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Transporting stranded gas as hydrates

When natural gas is discovered far from a pipeline and when the quantity of gas is insufficient to
justify a liquefaction facility, it may be possible to transport gas by conversion into hydrates. The
concept is that the hydrate concentrates gas by a factor of about 164, without the cost of
compressing and transporting gas at high pressure.
Contents
1 Using hydrates for shipping
2 References
3 Noteworthy papers in OnePetro
4 External links
5 See also
Using hydrates for shipping
In shipping, preservation of hydrated gas is vital to prevent losses. Recent measurements have
shown that only a mild amount of refrigeration (e.g., to 20F) will prevent rapid hydrate
dissociation, with rates that are several orders of magnitude less than values interpolated from
lower or higher temperatures.
[1]
The cause for this anomalous hydrate self-preservation effect is
most likely uncertain because of an outer ice barrier that prevents inner-particle dissociation. The
ice protective shell happens because the water from the melted hydrate surface, caused by
endothermic hydrate melting, freezes.
Laboratory measurements and calculations indicated that hydrated-gas transportation is
economical for distances that are greater than approximately 400 km.
[2]
British Gas Ltd. has a
pilot facility to convert gas to hydrate. The Japanese National Marine Research Institute began a
similar project, and there will be further investigation of transportation economics compared to
liquefied natural gas.
A schematic diagram of stranded-gas-hydrate formation, transportation, and dissociation system
is shown in Fig. 1.
[3]
In the first block, gas and seawater are combined to form hydrates on a
floating production, storage, and offloading (FPSO) vessel. The second block is concerned with
transportation and storage, and the third deals with hydrate dissociation and integration into the
gas distribution system at a port. There are three factors to this approach becoming an economic
process:
Initial formation of large amounts of gas hydrates to prevent high-pressure recompression
on recycle
Reproducible, rapid conversion of water to hydrate so that a minimal amount of water is
transported
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Stern, L.A.,
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1-15 June, 2
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on of hydrate
This is perha
n.
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tion system
, Circone, S.
drate at 1 atm
son, J.S., Hv
ate. Proc., Fi
282.
ta, H. et al. 2
ference, Yok
ed gas to por
aps one of th
ram of a str
(after Shiro
., and Kirby,
m. J. of Phys
veding, F., an
ifth Intl. Off
2002. Hydrat
kohama, Jap
rt with small
he more inno
randed-gas-h
ota et al.
[3]

, S.H. 2001.
sical Chem. 1
nd Borrehau
fshore and Po
te Transport
an, 972.
l amounts of
ovative emer
hydrate for
Anomalous
105: 1756.
ug, A. 1995.
olar Enginee
ation of Stra
f refrigeration
rging techniq
rmation, tra
Preservation
Transport of
ering Confer
anded Gas. P
n and
ques for gas
ansportation
n of Pure
f Natural Ga
rence, The H
Proc., Fourth


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Hague,
h Intl.