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ABSTRACT

Climate change is global environmental challenge faced by humanity which has negative implications on
food production, natural eco-systems, fresh water supply and health in Nepal. It is contributing mostly
to the rise in air temperature leading to rapid melting of glaciers and increment of glacier lakes.
Exploitation of natural resources associated with growing population has led to increasing pollution,
declining water quality, land degradation, etc. As temperature is increasing, Nepals abundant fresh
water resources like natural water springs are severely affected and are under threat. Water related
extreme events are occurring more frequently due to complex interaction between climatology,
hydrology and ecology in the mountain region.

Identified study sites (Bhorle, Ramche and Laharepauwa VDCs); situated at Rasuwa district shows the
similar trend. It shows that climate-sensitive sectors, such as rain-fed agriculture; drinking water system
and fragile mountain ecosystems are severely affected by landslide and flooding. Rural communities of
Bhorle, Laharepauwa and Ramche VDCs should switch their strategies to reduce the risk of water
depletion. The study investigated 55 water springs at Bhorle VDC, 30 at Ramche and 29 at Laharepauwa
VDC. Available water springs in the study sites have been the major source of drinking water as well as
agricultural needs for the habitants of the respective VDCs. But the local communities lag behind in the
proper conservation techniques of the existing water springs and climate change adaptation practices.










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Acknowledgement

I take this opportunity of showing gratefulness towards WWF-Nepal for providing the
opportunity to carry out this study. I would like to express my sincere gratitude to all the staffs
of WWF-Nepal and YONSED for their constant inspiration, guidance, and encouragement for
the completion of this study. The special thank goes to Mr. Ashok Baniya of WWF-Nepal,
Rasuwa for his guidance and valuable suggestions.

I would like to thank the local people of study areas, and key informants interviewers. I am
very greatful to Ms. Rojani Manandhar, Mr. kamal Thapa, and Mr. Nawang Tsering Lama for
their immense support in finalizing this report. I would also like to extend my gratitude to Mr.
Pramod Kumar Titung and Ms. Anjana Lama for their sincere assistance during the field visit.

Genuine Thanks are extended to Mr. Santosh Ghale, Sunil Tamang and the entire team of
LACCoS, Rasuwa.

We are indebted to the Langtang National Park, officer of district forest and soil conservation
office, Dhunche Rasuwa for the valuable information.


Jeevan Thapa









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Table of Contents
1. INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................................................. iii
1.2. OBJECTIVES .................................................................................................................................. 2
1.3. Limitations of Study ...................................................................................................................... 2
2. STUDY AREA ........................................................................................................................................ 2
2.1. Climate ......................................................................................................................................... 3
2.2. Land use ....................................................................................................................................... 4
2.3. Watershed Areas .......................................................................................................................... 4
3. METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................................................... 5
3.1 Research approach ........................................................................................................................ 5
3.2. Data Analysis ................................................................................................................................ 5
4. RESULT ................................................................................................................................................ 5
4.1. Status of water springs ................................................................................................................. 5
5. CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................................................... 9
REFERENCES
ANNEXES


List of Figure
Figure 1: Map of Study Area .................................................................................................................... 3
Figure 2: Location of water springs (source)............................................................................................. 7

List of Table
Table 1: Land use pattern ........................................................................................................................ 4
Table 2: Sub-Watershed Area in Ramche, Bhorle and Laharepauwa VDCs ................................................ 4
Table 3: Water springs ............................................................................................................................. 5



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1. INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background
Many of the countrys poor are living in geographically vulnerable places under vulnerable
environmental, socioeconomic, institutional and political conditions. Climate change provides an
additional threat placing additional strains on the livelihoods of the poor (Chaulagain, 2006). Increased
water demand and decreased water availability as a result of climate change may adversely affect the
society and economy. People in the remote regions of the Himalayas have for centuries managed to
maintain a delicate balance with the fragile mountain environments. This balance is likely to be
disrupted by climate change and it would take a long time for a new equilibrium to be established (IPCC,
1996b, p.204).

Water resources are influenced by various social, technical, environmental and economic factors.
Climate change is just one of many pressures that hydrological systems and water resources are facing
(IPCC, 2001b, p.195). The changes to the hydrological cycle will deteriorate the availability of water for
human populations, in terms of quantity, quality and accessibility of water supplies. These conditions
will be further exacerbated by increasing natural disasters and their impacts on water for human
populations (Water Aid, 2007). Areas in which runoff is projected to decline are likely to face a reduction
in the value of the services provided by water resources. Glaciers are expected to continue retreating,
and many small glaciers may disappear entirely.

Snow, the largest source of water storage, has been the primary source of water for mountain people
and those living downstream. Climate change will continue to cause increasing snowpack losses each
year. This trend is already observable, as the volume of snowpack has been dropping drastically.
Similarly, groundwater also contributes flow to many rivers and streams and is an important source of
drinking and irrigation water. Groundwater supplies are also vulnerable to climate change, as evapo-
transpiration losses will drastically reduce aquifer recharge and storage phenomenon. Expected
increases in water demand due to higher temperatures will compound the problem of how to meet
increased demand from population growth and economic development (Hall et. al. 2008).

Nepal lies in the central region of the Himalayan Range, the major water tower of the South Asian
region. Hence the country is endowed with abundant fresh water resource as well as a huge
hydropower potential. While it has not yet been able to harness sustain substantially the potential
benefits of life and property annually. The ensuring global change is adding further complexities to the
problem due to the variability and change of climate. Water related extreme events seem to occur more
frequently and the complex interaction between climatology, hydrology and ecology in the mountain
region.
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Rasuwa district is one of the remote mountain district of Nepal, has also been experiencing climate
change and climate induced disaster in the recent years. The district is ecologically significant due to
presence of Langtang National park and range of Himalayan peaks that include Langtang peak of 7,227
m. Deforestation, pressure on land, depletion of water resources, physical remoteness and weak
response capacity of the community, overall low preparedness and lack of awareness are some of the
definite areas of concern. Increasing temperature is shifting the permanent snowline upward. This could
cause a significant reduction of water storage in the district, which is likely to pose serious problems of
water availability to many people living in the hills and downstream.

1.2. OBJECTIVES

The main objective of study was to explore conditions of water springs in study site of Rasuwa District.

The specific objectives of the study were

1. Preparing database report on status of water springs of designated VDCs using GPS by
comparing the before after situation.
2. Inventory of waterholes present in and around designated VDCs along with their conditions and
intensity of utility.
3. To demarcate conservation problems, threats, managerial pitfalls, alarming water springs of the
area.

1.3. Limitations of Study

The following are the limitations to research methodologies being employed during the study period.
1) Few water springs couldnt be incorporated due to inaccessibility conditions as landslides,
erosion and mass failure;
2) Individual perception measures and focal group discussions were not possible due to time
constraints.


2. STUDY AREA

The study was carried out in Rasuwa district of Central Nepal. This district lies in between 27 55 to 28
25 N latitude and 85 00 to 85 50 E longitudes. The altitude of Rasuwa district ranges from 617 m to
7227 m within 1512 sq. km. It encompasses three distinct geographical zones: the Himalaya, the mid
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land and basin. Mid hill and basin covers less area but the productive land lies in this region. Selected
three VDCs for survey: Ramche, Bhorle and Laharepauwa lie in this region. Tamang is the dominant
ethnic group among the Brahmin, Chhetri, Newar and Dalit community in these VDCs.

Figure 1: Map of Study Area

1. Ramche VDC is located on the foothills of mid land with an area of 26.22sq. km. The VDC has a
population of 2153 living in 397 houses. Ramche VDC is surrounded by Dhaibung, Laharepauwa,
Dhunche, Haaku, Yarsa, Danda Gaon, and Bhorle VDCs of Rasuwa.
2. Bhorle has area of 20.64sq. Km with total population of 5965 people living in 1078 houses. The
border of Bhorle VDC is adjoined with Dhaibung, Saramthali, Yarsa, Ramche VDCs of Rasuwa,
and Nuwakot district to the south.
3. Laharepauwa is situated is southern VDC of Rasuwa District. The VDC had population of 5132
living in 940 houses. The VDC has a total area of 12.28 sq. km. Lahrepauwa VDC is adjoined with
Thulogaon, Dandagaon, Jibjibe and Ramche VDCs of Rasuwa, and Nuwakot district to the south.
2.1. Climate
Irregular topography has influence on the climatic condition in Selected VDCs which shows variation.
Generally, climate is sub-tropical and humid above 600m and cold in mid hills above 2500m. The
average annual temperature is 15.4C with 10.4C minimum and 20.8C maximum averages. Phalakhu
khola basin in Laharepauwa is relatively warmer than other settlements of this VDC. Orographic
monsoon precipitation brings lot of rains from June to September. Annual average rainfall is 691mm and
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most of rainfall occurs during monsoon. Annual rainfall October, November, March and April are clear
with pleasant climate.
2.2. Land use
Ramche, Bhorle and Laharepauwa VDCs have diverse geography revealing various land use pattern.
Cultivated with settlement cover the largest share with 43.24% of total area. Though major portion of
cultivated land lies in slope traces yet they are productive and supporting livelihood of people. The
following table shows the land use pattern of three VDCs.
Table 1: Land use pattern
S.N. Land Category Percentage
1. Cultivation 43.24
2. Forest 30.74
3. Grass 11.03
4. Shrub 13.05
5. Barren 0.03
6. Sand 0.9
7. LNP 1.01
Source: Survey Department, 1992

2.3. Watershed Areas

Study site cover three major watershed of Rasuwa district namely Tallo Falakhu khola Upallo Falakhu
and Upallo Trisuli Ganga watershed. Surface water (resulting from rain) and melting snow or ice helps to
recharge ground water in this region. Following table shows the distribution of watershed in study site.

Table 2: Sub-Watershed Area in Ramche, Bhorle and Laharepauwa VDCs
S.N Name of the watershed Area
covered
Coverage VDC
1. Tallo Falakhu, Ghattekhola 21.26 Laharepauwa, Bhorle and Dhaibung
2. Upallo Falakhu Khola 107.57 Bhorle, Saramthali Yarsa
3. Tallo Trisuli Ganga 61.26 Laharepauwa, Ramche, Dandagaun,
Thulogaun, and Dhaibung
4. Upallo Trisuli Ganga 139.71 Ramche, Haku, Dhunche, Goljung, Gatlang
and Saphru
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3. METHODOLOGY
3.1 Research approach

Field survey and interaction with local community was the research approach of this study. Collection
and gathering of information at the local level was conducted at selected sites.
They are an essential component for the exploration of the water springs points. In this process
observation, photography, measurement, interaction, etc. were carried out.
A seven day intense field visit was conducted in Rasuwa district to collect the information about the
existing water springs and GPS location for mapping. In each district, field activities were carried out by a
field investigator with the help of a local data enumerator and local guide. The team visited each and
every water spring in area by available means of transport and on foot. The conditions and change over
time situations were accessed by observations, informal interview with locals and available respiring
persons. Opinions from the key informants were also collected through informal conversation about the
existing springs.

3.2. Data Analysis
Data were analyzed using different software Microsoft Excel (Microsoft) and Geographical Information
System. The collected GPS markings were entered and thematic maps were prepared in combination
with different layers as landscape, elevation, human settlement and vegetation pattern etc. Thus, these
maps gave composite picture of water springs in the area and their interrelations with different natural
and artificial system.
Furthermore the primary and secondary data were interpreted in tables and diagrams in systematic way
for easy interpretations. The field observation and data obtained through informal interview were
presented in report in lucid manner making compatible.
4. RESULT
4.1. Status of water springs
During field survey 114 water springs were identified. Due to topographical constraints and
inaccessibility some of the water could not be explored. Our field investigation explored 55 water
springs at Bhorle VDC, 30 at Ramche and 29 at Laharepauwa VDC.

Table 3: Water springs





S.N. VDC No. of Water Spring
1. Ramche 30
2. Bhorle 55
3. Laharepauwa 29
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Water springs in the Ramche are degrading day by day. These springs are depleting for last two three
year. This might be due to the number of factors like climate change, deforestation, physical instability,
and lack of awareness. One of the study conducted in Timure VDC of Rasuwa district shows that the past
temperature records revealed a clear warming trend. The maximum temperature shows rapid increase
(0.104C/year) than the minimum temperatures (0.06C/year) indicating a widening temperature range.
The analysis of precipitation data however did not show a clear trend on seasonal variation but the
amount of annual rainfall showed increasing trend. Many of the water springs even dont exist in the
present days due to the landslide. Despites of landslide, water springs like Brajo, Polangchet, Sherpa Kii
etc in Ramche, are still in good condition which meeting needs of local people.




C Ca as se e s st tu ud dy y 1 1: : B Bh hi im m B Ba ah ha ad du ur r L Lo op pc ch ha an n, , R Ra am mc ch he e
I I w wa as s b bo or rn n i in n R Ra as su uw wa a a an nd d I I h ha av ve e b be ee en n w wo or rk ki in ng g i in n t th he e f fi ie el ld d o of f c co on ns se er rv va at ti io on n
h he er re e i in n R Ra as su uw wa a s si in nc ce e l la as st t 2 20 0 y ye ea ar rs s. . T Th ha at t s s w wh hy y I I l lo ov ve e t to o c ca al ll l m my ys se el lf f a as s
c co on ns se er rv va at ti io on ni is st t a an nd d a al ls so o w wa an nt t o ot th he er rs s t to o c ca al ll l m me e s sa am me e. . I I h ha av ve e w wo or rk ke ed d i in n v va ar ri io ou us s
c co on ns se er rv va at ti io on n a ac ct ti iv vi it ti ie es s f fo or r W WW WF F N Ne ep pa al l a al ls so o. . R Ra as su uw wa a, , t th he e r re em mo ot te e d di is st tr ri ic ct t o of f
N Ne ep pa al l, , i is s n no ow w b be ei in ng g d de ev ve el lo op pe ed d s sl lo ow wl ly y. . D Dh hu un nc ch he e, , h he ea ad dq qu ua ar rt te er r o of f R Ra as su uw wa a, , a as s w we el ll l
a as s S Sa af fr ru ub be es si i, , L La ah ha ar re ep pa au uw wa a a an nd d o ot th he er r V VD DC C h ha ad d a al lr re ea ad dy y s st ta ar rt te ed d t ta as st ti in ng g
d de ev ve el lo op pm me en nt t p pr ra ac ct ti ic ce es s. . O On nl ly y, , R Ra am mc ch he e r re em ma ai in ne ed d u un nl lu uc ck ky y d du ue e t to o t th he e d de ea ad dl ly y
l la an nd ds sl li id de es s e ea ac ch h y ye ea ar r. .

T Ta al lk ki in ng g a ab bo ou ut t t th he e s st ta at tu us s o of f w wa at te er r s sp pr ri in ng gs s i in n t th he e R Ra am mc ch he e, , t th he e s sp pr ri in ng gs s h ha av ve e
b be ee en n d de eg gr ra ad di in ng g i in n t th he e l la as st t t tw wo o- -t th hr re ee e y ye ea ar rs s. . C Cl li im ma at te e c ch ha an ng ge e i is s t th he e p pr ro om mi in ne en nt t
c ca au us se e f fo or r t th he e d de eg gr ra ad da at ti io on n o of f t th he e w wa at te er r s sp pr ri in ng gs s a al lo on ng g w wi it th h o ot th he er r n nu um mb be er rs s o of f
f fa ac ct to or rs s l li ik ke e d de ef fo or re es st ta at ti io on n, , p ph hy ys si ic ca al l i in ns st ta ab bi il li it ty y, , a an nd d l la ac ck k o of f a aw wa ar re en ne es ss s. . T Th hi is s
m mi ig gh ht t b be e d du ue e t to o t th he e M Ma an ny y o of f t th he e w wa at te er r s sp pr ri in ng gs s e ev ve en n d do on n t t e ex xi is st t i in n t th he e p pr re es se en nt t
d da ay ys s d du ue e t to o t th he e l la an nd ds sl li id de e. . I I, , p pe er rs so on na al ll ly y f fe ee el l v ve er ry y b ba ad d a ab bo ou ut t t th he e d de eg gr ra ad di in ng g
c co on nd di it ti io on ns s o of f t th he e w wa at te er r s sp pr ri in ng gs s i in n R Ra am mc ch he e. . L La ac ck k o of f p pu ub bl li ic c a aw wa ar re en ne es ss s i is s a al ls so o
o on ne e o of f t th he e v vi it ta al l f fa ac ct to or rs s f fo or r t th he e d de eg gr ra ad da at ti io on n o of f w wa at te er r s sp pr ri in ng gs s i in n t th hi is s V VD DC C. . B Bu ut t
I I h ha av ve en n t t g gi iv ve en n u up p t ti il ll l d da at te e. . D De es sp pi it te es s o of f l la an nd ds sl li id de e, , w wa at te er r s sp pr ri in ng gs s l li ik ke e B Br ra aj jo o, ,
P Po ol la an ng gc ch he et t, , S Sh he er rp pa a K Ki ii i e et tc c i in n w wa ar rd d n no o. . 7 7 o of f R Ra am mc ch he e, , a ar re e s st ti il ll l i in n g go oo od d c co on nd di it ti io on n. .
P Pl la an nt ta at ti io on n a an nd d m ma ai in nt te en na an nc ce e a ac ct ti iv vi it ti ie es s a ar re e r re eg gu ul la ar r t to o p pr ro ot te ec ct t t th he es se e w wa at te er r
s sp pr ri in ng gs s. . F Fu ur rt th he er rm mo or re e, , t ta an nk k c co on ns st tr ru uc ct ti io on n a an nd d w wa at te er r p pi ip pe es s a ar re e n ne ee ed de ed d f fo or r t th he e
p pr ro op pe er r c co ol ll le ec ct ti io on n a an nd d d di is st tr ri ib bu ut ti io on n o of f w wa at te er r t to o c co on ns se er rv ve e t th he e s sp pr ri in ng g a an nd d
m mi in ni im mi iz ze e u un nn ne ec ce es ss sa ar ry y w wa as st ta ag ge e. . B Be es si id de es s, , t th he e l lo oc ca al l p pe eo op pl le e n ne ee ed d t th he e a aw wa ar re en ne es ss s
a an nd d s sk ki il ll l i in n c co om mb ba at ti in ng g c cl li im ma at te e c ch ha an ng ge e a an nd d c co on nt tr ri ib bu ut ti in ng g f fo or r t th he e c co on ns se er rv va at ti io on n o of f
t th he es se e w wa at te er r s sp pr ri in ng gs s. .

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Few years back, people of Betrawati and Kaideletar experiencing water scarcity. It took almost 2-3 hours
for local people to fetch a bulk of water. The main source of water in Betrawati and Kaidaletar is in
Pairobesi. Due to the heavy landslide, the water springs were totally disrupted. All the water supply
pipes were swallowed by the landslide. Similarly, about 15 households in the main bazaar of Betrawati
suffer from landslide which destroyed water supply from Simle khanepani.

Detail list of water springs and their existing status are presented in Annex 1.



Figure 2: Location of water springs (source)













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Case Study 2: Gopal Thapa Magar, LAHAREPAUWA

We have numbers of water springs; but unfortunately most of the water springs
are in way of degradation day by day. Even though many steps have been taken
to manage the water springs the volume of water has been declining
continuously. The climate change might be the vital cause for this degradation
of water springs. Many water tanks have also been constructed at several places
for proper collection and distribution of water through pipelines and taps. Canals
are also constructed in many places for irrigation purpose. Few stone spouts are
also present in this VDC. Currently, Five years plan of drinking water supply is
going on to stabilize the water springs in Pairobesi.

Few years back, there used to be the water scarcity problem, especially in
Betrawati and Kaidaletar. It took almost 2-3 hours for local people to fetch a
bulk of water. The main spring of water in Betrawati and Kaidaletar is in
Pairobesi. Due to the heavy landslide, the water spring was totally disrupted. All
the pipes (GI) were swallowed by the landslide. Similarly, about 15 households in
the main bazaar of Betrawati were supplied with water from Simle khanepani.
But the pipelines were destroyed by landslide there also. The local people
themselves collected money to buy pipelines.

Problem of drinking water is prominent in mountain region. Besides the impact of
climate change is more adverse in this region and other reasons like landslides,
flood, deforestation, increasing human population are the crucial factors to
deteriorate the water springs of drinking water. Hence the keen interest and
proper steps should be taken for proper maintenance and conservation of the
available water springs to get rid of shortage of drinking water in the future.
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5. CONCLUSION

Climate change could have significant impacts on water springs in the study sites because of the close
connections between the climate and hydrological cycle. Rising temperatures will increase evaporation
and lead to increases in precipitation, though there will be regional variations in rainfall. Both landslide
and droughts may become more frequent in different regions at different times, and dramatic changes
in snowfall and snow melt are expected in higher altitudes. Higher temperatures will also affect water
quality in ways that are not well understood. Possible impacts include increased water pollution. Climate
change could also mean an increase in demand for drinking water and farm irrigation.
Available water springs in the study sites providing water supply to the inhabitant but they have not
taken any consideration on water springs conservation. Water springs need proper maintenance and
conservation as the springs are shrinking day by day. Landslides, flood, deforestation, increasing human
population and changing climate are the major reason behind it. Climate change is expected to have
crucial impacts on freshwater water availability. In the scenario of climate change; available water
springs needs protection, maintenance and sustainable utilization. Besides, there is an urgent need to
aware public and to strengthen community skill in regard to the conservation practices of these water
springs.











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(eds.)], Cambridge University Press, 880 pp.
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Dokken and K.S. White (eds.)] Cambridge, 1031 pp..
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