
Feature: Diamonds impregnated in the matrix behind the
PDCcutters
Advantage: Limits PDC cutter wear
Beneft: Increased footage drilled in abrasive applications
K
H Feature
Anti-balling
Feature: Higher number of nozzles than standard
Advantage: Increased cleaning, cooling, and cuttings evacuation
with available hydraulic fows; higher fow rates with
minimal increase in pump pressure, and reduced risk of
bit balling
Beneft: Superior ROP and bit life; longer drilling intervals
eliminates tripping
H
30
Fixed Cutter Bits
Optional Features
N Feature
Fewer Nozzles than Standard
Feature: Fewer nozzles
Advantage: Reduced nozzle count to match drilling, formation, and
hydraulic system capabilities; reduces the fow rate
required to achieve an appropriate hydraulic
horsepower per square inch (HSI); eliminates more
numerous, smaller nozzles that can become plugged
Beneft: Superior ROP and bit life; longer drilling intervals
eliminates tripping
N
Y Feature
30-Series Nozzles
Feature: Contains 30-series nozzles
Advantage: Allows more freedom in cutting structure design,
particularly for smaller bits with limited areas for
placement of larger nozzles
Beneft: High effciency for cleaning, cooling, and cuttings
evacuation without compromising the cutting
structure resulting in reduced ROP or bit life
Y
U Feature
50-Series Nozzles
Feature: Contains 50-series nozzles
Advantage: Maximum adjustable total fow area (TFA) for smaller-
or heavier-set designs
Beneft: High effciency for cleaning, cooling, and cuttings
evacuation without compromising the cutting
structure, resulting in reduced ROP or bit life
U
W Feature
40-Series Nozzles
Feature: Contains 40-series nozzles
Advantage: Increased thread size for resistance to wear
anderosion
Beneft: Reduced pop-up force when tightening nozzle
W
31
Fixed Cutter Bits
Optional Features
Q Feature
Fixed Ports
Feature: Incorporates fxed ports
Advantage: Optimizes hydraulics in applications where nozzles
compromise bit design because of space limitations or
other similar reasons; provides additional cleaning of
the cutting structure
Beneft: Improves ROP and bit life
Q
R Feature
ONYX 360 rolling cutter
Feature: Cutters revolve 360 to stay sharper longer
Advantage: Increases run footage
Beneft: Extends bit durability
R
E Feature
Extended Gauge Length
Feature: Longer than standard gauge
Advantage: Enhances bit stability and allows more area for gauge
protection components
Beneft: Improves borehole quality
E
32
Fixed Cutter Bits
Optional Features
S Feature
Short Gauge Length
Feature: Short gauge length
Advantage: Reduced bit height improves bit steerability for
directional and horizontal applications; reduces slide
time and footage by achieving builds and turns more
quickly
Beneft: Lower cost per foot, higher overall ROP
S
A Feature
Active Gauge
Feature: Active gauge
Advantage: More aggressive side cutting
Beneft: Aids openhole sidetrack applications
A
B Feature
Backreaming Cutters
Feature: Backreaming cutters
Advantage: Strategic placement of cutters on upside of each blade
to allow backreaming in tight spots; reduces potential
of bit sticking while pulling out of the hole
Beneft: Allows a degree of backreaming suffcient to condition
borehole without major risk of gauge padwear
B
33
Fixed Cutter Bits
Optional Features
PX Feature
Diamond-Enhanced Gauge Protection
Feature: Diamond-enhanced gauge protection
Advantage: Thermally stable polycrystalline (TSP) diamonds
provide extra protection to gauge.
Beneft: In-gauge borehole and longer bit life; longer drilling
intervals eliminates tripping
PX
T Feature
Turbine Sleeve
Feature: Turbine sleeve
Advantage: Reduces vibration and borehole spiraling in turbine
applications; sleeve lengths can be varied to best
match a specifc application
Beneft: Improved ROP and bit life; long drilling intervals
eliminates tripping
T
PXX Feature
Full-Diamond Gauge Pad on
Turbine Sleeve
Feature: Full-diamond gauge pad on turbine sleeve
Advantage: Diamond-enhanced inserts provide greatest possible
extend gauge life in highly abrasive formations and
underbalanced drilling
Beneft: Produces in-gauge borehole in extreme drilling
environments; longer drilling intervals eliminates
tripping
PXX
34
Fixed Cutter Bits
Optional Features
D Feature
DOG Drilling on Gauge Sleeve
Feature: DOG* drilling on gauge sleeve
Advantage: Reduces borehole spiraling
Beneft: Enhances BHA stability and helps maintain in-gauge
wellbore
D
C Feature
Connection Not API Standard
Feature: Nonstandard bit connection
Advantage: Allows nonstandard box connection for a given bit size,
to minimize length between bit box and turbine or
motor pin
Beneft: Provides stabilization, reduces bore hole spiraling, and
provides additional gauge protection
C
I Feature
IF Connection
Feature: IF connection replaces standard connection
Advantage: Allows bit conformity to connection type of directional
tools
Beneft: Provides more fexibility in confguring a
drillingassembly
I
35
Fixed Cutter Bits
Nomenclature
Product Line Prefix Description
A ARCS & ARCS advanced
C Carbonate
D Natural diamond bit
Di IDEAS certified directional design
G Reamers with API connections (box down, pin up)
H Kinetic hybrid bit
HOX Heavy oil series
K Kinetic impregnated bit
L LIVE
M Matrix body
PR Pilot reamer
QD Quad-D dual diameter
R ONYX 360 rolling cutter
S Steel body
S SHARC
ST Side track
SHO Staged hole opener
T Turbine
V VertiDrill
Z Stingerconical diamond element
Nomenclature identifies blade count/cutter size.
Example: M616 = 6 Blades /16 mm cutters
Face Features Description
K Impregnated cutter backing
L Low exposure
M Replaceable Lo-Vibe
V Lo-Vibe
Hydraulic Features Description
H Higher number of nozzles than standard
N Lower number of nozzles than standard
Q Fixed ports
U 50 series nozzles
W 40 series nozzles
Y 30 series nozzles
Gauge Features Description
A Active gauge
B Back reaming cutters
D Dog sleeve
E Extended gauge pad length
PX TSP on gauge
PXX Full diamond on turbine sleeve
S Short gauge pad length
T Turbine sleeve
Connection Features Description
C Non API standard connection
I IF connection
M S i R 6 16 M H PX
PX TSP on gauge (Gauge feature)
H Higher number of nozzles than standard (Hydraulic feature)
M Replaceable Lo-Vibe (Face feature)
Cutter size
Blade count
R ONYX 360 rolling cutter (Product line)
i IDEAS certified (Product line)
S SHARC (Product line)
M Matrix (Product line)
Nomenclature example
37
Roller Cone Products
38
Tungsten Carbide Insert (TCI) bits

Gemini* dynamic twin-seal drill bit

Shamal* carbonate-optimized TCI drill bit

Xplorer* slimhole TCI drill bit

FH TCI* drill bit
Roller Cone Bits Product Line
Milled Tooth (MT) bits

Xplorer Expanded* soft formation, milled tooth drill bit
TCT* two-cone drillbit technology
Standard roller cone bits

Milled tooth, TCI, and open-bearing bits for all applications
Kaldera

Roller cone products for geothermal and high-temperature
applications
39
Roller Cone Bits
GeminiDynamic Twin-Seal Drill Bit
The Gemini seal system consists of a primary seal that protects the bearings, and a secondary seal
that protects the primary seal, making this system the industry leader in durability and reliability.
The proprietary dual-material primary seal combines a highly wear
resistant, dynamic face elastomer and a softer energizing material
that exerts a consistent contact pressure. The bullet-shaped seal
has a large cross-sectional profile to provide maximum protection
for the bearing.
The secondary seal is also made from a mix of patented
materials, and is designed to prevent abrasive particles in the
wellbore fluids from coming into contact with the bearing seal.
A thermoplastic fabric reinforced with Kevlar

is positioned
on the dynamic face, embedded in an elastomer matrix. The
fabric provides resistance to wear and tear, and heat damage,
in addition to acting as a barrier to abrasive particles. The
elastomer matrix provides elasticity and proven sealing ability.
Although they work independently, the seals create a synergy that
allows them to perform reliably for extended periods of time at
higher RPMs, heavier drillstring weights, extreme dogleg severity,
and increased mud weights and pressures. Gemini* drill bits are
available in a wide range of sizes, as both TCI and milled tooth bits.
Bearings
Gemini bits can be equipped with roller bearings (bit size 12 in)
or friction bearings (bit size 12 in).
Cutting Structure
Different cutter layouts are available. TCIs of various grades
and geometries have been developed to produce a durable
and effective cutting structure. IDEAS* integrated drillbit
design platform is used to optimize the cutting structure, so
that loads are more evenly distributed over the inserts of all
three cones, producing a well-balanced bit with reduced risk of
bearingfailure.
17-in Gi03 www.slb.com/Gemini
GF i 35
Cutting structure
i IDEAS certified
G/GF Gemini designation
Gemini nomenclature
Size
Availability, in
Type
8
3
8 GF15, GF20, GF40, GFi50
8 GF05, GF06, GF08, GF10, GF15, GF20,GF25, GF30, F30, GF40,
GF45, GF50, GF65, GF80, GFA21, GFi08, GFi10, GFi12, GFi20,
GFi23, GFi28, GFi30, GFi45, GFi50
8
5
8 GF15, GF45
8 GF10, GF15, GF27, GF40
9 GF20, GF21, GF30, GF45, GFVH
11
5
8 GF15, GF20
12 GF10, GF20, GF28
12 G04, GF05, GF10, GF15, GF20, GF26, GF30, GF37, GF40, GF45,
GF47, GF57, GFi05, GFi06, GFi12, GFi23, GFi28, GFi30, GFi35,
GFi40, GFi45, GFi47, GFK30, GFK57, GFKi28, GGH+, MGGH+
14 G10, G15, G25, G40
16 G18, GGH+, MGGH+
17 G02, G10, G15, G28, G30, Gi01, Gi03, Gi12, GGH+
22 Gi06
24 G04
26 G04, G28
40
The Shamal* product line incorporates a range of TCI bits
developed for maximizing performance in hard carbonate
formations.
These bits use a range of proprietary, coarse carbide grades,
which are designed to combat heat checking and subsequent
chipping and breakage of inserts, the primary dull characteristics
when drilling hard carbonates.
Incorporating unique cone layouts and insert geometries, the
Shamal product line is providing superior ROP and durability in
challenging applications throughout the world.
Roller Cone Bits
Shamal Hard Carbonate-Optimized TCI Drill Bit
12-in GFS05BVCPS
Shamal tungsten carbide
www.slb.com/Shamal
Shamal drill bits are designed for hard carbonate drilling, with specifically designed tungsten
carbide inserts.
G S i 05
Cutting structure
i IDEAS certified
S Shamal feature
G Bearing prefix
Shamal nomenclature
Size
Availability, in
Type
8 GFS05, GFS06, GFS15, GFS20, GFS30, GFSi10, GFSi23, GFSi28,
MFS04, MFS10T, MFS20B
8 GFS15
11
5
8 GFS30
12 GFS28
12 GFSi01, GFS04, GS04, GFS05, GS05, GFS06, GFSi06, GFS10,
GS10, GFS11, GFS15, GS15, GFS20, GFS26, GFS30, GFSi28
14 GS10
15 GS10
16 GS03, GS10, GS12, GS18, GS30, GSi01, GSi03, GSi06, GSi12,
GSi15, GSi18, GSi20
17 GS03, GS05, GS10, GS12, GS15, GS18, GS28, GSi01, GSi12,
GSi18
22 GS04, GS12, GSi06, GSi12
23 GS04
24 GS18
26 GS04, GS18
28 GS04, GS18, GSi18
36 GSi15
41
Roller Cone Bits
Xplorer Premium Slim Hole TCI Bit
Xplorer drill bits provide consistently superior performance in applications ranging from very soft
to ultrahard formations.
Maximum steerability and strength
Xplorer* slimhole TCI drill bits have ultrashort leg forgings,
which maximize steerability at extreme build angles, enabling
the most demanding directional programs. The forging design
also strengthens the chassis and meets the hydraulic demands of
modern drilling.
Harder-wearing seals
To handle the high rotation speeds typically seen in the formations
in which slimhole bits are used, a dual-material Bullet* drillbit
bearing seal is used for soft formation insert bits (IADC 4-1-7X to
5-4-7Y). This system reduces seal wear while limiting temperature
buildup in the bearing section through the use of matched, dual
elastomers.
For harder formation Xplorer bits (with IADC codes 6-1-7X and
higher), a rotary O ring seal with optimized properties is used,
which significantly increases the wear resistance of the seal
compared to conventional materials. These O rings result in
market-leading bearing performance in hard formations.
Optimum cutting structures
Individual cutter layouts, as well as a complete range of inserts,
insert grades, and geometric enhancements have been developed
specifically for Xplorer bits to reduce breakage, maintain full
gauge, and increase ROP. Features such as Ridge Cutters* drillbit
chisel inserts, significantly reduce cone shell wear and allow the
main cutting structure to function more effectively.
6-in XR20T www.slb.com/Xplorer
XR i 20
Cutting structure
i IDEAS certified
XR Xplorer designation
Xplorer nomenclature
Size
Availability, in
Type
3 XR20, XR40
3
7
8 XR30, XR50
4
1
8 XR30, XR50
4 XR30
4
5
8 XR30, XR50
4 XR15, XR20, XR30, XR40, XR50, XR70
4
7
8 XRi15, XR20, XR30, XR50
5 XR20, XR40
5
5
8 XR30, XR40, XR50
5
7
8 XR15, XR20, XR30, XR40, XR50, XRi40, XRi50, XRS15
6 XR10, XR12, XR15, XR20, XR30, XR40, XR45, XR50, XR65,
XR70, XRS30, XRi15, XRi20, XRi40, XRi45, XRi50
6
1
8 XR10, XR15, XR20, XRSi20, XR25, XR30, XRi30, XRi35, XR38,
XR40, XR50, XR60, XRi65, XR68, XR70, XR90, XR35, XRi20,
XRi28, XRi40, XRi45, XRi50, XRKi65
6 XR20, XR30, XR40, XR50, XR70, XRi30, XRi35, XRi45
6 XR10, XR15, XR20, XR30, XR40, XR45, XR50, XR60, XR68,
XR70, XR90
6 XR10, XR20, XR25, XR32, XR40, XR50, XRi30
42
Milled tooth bits that are specifically designed to drill soft to firm formations.
Enhanced ROP
Xplorer Expanded* milled tooth drill bits are specifically designed
to drill soft to firm formations with superior ROP and reliability. The
bits are equipped with the Flex-Flo* adaptive hydraulics system,
offering the widest range of options for maximizing ROP and
ensuring effective hole cleaning in any application.
Extremely wear resistant MIC2* drillbit hardfacing material
provides durability, enabling the bits to drill at a high ROP for
prolonged periods. The cutting structure is designed for for
maximum shearing and scraping action in the softer formations
encountered in milled tooth applications.
Reliable seals and bearings
All Xplorer Expanded bits with 8-in or larger diameter benefit
from the proven reliability of the dynamic twin bearing-seals
system used by Gemini* drill bits. The Spinodal* roller cone drillbit
friction bearing used is both reliable and durable. Bit sizes 13 in
and greater incorporate premium sealed roller bearings.
Roller Cone Bits
Xplorer Expanded Soft-Formation Milled Tooth Drill Bit
www.slb.com/XR-expanded
Xplorer nomenclature
XR +
Premium milled tooth
cutting structure
XR Xplorer designation
Type Size Availability, in
XR+ 4, 4, 4
7
8, 5, 5, 5
5
8, 5, 5
7
8, 6, 6
1
8, 6, 6, 6, 7
7
8, 8
3
8, 8, 8,
9, 9
7
8, 10
5
8, 11
5
8, 12, 13, 13, 14, 14, 15, 15, 16, 17, 17,
18
1
8, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 26, 31, 32, 32, 32
3
8, 33, 36
17-in XR+ ODVEC
43
Roller Cone Products for Geothermal and High-Temperature Applications
Geothermal and high temperature drill bits
High temperature drilling environments, seen most commonly in
geothermal wells, provide a unique set of challenges for downhole
equipment. In many of these applications the tungsten carbide
insert (TCI) roller cone bits used to drill these wells must endure
hard and abrasive formations to steam or hot rock in basement
formations where temperatures can exceed 500 degF.
At that temperature, a standard 300 degF-rated bits elastomer
seals and lubricating material quickly degrades, causing bearing
failure, resulting in operational inefficiencies: reduced on-bottom
drilling hours leading to multiple bit runs/trips, and increased
development costs.
Drilling for unique energy calls for a unique bit
Kaldera high-temperature roller cone drill bit represents a new
line of bits with an innovative bearing system that comprises new
proprietary composite elastomer seals with specialized fabric
compounds and a proprietary high-temperature grease formula.
These innovations increase seal life, lubricity, and load capacity at
elevated temperatures for HT applications.
Proven durability in high-temperature applications
Tested against baseline bits, in geothermal superheated steam
applications where temperatures can reach 530 degF, the new
Kaldera roller cone bit was clearly the top performer:

On-bottom drilling time was 3% to 37% greater

Average run length was 33% greater
Roller Cone Bits
Kaldera Bit
www.slb.com/Kaldera
Kaldera milled tooth nomenclature
XRK +
Premium milled tooth cutting structure
XRK Xplorer-Kaldera designation
Kaldera TCI nomenclature
Premium TCI cutting structure
GFK Gemini-Kaldera designation
GFK 47
Size
Availability, in
Type
Milled Tooth
5
7
8 XRK+
8 XRK+
TCI
6 XRK40
6
1
8 XRK40
7
7
8 FHKi30
8 47YGA, FHK15, FHK30, FHK45, FHKi40, FHKi50, FHKi69
9
7
8 FHK30, FK47, FK50, FK57
10
5
8 GFK47
12 47YG, GFK15, GFK30, GFKi28, GFK10
17 GSK20, GSKi18
22 GSKi12
44
Roller Cone Bits
FH Single-Seal TCI Drill Bit
FH TCI roller cone drill bits offer superior performance in a wide variety of applications
at a lower cost per foot.
Optimized cutting structure
FH* TCI drill bits have patented insert and cutter geometries.
Engineers use the IDEAS* integrated drillbit design platform to
precisely monitor the interaction between the cutting elements
and the rock, and optimize bit design to allow the maximum amount
of mechanical energy to be applied to the formation.
Reliable seals and bearings
The bullet-shaped, dual dynamic seals of FH TCI bits have
undergone extensive finite element analysis (FEA) in a laboratory
to ensure reliability. The bearings used are the latest evolution of
the silver-plated Spinodal* roller cone drillbit friction bearings. The
proven properties of the bearing material, along with the friction-
reducing effects of the silver, combine to create a longer lasting,
highly reliable bearing package.
Application-specific hydraulics
The Flex-Flo* adaptive hydraulics system offers a range
of hydraulic configurations that are optimized for specific
applications. Computational fluid dynamics software, and our bit
flow visualization system were used to design this feature.
8-in FH28GVPS www.slb.com/FH
FH i 28
Cutting Structure
i IDEAS Certified
FH FH Designation
FH nomenclature
Size
Availability, in
Type
7
7
8 FHi20, FHi21, FHi23, FHi24, FHi26, FHi28, FHi30, FHi35, FHi38,
FHi40, FHi45, FHi50, FHi43, FHKi30, FH25, FHi08, FHi18, FHi37,
FHi39
8 FH23, FHi04, FHi20, FHi21, FHi28, FHi40, FHi69, FH30, FH35,
FH40, FH45, FH50, FHi90, FHK08, FHK30, FHKi 40, FHKi50,
FHKi69
8 FH16, FHi18, FH20, FHi20, FHi21, FHi23, FHi25, FH28, FHi28,
FHi29, FHi30, FH32, FHi35, FHi37, FHi38, FHi40, FH43, FH45,
FHi50, FH23, FH30, FH35, FH40, FH50, FHi32, FHi39, FHi43,
FHi45, FHi47, FHi55, FHi90
9
7
8 FH23, FH28, FH30, FH35, FH40, FH45, FH50, FHi12, FHK30
12 FH24, FH50
45
Roller Cone Bits
TCT Two Cone Drillbit Technology
Smith Bits TCT* two-cone drill bits are designed using the
dynamic modeling capabilities of the IDEAS* integrated drillbit
design platform. The process includes evaluation and testing in
a virtual environment to reduce vibration, enhance stability, and
increase ROP.
Optimal cutting structure
Extensive analysis ensures that the cutting structure layout
optimally exploits the bits unique characteristics. Two-cone bits
have lower tooth counts than equivalent three-cone bits, and
higher point loading per tooth for improved formation penetration.
They also benefit from current technology for enhanced insert
geometries and the latest carbides and hardfacing materials.
Five-nozzle hydraulic configuration
TCT two-cone drill bits can incorporate five nozzles, four outboard
and one center jet. The field-proven V-Flo* vectored-flow nozzle
configuration precisely positions and directs the five nozzles for
increased impingement pressure and optimum cutting structure
cleaning and cuttings evacuation, thereby improving penetration
rates. The five-nozzles significantly increase the available options
for directing fluid flow, compared with a three-cone bit that uses
three nozzles.
Enhanced stability
Two-cone bits have four points of stabilization. The lug-pad and
leg-back placement, along with the forging geometry, reduces
vibration, increases bit life, and enables a higher ROP. In addition,
the lug pads and leg backs are protected by tungsten carbide
inserts to stabilize the bit and ensure a full-gauge wellbore.
Reliable twin-seal system
The dynamic twin-seal system of Gemini* bits is also employed
by TCT two-cone drill bits. It comprises a pair of seals working
together to provide the most reliable and robust sealing mechanism
available in roller cone bits. The bits maintain seal integrity under
the harshest conditions, including high rates of rotation, weight on
bit, dogleg severity, mud weights, temperature, and pressure.
12-in TCI TCTi www.slb.com/TCT
More aggressive roller cone designs
TCT i +
Premium Milled Tooth Cutting Structure
i IDEAS Certified
TCT TCT Designation
TCT nomenclature
Size
Availability, in
Type
6 TCTi+
7
7
8 TCTi20
8 TCTi+
8 TCTi+, TCT20, TCT37
9
7
8 TCTi+
12 TCTi+, TCT11, TCT12, TCTi11
16 TCT+, TCTi+
17 TCT10, TCTi+
12-in MT TCTi+
46
The standard line of Smith Bits journal and roller bearing bits delivers premium performance.
These bits are the focus of ongoing product improvement, which enhances existing designs
and integrates new materials technology.
Roller Cone Bits
Standard Milled Tooth, TCI and Open Bearing Bits
Standard bits are continuously improved in order to aggressively
drive down drilling costs. Among the features and materials
incorporated into the standard product offering are Spinodal*
roller cone drillbit friction bearings, advanced bearing lubricants,
the Flex-Flo* adaptive hydraulics system, MIC2* drillbit hardfacing
material, diamond-enhanced inserts, coarse carbide inserts, and
relieved-gauge inserts.
12-in FVH
Standard nomenclature/Milled tooth bits
F V H
H Heel Inserts
V Medium to Hard Formation Type
F Bearing Prefix
8-in F12
www.slb.com/rockbits
Standard nomenclature/TCI insert bits
F 12
Cutting Structure
F Bearing Prefix
Size
Availability, in
Type
3
6
OFH, OFM
6 FDGH, FHV
7 FDT
7
7
8 FDS+, FI18, F26Y, F27Y, F27iY, F30Y, F37HY, FI39HY, F45H,
F47HY, F47YA, F49YA, F57Y, F59HY, F67Y, F80Y, F85Y, F90Y
8
3
8 MFDGH, SVH, F37Y, F57Y
8 F10, F37HY, F37Y, F47HY, F57Y, F67Y, F80Y, F85Y, FDGH, FDS+,
MFDGH
8 FDS+, F12V, F26Y, F27iY, F30T, F37HUY, F37HY, F39HY, F40YA,
46HY, F47HY, F47YA, F50YA, F59Y, F67Y, F80Y, F85Y, F90Y
8
7
8 F40YA, F50YA
9 FDS+
9
7
8 FDS+, F10B, F37Y, F47HY, F59Y, F67Y, F80Y, F85Y, F90Y
10
5
8 F37, F47Y, F67Y, F85Y, F90Y
11 F20, F20Y, F27Y, F37Y, F47Y, FDS
11
5
8 F30, F47Y, FDGH, MSVH
12 F25Y, F37Y, F40, F47YA, F57, F67, F80Y, F90Y, FDGH, FDS+, FDT
14 F30
17 MSDGH
17 DSJ
20 MSDGH
22 MSDGH
23 DSJ, MSDGH
26 DSJ, MSDGH
28 MSDGH, DSJ
32 MSDSSH
34 MSDGH
36 DSUJ
47
Roller Cone Bits
Optional Features
SD Feature
Shaped Diamond-Enhanced Gauge Inserts
Feature: Shaped 100% diamond-enhanced gauge inserts
Advantage: Shaped geometry creates a more aggressive cutting
structure
Beneft: Maximum ROP and high-quality, in-gauge borehole for
the longest possible intervals in highly abrasive
environments
SD
TD Feature
Diamond-Enhanced Trucut Gauge
Protection
Feature: Diamond-enhanced, semiround-top, on-gauge inserts
provide fnish cut-to-gauge for Trucut* drillbit gauge
system with off-gauge inserts are made of tungsten
carbide
Advantage: Suitable for more abrasive environments; more durable
than standard Trucut gauge confguration
Beneft: Extended bit-gauge life results in long intervals and
quality, in-gauge boreholes
TD
D Feature
Diamond-Enhanced Gauge Row Inserts
Inserts
Feature: Diamond-enhanced gauge inserts
Advantage: Substantially reduced gauge-row wear and breakage
rates; greater wear-resistance in highly abrasive
applications
Beneft: High-quality, full-gauge wellbore over longer intervals
compared with tungsten carbide gauge inserts
D
48
Roller Cone Bits
Optional Features
BD Feature
Diamond-Enhanced Insert Binary
Gauge Protection
Feature: Diamond-enhanced, semiround-top inserts positioned
between primary gauge inserts
Advantage: Extreme wear resistance
Beneft: Improved bit-gauge durability and longer, in-gauge
bitruns
BD
OD Feature
Diamond-Enhanced Heel Row Inserts
Feature: Up to 50% diamond-enhanced heel row inserts
Advantage: Improved resistance to abrasive wear and impact
damage; protection for lower leg and bearing
sealareas
Beneft: Extended bit-gauge life for longer intervals and high-
quality, in-gauge boreholes
OD
T Feature
Tungsten Carbide Trucut Gauge Protection
Feature: TCI protection for Trucut* drillbit gauge system
Advantage: Improved gauge durability and integrity with a twin
gauge-insert system composed of aggressive, near-
gauge inserts to drill the near-gauge and borehole
corner with reduced scraping action, and semiround-
top, on-gauge inserts provide fnish cut to gauge;
signifcantly reduces stress on gauge inserts
Beneft: Extended bit-gauge life for longer intervals and high-
quality, in-gauge boreholes
T
B Feature
Binary Gauge Protection
Feature: Small, semiround-top inserts positioned between
primary gauge inserts
Advantage: Smaller inserts improve wear resistance
Beneft: Improved bit-gauge durability and longer, in-gauge
bitruns
B
49
Roller Cone Bits
Optional Features
OD1 Feature
All Heel Row Inserts Diamond
Enhanced
Feature: 51%100% diamond-enhanced heel row inserts.
Advantage: The heel cutting structure is designed for the most
abrasive environments, resulting in a longer gauge-
cutting-structure life, and protection for the lower leg
and bearing-seal areas.
Beneft: Longer intervals of high-quality, full-gauge borehole in
highly abrasive, high compressive strength formations.
OD1
DD Feature
100% Diamond-Enhanced
Cutting Structure
Feature: 100% diamond-enhanced cutting structure.
Advantage: Premium cutting structure for drilling very abrasive
formations effciently, with longer runs and lower
weight on bit (WOB).
Beneft: High ROP and extended bit life.
DD
G Feature
Super D-Gun Cone Protection
Feature: Super D-Gun* tungsten carbide cone protection.
Advantage: A hard, tungsten-carbide-based coating applied to
cone shells increases resistantance to abrasion and
erosion; ideal for highly abrasive formations that
generate large volumes of cuttings; provides additional
protection in abrasive and ineffcient hole cleaning
conditions: high angle, directional, and horizontal
applications
Beneft: Increased bit life, longer bit runs, and improved insert
retention
G
50
Roller Cone Bits
Optional Features
Y Feature
Conical Shaped Inserts
Feature: Conical shaped inserts
Advantage: Geometry optimized to reduce insert breakage
Beneft: Enables high ROP in formations sensitive to weight on
bit (WOB)
Y
V Feature
V-Flo Nozzle Confguration
Feature: V-Flo* vectored-fow nozzle confguration
Advantage: Jets are directed at leading side of following cone for
maximum cleaning; enhanced bottomhole cleaning is
achieved through effcient cuttings lift and strong,
upward, helical fow
Beneft: Clean cutting structure in soft and sticky formations
V
VE Feature
Extended Vectored Nozzle Sleeve
(Available for 12
1
4-in and larger bits)
Feature: Extended vectored nozzle sleeve
Advantage: Nozzle angles are precisely oriented to direct fuid fow
to leading edge of cones, increasing cleaning
effciency
Beneft: Clean cutting structure, and maximum ROP through
higher impingement pressure
VE
51
J3 Feature (Dome Jets)
(Available for 16-in and larger bits)
Feature: Three nozzles located inboard of conventional roller
cone nozzle positions
Advantage: Flow is directed toward intermesh area between
cones to enhance cone cleaning
Beneft: Increased cone cleaning to prevent bit balling and
maximize ROP
J3
Roller Cone Bits
Optional Features
C Feature
Center Jet
Feature: Center jet installed
Advantage: Enhanced cone cleaning and hydraulic fow patterns
across the bit cutting structure
Beneft: Clean, effcient cutting structure in high-cuttings-
volume or sticky formations
C
L Feature
Lug-Type Leg Back Protection
Feature: Shaped steel-pads welded to upper leg back, with
fush-set tungsten carbide or shaped diamond-
enhanced inserts
Advantage: Leg protection and bit stabilization; helps prevent bit
whirl and differential wear between bit legs, which can
overload individual cone cutting structures and
bearings
Beneft: High-quality wellbore and extended bit life
L
52
Roller Cone Bits
Optional Features
R Feature
Semiround-Top (SRT) TCI Stabilization and
Leg Back Protection
Feature: Stabilizing leg back protection
Advantage: Cluster of SRT tungsten carbide inserts, located on
upper leg section and extending to near full-gauge,
enhance wear protection and improve bit stability
Beneft: Extended bit life and improved borehole quality
R
PS Feature
Semiround-Top (SRT) TCI Leg Back
Protection
Feature: Leg back protection
Advantage: Strategically placed, SRT tungsten carbide inserts
improve leg protection against wear; tight, overlapping
pattern helps prevent grooving of leg backs.
Beneft: Extended bit life in abrasive environments
PS
PD Feature
Diamond-Enhanced Leg Back Protection
Feature: Diamond-enhanced leg back protection
Advantage: Strategically placed, SRT, diamond-enhanced and
tungsten carbide inserts improve leg protection
against wear; tight, overlapping pattern helps prevent
grooving of leg backs and is more wear resistant than
100% tungsten carbide protection
Beneft: Extended bit life in extremely abrasive environments
PD
53
Roller Cone Bits
Nomenclature
Bearing/Seal
Identifier & Product
Line Prefix
Applies To Refers To Description
D All Bearing/Seal Nonsealed (open) bearing
S All Bearing/Seal Single seal, sealed roller bearing
F All Bearing/Seal Single seal, sealed friction bearing
MF All Bearing/Seal Single seal, friction bearing motor bit
M All Bearing/Seal Single seal, roller bearing motor bit
K All Bearing/Seal Kaldera* bit, high temperature seals (geothermal applications)
G All Product Line Gemini* bit, twin seal, roller bearing
GF All Product Line Gemini bit, twin seal, friction bearing
XR All Product Line Xplorer* slimhole TCI bit (up to 6.75 in)
Xplorer Expanded* soft-formation milled tooth bit (up to 36 in)
TCT All Product line TCT* two-cone technology bit
FH TCI Product Line FH TCI*bit, single seal, sealed friction bearing
S TCI Cutting Structure Shamal* carbonate-optimized design, with or without Typhoon hydraulics
i All IDEAS Design certified by IDEAS* integrated drillbit design platform
+ MT Cutting Structure Milled tooth designator/Premium cutting structure
DS MT Cutting Structure Soft type (IADC 1-1-X)applicable to FDS bits only
DG MT Cutting Structure Medium type (IADC 1-3-X)does not apply to Gemini bits
S MT Cutting Structure Soft type (formerly DS)D and G products only
T MT Cutting Structure Medium soft type (formerly DT)
G MT Cutting Structure Medium type (formerly DG)D and G products only
V MT Cutting Structure Medium hard type (formerly V2)
S MT Cutting Structure Premium self-sharpening with hardfacing material
H MT Carbide Gauge Nonpremium bitheel inserts
B TCI Carbide Gauge Binary carbide gauge
H TCI Carbide Gauge Heavy-set gauge design (count or grade or both)
T TCI Carbide Gauge Trucut* gauge (carbide material on both off-gauge and gauge)
0099 TCI Cutting Structure Insert bit numeric range (00 Softest99 Hardest)
Product Suffix Applies To Refers To Description
I TCI Cutting Structure Inclined chisel on gauge
W TCI Cutting Structure Softer than standard insert grades
Y TCI Cutting Structure Conical insert
A All Cutting Structure Air application bit
N All Size Nominal gauge diameter
Feature Applies To Refers To: Description
TD TCI Diamond Gauge Trucut diamond with diamond-enhanced inserts (DEI on gauge; carbide on off-gauge)
SD TCI Diamond Gauge Shaped diamond-enhanced gauge inserts and 20% to 50% heel inserts
SD1 TCI Diamond Gauge Shaped diamond-enhanced gauge inserts and 51% to 100% heel inserts
D TCI Diamond Gauge Semiround top (SRT) diamond-enhanced gauge inserts
OD All Diamond Heel 20% to 50% diamond-enhanced heel row inserts
OD1 All Diamond Heel 51% to 100% diamond-enhanced heel row inserts
DD TCI Full Diamond Diamond-enhanced cutting structure (nose, middle and gauge inserts)
DD2 TCI Full Diamond Diamond-enhanced cutting structure, (nose, middle and premium gauge inserts)
G TCI Cutting Structure Super-D Gun tungsten carbide insert cone-shell protection
Q All Hydraulics Q-Tube hydraulics
V All Hydraulics V-Flo vectored-flow nozzle configuration
E All Hydraulics Extended nozzle tubes
VE All Hydraulics Vectored extended nozzle tubes
J3 All Hydraulics Dome jets (3 jets in the bit dome)
C All Hydraulics Center jet
L All Leg Protection Lug pads with tungsten carbide inserts
LD All Leg Protection Lug pads with diamond-enhanced inserts
R All Leg Protection Upper legback semiround top (SRT) TCI cluster and PS feature
RD All Leg Protection Upper legback semiround top (SRT) DEI cluster and PD feature
PS All Leg Protection Semiround top (SRT) tungsten carbide leg protection
PD All Leg Protection Semiround top (SRT) diamond-enhanced leg protection
P All Leg Protection Modified PS feature pattern; Note: West Texas bits only
55
Percussion Hammers and Bits
Impax is a mark of Schlumberger
Copyright 2012 Schlumberger. All rights reserved. 12-BT-0035
CHECK VALVE
COMPRESSION RINGS
PISTON
SNAP RING
SNAP RING
FEED TUBE
TOP SUB
6
5
8-IN API REG PIN
FEED TUBE HOUSING
DRIVER SUB
BIT RETAINER RING
UPPER CHAMBER
CHOKE
LOWER CHAMBER
BIT SHANK
GUIDE SLEEVE
RETAINER SLEEVE
Impax 10
Percussion Air Hammer, with diamond enhanced
insert hammer bit
Connects hammer
to drillstring
Retains feed tube
Seats feed tube housing
Conveys air to hammer
Drives bit into formation
Secures piston in hammer
during a backoff
Retains bit in
off-bottom position
Synchronizes bit and
drillstring rotation
Prevents backflow
Secure internal parts
Pressurizes air to drive
piston downwards
Regulates consumed
and surplus air
Pressurizes air to drive
piston upwards
Receives pistons striking
energy and transmits it
to the bit face
Functions as a timing device
to control air venting in
lower chamber
Retains bit head if
a shank occurs
56
Impax hammer unifies durability and performance for deep-hole drilling
Hammers
Percussion Hammers Casing-While-Drilling Drillable Alloy
The Impax* hammer features a hardened-steel guide sleeve design that significantly
optimizes energy transfer between the hammers piston and bit. The guide sleeve design
also significantly improves deephole drilling reliability by eliminating the plastic blow tube:
a component that often causes conventional hammers to fail when they are subjected to
shock, vibration, abrasive wear, high temperature, erosion, and misting.
Floating Feed Tube
Impax Hammers also have an improved air delivery system that features a patented
Floating Feed Tube (US Patent 7,950,475). The feed tube is designed to reduce wear and
downtime issues related to wear on the piston and air delivery components.
Because high-back pressure, circulation volume, and the water produced from misting
and influx are major causes of hammer failure, the Impax hammers lower chamber has
been designed to handle 10% to 20% more water than conventional hammers. When water
incursion forces conventional hammers to be tripped out of the well, the Impax hammers
combined capabilities enable it to endure deephole drilling conditions while delivering
reliable performance. Impax hammers are available in 8-, 10-, and 12-in sizes.
Impax Dual Retention System
Impax bits offer a highly reliable, proven
retention system that helps prevent the loss of
the bit head in the hole and saves the cost of
fishing or sidetracking.
The systems primary retention mechanism
is a set of split retainer rings at the top of the
bit (1). For conventional hammer bits, the split
rings are the only means of attachment to the
drillstring, and the possibility of losing the
bit head is so great that the bits have built-in
fishing threads to facilitate retrieval.
The secondary catch system catches the bit
head in the event that a shank (fracture in the
spline area) prevents the primary retention
rings from functioning. This is accomplished
with a retainer sleeve (2) that is trapped
between the shoulders of the driver sub and
the hammer case. A rope thread is machined
on the retainer ID and the bit OD (3) allowing
ease of assembly/disassembly and the
retention of the shanked head.
During the trip out of the hole, right-hand
rotation of the drillstring virtually eliminates
any chance that the bit head will come out of
the retainer.
www.slb.com/Impax
1
2
3
57
www.slb.com/Impax
Superior reliability, durability, and performance in hard formations.
Hammer Bits
Impax Diamond-Enhanced Insert Hammer Bit
Gauge Plus ATG Feature (Patent 8,387,725)
The Gauge Plus engineered hammer bit advantage is achieved by
strategically positioning a staggered adjacent to gauge (ATG) row
cutting structure to augment the work capabilities of the primary
gauge inserts. This differs from a standard percussion bit that
uses a non-staggered gauge row configuration to cut a specific
but independent portion of the sidewall and hole bottom with no
work overlap. The ATG row on a Gauge Plus bit assists in cutting a
portion of the outer hole helping to reduce the load on the primary
gauge row inserts. This innovative new design enhances drilling
efficiency by enabling the two rows to work in unison on the hole
bottom rather than acting independently.
Design Engineering
Gauge Plus is designed with a precise amount of bottom hole
coverage overlap between the ATG and primary gauge rows.
This overlapping of insert coverage greatly enhances fracture
propagation and communication because the impact points are
in close proximity. Combined, the innovative combination of ATG
inserts precisely located in the cutting structure increases chip
generation improving the rock failure mechanism.
The unique bottom hole fracture pattern uses energy more
efficiently and subjects the cutting structure to less stress. This
increases gauge integrity compared to a conventional hammer
bit. The reduced exposure to competent formation significantly
improves overall bit durability while enhancing ROP potential.
9
7
8 H1209D+ V7RPD
Increased footage at lower cost
Impax hammer bits have tough and durable DEIs that increase the
footage drilled and lower the cost per foot. These bits eliminate
the need for reaming, extending the life of the subsequent bit
and providing a quality borehole for running casing. In addition,
three exhaust ports improve bit-face cleaning for longer life and
betterROP.
Secondary Air Course
When possible, a secondary air course is used to provide
additional flow channels that enhance cuttings removal by
providing greater flow area across the bottom of the hole. The
efficient use of circulating air improves hole cleaning capabilities
and reduces the regrinding of cuttings to maximize ROP.
The bit can be supplied with a concave bottom, which optimizes
directional control.
H 15 12 D +
Gauge Plus feature
D Diamond Enhanced Insert
Number adjacent to Gauge Inserts
Number of Gauge Inserts
H Hammer Bit Indicator
Impax nomenclature
58
DIGR diamond in gauge row hammer bits
DIGR* hammer bits are the cost-effective choice for drilling
applications that do not require cutting structures with 100%
DEIs. They offer a full range of options for cutting structure
layout, but use DEIs only in the gauge row and outer rows when
required, providing excellent ROP and durability in less demanding
formations. DIGR bits use the same retention system as Impax bits.
Hammer Bits
DIGR Hammer Bit
www.slb.com/Impax
8
7
8 H1512G1 V6RPD
59
Hammer Bits
Nomenclature and Optional Features
www.slb.com/Impax
Impax Features
Prefix Description
C Carbide insert
D Diamond enhanced insert (DEI)
F Flat profile
G Diamond on gauge
M Modified profile
N Nonretainable
PD DEI gauge protection
R Retainable
V Concave profile
X Convex profile
+ Gauge Plus
6
6
8-in [-in, 18-mm] diameter gauge insert
7
7
8-in [22-mm] diameter gauge insert
8
8
8-in [1-in] diameter gauge insert
Impax Nomenclature and Features
Size, in Type Available Features
6, 6
1
8, 6, 6
3
8, 6, 6 H0804 D, G, C, X, 6, R, PD
H0806 D, G, C, X, 6, R, PD
H1006 D, G, C, V, X, 6, R, PD
H1008 D, G, C, X, 6, R, PD
7
7
8 H1209 D, G, C, V, 7, R, PD
8
3
8 H1206 D, G, C, V, 7, R, PD
H1209 D, G, C, V, 7, R, PD
H1209+ D, G, V, 6, R, PD
8, 8
5
8, 8, 8
7
8 H1206 D, G, C, V, 7, R, PD
H1209 D, G, C, V, 7, R, PD
H1509 D, G, C, V, 6, R, PD
H1512 D, G, C, V, 6, R, PD
H1209+ D, G, V, 6, R, PD
9, 9
5
8, 9, 9
7
8, 10
5
8, 11 H1209 D, G, C, V, 7, R, PD
H1509 D, G, C, V, 7, R, PD
H1209+ D, G, V, 7, R, PD
12, 12
3
8, 12
7
16 H1209 D, G, C, V, 7, R, PD
H1509 D, G, C, V, 7, R, PD
H1512 D, G, C, V, 7, 8, R, PD
H1411+ D, G, V, 7, R, PD
14, 14, 15 H1812 D, G, C, V, 7, R, PD
H1812+ D, G, V, 7, R, PD
17 H1809 D, G, C, V, 7, R, PD
Custom sizes and types available.
8
7
8-in H1512D V6RPD R08
60
Hammer Bits
Nomenclature and Optional Features
Bit Head Retention
N FeatureNonretainable
Feature: No retaining feature on the bit head (standard fshing
threads)
Advantage: Compatibility with third party hammers that have no bit
retention features
Beneft: Flexibility to use the bit in various BHA assemblies
such as those used for water wells, construction, etc.
R FeatureRetainable
Feature: Patented bit head retention system
Advantage: Prevents loss of the bit head in the hole
Beneft: Saves the cost of sidetracking or fshing
Gauge Reinforcement
PD FeatureOptional Gauge Protection
Feature: All diamond gauge reinforcement
Advantage: Signifcantly extends the life of the bit gauge
Beneft: Prevents the drilling of an undergauge hole and
eliminates the need for reaming (the practice of
reducing the hole size after pulling out a nonPD
hammer bit), increasing the life of the subsequent bit
and providing a quality hole for running casing
+ FeatureGauge Plus ATG Feature
Feature: Optimum placement of gauge and adjacent to
gaugeinsert
Advantage: Provides the maximum durability of the gauge row
inserts and optimizes overall bit longevity
Beneft: Increased footage and reduced risk of hole problems
where long sections and hard formations are
encountered
Gauge and Face Inserts
D FeatureDiamond-Enhanced Insert (DEI)
Feature: All DEI cutting structure
Advantage: Exceptional durability and abrasion resistance
Beneft: Excellent drilling performance in longer intervals
through hard formations
G FeatureDiamond (DEI) in Gauge Row
Feature: A cutting structure with carbide face inserts and DEI
gauge inserts
Advantage: Exceptional gauge durability and abrasion resistance
Beneft: Excellent bit gauge life when drilling shorter, medium-
soft formation intervals
C FeatureCarbide Insert
Feature: All carbide cutting structure
Advantage: Excellent durability and abrasion resistance
Beneft: Superior and cost-effective drilling performance in
soft to medium-soft formations
Gauge Insert Size
6 Feature
6
8-in [18 mm] Diameter
Feature:
6
8-in diameter DEI gauge cutting structure
Advantage: Enables use of heavy-set diamond gauge cutting
structures
Beneft: Eliminates the need for reaming, increasing the life of
the subsequent bit and providing a quality hole for
running casing
7 Feature
7
8-in [22 mm] Diameter
Feature:
7
8-in diameter DEI gauge cutting structure
Advantage: Enables use of diamond gauge cutting structures with
improved impact-damage resistance
Beneft: Eliminates the need for reaming, increasing the life of
the subsequent bit and providing a quality hole for
running casing
8 Feature1-in [25 mm] Diameter
Feature: 1-in diameter DEI gauge cutting structure
Advantage: Allows use of diamond gauge cutting structures with
improved impact-damage resistance
Beneft: Provides an insert with the maximum amout of insert
strength, resulting in the best posible insert where
durability is a requirement
www.slb.com/Impax
61
Hammer Bits
Nomenclature and Optional Features
www.slb.com/Impax
Bit Profle Shapes
F FeatureFlat
Feature: Flat bottom with a single gauge-angle bit head
profle
Advantage: Enables use of heavier-set cutting structures
on the bit face
Beneft: Excellent drilling performance in hard
formation intervals
M FeatureModifed
Feature: Nonstandard bit head profle
Advantage: Unique geometry incorporated for specifc
operating parameters
Beneft: Enhanced performance for special drilling
applications
V FeatureConcave
Feature: Concave bottom with a dual gauge-angle bit
head profle
Advantage: Additional drilling stability and directional
control
Beneft: Excellent drilling performance in medium-soft
to medium formation intervals where hole
deviation is a primary concern
X FeatureConvex
Feature: Flat bottom with a dual gauge-angle bit head
profle
Advantage: Enables use of heavy-set face and gauge
cutting structures
Beneft: Excellent drilling performance in medium to
medium-hard formation intervals
62
63
Specialty Applications
64
PDC Hole Openers

Staged Hole Openers
Quad-D* Dual-Diameter Drift and Drill Bi-center

Quad-D Reamer*

Quad-D Bits*
Direct XCD casing-while-drilling bit
Specialty Applications
65
Superior borehole quality
and high ROP
The staged hole opener (SHO) incorporates
precision-engineered cutting structures to
ensure fast, smoothly drilled, high-quality,
concentric hole opening under a wide
range of application conditions. SHO tools
are run successfully on rotary and rotary
steerable assemblies in both straight and
deviated holes.While the overall cutting
structure is balanced, it is divided into four
sections, each serving a specific purpose.
Stage OnePilot Bit

The pilot bit, either fixed cutter or roller
cone, drills the initial hole diameter.
Abull nose can also be used to follow
a predrilled pilot hole. SHO assemblies
can be used with multiple pilot
configurations for specific applications,
and can be positioned for various
drillstring configurations.
Stage twoSHO pilot section

The pilot section consists of one or
two rows of cutting structures to
recondition the pilot hole and remove
any swelling clays or moving halites.
Gauge pads provide initial stabilization
as the SHO begins the staged reaming
process to reduce stick/slip, whirling,
oroff-centertendencies.
Concentric Staged Hole Openers (SHO) from Smith Bits have been developed from a tradition
of application know ledge and technical excellence gained from the success of Quad-D* dual-
diameter drift and drill, reaming products.
Specialty Applications
Concentric Staged Hole Openers (SHO)
www.slb.com/SHO
SHO S i 6 16
Cutter Size
Blade Count
IDEAS Designed
SHARC Feature
SHO Staged Hole Opener
Staged Hole Openers nomenclature
Type Size, in Pilot, in
SHO719 26 22
SHOS516 24 20
SHO516 24 20
SHOSI616 22 19
SHO519 17 12
SHOSI616 17 12
SHOSI519 17 12
SHO716 16 12
SHO519 16 12
SHO519 14 12
SHOI616 14 10
5
8
SHO519 14 11
SHO516 13 8
SHO519 12 8
SHOSI616 12 8
SHO516 10
5
8 8
SHOI616 9
7
8 8
SHOS516 8 6
1
8
SHOS516 7 6
1
8
Stage threeSHO pilot
conditioning section (PCS)

The cutting structure is designed to
minimize work rates on each cutter
position for maximum durability. By
stress-relieving the formation with this
intermediate stage, larger-hole drilling
can be done at a more aggressive ROP.
The third stage recentralizes the SHO
on the given well trajectory in both
vertical and directional applications.
Gauge pads and gauge trimmers
provide the main stabilization for the
SHO. Gauge pad lengths in the section
may vary depending on whether the
application calls for a near-bit or
drillstringplacement.
Stage fourSHO reaming section

This cutting structure completes the
final hole diameter. With the formation
already stress-relieved, the reaming
section remains aggressive even in more
competent formations. Gauge trimmers
and spiraled gauge pads ensure good
hole quality. Gauge pads in this section
are kept short in length for directional
responsiveness.
66
The versatility of Quad-D* dual-diamter
drift and drill products is best demon-
strated by the range of applications that
they drill. The GeoReam* dual-diameter
near-bit reamer, is well suited to be run
directly above the pilot bit for directional
applications and it is the recommended
alternative to the Quad-D bit in appli cations
in which a PDC cutting structure is not
the best option for the pilot bit. Although
compact in length, the stability-enhancing
technology used in the GeoReam ensures
optimal hole quality while drilling. With
longer pilot conditioning sections and
drill string connections, Quad-D Reamers
are designed to maximize performance
in rotary applications. The longer pilot
conditioning section acts like a string
stabilizer to ensure centralization and
stabili zation. This tool is designed to be run
with various BHA configurations, including
rotary steerable systems.
Advantages

Directional & BHA flexibility for precise
control of wellbore

Drill-out capability for eliminating trips

Diameter control for full gauge wellbore

Formation-specific design for optimized
drilling efficiency
The QDR has drill collar
connections for string
placement
Fishing Neck
8 in 9
7
8 in
QDG5216
Tong Neck
8 in 9
7
8 in
QDR5313
Specialty Applications
Quad-D Reamer
www.slb.com/Quad-D
Type Size, in Pilot, in
QDGS7419 32 28
QDG5216 22 18
1
8
QDG5216 20 16
QDG5216 20 17
QDG5216 17 14
QDG7313 17 13
7
8
QDG7313 16 13
QDG5313 14 12
QDG5313 13 12
QDG5316 13 12
QDG5216 12 10
5
8
QDG5313 12 10
5
8
QDG5216 9
7
8 8
QDG5313 8 7
QDG5316 7 6
QDG5209 6 5
7
8
Type Size, in Pilot, in
DRS5216 20 16
QDR5319 19 16
QDRS5313 17 14
QDR5313 17 14
QDR5316 16 14
QDR5313 14 12
QDR5213 14 12
QDR5316 13 12
QDR5313 12 10
5
8
QDR5313 10 9
QDR5313 9
7
8 8
QDRS6313 7
1
8 6
5
8
QD G 5 3 16
Cutter Size
Reamer Blades to Full Diameter
Pilot Blade Count
G/R GeoReam or Reamer Product
QD Quad-D Technology
Quad-D nomenclature
67
This family of aggressive matrix and steel
body bits is designed to provide durability,
reduce torque response, maintain
tangents, and reduce sliding time without
compromising efficiency when drilling
either float equipment or formation. It
features a strong, one-piece construction
and a very low overall height that enhances
directional capabilities when drilling with
downhole motors.
Vibration is controlled by force and mass
balancing, employment of spiral blades
and gauge, asymmetrical blade layout, and
use of Lo-Vibe* inserts. Because of the
resulting bit vibration control, bit rotation is
maintained about the true bit axis ensuring
accurate finished hole diameter and quality.
Hydraulic ports are positioned to provide
efficient cuttings removal and cleaning of
both the pilot and reaming sections.
A unique gauge profile prevents cutters
from contacting and damaging the
casing and also provides a high degree
of stabilization and gauge protection.
Quad-D* dual-diamter drift and drill
bi-center bits have achieved success in a
broad range of applications.
Quad-D dual-diameter drift and drill bi-center bits provide hole opening
through installed casing or liner sections.
www.slb.com/Quad-D
Specialty Applications
Quad-D Bi-Center Bits
Type Size Availability, in
QDM3209 3 4
1
8
QDM3309 5
7
8 6
QDM4209 3 4
1
8
QDM4213 6 7
QDM7309 6 7
QDM7313 8 9
7
8, 10
5
8 12
QDMS4209 3 4
1
8
QDS3209 4 5
5
8, 4 5
QDS4209 4 5
5
8, 6 7
QDS5209 7 8
3
8
QDS5213 8 9
7
8, 12 14, 14 17
QDS5216 8 9
7
8, 14 17
QDS5219 17 20
QDS6309 6 7, 8 9
7
8
QDS7213 12 14
QDS7309 6 7
QDS7313 7 8, 8 9
7
8, 9 11,
10
5
8 12, 16 20
QD S 7 3 13
Cutter Size
Reamer Blades to Full Diameter
Pilot Blade Count
M/S Matrix or Steel
QD Quad-D Technology
Quad-D nomenclature
12 in 14 in QDS7213
Pilot
gauge
section
14-in Hole Maintained
Advantages

Drill-out capability for eliminating trips

Directional responsiveness for precise
control of wellbore

Diameter control for full gauge wellbore

Formation-specific design for optimized
drilling efficiency
16 in 20 in QDS7313PX
68
Specialty Applications
Direct XCD Casing-While-Drilling Drillable Alloy Bit
Drillable PDC bit for casing-while-drilling applications drills to TD,
enabling cementing casing in place and bit drillout
The nonretrievable Direct XCD* drillable alloy bit is specially
suited for vertical or tangential well applications. The bit drills
with standard casing, which is turned at the surface by the rigs
topdrive.
The Direct XCD bits cutting structure can be fitted with 13 to 19
mm PDC cutters and are availble in optional premium grades. The
bits sub is composed of durable oilfield grade steel, and its body is
made of an alloy that allows efficient drill out by any PDC bit after
the Direct XCD bit drills to TD and casing is cemented in place.
After drillout, the drillout bit can continue drilling the next interval,
enabling production casing to be run below the shoe.
9
5
8-in 12-in XCD613 www.slb.com/DirectXCD
Direct XCD bit nomenclature
9
5
8 12 XCD 5 16
Cutter size
Blade count
XCD Direct XCD drillable alloy bit
Bit size
Casing size
Available bit sizes
Application Bit Casing Size, in Bit Size, in
Soft Formations
< 8,000 psi unconfined
compressive strength
(UCS)
XCD319 13
3
8 17
XCD413 10 13
XCD416 9
5
8 12
XCD419 9
5
8 12 13
3
8 17 18
5
8 23 20 23 20 24
Medium Formations
8,00014,000 psi UCS
XCD316 12 15
XCD416 9
5
8 12
XCD419 9
5
8 12 13
3
8 17
XCD516 7 8 10 13
XCD519 16 18
XCD616 13
3
8 16 13
3
8 17
Hard Formations
> 14,000 psi UCS
XCD516 9
5
8 11
5
8 9
5
8 12
XCD613 9
5
8 12
69
Specialty Applications
Direct XCD Casing-While-Drilling Drillable Alloy Bit
www.slb.com/DirectXCD
Proprietary
nozzles
Flow rate and hydraulic
force are directed by
nozzles for maximum ROP.
Erosion resistant
coating
An optional tungsten
carbide coasting applied
to bit body and blades
increases durability.
Large-face
waterways
Cuttings removal is
maximized with large face
waterways and junk slot
areas.
Exclusive PDC
cutting structure
Cutting structure design
comprises premium grade
PDC cutters on each
blade, which can be sized
from 13 to 19 mm.
Patent pending
bit body design
Bit body composition
allows drill out by any
PDC bit.
Bi-metal
composition
A drillable alloy body
includes a bit sub made of
oilfield gradesteel.
Spiral gauge pads
Spiral gauge pads
maximize bit stability and
reduce vibration.
Direct XCD Features
Face Features Description
P Premium cutters
S Standard cutters
O Optimized drillout path
Hydraulic Features
H Higher number of nozzles than standard
L Lower number of nozzles than standard
E Errosion resistant nozzles
Connection Features
B Blank thread form
WP Weld Prep
BTC API buttress connection
C Premium threaded per request
71
Reference Tools
72
Total Flow Area (TFA) of Standard Nozzles, in
2

Nozzle
Size, in
Number of Nozzles
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
7
32 0.038 0.075 0.113 0.150 0.188 0.225 0.263 0.301 0.338
8
32 0.049 0.098 0.147 0.196 0.245 0.295 0.344 0.393 0.442
9
32 0.062 0.124 0.186 0.249 0.311 0.373 0.435 0.497 0.559
10
32 0.077 0.153 0.230 0.307 0.383 0.460 0.537 0.614 0.690
11
32 0.093 0.186 0.278 0.371 0.464 0.557 0.650 0.742 0.835
12
32 0.110 0.221 0.331 0.442 0.552 0.663 0.773 0.884 0.994
13
32 0.130 0.259 0.389 0.518 0.648 0.778 0.907 1.037 1.167
14
32 0.150 0.301 0.451 0.601 0.752 0.902 1.052 1.203 1.353
15
32 0.173 0.345 0.518 0.690 0.863 1.035 1.208 1.381 1.553
16
32 0.196 0.393 0.589 0.785 0.982 1.178 1.374 1.571 1.767
17
32 0.222 0.443 0.665 0.887 1.108 1.330 1.552 1.773 1.995
18
32 0.249 0.497 0.746 0.994 1.243 1.491 1.740 1.988 2.237
19
32 0.277 0.554 0.831 1.108 1.384 1.661 1.938 2.215 2.492
20
32 0.307 0.614 0.920 1.227 1.534 1.841 2.148 2.454 2.761
21
32 0.338 0.676 1.015 1.353 1.691 2.029 2.368 2.706 3.044
22
32 0.371 0.742 1.114 1.485 1.856 2.227 2.599 2.970 3.341
23
32 0.406 0.811 1.217 1.623 2.029 2.434 2.840 3.246 3.652
24
32 0.442 0.884 1.325 1.767 2.209 2.651 3.093 3.534 3.976
25
32 0.479 0.959 1.438 1.917 2.397 2.876 3.356 3.835
26
32 0.518 1.037 1.555 2.074 2.592 3.111 3.629
27
32 0.559 1.118 1.677 2.237 2.796 3.355 3.914
28
32 0.601 1.203 1.804 2.405 3.007 3.608
29
32 0.645 1.290 1.935 2.580 3.225 3.870
30
32 0.690 1.381 2.071 2.761 3.451
31
32 0.737 1.474 2.211 2.948 3.685
32
32 0.785 1.571 2.356 3.142 3.927
Reference
Total flow area chart
73
Reference
Recommended fixed cutter bit makeup torque
Recommended Makeup TorqueDiamond and Fixed Cutter Drill Bits With Pin Connections
API Reg Connection Size, in Bit Sub OD, in Minimum, ft.lbf Normal, ft.lbf Maximum, ft.lbf
2
3
8
3 1,970 2,280 2,450
3
1
8 2,660 3,100 3,300
3 3,400 3,950 4,200
2
7
8
3 3,380 3,950 4,200
3 and larger 5,080 5,900 6,300
3
4
1
8 5,700 6,600 7,000
4 6,940 8,050 8,550
4 and larger 8,400 9,850 10,500
4
5 13,700 16,600 17,000
5 18,100 21,100 22,400
4 and larger 18,550 21,600 22,900
6
5
8
7 40,670 47,300 50,200
7 and larger 41,050 47,800 50,750
7
5
8
8 53,100 61,850 65,670
8 63,500 73,750 78,300
9 and larger 68,600 79,800 84,750
8
5
8
10 96,170 102,600 108,950
10 and larger 107,580 114,700 121,800
Notes:
1. Recommended make-up torque dictated by all BHA components
2. Higher makeup torque values within the above ranges are recommended when high WOB is used.
3. Box connection bits should use makeup torque values between Minimum and Normal.
4. All connections must be lubricated with a joint compound meeting API requirements.
Bit size, in Fixed Cutter, in Roller Cone, in
6 and smaller -0.015+0.00 -0.0+1/32
6
25
329 -0.020+0.00 -0.0+1/32
9
1
3213 -0.030+0.00 -0.0+1/32
13
25
3217 -0.045+0.00 -0.0+1/16
17
17
32 and larger -0.063+0.00 -0.0+3/32
Size Range API Pin Size Recommended Torque
in, [mm] in, [mm] ft.lbf, [N.m]
34 [89114] 2
3
8 Reg [60] 3,0003,500 [4,0004,800]
4
5
85 [118127] 2
7
8 Reg [73] 4,5005,500 [6,0007,500]
5
1
87
3
8 [137187] 3 Reg [89] 7,0009,000 [9,50012,000]
79 [194229] 4 Reg [114] 12,00016,000 [16,00022,000]
928

[241711]

6
5
8 Reg [168] 28,00032,000 [38,00043,000]
1428

[375711]

6
5
8 Reg or 7
5
8 Reg [168 or 194] 34,00040,000 [46,00054,000]
1828

[470711]

7
5
8 Reg or 8
5
8 Reg [194 or 219] 40,00060,000 [54,00081,000]

Makeup torque must correspond to API pin connection for each bit size.
Note: Some of the above bit sizes are available on special order with alternate pin connections.
Recommended roller cone bit makeup torque
API gauge tolerances for fixed cutter and roller cone bits
74
Reference
Field operating procedures for fixed cutter and roller cone drill bits
BIT PREPARATION
Bit Handling at rig site

Bit cutting elements with diamond both fixed cutter and roller
cone bits, are brittle and susceptible to impact damage. Care
should be taken when handling or removing any bit containing
diamond-cutting elements.

Do not drop the bit even if it is in the container.

Use a piece of wood or rubber under the bit face.
Bit Inspection

Inspect bit for integrity (cutting elements, pin connection and
makeup shoulder).

Ensure there are no foreign objects or obstructions in the
internal fluid passageways.

Verify TFA on bits with fixed TFA.

Record bit size, type and serial number.
Nozzle Installation

Ensure that nozzle series are correct for bit type.

Gauge the orifice size of every nozzle to ensure proper totalflow
area (TFA).

Remove the plastic plug and ensure that O-rings are properly
installed and seated.

If different size nozzles are to be used ensure that the correct
sized nozzles are in the correct place. Put bigger size nozzles in
the in the center of the bit.

Ensure that the threads are clean and greased (any petroleum-
based grease). Fixed cutter bits with matrix threads should not
be greased.

Grease the nozzle body below the threads to prevent
O-ringdamage.

Screw the nozzle in by hand until snug.

Use nozzle wrench for final tightening. Excessive force is not
necessary and can damage the carbide nozzle.

If nozzle sizes below
9
32 are to be used, recommend the use
of drill pipe screens and/or a foat to prevent reverse circulation
plugging. Use grasshoppers if necessary.
Makeup

Ensure that the appropriate bit breaker is with the bit. Inspect to
insure good condition and that it fits properly.

Remove the bit from the box and place face down on a piece of
wood or rubber.

Engage the bit breaker with the bit and move them onto the
rotary table.

A float above the bit should be installed, especially on extended
nozzle roller cone bits, in areas that tend to plug.

Engage the hanging box connection to the doped threads of the
bit pin.

Proper makeup for small diameter bits is to makeup by hand for
several turns, then place in the bit breaker and makeup to the
recommended torque.

Uncover the rotary and locate the bit and breaker onto the
breaker holder.

Makeup applying the recommended torque.

Makeup torque specifications are from API spec RP7G.
Roller Cone Bits

Keep BHA as vertical as possible when making up bit to ensure
no damaging contact between the nozzles (full-extended or
minis) and the bit breaker occurs.
TRIPPING IN THE HOLE

Identify potential problem areas before tripping. Trip slowly
through BOP, doglegs, tight spots, ledges, casing shoes,
cementing equipment, etc. Wash and or ream as necessary.
Severe problems may require a special cleanup run.

Roller cone bit legs will yield slightly and the bit can be rotated
slightly in order to pass through some tight spots. Fixed cutter
bits do not yield. Bits with PDC cutting elements are susceptible
to impact damage. PDC bits are more susceptible to damage
during tripping in the hole than roller cone bits.

Certain types of fixed cutter bits with low junk slot area can
create higher surge and swab pressures than roller cone bits
due to more restrictive annular space.

Local knowledge/practice will typically dictate wash down and
reaming procedures. Minimum recommendation is to wash
down at least the last joint to bottom at reaming speed with
full circulation. Preference is to ream the last stand/90 feet at
reaming speed with full circulation.
TAGGING BOTTOM

Approach the hole bottom cautiously, monitoring WOB and
torque. An increase in WOB or torque will indicate either
contact with the hole bottom or fill. Fixed cutter bits will
typically show an increase in torque first. Bit is on bottom when
torque increases with the WOB. Difference between measured
depth and contact point should be depth of fill.

If fill is present, pick up above the fill and rotate to bottom with
full circulation until bottomhole contact is assured. Regardless
if fill is present, the pipe should always be reciprocated
off-bottom.

On rotary assemblies, use a maximum of 500 lbf per inch of bit
diameter, 40 to 60 rpm.
75

On motor assemblies, use a maximum of 500 lbf per inch of bit
diameter and the minimum allowable rpm.

Do not use high WOB when in fill. This could cause the bit toball.

Circulate and rotate off-bottom (as close as possible preferably
less than 6 in, no more than 1 ft) enough (5 to 15 minutes,
application dependent, recommend 15 min as minimum) to
ensure the hole bottom is clear of fill or junk.
DRILLING CEMENT PLUGS, FLOAT
EQUIPMENT AND CASINGSHOES

When using fixed cutter bits to drill out, ensure that all
cementing equipment (plugs, float collars and shoes) is PDC
drillable (non-metallic, rubber, nylon, plastic or cement).

Recommend the use of non-rotating plugs. Alternatively, it is
preferable when cementing to pump some cement on top of the
plug to help prevent it from rotating during drill out.

Using the maximum allowable flow rate to assist cleaning is
preferred, but may not be possible with motor assemblies.
Procedure

Frequently raising and lowering the bit while continuing
circulation and rotation will help keep the bit clear of debris.
Flushing after every 1 to 2 in drilled while reciprocating 3 to 4ft
will ensure debris is removed and new material is being drilled.
Should the penetration rate decrease suddenly, repeat this step
until it resumes.

Do not spud. Spudding (impacting on the hole-bottom) can
damage cutting structure elements on both fixed cutter and
roller cone bits. It can also damage the roller cone bearing/
sealsystem.

Monitor pump pressure to ensure nozzles do not
becomeplugged.

Change rpm if bouncing or erratic torque is encountered.
Fixed Cutter Bits

On rotary, use the maximum flow rate with less than 6,000 lbf
WOB and 60-100 rpm.

On motor assemblies, drill with less than 6000 lbf WOB and the
minimum allowable rotary rpm. Local practice will dictate flow
rate as a compromise is needed between providing adequate
cleaning and minimum rpm.

Maintain low and consistent torque.
Roller Cone Bits

On rotary, drill with 2,000 to 3,000 lbf per inch of bit diameter
and 40 to 60 rpm.

On motor assemblies, drill with 2,000 to 3,000 lbf per inch of bit
diameter and the minimum allowable rotary rpm. Local practice
will dictate flow rate as a compromise is needed between
providing adequate cleaning and minimum rpm.

Bouncing or erratic torque may indicate locked cones.
Temporarily increase the weight to ensure cone rotation,
then reciprocate the bit slightly off-bottom while continuing
circulation and rotation to help clean the bit. Resume with
original parameters when the bouncing or erratic torque has
been eliminated.

Maintain minimum WOB/torque to prevent wiper plugs from
rotating. Erratic torque may indicate a rotating plug.
Rotating Plugs

Should a plug begin to rotate, set down on plug with no rpm

Increase WOB until 2,000 to 3,000 lbf per inch of bit diameter is
reached or alternatively an increase of 300 psi over the normal
standpipe occurs.

Then begin rotation, ending with 40 to 60 rpm.

Repeat until penetration is achieved and wiper plug is drilled.
Alternative procedure (last resort)

Rotate bit at 20 to 40 rpm.

Use 500 lbf per inch of bit diameter.

Alternate using no flow rate for 1 minute to full flow for
30seconds.
ESTABLISHMENT OF BOTTOMHOLE
PATTERN
Bottomhole pattern break-in is considered to be when a new bit
achieves uniform cutting structure loading. Proper break-in is
critical to durability and ROP.

After drilling out the casing shoe, establish the bottomhole
pattern. There may be some BHA dictated WOB and rpm
guidelines until the BHA is below the casing shoe. Optimization
of WOB and rpm may have to wait until the BHA or some portion
of the BHA has cleared the casing shoe.

Use extra care establishing a new bottomhole pattern when
following a bit with a substantially different bottomhole profile,
e.g., a PDC bit following a roller cone bit or vice-versa.

Roller cone bits typically drill a larger size hole than a fixed
cutter bit. Be sure to properly establish the bottomhole pattern
when following a roller cone bit in order to insure stability.

Establishment of bottomhole pattern can be dependent upon
factors such as bit design, BHA, etc.
Roller Cone Bits

Break-in is done with light WOB and slow rpm and a new
bottomhole pattern is normally achieved within 3 to 6 in
(assuming no tracking or off-center rotation).
Reference
Field operating procedures for fixed cutter and roller cone drill bits
76
Reference
Field operating procedures for fixed cutter and roller cone drill bits

On rotary, use a maximum of 500 lbf per inch of bit diameter
with 40 to 60 rpm.

On motor assemblies, use a maximum of 500 lbf per inch of bit
diameter and the minimum allowable rpmkeep rotary rpm to
a minimum 20 to 30 rpm. Minimum allowable motor rpm can be
formation dependent.

Soft, balling formations should be entered with full flow rate. At
that point, WOB and rpm can be gradually increased to typically
operating levels or to initial drill-off test levels. Increase WOB
first then rpm.
Fixed Cutter Bits

Although a new bottomhole pattern is created in less than a
bit diameter, it is preferred to drill 3 to 5 feet before increasing
WOB and rpm.

For starting parameters, use maximum flow rate, less than
6,000lbf WOB and 60 to 100 rpm.

Maintain low and consistent torque changing operating
parameters as needed.

Take extreme care following a coring operation or bits of
different types or profiles. A different existing profile can
overload specific cutting elements potentially causing a
premature failure
RUNNING THE BIT
Controlled Drilling

If in or encountering a known hard or abrasive formation
of short length with a dull bit, controlled drilling (sacrificing
ROP) through the interval may enhance the following bits
performance. The dull condition and bit type will determine
the feasibility. Monitor the ROP and torque, follow the
recommendations for evaluating ROP and torque as listed
below. Proceed only if ROP and increased risk is acceptable to
the customer.
Deviation & Directional Control

Deviation concerns may override optimum WOB used.
Typically minimum WOB is used to control deviation on rotary
assemblies.

Monitor deviation on straight holes. Reduce WOB to maximum
allowable to maintain deviation specified by customer. Monitor
for vibration. Generally, increase rpm to improve ROP.

Higher torque and higher speed changes bit walk direction by
making the bit attack the formation at different angle due to
higher torque. The bit tries to climb the hole wall at a different
position at different torque levels. High speed on turbines can
make the bit change direction completely.
Formation Changes

Formation changes can instigate both torsional and lateral
vibrations. Monitor and adjust accordingly.

When anticipating a harder/more difficult formation, to prevent
impact damage, reduce the rpm maintaining WOB while still
in the softer formation to help prevent initiation of lateral or
torsional vibrations when the hard formation is encountered.
After the formation is encountered, adjust the parameters or
perform a drill-off test.

If an unknown formation (anomaly/transition) is expected,
reduce the rpm and the WOB to a minimum accepted level.
Establish ROP and torque baselines at these levels. Monitor
ROP and torque to determine when formation has been
encountered and when through the anomaly.
Operational Parameter Guidelines

Optimum WOB and rpm determined are for a particular
application and can only be continuously used in a
homogeneous formation. Therefore in intervals of various
formations, ROP optimization tests will not produce the optimum
weight and rotary combination.

Drill off tests will be necessary anytime the formation changes.
Typically a range of WOB and rpm combinations is derived for
the interval, e.g., interbedded formations.
PULLING THE BIT

When economics dictates.

When ROP dictates.

Loss of directional characteristics

Loss of pump pressure due to a washout.
Roller Cone Bit

When a substantial increase or dramatic fluctuation in torque
is seen with low or high WOB and low ROP or when tagging
bottom. Magnitude is typically area and application dependent.

There is no 100% effective/reliable indicator.

The best indicator is dramatic fluctuations of torque when
tagging bottom.
77
Standard Measurement Units
Quantity/Property Units Multiply By To Obtain Symbol
Depth ft 0.3048 meters m
Weight on bit (WOB) lbf 0.445
4.535 10
-4
decanewton
tonne
daN
tonne
Nozzle size 32
nds
in 0.794 millimeters mm
Drill rate ft/hr 0.3048 meters/hour m/hr
Volume barrels
galUS/stroke
0.1590
3.785 10
-3
cubic meters
cubic meters/stroke
m
3
m
3
/stroke
Pump output and flow rate galUS/min
bbl/stroke
bbl/min
3.875 10
-3
an oil barrel is 0.159873 m
3
exactly
0.1590
cubic meters/minute
cubic meters/stroke
cubic meters/minute
m
3
/min
m
3
/stroke
m
3
/min
Annular velocity and slip velocity ft/min 0.3048 meters/minute m/min
Linear length and diameter in 25.4 millimeters mm
Pressure psi 6.895
0.006895
0.06895
kilopascals
megapascals
bar
kPa
MPa
bar
Mud density lbm/galUS 119.83 kilograms/cubic meter kg/m
3
Mud gradient psi/ft 22.621 kilopascals/meter kPa/m
Funnel viscosity s/qt (US) 1.057 seconds/liters s/l
Apparent and plastic viscosity yield point centipoise 1 millipascal seconds mPa.s
Gel strength and stress lbf/100ft
2
0.4788 (0.5 for field use) pascals Pa
Cake thickness 32
nds
in 0.794 millimeters mm
Filter loss mm or cc 1 cubic centimeters cm
3
Torque ft.lbf 1.3358 newton meters N.m
Cost per Foot (CPF)
CPF =
Bit Cost + Rig Cost (Trip Time + Drilling Time)
Footage Drilled
Pressure Drop (D)
P =
Flow Rate
2
Mud Weight
10,856 TFA
2
Hydraulic Horsepower (HHP)
HHP =
(Bit Pressure Drop) (Flow Rate)
1,714
Hole Area (A
h
)
A
h
=
Hole Diameter
2

4
Hydraulic HP per Square Inch (HSI)
HSI =
Hydraulic Horsepower
Hole Area, in
2
Flow Rate (Q) = (Pump Stks Output / stk)
Bit Pres. Drop (P
bit
) = (MWt. Q
2
) / (10858 TFA
2
)
Hydraulic Horsepower (HHP
bit
) = (P
bit
Q) / (1714)
HSI = (HHP
bit
) / (.7854 D
2
)
Jet Velocity (JV) = (.32086 Q) / (TFA)
Impact Force (IF) = (JV) (MWt) (Q) (.000516)
MWt = Mud Weight TFA = Nozzle Flow Area D = Bit Diameter
Reference
Measurement units and drilling formulas
Drilling Formulas
78
Drill Collar Weight (Steel), lbm/ft
Drill Collar
OD, in
Drill Collar ID, in
1 1
1
4 1
1
2 1
3
4 2 2
1
4 2
1
2 2
3
4 3 3
1
4 3
1
2 3
3
4 4
2
7
8 19 18 16
3 21 20 18
3
1
8 22 22 20
3
1
4 26 24 22
3
1
2 30 29 27
3
3
4 35 33 32
4 40 39 37 35 32 29
4
1
8 43 41 39 37 35 32
4
1
4 46 44 42 40 38 35
4
1
2 51 50 48 46 43 41
4
3
4 54 52 50 47 44
5 61 59 56 53 50
5
1
4 68 65 63 60 57
5
1
2 75 73 70 67 64 60
5
3
4 82 80 78 75 72 67 64 60
6 90 88 85 83 79 75 72 68
6
1
4 98 96 94 91 88 83 80 76 72
6
1
2 107 105 102 99 96 91 89 85 80
6
3
4 116 114 111 108 105 100 98 93 89
7 125 123 120 117 114 110 107 103 98 93 84
7
1
4 134 132 130 127 124 119 116 112 108 103 93
7
1
2 144 142 139 137 133 129 126 122 117 113 102
7
3
4 154 152 150 147 144 139 136 132 128 113 112
8 165 163 160 157 154 150 147 143 138 133 122
8
1
4 176 174 171 168 165 160 158 154 149 144 133
8
1
2 187 185 182 179 176 172 169 165 160 155 150
9 210 208 206 203 200 195 192 188 184 179 174
9
1
2 234 232 230 227 224 220 216 212 209 206 198
9
3
4 248 245 243 240 237 232 229 225 221 216 211
10 261 259 257 254 251 246 243 239 235 230 225
11 317 315 313 310 307 302 299 295 291 286 281
12 379 377 374 371 368 364 361 357 352 347 342
Reference
Drill collar specifications
79
Reference
Conversion factors
Fraction to Decimal
1
64 0.0156
17
64 0.2656
33
64 0.5156
49
64 0.7656
1
32 0.0312
9
32 0.2812
17
32 0.5312
25
32 0.7812
3
64 0.0468
19
64 0.2968
35
64 0.5468
51
64 0.7968
1
16 0.0625
5
16 0.3125
9
16 0.5625
13
16 0.8125
1
64 0.0781
21
64 0.3281
37
64 0.5781
53
64 0.8281
3
32 0.0937
11
32 0.3437
19
32 0.5937
27
32 0.8437
7
64 0.1093
23
64 0.3593
39
64 0.6093
55
64 0.8593
1
8 0.1250
3
8 0.3750
5
8 0.6250
7
8 0.8750
9
64 0.1406
25
64 0.3906
41
64 0.6406
57
64 0.8906
5
32 0.1562
13
32 0.4062
21
32 0.6562
29
32 0.9062
11
64 0.1718
27
64 0.4218
43
64 0.6718
59
64 0.9218
3
16 0.1875
7
16 0.4375
11
16 0.6875
15
16 0.9375
13
64 0.2031
29
64 0.4531
45
64 0.7031
61
64 0.9531
7
32 0.2187
15
32 0.4687
23
32 0.7187
31
32 0.9687
15
64 0.2343
31
64 0.4843
47
64 0.7343
63
64 0.9843
0.2500 0.5000 0.7500 1 0.10000
English and Metric
Multiply By To Obtain
Acres 43,560 Square feet
Acres 0.001562 Square miles
Acres 4,840 Square yards
Barrels, water 31.5 Gallons
Barrels, water 263 Pounds
Barrels, oil (API) 42 Gallons
Barrels per day 0.02917 Gallons per minute
Centimeter 0.3937 Inches
Cubic centimeters 0.006102 Cubic inches
Cubic feet 1,728 Cubic inches
Cubic feet 0.03704 Cubic yards
Cubic feet 7.481 Gallons
Cubic feet 0.1781 Barrels (oilfield)
Cubic feet 28.3160 Liters
Cubic feet 0.03704 Cubic yards
Cubic feet per minute 0.4719 Liter per second
Cubic inches 16.3871 Cubic centimeters
Cubic yards 27 Cubic feet
Cubic yards 0.764555 Cubic meters
Degrees (angle) 0.01745 Radians
Degree Fahrenheit
(degF)
[degF 32] 1.8
or [degF 32]
5
9
Degree Celsius
(degC)
Feet 30.48 Centimeters
Feet 12 Inches
Feet 0.3048 Meters
Feet 0.0001894 Miles
Feet of water (depth) 0.4335 Pounds per square inch
Feet 0.3048 Meters
Foot pounds 1.35582 Joules
Foot pounds 0.138255 Meter-kilograms
Furlongs 660 Feet
Gallons (imperial) 1.209 Gallons (U.S.)
Gallons (imperial) 4.54609 Liters
Gallons (U.S.) 3,785.434 Cubic centimeters
Gallons (U.S.) 0.02381 Barrels, oil
Gallons (U.S.) 0.1337 Cubic feet
Gallons (U.S.) 3.785 Liters
Gallons per minute 0.002228 Cubic feet per second
Gallons per minute 34,286 Barrels per day
English and Metric
Multiply By To Obtain
Grains 64.79891 Milligrams
Grains 0.03527 Ounces
Inches 0.08333 Feet
Inches 25.4 Millimeters
Inches of water 0.03613 Pounds per square inch
Kilometers 3,281 Feet
Kilometers 0.6214 Miles
Kilometers per hour 0.6214 Miles per hour
Knots 6,080 Feet
Knots 1.152 Miles
Knots per hour 1.152 Miles per hour
Liters 0.03531 Cubic feet
Liters 0.2642 Gallons
Meters 3.281 Feet
Meters 39.37 Inches
Meters 1.094 Yards
Miles 5,280 Feet
Miles 1.609 Kilometers
Miles 1,760 Yards
Miles per hour 88 Feet per minute
Miles per hour 1.609 Kilometers per hour
Miles per hour 0.8684 Knots per hour
Minutes 0.01667 Hours
Minutes (angle) 0.0002909 Radians
Minutes (angle) 60 Seconds (angle)
Ounces (fluid) 1.805 Cubic inches
Ounces per cubic inch 1.72999 Grams per cubic centimeter
Paschal (unit or force,
pressure)
1.0 Newton per square meter
Pints 28.87 Cubic inches
Pints 0.125 Gallons
Pounds 453.6 Grams
Pounds 0.4536 Kilograms
Pounds of water 0.01602 Cubic feet of water
Pounds of water 27.68 Cubic inches of water
Pounds of water 0.1198 Gallons
Pounds per cubic foot 0.01602 Grams per cubic centimeter
Pounds per cubic foot 16.0185 Kilograms per cubic meter
Pounds per square foot 4.88241 Kilograms per square meter
Pounds per square foot 47.8803 Newtons per square meter
Pounds per square inch 2.307 Feet of water
Pounds per square inch 2.036 Inches of mercury
Pounds per square inch 0.689476 Newtons per square centimeter
Quarts (U.S.) 57.75 Cubic inches
Quarts (U.S.) 57.75 Cubic centimeters
Quarts (U.S.) 0.946331 Liters
Radians 57.30 Degrees
Radians per second 9.549 Revolutions per minute
Square centimeters 0.1550 Square inches
Square feet 144 Square inches
Square feet 0.00002296 Acres
Square feet 929 Square centimeters
Square inches 6.4516 Square centimeters
Square inches 0.006944 Square feet
Square miles 640 Acres
Square miles 2.59 Square kilometers
Square kilometer 247.1 Acres
Square meters 10.76 Square feet
Square meters 0.0002471 Acres
Square yards 9 Square feet
Square yards 0.8361 Square meters
Temperature
(degrees Celsius) (degC)
1.8
(+ 32 degrees)
Temperature
(degrees Fahrenheit) (degF)
Temperature (degrees
Fahrenheit) (degF)
5
9 or 0.5556
( 32 degrees)
Temperature
(degree Celsius) (degC)
Tons (long) 2,240 Pounds
Tons (metric) 2,205 Pounds
Tons (short) 2,000 Pounds
Yards 0.9144 Meters
Yards 91.44 Centimeters
80
Reference
Buoyancy factor
Buoyancy Factor k
Mud Density k Mud Density k
kg/l lbm/galUS lbm/ft
3
kg/l lbm/galUS lbm/ft
3
1.00 8.35 62.4 0.873 1.62 13.52 101.2 0.793
1.02 8.51 63.7 0.869 1.64 13.68 102.4 0.791
1.04 8.68 64.9 0.867 1.66 13.85 103.7 0.789
1.06 8.85 66.2 0.864 1.68 14.02 104.9 0.786
1.08 9.01 67.4 0.862 1.70 14.18 106.2 0.783
1.10 9.18 68.7 0.859 1.72 14.35 107.4 0.781
1.12 9.31 69.9 0.857 1.74 14.52 108.7 0.779
1.14 9.51 71.2 0.854 1.76 14.68 109.9 0.776
1.16 9.68 72.4 0.852 1.78 14.85 111.2 0.773
1.18 9.85 73.7 0.849 1.80 15.02 112.4 0.771
1.20 10.01 74.9 0.847 1.82 15.18 113.7 0.768
1.22 10.18 76.2 0.844 1.84 15.35 114.9 0.765
1.24 10.35 77.47 0.842 1.86 15.53 116.2 0.763
1.26 10.52 78.7 0.839 1.88 15.69 117.4 0.760
1.28 10.68 79.9 0.837 1.90 15.86 118.7 0.758
1.30 10.85 81.2 0.834 1.92 16.02 119.9 0.755
1.32 11.02 82.4 0.832 1.94 16.18 121.2 0.752
1.34 11.18 83.7 0.829 1.96 16.36 122.4 0.749
1.36 11.35 84.9 0.827 1.98 16.53 123.7 0.747
1.38 11.52 86.2 0.824 2.00 16.69 124.9 0.745
1.40 11.68 87.4 0.822 2.02 16.86 126.2 0.742
1.42 11.85 88.7 0.819 2.04 17.02 127.4 0.739
1.44 12.02 89.9 0.817 2.06 17.18 128.7 0.737
1.46 12.18 91.2 0.814 2.08 17.36 129.9 0.734
1.48 12.35 92.4 0.812 2.10 17.53 131.2 0.732
1.50 12.52 93.7 0.809 2.12 17.69 132.4 0.729
1.52 12.68 94.9 0.837 2.14 17.86 133.7 0.727
1.54 12.85 96.2 0.804 2.16 18.02 134.9 0.725
1.56 13.02 97.4 0.801 2.18 18.19 136.2 0.722
1.58 13.18 98.7 0.798 2.20 18.36 137.4 0.719
1.60 13.35 99.9 0.796 2.22 18.54 1338.7 0.717
Apparent weight = Real Weight Buoyancy Factor
hence: Buoyancy Factor (k) = 1
Mud Density
Steel Density
81
N30 Series
Reference
Fixed cutter bit nozzle installation
Correct Nozzle Installation Helps Prevent Washouts

Remove the plastic plug and the O-ring from each nozzle port.

Grease the O-ring and replace it in the O-ring groove.

Do not grease nozzles in Matrix bits before installation.

Lightly grease nozzles in steel bits and screw into jet ports.

Hand tighten the nozzle with a tee wrench until snug.
Damage may occur if a cheater bar is used on the tee wrench handle.
Wrenches
Series 30: 60007986
Series 40: 60018251
Series 50: 60024519
Series 60: 60003448
Vortexx 60: 60005675
O-Ring Series
Series 30: 60007985
Series 40: 60007985
Series 50: 60019245
Series 60/Vortexx 60: 60003276
Nozzle and Port Size Availability for PDC Bits
Nozzle or
Port Size, in
Nozzle Series Port
30 40 50 60 Steel Matrix
07/32

08/32

09/32

10/32

11/32

12/32

13/32

14/32

15/32

16/32

17/32

18/32

19/32
20/32

21/32
22/32

Empty Area 0.1503 in 0.1385 in 0.1963 in 0.3718 in


N40 Series N50 Series N60 Series
82
Physical Nozzle Size Availability Chart (Roller Cones)
Series Nozzle Size,
X
32 in Empty jet
TFA, in
2
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 24 28 30 32
55

0.196
65

0.307
70

0.65
72

0.65
74

0.65
75

0.69
91

0.899
95

0.899
97

0.899
98

0.899
99

0.899
100

1.629
101

1.629
105

1.629
Reference
Nozzle comparison chart
Jet Boss Series Standard Diverging Mini Extended Nozzles
55 55 Series
70 70 Series 71 Series 72 Series 74 Series
95 95 Series 91 Series 97 Series 98 Series 99 Series
100 100 Series 101 Series 105 Series
83
Reference
Roller Cone Diverging Nozzle Hydraulics Chart
Physical Nozzle Size, in Pressure Nozzle Size, in Equivalent Pressure Area, in
2
8
32
10
32 0.007
9
32
11
32 0.093
10
32
12
32 0.110
11
32
13
32 0.130
12
32
14
32 0.150
13
32
16
32 0.196
14
32
17
32 0.222
15
32
18
32 0.249
16
32
19
32 0.277
17
32
20
32 0.307
18
32
21
32 0.338
19
32
22
32 0.371
20
32
24
32 0.442
22
32
26
32 0.518
24
32
28
32 0.601
Approximately 20% of the total flow should be programmed through center jet.
Note: For hydraulic calculations, determine the corresponding equivalent nozzle
size for the spesific diverging nozzle size.
For example
12
32 is the equivalent nozzle size in hydraulic calculations for
a
10
32 diffuser nozzle size.
84
Reference
Nozzle types and applications for roller cone bits
Bit Size, in Milled Tooth Series Jet/Air Series TCI Series All Three-Cone Bits
Open
Bearing
Sealed
Bearing
ALL Sealed/
Journal
Bearing
TCT,
Two-Cone
Outer Jets
Full-Extended
Tubes
Q-Tubes Mini-Jets
MT TCI
3
1
85 55 55
5
7
86 70 70 70 70 72/74 72/74
7
3
87
5
8 95 95 95 95
7
7
88
3
8 95 95 95 95 70 97 98
88 95 95 95 95 70 97 98
99
7
8 95 95 95 95 95 97 98/99
10
5
812 95 95 95 95 95 70 95 97/98 98/99
1314 100 100 100 100 70 100 105 105
1628 100 100 100 100 95 100 105 105
Center jet retention systems
Bit Size Range, in Three-Cone
Open Bearing
Three-Cone
Closed Bearing
TCT Bits
6
1
86 65
77
5
8 70 long 70 long 70 long
7
7
8 70 long 70 long 70 long
89 70 short 70 short 70 short
914 95 95 95
1620 100 short 100 short 100 short
2228 100 long 100 long 100 long
Center jet component list
85
Reference
6
5
8 in API pin restrictor nozzle
The pin restrictor nozzle is used in special applications for mud
motors that require high bit pressure drops (650850 psi) during
operation. Pin restrictors are designed to split the total bit pressure
drop between a nozzle in the pin and the bit jet nozzles. Installing
a pin restrictor allows larger nozzles to be installed in the bit face
reducing the jet nozzle velocity and bit body erosion.
Pin restrictors are installed in the pin of the bit and require a
modified pin for installation. The modification can be made on
the bit when first built, or it can be retrofitted after the bit is
manufactured. Two sleeves are designed to fit into the modified
pin. A nozzle sleeve can be installed when a pin restrictor is
required. A blank sleeve can be installed when no pin restrictor
isrequired.
Pin restrictors do not run as efficiently as standard jet nozzles. An
Excel spreadsheet has been developed to aid in the selection of
the pin restrictor and outer nozzle sizes. Contact your Smith Bits
representative for the spreadsheet prior to running a pin restrictor
nozzle in a bit.
6
5
8 in API Pin restrictor assembly with nozzles
86
Reference
Maximum cone dimensions for three-cone rock bits and
Approximate bit weights
Maximum cone dimensions for three-cone rock bits Approximate bit weights
Size Range,
in [mm]
Maximum Diameter,
in [mm]
Maximum Length,
in [mm]
Milled Tooth Approx. Weight,
lbm [kg]
TCI Approx. Weight,
lbm [kg]
33
7
8 [8998] 2
3
8 [60] 1
5
8 [41] 10 [5] 12 [5]
4 [121] 2
7
8 [73] 2
1
8 [54] 15 [7] 20 [9]
5
7
86 [149150] 4 [108] 3
1
8 [79] 35 [16] 45 [20]
66 [165172] 4 [114] 3 [89] 45 [20] 55 [25]
7
3
88 [187203] 5 [133] 4 [102] 75 [34] 85 [39]
8
1
88 [206216] 5
7
8 [149] 4
1
8 [105] 90 [41] 95 [43]
8
5
89 [219229] 6
1
8 [156] 4
5
8 [117] 95 [43] 100 [45]
9
1
89 [232241] 6 [165] 4
3
8 [111] 125 [57] 130 [59]
9
5
89
7
8 [245251] 6 [171] 4 [121] 135 [61] 145 [66]
1010
5
8 [254270] 7 [184] 5 [140] 165 [75] 175 [180]
1111
7
8 [279302] 7
7
8 [200] 5
7
8 [149] 195 [89] 210 [95]
1212 [305311] 8 [203] 6
1
8 [156] 205 [93] 225 [102]
1315 [337381] 9
5
8 [244] 7
5
8 [194] 345 [157] 380 [173]
16 [406] 10 [260] 8
1
8 [206] 410 [186] 450 [205]
17 [445] 11 [292] 8
5
8 [219] 515 [234] 545 [248]
18 [470] 12 [305] 9 [229] 525 [239] 570 [259]
20 [508] 12 [318] 9
5
8 [244] 625 [284] 700 [318]
22 [559] 13 [349] 10 [267] 1,000 [455] 1,170 [532]
24 [610] 15 [387] 11 [286] 1,385 [629] 1,400 [636]
26 [660] 16 [406] 12 [324] 1,450 [659] 1,550 [704]
28 [711] 17 [432] 13 [330] 1,550 [704] 1,650 [750]
87
Series Nozzles Size,
X
32 in Empty Jet
TFA, in
2
7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 22 24 28 30 32
55

0,196
65

0,307
70

0,650
72

0,650
74

0,650
75

0,690
91

0,899
95

0,899
97

0,899
98

0,899
99

0,899
100

1,629
101

1,629
105

1,629
Reference
Roller Cone Bit Nozzling Procedures
88
Milled tooth 1. Standard roller bearing 4. Sealed roller bearing 5. Sealed roller bearing gauge protected
Series Formations Types Smith
Bits
Hughes
Christensen
Reed-
Hycalog
Security
DBS
Smith
Bits
Hughes
Christensen
Reed-
Hycalog
Security
DBS
Smith
Bits
Hughes
Christensen
Reed-
Hycalog
Security
DBS
1 Soft
Formations/
Low-
Compressive
Strength
1 DSJ R1 Y11 XN1 SDS GTX-1 XR+
GSSH+
TCTi+
GTX-G1
MAX-GT1
MX-1
MXL-1
MXL-1V
T11
EMS11G
ETS11G
XT1
XT1S
XL1N
2 DTJ
3 DGJ R3 Y13 XN3 MGG GTX-3 GGH+
MSDGH
GTX-G3
MAX-GT3
MX-3
T13
EMS13G
ETS13G
XT3
EBXT3
2 Med. to
Med.-Hard
Formations/
High-
Compressive
Strength
1 XN4
M4N
SVH XT4
XT4S
2 OFM DR5
3
3 Hard, Semi-
Abrasive
Formations
1 XN5
2 R7
3
4
Reference
Rock Bit Comparison Chart
Milled tooth 6. Sealed friction bearing 7. Sealed friction bearing gauge protected
Series Formations Types Smith
Bits
Hughes
Christensen
Reed-
Hycalog
Security
DBS
Smith
Bits
Hughes
Christensen
Reed-
Hycalog
Security
DBS
1 Soft
Formations/
Low-
Compressive
Strength
1 FDS HP11 XS1
XSC1
XR+
FDS+
TCTi+
GT-1
MX-1
MXL-1
MXL-1V
STR-1
STX-1
TC10
TC11
SL11
TD11
D11
XSC1
XLC1
EBXS1
EBXSC1
EBXLC1
2 FDT HP12 XSC2 SL12
HP12
3 HP13 MFDGH
FDGH
MX-3 HP13G
D13
XS3
XL3
2 Med. to
Med.-Hard
Formations/
High-
Compressive
Strength
1 ATJ-4 M44NF GFVH
FVH
ATJ-G4 HP21G XS4
XL3
2
3
3 Hard,
Semi-
Abrasive
Formations
1
2 H77F
3
4 ATJ-G8
89
TCI 5. Sealed roller bearing Gauge protected 7. Sealed friction bearing Gauge protected
Series Formations Types Smith Bits Hughes
Christensen
Reed-
Hycalog
Security
DBS
Smith Bits Hughes
Christensen
Reed-
Hycalog
Security
DBS
4 Soft
Formations/
Low-
Compressive
Strength
1
GSi01B, GS01,
GS01B, GS02B,
GS02T, GS03B
Gi03B, G04B,
GS04B, TCTi01
GTX-00, GX-00
MAX-GT00,
MXL-00, GTX-03,
GX-03, MAX-GT03,
MXL-03
T41,
EMS41H
XT00-05,
EBXT00-05
GFSi01, GFS04, GFS04B, MFS04,
MFi04
GT-00, MX-00, GT-03,
MX-03, GX-00, GX-03,
STR-03, H-03, MXL-00,
MXL-03
HR-90, HR-99,
STX-90,STX-99, STR-90,
HR-95, GX-95, MX-99
XS00-05,
XL00-05,
EBXS00-05,
EBXL00-05
2
GS05, GS05B
GSi06B, G08B,
GS08B
GXT-03C T42,
EMS42H
XT06-09,
EBXT06-09
GF05, GF05B, GFi05B, GFSi06,
MF05B
STR-05C, HX-05C TD42H, R07A XS06-09,
XL06-09,
EBXS06-09,
EBXL06-09
3
G10B, G10T
GS10B, GSi12B
GSi12UB, TCT10
GTX-09, MX-09,
MAXGT-09 GTX-11,
MX11, MX11S,
MXL-09
T43,
EMS43A,
EMS43H
XT10-13,
EBXT10-13
F10, F10B, F12, F12Y, GF08B,
GF10B, GF10HB, GFS10B, GF12T,
XR12, MF10T, MFS10T, XR10T,
TCT11, TCT12
GT-09, STR-09, STX-09,
STX-09H, HX-09, GX-11,
MX-09, MX-11, MX11H,
MXL-09, MXL-11
SL43H, TD43, TD43A,
TD43H, D43, HP43A,
HP43H, R09A, R12A,
RD12, R14
XS10-13,
XL10-13,
EBXS10-13,
EBXL10-13
4
GSi15B, G15,
GSi18B, GSi20B,
G11Y, M15S,
15JS
MAXGT-18 MX-18 T44,
EMS44H,
EMS44A
XT14-17,
EBXT14-17
FH16, FH16B, FHi18, MF15M,
F15T, MF15B, MF19, GF15,
GF15B, GF15Y, GFS15B, XR15,
XR15T, XRi15G
GT-18, STR-18, STX-18,
H-18, HX-18, GX-18,
MX-18, MXL-18
TD44, TD44H, TD44X,
D44, HP44H, HP44X,
R14A, RD15, R15A, R15
XS14-17,
XL14-17,
EBXS14-17,
EBXL14-17
5 Soft to
Medium-
Hard
Formations/
Low-
Compressive
Strength
1
G20, GS20B, G25,
G20B, 20GMS,
2JS, GSi20B
GTX-20, MAXGT-20
MX-20, MXL-20,
GTX-22 MX-22
T51,
EMS51A,
EMS51H
XT18-23,
EBXT18-23
F15H, F2, MF2, MF15H, FHi20,
FHi21, FHi23, GFi20, GF21,
GF25, GFS20, MFS20, XR20,
XR20B, XR25, F25Y, GF20Y,
XR20Y,TCTi20
GT-20, STR-20, STX-20,
H-20, HX-20, GX-20,
MX-20, GX-22, MX-22,
GX-23, GX-25, MXL-20
SL51H,TD51, TD51A,
TD51H, TD51X, D51,
HP51H, P51A, HP51H,
HP51X, R19A, R20A,
R21A, R22A, RD21
XS18-23,
XL18-23,
EBXS18-23,
EBXL18-23
2
G28B GTX-20C
MAX-GT20CG
MX-20C, MX-28G
T52,
EMS52H
XT24-27,
EBXT24-27
GF26, F27, GFS28, FHi28,
GFi28B, FHi29, Fhi25, F26Y,
MF26Y, FHi24Y, F27A, F27IY,
GF27Y, XR20TY
GT-20C, GT-28, H-28,
HX-28, GX-20C, GX-28,
MX-20C, MX-28, MXL-28
TD52,TD52A,TD52H,
TD52i, TD52X, HP52,
HP52X, R24A, R25A,
R26A, RD25, R27, R28A
XS24-27,
XL24-27,
EBXS24-27,
EBXL24-27
3
G30, GS30B 3JS MX-30H,
MAX-GT30
T53,
EMS53,
EMS53A,
ETS53A
XT28-33,
EBXT28-33
F3, F30, FH30, F30T, FHi30,
FHi31, FH32, GF30, GF30B,
GF30T, MF30T, XR30, XR32,
F30Y, FH30Y
STR-30, STX-30, GT-30,
STX-35, GX-30, H-30,
HX-30, MX-30, MXL-30
SL53,SL53A,TD53,
TD53A, TD53B,
TD53H, D53,HP53,
HP53A, HP53H, JA53,
R30,R30A, RD33
XS28-33,
XL28-33,
EBXS28-33,
EBXL28-33
4
GTX-30C, GTX-33,
MAX-GT30CG,
MX-33CG
T54 XT34-39,
EBXT34-39
FHi35, GFi35, F30Y, F37Y, FHi37Y,
FHi38Y,, F39Y, GFi35YG, F37Y,
XR30Y, XRi35, XR35Y
GT-30C, STR-30C, STR-,
35C, STX-30C, HR-38C,
HR-30C, HR-35, GX-30C,
GX-35, GX-38, MX-35C
TD54A, TD54X, TD54,
R34A, R35A, R36A
XS34-39,
XL34-39,
EBXS34-39,
EBXL34-39
6 Medium-
Hard
Formations/
High-
Compressive
Strength
1
G40, G40Y,
G40YB, 4JS
ETS61A XT40-45,
EBXT40-45
FH40, FHi45, F40, F45H, MF4H,
GF40H, GF40Y, Xr38, XR40,
XR45Y, F40Y, F40YA, F47Y,
F47YA, FH43Y, GF47Y
STR-40, HR-40, HR-44,
STX-40, GX-44, MX-40,
MX-44
SL61, SL61A, TD61,
TD61A, HP61A, HP61H,
R40A, R40
XS40-45,
XL40-45,
EBXS40-45,
EBXL40-45
2
GT-40C, MX-44C EMS62 XT46-51,
EBXT46-51
F50, FHi50, FHi50Y, F46HY,
F47HY, GF45Y, GF50Y, XR40Y,
XR40YA, XR45Y, XR50
STR-40C, STR-44C,
STX-44C, HR-40C,
HR-44C, GX-44C, GX-45C,
MX-40C, MX-44C,
MXL-44C
SL62,SL62A,SL62X,
TD62, TD62A, HP62,
HP62A, HP62H, JA62,
R44A, R45, R48
XS46-51,
XL46-51,
EBXS46-51,
EBXL46-51
3
MX-55 XT52-58 F57Y, F57HY, GF50YB, F50YA,
XR50Y
STR-50, STR-50A, STX-50,
HR-50, HR-55, GX-55,
MX-50, MX-55
SL63, TD63, HP63, R50 XS52-58,
XL52-58,
EBXS52-58,
EBXL52-58
4
XT61-69 F59Y, F59HY, F67Y, GF67Y,
XRi65Y
HR-60, HR-66, HR-68,
STX-60, MX-66, MX-68
TD64, TD64H, HP64,
HP64H, R60, R65
XS61-69,
EBXS61-69
7 Hard, Semi-
Abrasive
and Abrasive
Formations
1
XT71-75 XS71-75,
EBXS71-75
3
XT77-81 F7, XR68Y, XR68HY, XR70Y STR-70, STX-70, HR-70 SL73, HP73 XS77-81,
EBXS77-81
4
XT83-89 XR75Y TD74,HP74,R75 XS83-89,
EBXS83-89
8 Extremely
Hard and
Abrasive
Formations
1
XT91-93 F80Y, GF80Y, XR80Y HR-80, HR-88, STX-80,
STX-88, STR-80, MX-88
TD81, HP81, R80, R85 XS91-93,
EBXS91-93
2
XT95-97 F85Y HR-89 XS95-97,
EBXS95-97
3
XT99 F90Y, FHi90Y, XR90Y HR-90, HR-99, STX-90,
STX-99, STR-90, HR-95,
GX-95 ,MX-99
SL83, TD83, HP83,
R90, R95
XS99,
EBXS99
Reference
Rock Bit Comparison Chart
90
Reference
Smith Bits roller cone bit nomenclature
Seal and Bearing Prefix Product Type Example
D Non-sealed (open) bearing Milled Tooth DSJ
S Single seal, roller bearing Milled Tooth SDGH
F Single seal, friction bearing All F15
M Single seal, roller bearing motor bit All MSDGH
MF Single seal, friction bearing motor bit All MFDGH
Premium Product Type Prefix Product Type Example
FH FH, single seal, friction bearing Insert FH23
GF Gemini twin seal, friction bearing All GF30
G Gemini twin seal, roller bearing All G18
XR Xplorer, single seal, friction bearing Insert XR25
XR+ Xplorer Expanded Milled Tooth XR+
Milled Tooth Cutting Structures Product Type Example
S Soft formation type Milled Tooth FDS
T Soft to medium formation type Milled Tooth DTJ
G Medium formation type Milled Tooth FDGH
V Medium to hard formation type Milled Tooth SVH
S Self sharpening hard facing Milled Tooth MSDSSH
H Heel inserts Milled Tooth SDSH
+ Premium Milled tooth cutting structure Milled Tooth FDS+
Insert Cutting Structures Product Type Example
S Shamal design Insert GFS10
0099 Insert bit digits (00 Softest99 Hardest) Insert FH50
Cutting Structure and Feature Suffix Product Type Example
A Air application bit Insert F47A
B Binary carbide gauge Insert GFS10B
BD Binary diamond gauge Insert GS03BD
C Center jet All F10C
D SRT diamond gauge Insert XR30D
DD Fully diamond enhanced cutting structure Insert MF37DD
G Super-D Gun cone coating Insert F12YG
H Heavy set gauge design Insert F37H
I Inclined chisel on gauge Insert F27I
L Lug Pads pressed with tungsten carbide inserts All FH45L
LD Lug pads pressed with diamond inserts All MF15LD
N Nominal gauge diameter All GF05N
OD Diamond heel (50%) All F57OD
OD1 Diamond heel (100%) All XR25OD1
PS SRT tungsten carbide legback protection All FH28PS
PD SRT diamond legback protection All F37PD
R Upper and Lower tungsten carbide
legbackprotection
All GS18R
RD Upper and Lower diamond legback protection All F50RD
SD Shaped diamond gauge and
50% Diamond heel
Insert G25SD
SD1 Shaped diamond gauge and
100% Diamondheel
Insert MF20SD1
T Trucut carbide gauge Insert XR20T
TD Trucut diamond gauge inserts Insert XR32TD
U Unconventional cutting structure/feature All GS18U
V V-Flo hydraulics All FH35V
W Softer than standard insert grades Insert XR15W
Y Conical cutting structure Insert F 59Y
3 2
7
8 in connection
(not Smith Bits default size 2
3
8 in)
All XR30-3
6 6
5
8 in connection
(not Smith Bits default size 7
5
8 in)
All XR-6
7 7
5
8 in connection
(not Smith Bits default size 8
5
8 in)
All XR-7
91
Reference
IADC dull bit grading
Cutting Structure Bearings/
Seals
Gauge Other Dull
Characteristics
Reason Pulled
Inner Outer Dull Char. Location
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1. Inner Cutting Structure (All Inner Rows)
(For fixed cutter bits, use the inner
2
3 of the bitradius)
2. Outer Cutting Structure (Gauge Row Only)
(For fixed cutter bits, use the outer
1
3 of the bit
radius) In columns 1 and 2, a linear scale from 0 to
8 is used to describe the condition of the cutting
structure according to the following:
Steel Tooth Bits
A measure of lost tooth height due to abrasion and/
or damage
0 No Loss of Tooth Height
8 Total Loss of Tooth Height
Insert Bits
A measure of total cutting structure reduction due
to lost, worn and/or broken inserts
0 No Lost, Worn and/or Broken Inserts
8 All Inserts Lost, Worn and/or Broken
Fixed Cutter Bits
A measure of lost, worn and/or broken cutting
structure
0 No Lost, Worn and/or Broken Cutting Structure
8 All of Cutting Structure Lost, Worn and/or
Broken
4. Location
Roller Cone
N Nose Row
M Middle Row
G Gauge Row
A All Rows
Cone #
123
Fixed Cutter
C Cone
N Nose
T Taper
S Shoulder
G Gauge
A All Areas
6. Gauge
Measure to nearest
1
16 of an inch
1 in In Gauge
1
1
16 in Out of Gauge
2
2
16 in Out of Gauge
4
4
16 in Out of Gauge
7. Other Dull
Characteristics
Refer to column 3 codes
5. Bearings/Seals
Non-Sealed Bearings
A linear scale estimating
bearing life used
0 No Life Used
8 All Life Used, i.e.,
no bearing life
remaining
Sealed Bearings
E Seals Effective
F Seals Failed
N Not Able to Grade
X Fixed Cutter Bit
(bearingless)
8. Reason Pulled or Run Terminated
BHA Change Bottom-Hole
Assembly
DMF Downhole Motor Failure
DTF Downhole Tool Failure
DSF Drillstring Failure
DST Drill Stem Test
DP Drill Plug
CM Condition Mud
CP Core Point
FM Formation Change
HP Hole Problems
LIH Left in Hole
HR Hours on Bit
LOG Run Logs
PP Pump Pressure
PR Penetration Rates
RIG Rig Repair
TD Total Depth/Casing Depth
TW Twist Off
TQ Torque
WC Weather Conditions
3. Dull Characteristics
(Use only cutting structure related codes)
BC

Broken Cone
BF Bond Failure
BT Broken Teeth/Cutters
BU Balled Up Bit
CC

Cracked Cone
CD

Coned Dragged
CI Cone Interference
CR Cored
CT Chipped Teeth/Cutters
ER Erosion
FC Flat Crested Wear
HC Heat Checking
JD Junk Damage
LC

Lost Cone
LN Lost Nozzle
LT Lost Teeth/Cutters
OC Off Center Wear
PB Pinched Bit
PN Plugged Nozzle/Flow
Passage
RG Rounded Gauge
RO Ring Out
SD Shirttail Damage
SS Self Sharpening Wear
TR Tracking
WO Washed Out Bit
WT Worn Teeth/Cutters
NO No Dull Characteristics

Show cone number(s) under Location (4)


92
Reference
Stinger element dull bit grading
Stinger element wear can be recorded
from a linear scale of WT0 to WT8, with 0
representing no wear and 8 representing
no diamond tableremaining.
The unique conical geometry of the Stinger
element requires a modified dull grading to
measure damage observed (lost, worn, or
broken). The wear rating scale (0 to 8) is the
same, as used for standard PDC cutters.
0 (0% wear)
4 (50% wear)
8 (100% wear)
CT Chipped element SP Spalling BT Broken element
WT No wear (Level 0 severity) WT Minimal wear
(Level 1 severity)
WT Minor wear
(Level 2 severity)
LT Lost element DL Stinger element
delamination
BF Bond failure
93
Notes
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