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INTODUCTION

Climate change is a condition in which the earth's temperature is increasing due to natural
causes, such as deforestation and atmospheric emissions related to human activity. This
condition also caused by global warming that the initial sign are increasing the sea level, melting
of snow cover, ice sheets and rainfall. And then in regional patterns of climate marked by rising
air temperatures will affecting watersheds and ecosystems in many parts.
In 1979 The First Conference of the World Climate Change was begun to identify climate
change as an urgent world problem and issued a declaration calling on Governments to anticipate
and guard against potential climate hazards. The conference is held in every year to discuss the
issue of Climate change and Global warming, as shown in Figure 1. Till in 2006 reached a total
membership of 191 nations, 189 countries and Europe to join the community and Conventions
164 countries and Europe Community join the Kyoto Protocol.

Figure 1 History and Development of the Convention


Objectives and Principles of Convention
Convention has the main goal is to achieve stability of greenhouse gas concentrations in
the atmosphere to prevent climate system disturbance from human activity. As we know that the
earth climate system that influence by rising concentrations of greenhouse gases in the
atmosphere as a result of rising greenhouse gas emissions.

Figure 2 Projected effect of emissions on temperature and sea levels
Based on the above picture we can see projection of CO
2
emissions, temperatures and sea levels
will continue to rise if no appropriate action is taken, such as reducing or stabilizing the
concentration of greenhouse gases how the Earth's atmosphere. The Kyoto Protocol addresses
four important there is a gas and two groups of gases, they are:
Gases : Carbon dioxide (CO
2
), Methane (CH
4
), Nitrous Oxide (N
2
O) and Sulphur
Hexaflouride (SF
6
)
Group of gases : Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and Methane (CH4) Perfluorocarbons
(PFCs)
So, globally the long-term goal for stabilizing GHG concentrations in the atmosphere, along with
the reductions in emissions necessary to achieve this stabilization, has not yet been agreed upon.
The principle for the convention have to related with Principle of the Rio Declaration, like
example for Principle 12 of the Rio Declaration, states should corporate to promote a supportive
and open international economic system.

Institutional Arrangement-Who does what
Several institutions and bodies work within the framework of the convention, include:
1. The Conference of the Parties (COP)
The COP can defined as the supreme body of the Convention, its means that COP have
a highest decision to make an authority. The COP have a responsibility to reviewing the
implementation of the Convention and any related legal instruments, and also has to
make decision to promote the effective implementations.
2. COP President and Bureau
a. President
The President is usually the environmental ministry and elected by acclamation
immediately after the opening of a COP session. The authority for president is under
the COP and their role is to facilitate the work of the COP and promote agreements
among Parties.
b. Bureau
Bureau have to guided the work of COP and each subsidiary body. The COP Bureau
consist of 11 officers : The COP President, 7 Vice-President, 2 Subsidiary bodies and
Rapporteur.
3. Subsidiary Bodies (SBs)
There are two permanent subsidiary bodies (SBs) in the Convention, they are : Subsidiary
Body for Scientific and Technology Advice (SBSTA) and the other one is The Subsidiary
Body for Implementation (SBI).
4. The Secretariat
The secretariat have a job like give a provide service for the COP, the SBs, the Bureau
and other bodies established by the COP. Every two years, the Executive Secretary
purposes a program budget setting and funding needed.
5. Other bodies
This is have been set up by the COP to undertake a specific tasks.
6. Draft rules of procedure
The draft rules of procedure are generally followed for the COP sessions, for areas such
as voting, setting the date and place of the session, adopting the agenda and conducting
business. They are also used to regulate the role of the session president and other
officers, the secretariat, and observers.
7. Financial Rules : Budget and financing
Every two years, the Executive Secretary proposes a program budget to the SBI, setting
out the proposed activities and budget of the secretariat for the coming two years.

Parties, Group and Observer states-Who is who
The groups of Parties in the context of the Conventions refers to :
1. Groups of Parties under the Convention
The Convention divide the parties into two main, are: the first is parties listed in Annex I,
and the second is parties was not include in Annex I, but they known as non-Annex I.
2. Regional Groups
There are five regional group with commonly United Nations Practice, namely: Africa,
Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean states and Western
Europe and others.
3. Political Negotiating groups
For political negotiations groups, there is no formal process for establishing this group.
This group have a purpose like to exchange information, quite often, to share information
on common issues. The name of Political Negotiating Groups like Group of 77 and
China, European Union (EU), Environmental Integrity Group (EIG), etc.
Cooperation with UN bodies/agencies and Intergovernmental Organizations.
COP and SB corporate with the international organizations to promote the implementation of the
convention that is to protect the ozone layers and the biological diversity. The international
organizations and bodies who join are: the United Nations, the Intergovernmental panel on
climate change and other multilateral environmental agreements.
Observer Organizations and the media
Actually, observer have played a major role in organizing informal side-event and exhibitions.
And also the media have a great influence and important role to support the publication. As we
know the media have a potential to raise awareness and provide support to the response the
international community about climate change.
Multilateral Consultative Process
The goal of the multilateral consultative process is to resolve questions about the
implementation of the Convention. This goal can be reached by :
1. Advising Parties in implementing the convention
2. Promoting Understanding of the convention
3. Preventing disputes from arising
The conclusion and recommendations of committee should be sent to Parties, and the committee
also should convene at least one a year.
Settling Disputes
Solving disputes by negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement,
resort to regional agencies or arrangements, or other peaceful means in accordance with the
parties' own choice. The Convention requires that if the parties concerned are not able to resolve
the dispute by negotiation or other peaceful means for 12 months then the conciliation conducted
by a conciliation commission in accordance with the appointment by each party.
Amending the Convention
Convention should be amended by consensus, but there are special requirements that allow the
conversion of a convention to use majority vote if consensus is not possible to reach an
agreement. Before enactment, the amendment must be approved by third parties and apply
another 90 days after ratification.
Adopting, amending and receiving annexes
Additional annexes and amendments to annexes to the proposed and adopted in accordance with
the procedures for amending the convention and communicated to all parties after the adoption.
But in contrast to the amendment of the Convention, the new attachments and amendments
attachments do not need to be ratified, but the start is automatic, except in the case that parties
file a written objection. If the adoption of an annex or amendment to the annex occur as part of
an amendment to the Convention, attachment or attachments changes when these changes only
apply to the Convention applies.
Adopting Protocols
The Convention may be supplemented with protocols adopted by the COP at any ordinary
session but do not apply the rule voting to adopt the protocol. The protocol adopted must meet
the requirements that: the proposed text of the protocol shall be communicated to all parties at
least 6 months prior to the session, and the entry into force of the protocol specified by the
instrument.
Mitigating Climate change
Mitigation of climate change and its impacts is the main purpose of the convention. As I've
discussed before, a way to stabilize the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere is
the first is by limiting or, as NAMAs, reducing anthropogenic GHG emissions by sources and
the second by preserving or, as NAMAs, enhancing sinks and reservoirs of GHGs.
Terms and activities related to climate change mitigation in the process include:
1. Addresses commitments relevant to all Parties
2. addresses those that are relevant specifically to Annex I Parties
3. refers to activities by non-Annex I Parties in connection with their national
communications
4. Review from others areas of relevance for mitigating
Adapting the climate change
Adaptation is important in this case, because the world has experienced an average temperature
change, the shifting seasons and extreme weather. This will continue as the global climate
system has great inertia that causes the problem continues to occur.
Therefore, the provisions of the convention made and work related with adaptation to climate
change, among others:
a. Relevant Provisions of the Convention
In accordance with the main objective of this Convention is to stabilize greenhouse gas
concentrations and prevent anthropogenic interference. Convention to ensure that food
production is not threatened and to enable economic development continues because
these goals cannot be achieved in the near future for scientific ecosystems to adapt to
climate change.
b. Work Relates to adaptation under the Convention
Because at the beginning of the adaptation process was not given serious consideration,
then in the Delhi Ministerial Declaration On Climate Change And Sustainable
Development be obtained results that "adaptation to climate change impacts is a high
priority for all countries". Therefore it is necessary to focus activities for adaptation.
These activities include:
1. Collecting and analysis the information
2. facilitating support for capacity-building and enabling activities
3. developing mechanisms to disseminate information and increase public awareness
4. facilitating the exchange of information and sharing experiences and views among
Parties on practical ways of helping implement the Convention
5. cooperating with international and other United Nations organizations
6. implementing concrete adaptation actions