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Oxford University Press Espaa S.A.

, 2012
UNIT 3: CLIMATE AND LIVING THINGS
Oxford University Press Espaa S.A., 2012
UNIT 3 CLIMATE AND LIVING THINGS
1- THE ATMOSPHERE
2- WEATHER AND CLIMATE
3- THE ELEMENTS OF CLIMATE
4- THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT
5- ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA AND NATURAL HAZARDS

CONTENTS
Oxford University Press Espaa S.A., 2012
LESSON OBJECTIVES

1- Differentiate weather from climate
2- Distinguish the elements of climate and the factores which determined
them
3- Describe the main characteristics of the Earths different climates
4- Explain the interaction between climate, relief, water, soil, etc.
5- Draw and interpret maps, images, climate charts, etc
6- Identify the atmospheric phenomena which can cause natural disasters
and learn about their environmental and human consequences

THE ATMOSPHERE
DEFINITION:
-Layer of gases that surrounds the Earth and makes life possible on Earth
COMPOSITION:
-Mainly nitrogen and oxygen
STRUCTURE:
-Divided into layers (of different temperature, thickness, composition):
Troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere, exosphere

The atmospheric layers
Which layer contains ozone? What does ozone do?
EXOSPHERE
Altitude: 500 km
THERMOSPHERE
Altitude: 80-500 km
MESOSPHERE
Altitude: 50- 80 km
STRATOSPHERE
Altitude: 10-50 km
TROPOSPHERE
Altitude: less than
10 km
WEATHER AND CLIMATE
WEATHER: Atmospheric conditions at a certain place and time
CLIMATE: Average atmospheric conditions in a certain region over a long period of time
CLIMATOLOGY: the science of climate, climatic elements and factors that affect it
METEOROLOGY: the study of atmospheric phenomena

ELEMENTS OF CLIMATE AND FACTORS THAT AFFECT THEM

ELEMENTS OF CLIMATE:



FACTORS THAT AFFECT CLIMATE




TEMPERATURE
PRECIPITATION
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
WIND
Latitude: T decreases towards poles
Altitude: T decreases with altitude (6/1000 m)
Proximity to the sea: T are milder in coastal areas
Ocean current: cold/warm currents produce
lower/higher temperatures
THE ELEMENTS OF CLIMATE
TEMPERATURE: Amount of heat in the air (degrees centigrade C)
Factors that affect temperature


Climate zones: Tropical (between 0 and 30 latitude north and south)
Temperate (between 30 and 60 latitude north and south)
Polar (between 60 and 90 latitude north and south)
PRECIPITATION: Water from the atmosphere that falls onto the Earths surface (rain, snow,
sleet, hail)
Humidity: amount of water in the air
Condensation: when the air goes up, it cools and forms droplets of water which form clouds
Rain gauge/pluviometer
Precipitation depends on altitude, latitude and proximity to the sea
Types of rain

Latitude: T decreases towards poles
Altitude: T decreases with altitude (6/1000 m)
Proximity to the sea: T are milder in coastal areas
Ocean current: cold/warm currents produce
lower/higher temperatures
Precipitation
Name the different types of rain and say where they are most frequent
THE ELEMENTS OF CLIMATE
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE: Pressure of the atmospheres weight on the Earths surface
Measured with a barometer (mbar): 1013 mbar (normal pressure at sea level)
Isobars: lines that show atmospheric pressure on a map
High pressure areas/anticyclones cause:
- Stable weather conditions, no precipitation
Low pressure areas/depressions cause:
- Unstable weather conditions, clouds and precipitation

Atmospheric pressure
What are the lines on the map called and what do they represent?
Which areas of the map are experiencing a lot of cloud and precipitation?
THE ELEMENTS OF CLIMATE

WIND: Air moving from areas of high pressure to areas of low pressure to balance differences
in atmospheric pressure across the planet
We measure wind speed with an anemometer and wind direction with
a weather vane
Winds are named after the direction they come from
Types of wind: some change with the seasons, others daily and some always blow in the same
direction
Wind
Locate the anticyclone and the depression in the diagram.
Which produces wind and which attracts wind?
The monsoon
Why does the summer monsoon produce a lot of rain?
What weather conditions characterise the winter monsoon?
THE EARTHS CLIMATES
TROPICAL OR HOT CLIMATES




COLD CLIMATES



TEMPERATE CLIMATES



EQUATORIAL/TROPICAL WET
HUMID TROPICAL/TROPICAL WET-DRY
DRY TROPICAL/SEMIARID
HOT DESERT/ARID
POLAR/SUBARTIC + TUNDRA
ALPINE/HIGHLAND
MEDITERRANEAN
HUMID SUB-TROPICAL
MARITIME/MARINE WEST COAST
CONTINENTAL/HUMID CONTINENTAL
The Earths climates
Which areas of the map have high temperatures all year and little rain?
GROUP ACTIVITY
1) In groups of 3, search for more information about the different climates on page 42 by
clicking on the links below:
https://sites.google.com/site/climatetypes/highland

2) Prepare a PowerPoint presentation of about 5' which deals with the following topics:
1) Where is this climate located?
2) What seasons does it have?
3) What are the temperatures like?
4) How much precipitation does it receive?
5) What kind of vegetation (plants) does it have? (include pictures)
6) What kinds of animals live there? (include pictures)


THE EARTHS CLIMATES
WIND (HURRICANES, CYCLONES, TYPHOONS)
HAIL
TORRENTIAL RAIN
DROUGHT
HIGH TEMPERATURES (RISK OF FIRE

ATMOSPHERIC PHENOMENA AND NATURAL
HAZARDS
Atmospheric phenomena and natural hazards
What can you see in the image? What impact does it have?
What causes this phenomenon?