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A ConcepLual lramework for

ueslgnlng Wearable 1echnology











!eremlah nugroho
S.1., M. ues. Scl.

A Lhesls submlLLed ln fulfllmenL of Lhe requlremenLs for Lhe degree of
uocLor of hllosophy

laculLy of ueslgn, ArchlLecLure & 8ulldlng
2013




CLk1IIICA1L CI CkIGINAL AU1nCkSnI

l cerLlfy LhaL Lhe work ln Lhls Lhesls has noL prevlously been submlLLed for a degree
nor has lL been submlLLed as parL of requlremenLs for a degree excepL as fully
acknowledged wlLhln Lhe LexL.
l also cerLlfy LhaL Lhe Lhesls has been wrlLLen by me. Any help LhaL l have recelved
ln my research work and Lhe preparaLlon of Lhe Lhesls lLself has been acknowledged. ln
addlLlon, l cerLlfy LhaL all lnformaLlon sources and llLeraLure used are lndlcaLed ln Lhe
Lhesls and daLa collecLlon ln Lhls Lhesls was approved by u1S Puman 8esearch LLhlcs
CommlLLee (u1S P8LC reference number: 2012-267A).





!eremlah nugroho
23 March 2013













ACkNCWLLDGLMLN1S
llrsL and foremosL, l would llke Lo express my hlghesL graLlLude Lo Cod AlmlghLy for
always guldlng me Lhrough Lhe [ourney. l would llke Lo Lhank Lhe followlng lndlvlduals who
has klndly helped me ln flnlshlng Lhls Lhesls:
My supervlsor: rofessor klrsLy 8ellharz for provldlng me wlLh consLanL guldance ln
conducLlng Lhls research. Per lnslghLful and experL advlce has been mosL
subsLanLlal ln compleLlng Lhls Lhesls.
My graLlLude exLends Lo ur. Sam lerguson for belng a greaL menLor ln
undersLandlng Lechnologlcal lssues, and 1odd 8oblnson for hls klnd asslsLance of
flndlng research parLlclpanLs, and Lo fellow hu researchers wlLhln Lhe uA8 faculLy
aL u1S for Lhelr genulne supporL.
My research parLlclpanLs for generously provldlng Llme Lo parLlclpaLe ln Lhls
research. 1hls Lhesls would noL be flnlshed wlLhouL your klnd conLrlbuLlons.
1he admlnlsLraLlve sLaff of Lhe ueslgn, ArchlLecLure and 8ulldlng laculLy, unlverslLy
CraduaLe School, and lnLernaLlonal Cfflce sLaff of Lhe unlverslLy of 1echnology
Sydney for belng very helpful and aLLenLlve.
1he lnformal and lndlspensable supporL from Lhe followlng lndlvlduals: 8alnda
8achmawyna kaLlll, Cracla AgaLha and uewl 1aharuddln and frlends whom l have
worked wlLh aL Alpha60, Saxony and 8lpples for supporLlng me Lhrough flexlblllLy
and undersLandlng.
LasL buL noL leasL, Lo my famlly: Samuel nugroho and Cracla Anggraenl nugroho-
my slbllngs and also Lhe resL of my exLended famlly for bellevlng ln me. My parenLs:
Cornellus Perman nugroho and Slannl karLlka, who have been a consLanL source of
supporL - emoLlonal, moral and of course flnanclal Lhrough my years of sLudles. lL ls
Lhanks Lo my parenLs for Leachlng me LhaL knowledge ls lnflnlLe, consLanLly slnce l was
young and Lherefore Lhls Lhesls ls dedlcaLed Lo Lhem.
!eremlah nugroho
23 March 2013



.tbe Jeslqoets tosk ls to ptoJoce tbe solotloo. (ctoss 2006, p. 7)

1hls Lhesls ls Lhe resulL of an almosL 4 year perlod of research wlLhln Lhe laculLy of
ueslgn, ArchlLecLure and 8ulldlng aL Lhe unlverslLy of 1echnology Sydney (u1S) where l
was glven Lhe opporLunlLy Lo grow as an academlc researcher. 1he research dlscussed ln
Lhls Lhesls ls wlLhln Lhe fleld of wearable Lechnology by looklng lnLo lLs deslgn process.
ln Lhe perlod beLween 2007-2008, l became deeply lnLeresLed by Lhe world of
dlglLal medla whlle sLudylng Lo compleLe my MasLer's degree aL Lhe unlverslLy of Sydney.
A parLlcular course named ulglLal CulLure was a plvoLal sub[ecL as l experlenced an
eplphany of how dlglLal Lechnology has advanced, Lransformed and lnfluenced our
quoLldlan llfe. 1he dlscourse on pervaslve and ublqulLous dlglLal medla pulled my lnLeresL
Lowards Lhe sLudy of Cyborglsm, where l encounLered Lhe posslble physlcal represenLaLlon
of Lhe fuLure.
A small pro[ecL ln mld 2008 produced a plloL sLudy on a performance plece LlLled
wlteless Comeloo, whlch became parL of Lhe flnal research reporL ln flnlshlng my masLer's
degree. 1hls pro[ecL was Lhe beglnnlng of my personal academlc lnqulry lnLo Lhe fuslon
beLween human and Lechnology. lnlLlally, l Lended Lo value Lhe exLremlLy of embodylng
Lechnology, Lhus physlcally represenLlng Lhe Lerm cyborg. Puman skln became a llmlLlng
boundary, whlch needed Lo be blurred (or permeaLed) as Lo efflclenLly Lransform oneself
lnLo a cyborg.
When Lhls research pro[ecL began, l explored llLeraLure and exlsLlng bodles of
works closely relaLed Lo Cyborglsm, whlch led me Lo Lhe lnqulry: raLher Lhan peneLraLlng
Lhe skln, why noL embrace Lhe skln as parL of Lhe lnLegraLlon beLween man and
Lechnology. 1hls reallzaLlon has exLended Lo Lhe polnL where l can clearly undersLand LhaL
lnLegraLlon does noL necessarlly mean embodlmenL. Pow do you achleve lnLegraLlon
beLween man and machlne? 1he answer posslbly lles ln undersLandlng Lhe deslgn process
of wearable Lechnology, explored ln Lhls Lhesls.

1A8LL CI CCN1LN1S

CerLlflcaLe of Crlglnal AuLhorshlp ....................................................................................... ll
AcknowledgmenLs ............................................................................................................. lll
reface ............................................................................................................................... lv
1able of ConLenLs ................................................................................................................ v
LlsL of llgures ..................................................................................................................... lx
LlsL of 1ables ....................................................................................................................... x
AbsLracL ........................................................................................................................... xlv


1. IN1kCDUC1ICN ................................................................................... 1
1.1. MoLlvaLlon ................................................................................................................... 1
1.2. Cvervlew ...................................................................................................................... 4
1.3. 1hesls SLrucLure ........................................................................................................... 4

2. LI1LkA1UkL kLVILW ............................................................................ 6
2.1. Wearable 1echnology ln CompuLlng ............................................................................ 7
2.2. Wearable 1echnology ln lashlon ............................................................................... 12
2.3. Wearable 1echnology ln ArL ...................................................................................... 16
2.4. Wearable 1echnology ln Lhe ulscourse of CyberneLlcs ............................................. 22
2.3. Wearable 1echnology ln opular CulLure .................................................................. 27
2.6. AesLheLlc Sub[ecLlvlLy vs. Wearable 1echnology ueslgn ............................................ 28
2.7. ArL + lashlon + CompuLlng=Wearable 1echnology? .................................................. 32
2.8. LxlsLlng 1heorles ln ueslgnlng Wearable 1echnology ................................................ 33

3. DLSIGN A11I8U1LS CI WLAkA8LL 1LCnNCLCG .............................. 39

3.1. ueslgn ALLrlbuLes of Wearable 1echnology ............................................................... 40
3.1.1. Slze/ulmenslons .......................................................................................... 40
3.1.2. uevlce oslLlons .......................................................................................... 40
3.1.3. ower Source .............................................................................................. 40
3.1.4. PeaL ............................................................................................................. 41
3.1.3. WelghL ......................................................................................................... 41
3.1.6. uurablllLy/8eslsLance .................................................................................. 41
3.1.7. WashablllLy .................................................................................................. 42
3.1.8. Lnveloplng/labrlcaLlon ............................................................................... 42
3.1.9. luncLlonallLy ................................................................................................ 42
3.1.10. usablllLy ..................................................................................................... 43
3.1.11. SensaLlon ................................................................................................... 43
3.1.12. ConnecLlvlLy ............................................................................................... 44
3.2. lnLerrelaLlonshlps and Cverlaps ........................................................................... 43

4. INI1IAL CASL S1UDILS ........................................................................ 48
4.1. Case SLudy on ersonal pro[ecLs ........................................................................... 48
4.1.1. Case SLudy 1: 8lomuse erformaLlve SonlflcaLlon ...................................... 48
4.1.1.1. Case SLudy 1 Analysls ........................................................................ 30
4.1.2. Case SLudy 2: CS uaLa Logger .................................................................... 32
4.1.2.1. Case SLudy 2 Analysls ........................................................................ 34
4.2. Case SLudy Concluslon .......................................................................................... 33

S. CSI1ICNING WLAkA8LL 1LCnNCLCG DLSIGNLkS AND 1nL
nLNCMLNCLCGICAL AkCACn ..................................................... S7
3.1. henomenologlcal Approach ................................................................................ 60
3.2. 8esearch SLraLegy lnvolvlng arLlclpanLs .............................................................. 61


6. WnA1 IS DLSIGNING WLAkA8LL 1LCnNCLCG LIkL? ........................ 66
6.1. arLlclpanL 1 ......................................................................................................... 66
6.1.1. unlLs of relevanL meanlngs ......................................................................... 71
6.1.2. lnLervlew 1: relevanL meanlngs ln relaLlon Lo Lhe maln research quesLlons ..
..................................................................................................................... 88
6.2. arLlclpanL 2 ......................................................................................................... 90
6.2.1. unlLs of relevanL meanlngs ......................................................................... 92
6.2.2. lnLervlew 2: relevanL meanlngs ln relaLlon Lo Lhe maln research quesLlons ..
................................................................................................................... 107
6.3. arLlclpanL 3 ....................................................................................................... 109
6.3.1. unlLs of relevanL meanlngs ....................................................................... 111
6.3.2. lnLervlew 3: relevanL meanlngs ln relaLlon Lo Lhe maln research quesLlons ..
................................................................................................................... 126

7. DISCUSSICN AkISING IkCM kLSLAkCn IINDINGS ............................ 129
7.1. AesLheLlcs, vlsual aspecLs and people's reacLlon ............................................... 132
7.2. ueslgn process, background research and Llme consLralnLs .............................. 134
7.3. 1echnologlcal lssues or lack of prevlous Lralnlng and deslgnlng as a group ....... 133
7.4. ueslgn characLerlsLlcs of Wearable 1echnology and emerglng deslgn aLLrlbuLes of
Wearable 1echnology ........................................................................................ 137

8. CCNCLUSICN .................................................................................... 142
8.1. SlgnlflcanL ConLrlbuLlons of Lhls 8esearch .......................................................... 142
8.1.1. Wearable 1echnology as a MulLl ulsclpllnary lleld ................................... 142
8.1.2. Wearable 1echnology ueslgn ALLrlbuLes ................................................... 142
8.1.3. Wearable 1echnology ueslgn rocess ....................................................... 143
8.2. luLure 8esearch osslblllLles .............................................................................. 144


ALNDICLS .......................................................................................... 147
ALnulx A: 8esearch arLlclpanLs lnLervlew 1ranscrlpLs. ................................ 147
ALnulx 8: ulagram Showlng lnLerrelaLlonshlps And Cverlaps WlLhln ueslgn
ALLrlbuLes Cf Wearable 1echnology .............................................. 164
ALnulx C: Clossary .......................................................................................... 163
ALnulx u: Conference apers ......................................................................... 167

8I8LICGkAn ...................................................................................... 179


























LIS1 CI IIGUkLS


I|gure 1. 1he amblenL Lelepresence wearable compuLer proLoLype
(urugge eL al. 2004) ......................................................................................... 8
I|gure 2. Z?Au WL1000 WrlsL Worn ersonal CompuLer (arvus n. d.) ....................... 9
I|gure 3. vesL wlLh embedded compuLer for alrcrafL malnLenance personnel
(nlcolal eL al. 2006) ........................................................................................ 10
I|gure 4. lashlonable Wearables 8ange ln Levels of Lxpresslveness versus
luncLlonallLy (Seymour 2008) ........................................................................ 12
I|gure S. ?lng Cao's wolkloq clty (2007) ...................................................................... 13
I|gure 6. Pusseln Chalayan's shape-changlng dress from hls AuLumn/WlnLer 2007
collecLlon (Chalayan 2007) ............................................................................ 14
I|gure 7. 1be M-utess by CuLe ClrculL (2011) ............................................................... 13
I|gure 8. kerrl Wallace' Motloo kespoose 5pottsweot (Pennl 2008) ........................... 13
I|gure 9. !oo ?oun aek's 5elf-5ostolooble cbolt (2006) .............................................. 18
I|gure 10. My 1toosets (Ashuach 2003) ......................................................................... 18
I|gure 11. 1be blpulskettes (Wllde 2008) ....................................................................... 19
I|gure 12. lmogen Peap aL Lhe Crammy Awards 2010 and Lhe LLu collar of Lhe
1wlLLer dress (uybwad 2010) ......................................................................... 44
I|gure 13. MaLrlx dlagram dlsplaylng Lhe relaLlonshlp beLween deslgn conslderaLlons for
lashlonable 1echnology and deslgn aLLrlbuLes of Wearable 1echnology ..... 43
I|gure 14. ulagram showlng lnLerrelaLlonshlps and overlaps wlLhln deslgn aLLrlbuLes
of Wearable 1echnology ................................................................................ 46
I|gure 1S. 8lomuse erformaLlve SonlflcaLlon ............................................................... 49
I|gure 16. CS logger ...................................................................................................... 33
I|gure 17. 8esearch SLraLegy ulagram ............................................................................ 62
I|gure 18. lLeraLlve use of deslgn aLLrlbuLes ln Wearable 1echnology deslgn .............. 139


LIS1 CI 1A8LLS

1ab|e 1. lnpuLs and CuLpuLs 1ypes of lashlonable Wearables (Seymour 2008) .......... 34
1ab|e 2. Culdellne for Lhe ConsLrucLlon of lashlonable Wearables (Seymour 2008) .......
......................................................................................................................... 33
1ab|e 3. LlsL of quesLlons for seml-sLrucLured lnLervlews wlLh expecLed ouLcomes ........
......................................................................................................................... 63
1ab|e 4. rompLs LhaL were used ln order Lo ellclL more feedback durlng lnLervlew .......
......................................................................................................................... 64
1ab|e S. lleld noLes MeLhod ......................................................................................... 64
1ab|e 6. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 1: CuesLlon 1, 1a and 1b ............. 71
1ab|e 7. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 1: CuesLlon 1, 1a and 1b ........... 72
1ab|e 8. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 1: CuesLlon 2 and 3 ..................... 73
1ab|e 9. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 1: CuesLlon 4, 4a and 4b ............. 73
1ab|e 10. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 1: CuesLlon 4, 4a and 4b ........ 73-74
1ab|e 11. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 1: CuesLlon 4, 4a and 4b ...... 74-73
1ab|e 12. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 1: CuesLlon 3, 3a and 3b ........ 73-76
1ab|e 13. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 1: CuesLlon 3, 3a and 3b ........... 76
1ab|e 14. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 1: CuesLlon 6 and 6a ................... 77
1ab|e 1S. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 1: CuesLlon 6 and 6a ................. 78
1ab|e 16. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 1: CuesLlon 7 and 7a ................... 78
1ab|e 17. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 1: CuesLlon 7 and 7a ................. 79
1ab|e 18. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 1: CuesLlon 8 .............................. 79
1ab|e 19. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 1: CuesLlon 8 ............................. 79
1ab|e 20. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 1: CuesLlon 9, 9a and 9b ............. 80
1ab|e 21. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 1: CuesLlon 9, 9a and 9b ........... 81
1ab|e 22. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 1: CuesLlon 10 ............................ 81
1ab|e 23. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 1: CuesLlon 10 ........................... 82

1ab|e 24. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 1: CuesLlon 11, 11a, 11b and 11c
.................................................................................................................... 82-84
1ab|e 2S. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 1: CuesLlon 11, 11a, 11b and 11c
.................................................................................................................... 83-86
1ab|e 26. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 1: CuesLlon 12 and 12a ............... 83
1ab|e 27. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 1: CuesLlon 12 and 12a ............. 83
1ab|e 28. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 1: CuesLlon 13 and 13a ............... 86
1ab|e 29. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 1: CuesLlon 13 and 13a ............. 86
1ab|e 30. ClusLers of relevanL meanlngs from lnLervlew 1 ............................................. 87
1ab|e 31. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 2: CuesLlon 1 and 1a .............. 92-93
1ab|e 32. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 2: CuesLlon 1 and 1a ................. 93
1ab|e 33. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 2: CuesLlon 2 and 3 ..................... 94
1ab|e 34. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 2: CuesLlon 2 and 3 ................... 94
1ab|e 3S. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 2: CuesLlon 4 and 4a .............. 94-93
1ab|e 36. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 2: CuesLlon 4 and 4a ................. 93
1ab|e 37. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 2: CuesLlon 3 ......................... 96-97
1ab|e 38. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 2: CuesLlon 3 ............................. 97
1ab|e 39. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 2: CuesLlon 6 ......................... 97-98
1ab|e 40. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 2: CuesLlon 6 ............................. 98
1ab|e 41. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 2: CuesLlon 7 and 7a ................... 99
1ab|e 42. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 2: CuesLlon 7 and 7a ................. 99
1ab|e 43. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 2: CuesLlon 8 ............................ 100
1ab|e 44. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 2: CuesLlon 8 ........................... 100
1ab|e 4S. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 2: CuesLlon 9 ............................ 101
1ab|e 46. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 2: CuesLlon 9 ........................... 101
1ab|e 47. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 2: CuesLlon 10 .......................... 102
1ab|e 48. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 2: CuesLlon 10 ......................... 103
1ab|e 49. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 2: CuesLlon 11 ................... 103-104

1ab|e S0. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 2: CuesLlon 11 ......................... 104
1ab|e S1. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 2: CuesLlon 12 and 12a ...... 104-103
1ab|e S2. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 2: CuesLlon 12 and 12a ........... 106
1ab|e S3. ClusLers of non-redundanL unlLs of relevanL meanlngs from Lhe lnLervlew wlLh
parLlclpanL 2 ........................................................................................... 106-107
1ab|e S4. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 3: CuesLlon 1 and 1a ................. 111
1ab|e SS. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 3: CuesLlon 1 and 1a ............... 112
1ab|e S6. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 3: CuesLlon 2, 3 and 3a ............. 112
1ab|e S7. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 3: CuesLlon 2, 3 and 3a ..... 112-113
1ab|e S8. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 3: CuesLlon 4, 4a-4f ........... 113-114
1ab|e S9. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 3: CuesLlon 4, 4a-4f ................. 114
1ab|e 60. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 3: CuesLlon 3 ............................ 114
1ab|e 61. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 3: CuesLlon 3 ........................... 113
1ab|e 62. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 3: CuesLlon 6, 6a-6c .................. 113
1ab|e 63. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 3: CuesLlon 6, 6a-6c ................ 116
1ab|e 64. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 3: CuesLlon 7 and 7a ................. 116
1ab|e 6S. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 3: CuesLlon 7 and 7a ............... 117
1ab|e 66. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 3: CuesLlon 8, 8a and 8b .... 117-118
1ab|e 67. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 3: CuesLlon 8, 8a and 8b ......... 118
1ab|e 68. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 3: CuesLlon 9 and 9a .......... 118-119
1ab|e 69. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 3: CuesLlon 9 and 9a ............... 119
1ab|e 70. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 3: CuesLlon 10 and 10a .... 119-120
1ab|e 71. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 3: CuesLlon 10 and 10a ........... 120
1ab|e 72. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 3: CuesLlon 11, 11a-11e ... 120-121
1ab|e 73. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 3: CuesLlon 11, 11a-11e ... 121-122
1ab|e 74. unlLs of general meanlng from arLlclpanL 3: CuesLlon 12, 12a and 12b ..... 122
1ab|e 7S. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 3: CuesLlon 12, 12a and 12b ... 123
1ab|e 76. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 3: CuesLlon 13 and 13a .... 123-124

1ab|e 77. unlLs of relevanL meanlng from arLlclpanL 3: CuesLlon 13 and 13a ........... 124
1ab|e 78. ClusLers of non-redundanL unlLs of relevanL meanlng from Lhe lnLervlew wlLh
parLlclpanL 3 ........................................................................................... 123-126
1ab|e 79. ClusLers of relevanL meanlngs from lnLervlew 1, 2 and 3 ............................. 131
1ab|e 80. Comparlson beLween deslgn aLLrlbuLes of Wearable 1echnology proposed ln
Lhls research and deslgn aLLrlbuLes of Wearable 1echnology ralsed by Lhe
parLlclpanLs durlng lnLervlews ...................................................................... 138



revlous sLudles showlng Lhe shorLfalls of Wearable 1echnology demonsLraLe
Lhe lack of aLLenLlon Lo aesLheLlcs and Lhe absence of an approach LhaL poslLlons Lhe
user lmporLanLly ln Lhe deslgn process (Co 2000, CrLh 2001, 8oehner eL al 2003, uunne
eL al 2003, WalLler 2003, vlseu 2003). 1hls Lhesls aLLempLs Lo Lackle Lhls problem by
undersLandlng Lhe deslgn process ln Wearable 1echnology. lL explores Lhe fleld of deslgn
Lhlnklng from Lhe deslgner's perspecLlve speclflcally ln Wearable 1echnology, where
lnLerdlsclpllnary dlscourse lnLegraLlng fashlon, human-compuLer lnLeracLlon, flne arLs
and Lhe dlglLal medla culLure merge and are lnLerLwlned.
LxlsLlng and relaLed deslgn Lheorles of Wearable 1echnology have allowed
exLracLlon of deslgn aLLrlbuLes of Wearable 1echnology LhaL ls hollsLlc and flexlble. 1hese
deslgn aLLrlbuLes were Lhen reflecLed on ln seml-sLrucLured lnLervlews lnvolvlng
deslgners who have experlenced deslgnlng Wearable 1echnology. 1he resulLlng
phenomenologlcal analyses from Lhe LranscrlpLs were Lhen compared Lo Lhe offered
deslgn aLLrlbuLes Lo furLher undersLand how Lhese deslgn aLLrlbuLes behave ln Lhe deslgn
process of Wearable 1echnology.
1he research flndlngs ln Lhls Lhesls offer a new concepLuallzaLlon sLraLegy for
Wearable 1echnology deslgners LhaL lncludes a seL of deslgn aLLrlbuLes and Lhelr
characLerlsLlcs ln deslgn process whlch are beneflclal ln undersLandlng Lhe deslgn
process lLself. 1hls concepLuallzaLlon sLraLegy and lLs appllcaLlon Lo Wearable 1echnology
deslgn render Lhe posslblllLy for deslgners Lo undersLand Lhe user progresslvely durlng
Lhe deslgn process.



CPA1L8 1: ln18CuuC1lCn
1
CnA1Lk 1
IN1kCDUC1ICN

1.1. Mot|vat|on
Lveryday we make rouLlne declslons, wheLher consclously or noL ln bulldlng a
cerLaln 'look' (or lmage or appearance) Lhrough our cloLhes. lashlon
1
as a form of self-
expresslon embodles ouLward pro[ecLlon, reflecLlng an lndlvldual's personallLy (Mura 2004).
Marshall McLuhan polnLs ouL Lhe power of cloLhlng as a medlum LhaL carrles anoLher
medlum wlLhln (1994). lL can demonsLraLe poLenLlal prowess ln ldenLlfylng wlLh cerLaln
culLural movemenLs, or dlfferenLlaLlng soclo-economlc sLaLus, or slmply for expresslng
sub[ecLlve preference (8erzowska 2003). lL becomes a slgnlflcanL parL of Lhe body whlch we
consLrucL dally as a personal ldenLlLy sysLem. Moreover, when we hear Lhe word 'fashlon',
whaL ofLen comes Lo mlnd ls Lhe ldea of garmenLs, LexLlles, and Lrends. lf fashlon ls a form
of arLlsLlc expresslon Lhen lLs lnLerpreLaLlon musL rely ln some way on a relaLlonshlp Lo
beauLy and aesLheLlcs raLher Lhan (mere) funcLlonallLy.
1he lnLegraLlon and vasL developmenL of Lechnology ln any lndusLry ls also seen
Lhrough lLs adopLlon ln mulLlple aspecLs of our everyday llve, such as moblle phones, soclal
medla, compuLers, and of course ln fashlon. Advanced machlnery LhaL allows lnLrlcaLe
garmenL consLrucLlon and Lhe vasL array of hlgh Lech maLerlals LhaL become more adepLly
lnLegraLed and vlslble ln our llves. 1ransformaLlve maLerlal processes have rapldly evolved
ln Lhe pasL Lwo decades, resulLlng ln Lhe developmenL of advanced LexLlles, whlch have
permeaLed all levels of Lhe garmenL lndusLry lncludlng mass produced fasL fashlon for Lhe
hlgh sLreeL, everyday and exLreme sporLs wear Lo couLure. Powever, Lhe fashlon world has
been raLher relucLanL Lo lnclude Lechnologlcal and compuLaLlonal elemenLs as parL of lLs
aesLheLlcs. lLs evldence ls mosLly only seen Lhrough garmenLs or maLerlals as wlLness Lo

1
1he declslon Lo use Lhe Lerm fashlon raLher Lhan 'garmenL' and 'cloLhlng ' ls llnked Lo lLs hlsLory: lL
has always Laken advanLage of LexLlle Lechnology ln lLs developmenL process from prlmlLlve cosLume
lnLo more complex cosLumes, and laLer on gave blrLh Lo Lhe fleld of fashlon (koda, as clLed ln
8erzowska and Coelho, n. d.). lL ls also llnked Lo lLs senslLlvlLy Lo Lhe currenL happensLances, whlch
efflclenLly re[ecLs Lhe lmmedlaLe pasL (Peller 2010). 1hus, Lhe chooslng of Lhe Lerm fashlon ls also due
Lo one of lLs maln characLerlsLlcs: responslve Lo Lhe recenL Lrend.

CPA1L8 1: ln18CuuC1lCn
2
hlghly Lechnologlcal LreaLmenL. 1hls ls perhaps due Lo Lhe lack of knowledge and research
lnvolvlng posslble new Lechnologles LhaL can be embodled lnLo whaL we wear. 1here ls also
a schlsm beLween Lhe deslgned garmenL or whole form and maLerlals LhaL comprlse lL.
Sablne Seymour, when lnLroduclng Lhe Lerm 'lashlonable 1echnology' avolds menLlonlng
LexLlle as an auLhorlLaLlve componenL, buL raLher deflnlng lL as Lhe 'lotetsectloo of Jeslqo,
fosbloo, scleoce ooJ tecbooloqy' (2009, p. 12). She admlLs Lhe lnfluence of enhanced
LexLlles and maLerlals, along wlLh oLher componenLs (e.g. compuLlng) have conLrlbuLed Lo
Lhe developmenL of wearable Lechnology (Seymour 2009). 1hls ls furLher supporLed by Lhe
work seen ln 8erzowska's xS Labs
2
, whlch focuses on Lhe lnnovaLlon of elecLronlc LexLlles
and reacLlve garmenL by quesLlonlng whaL Lype of lnformaLlon processlng can be pro[ecLed
Lhrough Lhe ldea of wearlng someLhlng on our bodles.
Screen-based deskLop compuLers have Lransformed lnLo moblle and perlpheral
elecLronlc gadgeLry, such as moblle/smarL phones, M3 players, game consoles and uAs.
AddlLlonally, wlLh Lhe evolvemenL of Lechnology and lLs mlnlaLurlzaLlon, Lhe only
dlfferences beLween Lhese devlces and Lhelr larger deskbound counLerparLs, are Lhe
lnLerface and Lhe appllcaLlon sofLware (SLarner 2001) (as well as moblllLy/porLablllLy). Cnly
very recenLly, Lhese developmenLs have affecLed how elecLronlc Lechnology ls used Lo
advance human ablllLles, Lhus shlfLlng us from uslng Lo wearlng Lhe Lechnologles. ln
example, a pro[ecL from Pexagram named Wearable Absence, uLlllzes a uA or a smarL
phone, whlch ls connecLed Lo Lhe lnLerneL and carrled around by Lhe user ln Lhe garmenLs'
pockeL. 1he devlce ls also connecLed Lo Lhe embedded sensors ln Lhe garmenL vla
8lueLooLh, LransmlLLlng readlngs from four dlfferenL sensors: hearL raLe, LemperaLure, raLe
of resplraLlon and galvanlc skln response (molsLure). 1hese readlngs reflecL Lhe emoLlonal
sLaLe of Lhe wearer, Lhus Lrlggerlng mulLlmedla flles from a daLabase LhaL are pre-uploaded
by Lhe user. vlsual response from Lhe devlce ls Lhen vlewed on Lhe uA devlce / smarL
phone carrled ln Lhe pockeL, whlle audlo response ls played vla embedded headphones ln
Lhe garmenL (!efferles 2012). AnoLher example LhaL leans Lo LexLlle Lechnology was
feaLured ln Sclence ually (2012), coverlng Lhe developmenL of coLLon fabrlc LhaL has been

hLLp://www.xslabs.neL/Lheory.hLml, n. d. (accessed 10 !anuary 2014)


CPA1L8 1: ln18CuuC1lCn
3
carbon acLlvaLed and coaLed wlLh nano-sLrucLured manganese oxlde, enabllng energy
sLorage for powerlng elecLronlc gadgeLs.
3

1he currenL advancemenLs menLloned prevlously, glve evldence Lo Lhe currenL Lrend
of an lnLerdlsclpllnary approach ln Lechnology: Lhe synLhesls of LexLlle (sofL maLerlal) and
elecLronlc devlces (hardware/compuLlng) Lo a more seamless lnLegraLlon beLween Lhe Lwo
(e.g. Lhrough chemlcal processlng). PerberL 8lumer ln losbloo. ctltlcol ooJ ltlmoty 5ootces
volome 4, tbe 1weotletb ceototy to 1oJoy (ed. eLer Mcnell 2009) wroLe LhaL new fashlons
are lnfluenced by Lhelr lmmedlaLe predecessors, Lhus creaLlng a llne of conLlnulLy, whlch ls
ofLen cusLomarlly recognlsed as fashlon Lrends. lLs lnfluenclng facLors are moLlvaLed by lLs
senslLlvlLy Lo currenL developmenLs, as Lhey occur ln lLs own fleld, or oLher pollLlcal and
soclal shlfLs. lurLhermore, ln 8etq ocyclopoeJlo of wotlJ utess ooJ losbloo, Clobol
letspectlves volome 10, Lhe Lerm 'Lrend' refers Lo: .fosbloo cbooqe (looovotloo) ooJ
fosbloo oJoptloo bebovlot (Jlffosloo)" (Macklnney-valenLln 2010). 8ecenL examples
menLloned prevlously, along wlLh works menLloned wlLhln Lhe llLeraLure revlew (ChapLer 2)
have shown evldence of lnnovaLlon and change ln Lhe adopLlon behavlour of fashlon.
Powever lL ls lmporLanL Lo sLaLe LhaL Lhls research ls noL emphaslzed on fashlon Lrend -
whlch ofLen relaLes Lo 'fasL-fashlon' (Macklnney-valenLln 2010), buL raLher lL ls poslLloned
as a response Lo Lhe arlslng Lrend of Lechnologlcal advances, whlch allows for Lhe blrLh of
Wearable 1echnology. 1hls ls furLher supporLed by Lhe hlsLory of fashlon and lLs rlslng as a
valld academlc lnqulry ln Lhe 1960s, whlch reveals LhaL ln lLs growLh, fashlon has served as a
paLhway ln undersLandlng culLural, economlc and soclal occurrence ln hlsLory (ParLe 2010).
Wearable 1echnology ln Lhls research challenges Lhls nomenclaLure by shlfLlng
emphasls Lowards usablllLy, ergonomlcs and user-cenLred perspecLlve raLher Lhan focuslng
on Lhe Lechnology lLself, looklng Lowards engagemenL, usefulness, ease and en[oyablllLy of
use (l.e. human facLors). lL could be sald LhaL human engagemenL and saLlsfacLlon are
meLrlcs of aesLheLlc 'success' ln Wearable 1echnology deslgn. Pence, Lhe cenLral lssue ln
Wearable 1echnology ln Lhls research ls comprehenslon from Lhe deslgner's perspecLlve of

3
hLLp://www.sclencedally.com/releases/2012/06/120629211340.hLm, 29 !une 2012 (accessed 10
!anuary 2014).
CPA1L8 1: ln18CuuC1lCn
4
Lhe user, l.e. boLh comprehenslblllLy of conLenL and also of conLrols, manlpulaLors and
oLher lnLeracLlve elemenLs of Lhe lnLerface and represenLaLlon (dlsplay).
1hls Lhesls aLLempLs Lo augmenL undersLandlng ln Lhe fleld of Wearable 1echnology
by elaboraLlng how Lhe synLhesls of fashlon and compuLlng lnvlLe mulLlple conslderaLlons,
Lherefore challenglng deslgners ln creaLlng successful ouLcomes. A seL of speclflcaLlons for
approachlng and lnLegraLlng Lhese requlred conslderaLlons ln process of deslgnlng
Wearable 1echnology ls developed and examlned ln Lhls research. Pow does Lhe deslgner's
undersLandlng of deslgn aLLrlbuLes affecL Lhe deslgn process of Wearable 1echnology? Pow
do dlfferenL deslgns purposes LhaL have dlfferenL Lypes of funcLlonallLy and usablllLy
requlremenLs affecLs deslgn process ln Wearable 1echnology? Pow can an undersLandlng of
Lhe lnLerdlsclpllnary lLeraLlve deslgn process of Wearable 1echnology provlde a new
concepLual undersLandlng of Lhe fleld? 1hese are Lhe quesLlons addressed Lhrough Lhls
research.

1. 2. Cverv|ew
1hls Lhesls revlews hlsLorlcal surveys of exlsLlng Wearable 1echnology from Lhe
perspecLlve of dlfferenL flelds LhaL converge ln Wearable 1echnology deslgn, lncludlng
fashlon, compuLlng, arLs, pop culLure and cyberneLlcs culLure, dlscusslng Lhelr lnfluence and
overlaps wlLh one anoLher, reflecLlng Lhe lnLerdlsclpllnary naLure, and Lhus deflnlng Lhe
new deslgn fleld LhaL needs Lo be explored. A seL of deslgn aLLrlbuLes for smarL Wearable
1echnology ls lnLroduced and Lhen slLuaLed Lhrough lnLervlews wlLh deslgn sLudenLs LhaL
caLalyse ldeas for undersLandlng Lhe deslgn process of Wearable 1echnology.

1. 3. 1hes|s Structure
1he flrsL chapLer of Lhls Lhesls acLs as an lnLroducLory chapLer explalnlng Lhe
research moLlvaLlon, an overvlew of Lhe research and Lhesls sLrucLure. ChapLer 2 of Lhe
Lhesls dlscusses relevanL llLeraLure and body of works of wearable Lechnology exlsLlng ln
several dlfferenL flelds, lncludlng CompuLlng, lashlon, opular CulLure, ArL and CyberneLlcs
ulscourse. lrom Lhls exploraLlon, a dlscusslon on whaL consLlLuLes Wearable 1echnology, lLs
CPA1L8 1: ln18CuuC1lCn
3
relevanL deslgn Lheorles and Lhe dlscusslon on aesLheLlcs ls necessary as parL of
undersLandlng Lhe deslgn problems of wearable Lechnology, allgnlng wlLh how lL has been
dlscussed by oLher researchers as an lnfluenLlal lssue. LxlsLlng Lheorles and llLeraLure on
deslgnlng Wearable 1echnology are also dlscussed whlch acLs as a sLarLlng polnL Lo a seL of
deslgn aLLrlbuLes LhaL ln Lhls research, creaLes parL of Lhe research [usLlflcaLlons.
8elevanL deslgn Lheorles revlewed ln ChapLer 2, produced a seL of newly formed
deslgn aLLrlbuLes, whlch acLs as a foundaLlonal Lheory of Lhe research dlscussed ln ChapLer
3, followed by a dlscusslon on lLs lnLerrelaLlonshlps and overlaps. ChapLer 4 lncludes lnlLlal
case sLudles of personal plloL pro[ecLs are lncluded as parL of Lhe analysls ln observlng how
Lhe deslgn aLLrlbuLes are applled Lo a deslgn process, Lhus glvlng greaLer undersLandlng ln
conducLlng furLher lnLervlews uslng research parLlclpanLs who has experlenced Lhe deslgn
process of wearable Lechnology. 1he pracLlce of deslgnlng and deslgn pedagogy, more
speclflcally ln Lhe conLexL of fashlon deslgn, deslgn lnLegraLlng new Lechnologles, and oLher
forms of wearable Lechnologles, have boLh moLlvaLed Lhe research quesLlons and provlded
Lhe forum for Lhelr lnvesLlgaLlon. ln Lhls way, Lhls research flLs wlLhln Lhe
esLabllshed paradlgm of racLlce 8ased ueslgn (Scrlvener 2002).
ChapLer 3 explalns phenomenologlcal approach Laken for Lhls research, whlch acLs
as research sLraLegy lnvolvlng research parLlclpanLs. ln ChapLer 6, phenomenologlcal
process of seml-sLrucLured lnLervlews wlLh Lhree deslgners who have experlenced deslgnlng
Wearable 1echnology, are lncluded, each followed by reflecLlve analysls Lowards Lhe maln
research quesLlons. ChapLer 7 dlscusses Lhe research flndlngs of Lhe Lhesls, whlch Lhen
manlfesLed Lhemselves ln chapLer 8 (concluslon) along wlLh posslble fuLure research
lnqulrles ln Lhe fleld of deslgn Lhlnklng ln Wearable 1echnology and how Lhls research
conLrlbuLes Lo Lhe knowledge of Lhe fleld.

CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
6
CnA1Lk 2
LI1LkA1UkL kLVILW

1he Lerm Wearable 1echnology lLself ls very ofLen mlsundersLood. lf one ls Lo
eLymologlcally dlssecL Lhls, Lhe word 1echnology" orlglnaLed from a Creek word:
tekbooloqlo" whlch ls a derlved from tekboo" and loqlo". 1he orlglnal Creek deflnlLlon
ls: sysLemaLlc LreaLmenL of an arL, crafL, or Lechnlque (Merrlam-WebsLer 2013).

Merrlam-WebsLer Cnllne ulcLlonary (Merrlam-WebsLer 2013) deflnlLlons:
1. A: 1he pracLlcal appllcaLlon of knowledge especlally ln a parLlcular area. 8: A
capablllLy glven by Lhe pracLlcal appllcaLlon of knowledge.
2. A manner of accompllshlng a Lask especlally uslng Lechnlcal processes, meLhods,
or knowledge.
3. 1he speclallzed aspecLs of a parLlcular fleld of endeavor.

As one can see Lhere are slgnlflcanL shlfLs ln Lhe meanlng of Lhe word 'Lechnology'.
1hese days, we commonly Lhlnk of Lechnology as someLhlng LhaL allows us Lo execuLe Lasks
fasLer and more efflclenLly. 1here are numerous aspecLs LhaL are embedded lnLo Lhe word
of 'Lechnology' ln real llfe such as, crafLs, loglcal hlerarchy, sysLems, eLc.
Comblned wlLh Lhe word 'Wearable', Lhe undersLandlng becomes much more
complex and layered. 1echnology LhaL ls worn on a user's body: Lhe complexlLy lles ln Lhe
lnLerwoven aspecLs of conslderlng Lhe user as a parL of Lhe Lechnology for lL Lo funcLlon
properly.
8eferrlng Lo Lhe eLymologlcal naLure of Lhe word 'Lechnology', arL ls lncluded ln Lhe
deflnlLlon. 1oday we know LhaL arL can have many meanlngs, whlch makes lL dlfflculL Lo
deflne Lhe bearlng of arL, as Lhere ls a sense of conLexLuallslng and llberaLlng arL accordlng
Lo lLs medlum. Alongslde formal freedom, arL LhaL ls worn on Lhe body seems Lo have a
dlsconnecLlon from coheslve pracLlce (8yan 2008) LhaL ls dlsLlncL from more convenLlonal or
CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
7
LradlLlonal forms of arL pracLlce. ln order Lo galn a mulLl-angled perspecLlve and achleve
greaLer undersLandlng of Wearable 1echnology, lL ls lmporLanL Lo lnclude ln Lhe llLeraLure
revlew Lhe dlfferenL areas where lL can be slgnlflcanLly found. 1hus, Wearable 1echnology
ln lLs early developmenL ls espoused ln sclence flcLlon wlLh Lhe noLlon of cyborg-lsm and
sLeampunk llLeraLure. Slnce Lhen, lL has venLured lnLo Lhe flelds of lashlon, op CulLure,
CyberneLlcs ulscourse, ArL and CompuLlng.

2.1. Wearab|e 1echno|ogy |n Comput|ng
Wearable compuLlng ls aLLrlbuLed Lo have orlglnaLed wlLh Lhe developmenL of
Ldward C'1horp's and Claude Shannon's pockeL-slzed analogue compuLer ln 1961, whlch
funcLlons as a rouleLLe resulLs predlcLor (8hodes n. d.).

A weotoble compotet ls o compotet tbot ls sobsomeJ loto tbe petsoool spoce of tbe oset, coottolleJ by
tbe oset, ooJ bos botb opetotloool ooJ lotetoctloool coostoocy, l.e. ls olwoys oo ooJ olwoys occesslble (Mooo
1988).

1he above deflnlLlon by SLeve Mann descrlbes Lhe heavy emphasls upon absoluLe
funcLlonallLy, whlch, ln addlLlon relnforces a less body-based naLure of wearable
compuLers. CLher auLhors have sLaLed Lhe deflnlLlon of wearable compuLers Lhrough seLs of
characLerlsLlcs, such as 8hodes (2000) who sLaLed LhaL wearable compuLlng provldes
porLablllLy durlng operaLlon, enables hands-free or hands-llmlLed use, aLLempLs Lo sense
Lhe user's currenL conLexL, and can run conLlnuously. 1hls seL of characLerlsLlcs allgns wlLh
Lhe crlLerla by korLuem eL al. (1998 p. 60), buL he uses Lhe Lerm ooqmeoteJ teollty Lo
dlscuss tbe oset lotetfoce tecbolpoe tbot ollows focosloq oo tbe osets otteotloo ooJ
pteseotloq lofotmotloo lo oo ooobttoslve, cootext JepeoJeot moooet.
Slnce Lhe early age of lLs developmenL, wearable compuLlng Lakes form ln hand-held
gadgeLs and does noL refer much Lo Lhe body-based naLure of Wearable 1echnology (8yan
2008). 1he exlsLlng works of wearable compuLlng allow Lhe user convenlence ln Lhe noLlon
CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
8
of wearlng" Lhe Lechnology only. 1he smarLness of Lhe sysLem ln senslng Lhe user ls ofLen
confronLed and overrldden wlLh Lhe devlce funcLlon and capablllLles.
lL ls very lmporLanL Lo comprehend Lhe fleld of wearable compuLlng and lLs
developmenL ln Lhe conLexL of compuLaLlonal mlnlaLurlzaLlon (whlch allow Lechnology or
compuLlng capablllLy Lo be subsumed lnLo Lhe user's personal space), and whlch Lhus
enables greaLer wearablllLy. Lmbedded Lechnology ln Lhe form of physlcal compuLlng also
lnfluences numerous aspecLs of wearablllLy, for example comforL and aesLheLlcs. 1he maln
componenLs of physlcal compuLlng lnclude: lnLerfaces, mlcroprocessors, lnpuLs, ouLpuLs,
sofLware, energy and maLerlals (C'Sulllvan & lgoe 2004). 1hese componenLs clearly
excluded user's comforL and appearance appeal.

As recenLly as 2002, Lhe aesLheLlcs of Wearable 1echnology were sLlll consldered Lo
be lnfluenced by Lhe lmage of Lhe '' (8hodes & Mase 2003). 1he '' aesLheLlc may
posslbly be one of Lhe causes behlnd Lhe lack of consumer Lake-up for everyday llfe usage.

I|gure 1. 1he amb|ent te|epresence wearab|e computer prototype
(Drugge et a|. 2004).
CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
9
1hls ls evldenL ln many works of wearable compuLlng, such as Lhe pro[ecL developed
by Mlkael urugge eL al (2004) ln Sweden, whlch ls a proLoLype conLalnlng a backpack
compuLer, a hand-held keyboard, a head-mounLed dlsplay and a webcam LhaL are
connecLed Lo a wlreless neLwork (llgure 1). 1he proLoLype pro[ecL provlded a plaLform for
explorlng Lhe experlences of lmmerslve amblenL Lelepresence and remoLe lnLeracLlon by
wearlng" Lhe compuLer. Several problems LhaL arose from Lhe proLoLype lnclude Lhe
sysLem noL belng sonlcally responslve Lo Lhe user's surroundlng condlLlons (volume conLrols
and Lhe lmmerslve quallLy of Lhe Lelepresence), lnefflclenL seL up Llme and also navlgaLlonal
dlfflculLles LhaL emerged from mulLlple conLrol buLLons (non-user frlendly) (urugge eL al
2004).
1he 2lAu wl1000 wtlst woto letsoool compotet (llgure 2) offers user's efflclency
ln compleLlng compuLaLlonal Lasks ln hands-free necessary condlLlons (arvus n.d.). 1he
devlce ls embedded wlLh smarL LllL sensors Lo deLecL Lhe user's hand movemenLs and
poslLlon, allowlng for on/sLandby recognlLlon. 1he Zypad WL1000 conslders Lhe user as parL
of Lhe deslgn wlLh lLs ablllLy Lo sense Lhe user's hand movemenLs, whlch lmpacLs Lhe smarL
sysLem navlgaLlon of Lhe devlce.


I|gure 2. 2AD WL1000 Wr|st Worn ersona| Computer (arvus n. d.).
CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
10

ln Lhe avlaLlon fleld, Lhere have been many wearable compuLers developed ln Lhe
conLexL of alrcrafL manufacLurlng, malnLenance and operaLlon. 1hls ls evldenL Lhrough
pro[ecLs such as Lhe 8oelng lnlLlaLed pro[ecL Lo supporL Lechnlclans ln Lhe assembly of wlres
by uLlllzlng augmenLed reallLy (A8) Lechnology Lo ellmlnaLe paper documenLaLlon ln Lhe
fleld (Mlzell 2001). ln 2004, Lhe research pro[ecL weotl1wotk, funded by Lhe Luropean
governmenL, was esLabllshed Lo lnvesLlgaLe posslble lmplemenLaLlon ln four dlfferenL
lndusLrlal appllcaLlon seLLlngs, wlLh Lhe malnLenance of commerclal alrcrafL belng one of
Lhe appllcaLlons.
A pro[ecL developed by nlcolal eL al (2006) ls a vesL Lo be worn by alrcrafL
malnLenance personnel, embedded wlLh a compuLer, whlch allows daLa access and wlreless
neLwork connecLlon. Powever, Lhe compuLer lLself sLlll needs Lo be uncovered" by Lhe user
(llgure 3). 1he vesL provldes Lhe personnel more body efflclency whlle allowlng boLh hand
movemenLs whlle noL uslng Lhe compuLer.


I|gure 3. Vest w|th embedded computer for a|rcraft ma|ntenance personne|
(N|co|a| et a|. 2006).

SLarner (2001 p. 44) sLaLed LhaL: weotoble compotloq coo be JesctlbeJ os tbe
potsolt of o style of lotetfoce os opposeJ to o moolfestotloo lo botJwote. 1hls sLrengLhens
Lhe percepLlon LhaL noL only does Lhe user lnLerface play an lnLegral parL ln a wearable
CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
11
compuLer, buL also becomes Lhe maln emphasls ln Lhe deslgn conslderaLlons. Lven Lhough
Lhe deskLop meLaphor of a user lnLerface ln wearable compuLlng has been recognlzed and
ls evldenL, lL ls noL sulLable for Lackllng Lhe parLlcular challenge of proper user lnLerface
deslgn (SLarner 2001). 1he lack of manlfesLaLlon ln hardware creaLes challenges for more
adapLable deslgns LhaL may resulL ln furLher publlc adopLlon.
A dlscourse wlLhln compuLlng LhaL concenLraLes closely on Lhe smarL characLerlsLlcs
of Wearable 1echnology ls SlLuaLed CompuLlng, whlch concerns Lhe ablllLy of compuLaLlonal
devlces Lo deLecL, lnLerpreL and respond Lo aspecLs of Lhe user's local envlronmenL (Pull eL
al. 1997), l.e. wlLh slLuaLed, conLexLual, user-relevanL knowledge LhaL allows a cusLomlzed
or conLexLually approprlaLe, (someLlmes locaLlve) and speclflc response. 1he ablllLy of
senslng (deLecLlng, lnLerpreLlng and respondlng) a user's local surroundlngs creaLes a
concepLual plaLform LhaL lllusLraLes Lhe Lwo-way lnLeracLlon beLween a user and a devlce,
and Lhus creaLes a premlse - Lhe slgnlfylng characLerlsLlc of 'smarL' Wearable 1echnology. lf
compared wlLh Lhe sLaLlc naLure of deskLop compuLers, Lhls ablllLy LranslaLes Lhe
wearablllLy of a devlce lnLo flexlble funcLlonallLy, senslLlve and responslve Lo Lhe user's
needs.
AfLer lnvesLlgaLlng several examples of wearable compuLlng, lL ls evldenL LhaL each
of Lhem was bullL Lo perform lLs allocaLed funcLlonallLy. Powever, Lhere ls a common Lheme
LhaL runs Lhrough all, namely Lhe user lnLerface. 1hese examples managed Lo Lransform Lhe
sLaLlc form of deskLop compuLers by mlnlaLurlzlng Lhe devlce elemenLs, Lo allow more
moblllLy. 1he 'wearlng' aspecL of Lhe user experlence was addressed comparaLlvely
slmpllsLlc by merely aLLachlng or embeddlng a machlne lnLo wearable lLems. 1he alrcrafL
malnLenance vesL and Lhe amblenL Lele-presence vesL adopLed Lhls ldea, Lhus havlng a
subsLanLlal consequenLlal effecL on Lhe user's appearance. 1he Zypad wrlsL devlce has Lhe
ablllLy Lo sense Lhe user's hand movemenLs buL, glven lLs raLher large dlmenslons and
clunky appearance, lL lacks deslgned vlsual and ergonomlc appeal and perhaps lLs slze and
welghL furLher lnfluence arm gesLures and moblllLy.
CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
12
Cne mlghL argue LhaL Lhese devlces are noL meanL for everyday usage and noL bullL
Lo caLer Lo unLralned professlonals. lrom Lhe deslgn perspecLlve, Lhese devlces were bullL
for a speclflc purpose. 1hey may noL necesslLaLe sleek appearance or small dlmenslons.
Powever, Lhe reason why Lhese examples are dlscussed ln Lhls secLlon ls Lo develop
foundaLlonal prlnclples for concepLuallzlng Lhe deslgn characLerlsLlcs of smarL Wearable
1echnology dlscussed ln Lhls research.

2. 2. Wearab|e 1echno|ogy |n Iash|on













I|gure 4. Iash|onab|e Wearab|es kange |n Leve|s of Lxpress|veness versus Iunct|ona||ty
(Seymour 2008).

ln 2000, Sablne Seymour colned Lhe Lerm for lashlonable 1echnology, ln whlch she
deflned lL as JeslqoeJ qotmeots, occessotles, ot jewelty tbot combloe oestbetlcs ooJ style
wltb fooctloool tecbooloqy" (Seymour 2008, p 12). lL ls lmporLanL Lo underllne LhaL ln her
deflnlLlon, Seymour prlorlLlsed Lhe Lerm 'deslgned garmenLs' aL Lhe beglnnlng and clarlfles




1. lashlonable wearables ln Lhe hlgh fashlon realm are expresslve and
Lhe funcLlonallLy ls less lmporLanL.
2. lashlonable wearables have a deflned funcLlon and some need Lo be
sLyllsh. SporLswear and healLh-monlLorlng garmenLs requlre Lhls
duallLy.
3. luncLlonallLy ls Lhe focal polnL. ln work wear, Lhe necesslLy for
personal expresslon ls subordlnaLe Lo sLrlcL pre-deflned funcLlonallLy
and resLrlcLlons. unlforms furLher requlre conformlLy noL expresslon.
1 3 2
expressiveness functionality
CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
13
LhaL deslgn acLlvlLy ls lnvolved ln whaL consLlLuLes 'fashlonable wearables'. Andrew 8olLon
ln hls book 1be 5opetmoJeto wotJtobe menLloned LhaL 'oll clotbes bove psycboloqlcol ooJ
pbyslcol fooctloos (2002, p 10). 1he Lwo sLaLemenLs above creaLe an undersLandlng of how
fashlon ls a conLexLual maLLer, whlch ls underllned by Malcom 8arnard, who sLaLed LhaL
Lhere are varlous funcLlons of cloLhlng, lncludlng maLerlal funcLlons (proLecLlon,
concealmenL, aLLracLlon) and culLural funcLlon (communlcaLlon, lndlvldual expresslon, soclal
sLaLus, pollLlcal/rellglous afflllaLlon) (2002, p 49-71). 1he conLexLual naLure of fashlon and
lLs lnevlLable connecLlon wlLh Lechnology creaLes a range ln levels of expresslveness versus
funcLlonallLy (Seymour 2008, p 14).
ln llgure 4, funcLlonallLy and expresslveness exlsL ln an opposlLe/blpolar manner,
whlch are exempllfled ln Lhe followlng works. Pusseln Chalayan's Sprlng/Summer 2007
collecLlon LlLled Ooe nooJteJ ooJ leveo (llgure 3) and ?lng Cao's body of work (llgure 6)
LhaL lncludes a serles of pneumaLlc garmenLs LhaL reacL Lo embedded elecLronlc sensors,
are all more relaLed Lo level 1 of Sablne Seymour's axls of lashlonable 1echnology.

I|gure S. |ng Gao's wo/kinq city (2007).

CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
14









I|gure 6. nusse|n Cha|ayan's shape-chang|ng dress from h|s Autumn]W|nter 2007
co||ect|on. (Cha|ayan 2007).

lashlon form operaLes accordlng Lo a slmllar paradlgm Lo Sablne Seymour's
expresslveness levels of lashlonable 1echnology, as can be observed ln noote cootote. 1hls
form of fashlon emerged from Lhe nlneLeenLh cenLury concepL of dresses or cloLhlng LhaL
were bespoke and speclflcally Lallored for cllenLs (Schaeffer 2001). ln conLemporary
parlance, Lhere ls a slgnlflcanL shlfL ln lLs undersLandlng. noote cootote now refers Lo
fashlon LhaL has Lhe Lendency noL Lo be 'ready Lo wear' buL whlch ls hlghly regarded as an
arL form and as a "one-off". Pence, Lhese are close Lo lndlvldually crafLed pleces Lallored Lo
meeL a speclflc cllenL's requlremenLs or requesLs (see example on llgure 6). 1here ls also a
sense of ldeallsLlc naLure ln Lerms of deslgn ln Lhe world of noote cootote LhaL lnvolves Lhe
user wlLhln Lhe process of alLerlng Lhe pleces Lo flL/sulL a parLlcular cllenL's body Lype. 1hus,
oLher Lhan Lhe hlgh prlce polnL, Lhere ls a level of excluslvlLy ln who can own someLhlng
from a noote cootote collecLlon slnce each garmenL ls cusLom made and lnvolves deLalled
bespoke Lallorlng.
ln observlng exlsLlng slmllarlLles beLween Lhe aforemenLloned examples and Lhe
world of noote cootote, Pusseln Chalayan's and ?lng Cao's works exhlblL a slmllar klnd of
excluslvlLy and ldeallsm as found ln noote cootote. 1he aforemenLloned body of works
CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
13
crossed lnLo Lhe realm of fashlon as sculpLural pleces, Lhus maklng lL noL exacLly ready-Lo-
wear. Along wlLh Lhe evoluLlon of modernlsm and Lhe advance of Lechnology, Lhere are
oLher works LhaL adopL heavler emphasls on funcLlonallLy, such as 1be M-utess (Moblle
hone uress) by CuLe ClrculL (2007) LhaL Lransformed a hand held moblle phone devlce lnLo
a dress Lo purposefully shlfL Lhe way a user lnLeracLs wlLh a moblle phone and Lo avold
mlsslng calls (llgure 7). AnoLher example ln Lhe area of sporLs-gear ls Lhe MoLlon 8esponse
SporLswear developed by kerrl Wallace lncludes a concepLual serles of garmenLs LhaL alm Lo
lnLegraLe newly evolvlng smarL-prlnLed LexLlle Lechnology (llgure 8). 1hese examples
exhlblL less excluslve ldeallsm and emphaslze more wearable funcLlonallLy. 1hus, one can
say LhaL noote cootote lnevlLably Louches on Wearable ArL, whlch wlll be dlscussed more ln
Lhe followlng secLlon.
CarmenLs and Lechnology have conslsLenLly lnfluenced one anoLher LhroughouL Lhe
20
Lh
cenLury and manlfesL a perslsLenL dlalogue, such LhaL a cerLaln garmenL sLyle ls able Lo
sLay connecLed wlLh lLs prevlous forbears and lLs lmaglned fuLure posslblllLles (8yan 2008).
1echnologlcal lnvenLlons ln hlsLory have propelled plvoLal developmenLs ln fashlon. lor
example, Lhe resulL of research lnLo elasLlcs ln Lhe 1930s drove rapld changes ln Lhe
lndusLry of womens' undergarmenLs and evenLually lnLo non-gender speclflc cloLhlng lLems.
Moreover, Lhe rlse of mass medla ln Lhe posL-World War ll era and lndusLrlallzaLlon has
evldenLly reflecLed culLure's fasclnaLlon wlLh Lechnology.


I|gure 7. 1he M-uress by Cute
C|rcu|t (2011).
I|gure 8. kerr| Wa||ace' Motion kesponse
5portsweor (nenn| 2008).
CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
16
numerous examples of fashlon llLeraLure refer Lo auLhors daLlng from 8audelalre
(1839-1861) Lo Clles LlpoveLsky (1994), who consLanLly refer Lo Lhe culLure of modernlsm (a
facL presenL ln Lhe lrench Lerms moJe and moJeto). Modernlsm ln lLself encompasses
dlfferenL culLural lnfluences, lncludlng lndusLrlallzaLlon, Lechnology, arL, archlLecLure and so
on. 1he condlLlon lL has heralded lncludes Lechnologlcal advances Lowards lndusLrlallzaLlon,
mass-medla-drlven markeLlng, and urbanlzed culLure (Lehmann 2000). So, fashlon,
modernlsm and Lechnology have grown and are bound LogeLher.
8yan (2008) drew Lhe llnk beLween fashlon and arL by menLlonlng 8audelalre (an
archeLypal modernlsL flgure) ln Lhe mld 19
Lh
cenLury who wroLe exLenslvely of fashlon and
arL (8audelalre 1839-1861). 1he connecLlon ls followed by a lrench poeL SLephane
Mallarme, a lrench symbollsL poeL who ln 1874 edlLed a fashlon magazlne, lo uetolete
MoJe (lurbank 2004). Adolf Loos ln 1907 made Lhe sLaLemenL LhaL hls own fellow AusLrlans
are noL modern enough as Lhey uLlllze fashlon lmagery LhaL sLlll depends on ornamenLed
aLLlre slmllar Lo Lhe prevlous Lrlbal socleLles ln Lhe growlng lndusLrlallzaLlon age (Munz, eL
al. 1966). ln 1be AtcoJes ltoject, WalLer 8en[amln commenLed LhaL fashlon ls Lhe mold of
modernlLy (8en[amln 1999), followed by Mark Wlgley ln wblte wolls, ueslqoet utesses who
argues LhaL fashlon (ln Lerms of dress) was Lhe model for Le Corbusler's wrlLlngs abouL
modernlsm ln archlLecLure (Wlgley 1993). 1he aforemenLloned wrlLlngs presenL Lhe
perspecLlve LhaL fashlon ls lnexLrlcably Lled Lo modernlsm and shares slmllar characLerlsLlcs
ln lLs growLh and expanslon, whlch ls supporLed by Lhe growLh of Lechnology and ls also
consLanLly affecLed, lnfluenced and ln conversaLlon wlLh arL.

2. 3. Wearab|e 1echno|ogy |n Art
lashlon and ArL have always had close connecLlons LhaL can be seen daLlng back as
far as aul olreL, a founder of Lhe lrench couLure, who sLarLed menLlonlng Lo hls cllenLs
LhaL he produces arL and hls shop ls Lhe sLudlo. Powever a more serlous form of arL worn
on Lhe body, lnsLead of presenLed on a wall or ln a space, emerged ln Lhe 1930s and 1960s
propelled by lnLeresL amongsL Lhe arL world ln Lhe body and Llme-based performance such
CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
17
as vldeo and performance (8yan 2008). lor example, works such as arLlsL ALsuko 1anaka's
lecttlc utess (1936) showcased wearable arL. lurLher developed LhroughouL Lhe 1980s and
1990s, wearable arL became more of a common Lheme wlLh Lhe help from Lhe arL world's
lnLeresL ln fabrlc as a medlum and Lhe femlnlsL arL movemenL. uesplLe lncreaslng
appearance, lL was sLlll noL enLlrely accepLable and lLs marglnallzaLlon was perhaps well
porLrayed by PunLer 8eynolds' aLlna uu rey's AlJs Memotlol utess (1993-2007), whlch
has names of people who dled from AluS sllk-screened onLo Lhe dress. 1he plece has been
showcased numerous Llmes around Lhe world buL ls sLlll raLher unknown.
1he lssue of Lhe museum space lnvaded by fashlon and rarely by wearable arL
demonsLraLes a clear dlsLlncLlon ln Lhe percepLlon and accepLance of Lhe dlfferenL modes.
ulana vreeland's exhlblLlon ln 1984 aL Lhe MeLropollLan Museum of ArL ln new ?ork
showcaslng her ?ves SalnL LaurenL reLrospecLlve recelved frequenL hanglngs aL LhaL Llme
and was sponsored by Lhe MeL CosLume lnsLlLuLe. A slmllar, more recenL example of such
an exhlblLlon ls uaphne Culnness' exhlblLlon aL Lhe lashlon lnsLlLuLe of 1echnology ln new
?ork showcaslng Lhe helress' wardrobe archlve, shown for Lhe purpose of educaLlon.
Powever, Lhe LranslLlon of hlgh fashlon enLerlng Lhe museum space has noL always meL
wlLh accepLance. ln Lhe laLe 90s, Cuggenhelm Museum's dlrecLor, 1homas krens, was
crlLlclsed for uLlllzlng Lhe connecLlon beLween arL and fashlon as an agenda behlnd
Cuggenhelm's brand for shows such as Att/losbloo ln 1997 and Clotqlo Atmool.
kettospectlve ln 2000 (8yan 2008).
Lven wlLh crlLlclsm provldlng some lnslghL Lo Lhe unaccepLance of fashlon by Lhe arLs
world, Lhe connecLlon beLween fashlon and arL ls remalns consequenLly relnforced.
lashlon's acLual agenda, whlch ls commerclal, ls seemlngly opposed by Lhe arLs. Powever,
Lhe arLs brlng an agenda LhaL ls fllled wlLh sub[ecLlve noLlons whlle mlxed wlLh markeL
drlven moLlves and pop arL famously deconsLrucLs arLlsLlc paradlgms by ascrlblng arLlsLlc
merlL Lo everyday and non-valuable ob[ecLs Lhrough lnLerpreLaLlon, reframlng,
conLexLuallsaLlon or oLher forms of commenLary, plylng Lhe Lenslon beLween commerce,
markeL-force, paLronage and pure arLlsLlc moLlvaLlons. Wearable arL, on Lhe oLher hand,
CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
18
occuples a unlque poslLlon wlLh Lhe ablllLy Lo commenL on Lhe culLure LhaL we llve ln whlle
provldlng a dynamlc plaLform for expresslng Lhe way we llve our llves.



I|gure 9. Ioo oun aek's 5e/f-5ustoinob/e choir
(2006).
I|gure 10. My 1rousers
(Ashuach 2003).

1he lnvolvemenL of Lechnology ln fashlon and arL ls vlslble Lhrough works by arLlsLs
who lnclude any form of mechanlsm or sclenLlflc knowledge applled ln arLforms for
pracLlcal purposes. lor lnsLance, !oo ?oun aek's 5elf-5ostolooble cbolt (2006) comblnes
fashlon deslgn and furnlLure deslgn (llgure 9). 1he wearable arL plece ls acLually a palr of
Lrousers wlLh aLLached alr pumps aLLached Lo Lhe sole parL of Lhe wearer/user. As Lhe user
walks, alr ls pumped lnLo Lhe back of Lhe Lrousers, lnflaLlng a form of surface for Lhe wearer
Lo slL on.
Assa Asuach's work LlLle My 1toosets (2003), whlch ls a palr of [eans LhaL Lransforms
lnLo a seaL when Lhe wearer goes Lo slL down (llgure 10), uanlelle Wllde's blpulskettes
(2008) (llgure 11) whlch ls 'o self cootoloeJ weotoble soolc ootpot system fot petfotmooce
ooJ ploy (Wllde 2008, p. 2) are furLher examples of ways ln whlch Wearable 1echnology
exlsLs wlLhln Lhe world of arL. 1he ldea of exLendlng Lhe body, as allgned wlLh Lhe noLlon of
cyborglsm also has perforaLed arL, wlLh works such as Lelgh 8owery's performance
cosLumes LhaL exLend and dlsLend hls body ln all dlrecLlons (8owery & Creer 2003), and also
Lhe works of SLelarc and also Marcel Ll ALunez.

CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
19

I|gure 11. 1he hipuiskettes (W||de 2008).

A serles of collaboraLlve works by Laura 8eloff presenL Lhe concepL of a new belng
called Lhe nybtoooot, whlch she descrlbed as: o flqote, o petsoo, ot o boJy, coopleJ wltb o
pecollot-lookloq weotoble Jevlce" (2008). Per nybtoooot works lnclude several wearable
pleces embedded wlLh dlfferenL Lypes of Lechnologles, such as neott uooot from 2007,
5eveo Mlle 8oots from 2004-2004 and 1be neoJ from 2004-2006, whlch all encompass Lhe
Lheme of vlrLual versus physlcal realms of llfe (8eloff 2008). 8eloff also argues LhaL Lhe
nybtoooot ls a user-Lurned-performer as a resulL of Lhe body worn devlces, whlch sparks
Lhe curloslLy of Lhe publlc (2008).
SLelarc (2011), an AusLrallan arLlsL who has performed exLenslvely ln !apan, Lurope
and Lhe uSA, has bullL hls reperLolre lncludlng new muslc, dance fesLlvals and experlmenLal
LheaLre. Pe has used medlcal lnsLrumenLs, prosLheLlcs, roboLlcs, vlrLual reallLy sysLems and
Lhe lnLerneL Lo explore alLernaLlve, lnLlmaLe and lnvolunLary lnLerfaces wlLh Lhe body. Pe
has performed wlLh a Lhlrd hand, a vlrLual arm, a vlrLual body, a sLomach sculpLure, and
exoskeleLon, and a slx legged walklng roboL. Pls work as an arLlsL ls very much Lhemed wlLh
Lhe bodlly prosLheLlc lssue.
Cne of SLelarc's works ls 1be 1bltJ nooJ (1980). ln Lhls work, he mlmlcs Lhe
subsLlLuLlon of Lhe body by a Lechnologlcal consLrucL. 1be 1bltJ nooJ may be regarded as a
form of physlcal exLenslon of Lhe body, whlch ls connecLed Lo an aLLempL Lo represenL
dlscomforL of Lhls klnd of Lechnology (Clarke 2002).
CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
20
AnoLher very lnLeresLlng aspecL of Lhls plece ls Lhe lnLerpreLaLlon of compuLer
Lechnologles as sLerlle and non-organlc whlch have evolved by Lhelr palrlng wlLh Lhe human
body. ln addlLlon, Lhe human body ls seen as lncreased and augmenLed by lLs aLLachmenL Lo
Lechnology (Lhe Cyborg noLlon). ln Lhls pro[ecL, SLelarc vlewed 1be 1bltJ nooJ as a
prosLhesls of hls own body, Lhus exposlng Lhe human body as a sLrucLure LhaL may be
assembled or dlsassembled. 1hese exLra 'body parLs' somehow evoke a new quesLlonlng of
prosLheLlc body parLs as a means of arLlculaLlng loss (Clarke 2002). 1he ldea of exLendlng
Lhe body by uslng 1be 1bltJ nooJ ln SLelarc's work reflecLs Lhe sensaLlon of addlng bodlly
funcLlons and ablllLy.
1hese examples show ways ln whlch arLlsLs have adopLed Wearable 1echnology as
Lhelr medlum. Cn Lhe oLher hand, hlsLory has shown LhaL arLlsLs ln general, who uLlllzed
Lechnology wheLher elecLronlc or dlglLal medla as parL of Lhelr core pracLlce, had faced
raLher lukewarm accepLance from Lhe arL world. ln example, C. . Snow's 1939 LecLure 1he
1wo CulLures" exhausLlvely descrlbed Lhe rlslng of Lwo dlfferenL and opposlng culLures:
sclence and arL, boLh sufferlng from Lhe communlcaLlon breakdown beLween Lhem (Snow
2008). More recenL wrlLlngs and works such as ChrlsLlane aul's ulqltol Att (2003) and
Cllver Crau's (ed.) anLhology, MeJlo Att nlstotles (2010) have become ploneerlng llLeraLure
LhaL managed Lo descrlbe Lhe lnfuslon beLween arL and Lechnology. 1hls shows Lhe
separaLlon beLween arL and Lechnology ls perhaps dlmlnlshlng and LhaL works by promlnenL
arLlsLs such as SLelarc and Crlan have helped garner lnLeresLs ln Lhe sub[ecL.
Powever, works by arLlsLs who uLlllze Lechnology as Lhelr medlum, even Lhough
LhoughL provoklng, ofLen dwell far from dlurnal reallLy and have found Lhelr audlence ln
alLernaLlve creaLlve spaces (8yan 2008). ercepLlbly, Lhrough examples of Wearable
1echnology ln arL, Lhe acL of Lhe user (ln Lhls case, Lhe arLlsL) Lurnlng lnLo performer ls
anchored wlLh Lhe performance-based naLure of Lhe arLlsLlc expresslon lL glves. 1hus, one
can say LhaL ln Lhe dlscourse of wearable arL, Lechnology ls percelved as a medlum for
asslsLlng arLlsLlc expresslon, and Lherefore lL somehow marglnallzes Lhe physlcal human
facLors (such as Lhe user's/arLlsLs' comforL) ln lLs deslgned ob[ecLs.
CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
21

lt ls tbe beqlooloq of tbe oew ceototy.. we woot to lmoqloe ootselves ooew. lf vlsool ott, bopelessly
stock lo tecyclloq lts teceot blstoty ovet ooJ ovet, coo oo looqet belp os, wbete coo we toto? otet fosbloo.
losbloo ls evetytbloq cootempototy ott ls oot. lt ls coocetoeJ wltb beooty, lt ls well owote of lts blstoty ovet
mooy ceototles, totbet tboo jost teceot JecoJes, lt ls mote semlotlcolly loyeteJ tboo tbe most complex
lbotosbop composlte yoo evet wotkeJ oo, ooJ lt bos ooe evet pteseot coosttolot (ooJ ooly coosttolots coo
leoJ to qteot ott) - tbe bomoo flqote. 1bls coosttolot qlves tbe ott of fosbloo lts vltollty, lts optlmlsm ooJ lts
loveotlveoess." (Manovlch 2001)

1he above paragraph from new medla guru, Lev Manovlch, provlded Lhe reallzaLlon
of fashlon (broadly deflned) as arL and Lhus poLenLlally banlshed Lhe opposlLlon beLween
fashlon and arL, and raLher embraced Lhe ad[olnlng of boLh. Works menLloned ln Lhe
prevlous secLlon (Wearable 1echnology ln lashlon) such as Pusseln Chalayan's 111 (2007)
LranslaLed fashlon's lnLeresL ln Lechnology and arL. ACM Slggraph's fashlon shows have
Lransformed from CoLh-rock lnsplred runways lnLo more reflned runway shows LhaL lnclude
a caLalogue of varlous works by lndlvldual deslgners and arLlsLs, exhlblLlng how arL ls
embraced by such a Lechnology-drlven communlLy.
1he advancemenL of moblle medla and Lhe mlnlaLurlzaLlon of Lechnology have also
propelled Lhe growLh of Wearable 1echnology ln arL. Works from Laura 8eloff and uanlelle
Wllde effecLlvely adopLed Lechnology by consclously embraclng lLs moblle quallLy.
Wearable 1echnology ln arL also embrace Lhe somaLlc aspecL of Lhe body as lnLerface ln lLs
pracLlce, Lherefore developlng Lhe undersLandlng LhaL pervaslveness ln moblle medla ls aL
Lhe same Llme challenged by wearable arL's fasclnaLlon wlLh Lhe Langlble and physlcal body.
Wearable 1echnology ln arL lnvlLes mulLlple dlsclpllnes lnLo lLs pracLlce:
fashlon/dress, Lechnology, sclence, performaLlve arL: all comblned and enfolded lnLo each
oLher ln a non-derogaLory manner raLher Lhan LhaL shown ln Lhe pasL. Powever, lL ls
essenLlal Lo clarlfy LhaL Lhe performaLlve naLure of wearable arL should noL be confused
wlLh how Wearable 1echnology ls percelved ln Lhls research. 1he revlews of exemplar
works and llLeraLure are used Lo magnlfy Lhe undersLandlng of ways ln whlch Wearable
CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
22
1echnology lnfllLraLes Lhe realm of wearable arL and Lo declpher Lhe dlsLlngulshlng
characLerlsLlcs of Wearable 1echnology ln Lhls research: lLs posslble adopLlon ln a quoLldlan
non-performaLlve conLexL.

2. 4. Wearab|e 1echno|ogy |n the D|scourse of Cybernet|cs
Cne of Lhe essences of Wearable 1echnology ls Lhe wearlng" aspecL of Lechnology,
whlch cenLres on Lhe user/wearer as Lhe maln focus and moLlvaLlon for Lhe Lechnology. An
exploraLlon of Wearable 1echnology lncludlng Lhe dlscourse of cyberneLlcs sLudles, ln
parLlcular cyborg Lheorles, ls necessary slnce Lhe Lerm lLself embodles an undersLandlng of
parL human-parL machlne coexlsLence.
Cne of Lhe flrsL dlscusslons of cyborgs orlglnaLed ouL of cyberneLlcs sLudles ln Lhe
1960 when Manfred S. Clynes and naLhan L. kllne helped coln Lhe Lerm as a concepL LhaL
would allow man Lo maxlmlze hls lnLernal regulaLlon Lo sulL Lhe envlronmenL he may seek
ln ouLer space. Cn Lhe oLher slde of hlsLory, ln Lhls case popular culLure, cyborgs orlglnaLed
from a characLer ln Mary Shelley's lrankensLeln (2003). 1he monsLer ls ofLen clLed as Lhe
flrsL cyborg and was noL born ouL of a woman's womb buL assembled on Lhe operaLlng
Lable from dlfferenL parLs of human body corpses (even derlvaLlve of anclenL romeLhean
myLhology).
1hese Lwo dlsLlncL orlglns emerged as Lwo dlfferenL Lypes: one ls Lhe cyborg as a
concepLuallzed posL-human body whlch ls able Lo exLend hls capablllLles by uslng
exLenslons and prosLheLlcs (wheLher soclal or physlcal) and cyborg as a monsLrous man-
made belng, boLh have human body parLs. lL ls necessary Lo explaln LhaL Lhe flrsL Lype lLself
acLually conslsLs of Lwo dlfferenL concepLs. 1he flrsL ls Lhe concepL of human wlLh soclal
prosLheLlcs and Lhe second concepL ls a human wlLh physlcal prosLheLlcs or exLenslons.
WlLh Lhe rapld growLh of popular culLure and lLs naLure of belng easlly accepLed and soclally
adapLed or asslmllaLed, Lhe second klnd of cyborg seems Lo overshadow Lhe flrsL ln
conLemporary Llmes.
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23
neverLheless, Lhe flrsL Lype of cyborg LhaL has emerged ln hlsLorlc flcLlon seemed Lo
be noLhlng more Lhan merely concepLual or vlslonary con[ecLure aL Lhe Llme, mosLly almed
aL Lhe world of asLronomy and ouLer space llfe. lf we observe currenL experlence, Lhe reallLy
speaks of lLs own growLh from vlslon Lo facL. 8ased on Andy Clark's (2003) and Wllllam
!ames MlLchell's (2003) deflnlLlons, belng a cyborg does noL necessarlly mean belng able Lo
survlve ln ouLer space by maxlmlzlng lnLernal regulaLlons, buL lL means Lo have connecLlons
wlLh funcLlonlng exLernal regulaLlons Lo survlve buL noL necessarlly envlronmenLal feaLures,
such as condlLlons ln ouLer space.
8ased on an arLlcle ln wlteJ Moqozloe, Parl kunzru (1997) wroLe LhaL Lhe flrsL real
cyborg exlsLed for more Lhan 30 years. lL was a whlLe lab raL, parL of an experlmenLal
program ln Lhe laLe 1930s aL new ?ork's 8ockland SLaLe PosplLal. 1he raL had an lmplanL ln
lLs body, whlch ls a Llny osmoLlc pump LhaL ln[ecLed preclsely conLrolled doses of chemlcals
Lo alLer several of lLs physlologlcal parameLers. lL was parL-organlsm-parL-machlne. Lven
Lhough Lhls sLudy alms Lo learn more abouL human-machlne lnLegraLlon, Lhls experlmenLal
program should be consldered a breakLhrough mllesLone ln Lhe world of cyborg sLudles,
slnce Lhe word organlsm from 'cyborg' could also be lnLerpreLed and exLended Lo anlmals
as well.
1o Louch on Clark's deflnlLlon of a cyborg, Lhe hlsLorlcal perlod of a cyborg sLreLches
back much earller Lhan Lhe dlglLal era, slnce he sLaLes LhaL humans became cyborgs mllllon
of years ago (2003). lor example, when Lhe flrsL known human allve ln Lhe paleonLologlcal
world lnvenLed Lools Lo hunL, Lhey could already be consldered Lo be cyborgs, slnce Lhey
were able Lo conLrol LhaL perlod's everyday llfe Lechnology, whlch were Lhelr hunLlng Lools.
AnoLher example ls Lhe use of prosLheLlc body parLs for dlsabled people, whlch were
lnsLlgaLed cenLurles ago. lL ls very lnLeresLlng Lo examlne Lhls parLlcular example furLher. ln
Lhe chlldren's sLory of eLer an by !. M. 8arrle (2003), for example, Lhere ls a vlllaln plraLe
characLer named Pook, who has a fake (prosLheLlc) wooden leg and a hand hook made of
sLeel. 1he wooden leg and Lhe sLeel hand hook could be regarded as everyday llfe
Lechnology ln Lhe sLory, slnce Lhey are used for everyday llfe. 1he funcLlon of Lhe wooden
CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
24
leg ls of course Lo replace Lhe mlsslng leg and Lhe hand hook Lo replace Lhe mlsslng hand.
Lven Lhough Lhese replacemenLs only acL as a subsLlLuLe of mlsslng body parLs, Lhe
funcLlons of Lhe hook lLself can be Lhe equlvalenL of a prosLhesls LhaL offers an exLenslon.
lor lnsLance, wlLh a bare hand someone would flnd lL hard Lo scar someone else physlcally,
whlle wlLh a hook scarrlng anoLher person's skln ls noL a hard Lask Lo fulfll. An even more
lnLeresLlng parL ls Lhe placemenL of Lhe characLer as a vlllaln of Lhe sLory because of Lhe
oLher characLers' fear of hls noLorlous hand hook. Moreover, Pook can be consldered Lo be
one of Lhe flrsL and mosL famous cyborgs ever menLloned ln Lhe world of popular chlldren's
llLeraLure LhaL has been a promlnenL parL ln lndocLrlnaLlng Lhe publlc's vlew of cyborgs
(Shanks 2006).
ln 1960, Manfred L. Clynes and naLhan S. kllne colned Lhe flrsL Lerm cyborg as
human-machlne hybrld LhaL has Lhe ablllLy Lo survlve ln exLra-LerresLrlal condlLlons.
CrlglnaLlng from Lhe words cyberneLlcs" and organlsm", Lhe second syllable of Lhe word
cybotq refers Lo humans as Lhe hosL of Lhe Lechnology (C'Mahony 2008). lurLhermore,
C'Mahony also sLaLed LhaL Lhe cyborg movemenL ls generaLed by Lhe deslre of achlevlng
eLernal llfe (2008). uanlelle Wllde also dlscussed a slmllar sLream of an ldea beLween Lhe
Lwo deflnlLlons menLloned above, LhaL ls Lhe noLlon of exLendlng Lhe body Lhrough
Lechnology, Lhrough her works as an arLlsL (2008). Marshall MacLuhan, medla LheorlsL,
wroLe: 1be wbeel ls oo exteosloo of tbe foot. 1be book oo exteosloo of tbe eye. clotbloq oo
exteosloo of tbe sklo. lecttoolc cltcoltty oo exteosloo of tbe oetvoos system (1994). 1he
enhancemenL of bodlly funcLlons acLs as a very dlrecL and cogenL LranslaLlon of how
Lechnology ls adopLed Lo reassess Lhe corporeal quallLy ln arL, fashlon and compuLlng.

.bybtlJ lJeotltles moJe of, fltst, ootselves ooJ otbet otqoolc cteototes lo oot oocboseo blqb-tecbooloqlcol
qolse os lofotmotloo systems, texts, ooJ etqooomlcolly coottolleJ, lobootloq, Jesltloq, ooJ teptoJocloq
systems. 1be secooJ esseotlol loqteJleot lo cybotqs ls mocbloes lo tbelt qolse, olso, os commoolcotloos
systems, texts, ooJ self-octloq, etqooomlcolly JeslqoeJ oppototoses. (Paraway 1991, p. 1)

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23
AnoLher key Lhlnker ln Lhe fleld of posLhumanlsm, uonna Paraway (1991), descrlbed
Lhe lmage of cyborgs ln four dlfferenL ways. 1he flrsL ls as a cyberneLlc organlsm. 1he
second ls as a hybrld of human and machlne. 1he Lhlrd ls as a creaLure of llved soclal reallLy
and Lhe fourLh ls as a creaLure of flcLlon. She used Lhese lmages as an anchorlng meLaphor,
Lhus creaLlng a complex argumenL LhaL aL lLs rooL, a cyborg ls a pollLlcal consLrucL.
n. kaLherlne Payles' (1999) descrlbed Lhe correlaLlon beLween Lhe posLhuman and
Lhe cyborg as an analogy Lo Lhe exlsLence of an lmaglnaLlve dlscourse sphere, of Lhe
posLhumanlsm dlscourse: ln whlch anoLher sphere exlsLs, LhaL ls Lhe cyborg dlscourse. 1hus,
one can say LhaL cyborglsm ls a form of posLhumanlsm. 1he dlscourse of cyborglsm ls also
fueled by publlc fear, caused by Lhe successful lndocLrlnaLlon of Lhe medla and
enLerLalnmenL lndusLrles, for example ln 1etmlootot (1984), ve8 (1911) and lkobot (2004),
Lo name a few, LhaL lncorporaLe aspecLs of fear Lowards Lhls emerglng, lmpendlng
Lechnology.
Andy Clark ln hls book Nototol-8oto cybotqs (2003), sLaLes LhaL we are all acLually
cyborgs, even wlLhouL embodled machlnes ln our organlc sysLems. 1he facL LhaL we are Lhe
powerful conLrollers of everyday llfe Lechnologles, such as moblle phones, personal
compuLers, eLc. means LhaL we are all cyborgs. Pe belleves LhaL humans have been cyborgs
slnce we exlsLed mllllon of years ago and lLs evoluLlon, Lhe clLy, ln Lhe concepL of urbanlzed
culLure, creaLes a borderless and pervaslve sysLem ln whlch humans lnLeracL wlLh.

cooslJet, lf yoo wlll, Me --. l cooslst of o bloloqlcol cote sottoooJeJ by exteoJeJ, coosttocteJ
systems of boooJotles ooJ oetwotks. 1bese boooJotles ooJ oetwotk sttoctotes ote topoloqlcol ooJ fooctloool
Jools of eocb otbet. 1be boooJotles Jefloe o spoce of cootoloets ooJ ploces (tbe ttoJltloool Jomolo of
otcbltectote), wblle tbe oetwotks estobllsb o spoce of lloks ooJ flows. wolls, feoces, ooJ sklos JlvlJe, potbs,
plpes, ooJ wltes coooect." (MlLchell 2003, p.7)

Clark's noLlon ls corroboraLed by Lhe slmllar deflnlLlon of cyborgs ln Wllllam !.
MlLchell's book Me--. 1be cybotq 5elf AoJ 1be NetwotkeJ clty (2003), ln whlch he deflnes
hlmself (and each of us) as a cyborg. ln Lhls deflnlLlon, MlLchell does noL clearly deflne whaL
CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
26
a cyborg ls, buL raLher, vlews hlmself as a cyborg. 8y sLaLlng LhaL he has a blologlcal core
wlLh sysLems of neLworks and boundarles, he relLeraLes and relnforces Andy Clark's
deflnlLlon. 1here ls a sLrong correlaLlon beLween Lhe Lwo deflnlLlons, and ln Lhe case of
MlLchell's, Lhe cyborg ls lnseparable from lLs neLworks of connecLlon, whlch ls relaLed Lo
ublqulLous compuLlng, wlreless neLwork connecLlvlLy of body-worn devlces and also urban
archlLecLure.
1he fadlng llne beLween Lhe body and lLs surroundlng lnhuman envlronmenL ls also
LranslaLed by AnLhony vldler who sLaLed LhaL Lhe boundarles beLween Lhe organlc and Lhe
lnorganlc are blurred by cyberneLlc and bloLechnologles whlch cause Lhe body Lo be
corrupLed and enveloped by Lechnology, Lhus confuslng Lhe body's deplcLlon of Lhe border
LhaL consLlLuLes Lhe lnner and Lhe ouLer wheLher vlsually, menLally or physlcally (1990). 1he
permeaLlng ablllLy of Lechnology Lo Lhoroughly encapsulaLe Lhe human body ls also
LranslaLed by 1lzlana vlllanl who sLaLed: 1be boJy-tettltoty (corpo-Lerrorlo) poses o
ptoblemotlc fotm of cotpoteol lJeotlty tbot lo becomloq evet mote tootlolzeJ bos teoJeJ to
Jlssolve tbe Jlstloctloos tbot fotmetly exlsteJ betweeo tbe otqoolc ooJ tbe lootqoolc" (1993,
p. 118). Such sLaLemenLs aLLempLed Lo navlgaLe Lhe spaLlal and LerrlLorlal borders of Lhe
body by acknowledglng Lhe obscure gap beLween Lhe body and Lhe non-body.
1hese deflnlLlons dlsplay dlfferenL purposes ln LranslaLlng ldeas of Lhe cyborg as a
dlscourse. Whlle Paraway and Payles look aL Lhe cyborg as a pollLlcal consLrucL, Clark and
MlLchell Lalk abouL Lhem from a Lechnologlcal polnL of vlew. vlllanl and vldler use Lhe
cyborg consLrucL as a vehlcle for LranslaLlng lssues ln maLerlal and soclal pracLlce. Powever,
Lhe auLhors argue along Lhe same basellne: namely LhaL, ln a sense, we are all already
cyborgs, and Lhe very ldea of cyborg" offers a plaLform Lo crlLlque and reLhlnk socleLy,
lncludlng Lhe lnLerdependencles beLween socleLy's and Lechnology's evoluLlon. Slnce lLs
developmenL as a crlLlcal lnLellecLual concepL ln Lhe 1980s, Lhe cyborg meLaphor has been
used ln sLraLeglzlng sclenLlflc and Lechnologlcal sLudles, lnfused wlLh greaLer undersLandlng
of Lhe relaLlonshlp beLween culLure and naLure.
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27
Puman ablllLy Lo uLlllze hls/her surroundlngs as a form of prosLheLlc or exLenslon,
wheLher Lechnologlcally, soclally, or even as a plaLform of crlLlque, provldes evldence of
how Wearable 1echnology performs as a physlcal rendlLlon of cyberneLlcs Lheory. 1hus, Lhe
challenge for deslgners lles ln lncorporaLlng or referrlng Lo Lhese Lheorles LhaL have Lhe
poLenLlal Lo enhance Lhelr lnLellecLual reasonlng ln execuLlng good Wearable 1echnology
deslgn pracLlce ln.
LxlsLlng llLeraLure of Lhe cyberneLlcs dlscourse has also been lnLerchanglng nuances
and ldeas wlLh works ln popular culLure and medla. ln Lhe followlng secLlon, Lhe dlalogue
beLween Lhem wlll be dlscussed Lo undersLand more of Lhe Wearable 1echnology
phenomenon.

2. S. Wearab|e 1echno|ogy |n opu|ar Cu|ture
ln sclence flcLlon popular culLure, Lhe flgure of Lhe cyborg ls represenLed noL
necessarlly as an auLomaLed roboL buL advanced creaLlons LhaL conLlnuously relLeraLe and
also LhreaLen our undersLandlng of whaL lL means Lo be human. Cne of Lhe mosL famous
and earllesL cyberpunk sclence flcLlon llLerary works menLlonlng and descrlblng Wearable
1echnology ls Wllllam Clbson's Neotomoocet (2007)- flrsL publlshed ln 1984, whlch Lells Lhe
sLory of a characLer named Penry uorseLL Case. ln Lhe sLory, an augmenLed sLreeL
samural" named Molly Mllllons, who owns and uLlllzes numerous gadgeLs, lncludlng
wearable devlces, helps Case. An lnLeresLlng aspecL of Lhe novel ls LhaL Lhe sLoryllne cenLres
on Lhe ldea of merglng Lhe physlcal body and Lhe machlnery and flowlng daLa. 1hus,
lnLrlnslcally woven layers beLween Lhe Lhree creaLe and shape a complex unA"-llke web of
elemenLs. AnoLher plvoLal sclence flcLlon llLerary work ln Lhe subgenre of Cyberpunk ls
LlLled 5oow ctosb by neal SLephenson (1992), whlch narraLes a raLher slmllar sLoryllne of
human/machlne hybrld. Mary Shelley's ltookeostelo also developed a slmllar narraLlon ln
whlch Lhe maln characLer was bullL by assembllng body parLs of human corpses and made
allve by Lhe help of a mechanlcal sysLem.
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28
lurLhermore, ln Sclence llcLlon movles or moLlon plcLures, Lhere are many examples
ln whlch concepLual wearable Lechnologles are seen, such as wearable compuLer packs ln
5tot 1tek (2009) and 2001. A 5poce OJyssey (1968), wlteJ Cloves lo ltoo Moo (2008) and
Mlootlty kepott (2002), Pead-up dlsplays ln 5tot 1tek (2009) and Cl Ioe. 1be klse of cobto
(2009), eLc. An lnLeresLlng phenomenon found ln Lhese flcLlLlous wearable Lechnologles or
devlces ls LhaL mosL of Lhem have bullL-ln neLworklng capablllLles, exLendlng Lhe powerful
funcLlonallLy and usablllLy for Lhe wearer.
Puman-CompuLer lnLeracLlon (or PCl) ln Lhese flcLlonal wearable devlces ls cruclal ln
LhaL mosL of Lhe sLoryllnes exhlblL characLers LhaL are seen Lo be havlng some sense of
bargalnlng lnLeracLlon wlLh Lhe compuLers/wearable devlces/machlnes. lL ls arguable LhaL
Sclence llcLlon moLlon plcLures and llLeraLure lmpose a slgnlflcanL lmpacL on Lhe
developmenL and lnvenLlon process of wearable Lechnologles ln real physlcal llfe. 1hese
examples also lnLersecL wlLh Lheorles from Lhe cyberneLlcs dlscourse where Lhe human
body ls seen Lo be merglng seamlessly wlLh Lechnology and Lhus augmenLlng Lhe capablllLy
of Lhe body. lL ls lnLrlgulng LhaL mosL of our experlences ln deallng wlLh Lechnologlcal
devlces are collecLlvely slmllar and lnclude aL some polnL, momenLs of
bargalnlng/negoLlaLlng" wlLh Lhe funcLlonallLy and Lhe usablllLy of a devlce or Lhe machlne
and neLwork lL lnhablLs. lf one ls Lo locaLe cyborgs as an ldea ln popular culLure, lL ls
arguable LhaL lL ls clearly ldenLlfled wlLh our fasclnaLlon wlLh Lhe fuslon beLween human
and Lechnology buL ls noneLheless lnLegral Lo our way of Lhlnklng abouL Lhe world.

2. 6. Aesthet|c Sub[ect|v|ty vs. Wearab|e 1echno|ogy Des|gn
lL ls lmporLanL Lo undersLand how Wearable 1echnology ls lnLerpreLed ln Lhe
conLexL of Lhls research. As Lhe resulL of a crlLlcal readlng of selecLed llLeraLure and exlsLlng
examples, lL ls lnevlLable LhaL Wearable 1echnology permeaLes and draws upon several
flelds, ranglng from compuLlng, fashlon, LexLlles, pop culLure, Lo cyberneLlcs dlscourse. 1he
Lerm Wearable 1echnology lLself ls ofLen deplcLed ln a broad and loose manner and lLs
deflnlLlon varles accordlngly Lo each fleld lL relaLes Lo.
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ln her book lashlonable 1echnology, Sablne Seymour deflned 'fashlonable
wearables' as: JeslqoeJ qotmeots, occessotles, ot jewellety tbot combloe oestbetlcs ooJ
style wltb fooctloool tecbooloqy" (Seymour 2008, p. 12). 1hls deflnlLlon falls closesL Lo Lhe
way ln whlch Wearable 1echnology ls deplcLed ln Lhls research, however Lhe words
'aesLheLlcs' and 'sLyle' quesLlon Lhe deslgn pracLlce ln Wearable 1echnology. WlLLgensLeln
sLaLed, oo oestbetlc exploootloo ls oot o coosol exploootloo" (WlLLgensLeln 2007, p. 18).
1hls slgnlfles Lhe sub[ecLlvlLy ln aesLheLlcs LhaL ls responslve Lo lndlvlduals. Sub[ecLlveness ln
fashlon relaLes Lo lLs funcLlon as a mode for self-expresslon, whlch varles from one person
Lo anoLher. ln order Lo creaLe an aesLheLlcally pleaslng smarL Wearable 1echnology LhaL
caLers Lo each lndlvldual's sub[ecLlvlLy requlres careful conslderaLlon by Lhe deslgner ln
Lhelr undersLandlng of Lhe user. WhaL does 'aesLheLlcally pleaslng' mean? Pow does lL
relaLe Lo deslgnlng smarL Wearable 1echnology?
Lmmanuel kanL ln Lhe ctltlpoe of lowet IoJqemeot sLaLed LhaL Lhe sub[ecLlve
prlnclple ls Lhe foundaLlon of [udgmenL of LasLe, buL lL has unlversal valldlLy. 1hls sub[ecLlve
prlnclple deLermlnes whaL pleases or dlspleases us from a beauLlful ob[ecL only Lhrough
feellng, noL Lhrough concepLs (kanL 2000). 8eauLlful, accordlng Lo kanL ls coqolzeJ wltboot
o coocept os tbe object of o oecessoty sotlsfoctloo" (kanL 2000, p. 240). kanL also polnLs ouL
LhaL sub[ecLlvlLy ln aesLheLlc [udgmenL ls noL based on Lhe prlnclples of our wlll (kanL 1997).
lurLher on, he sLaLed LhaL unlversal or general accepLablllLy ln Lhe ldea of aesLheLlcs ls
achleved Lhrough Lhe prlnclple of common sense - seosos commools. lL ls very lmporLanL Lo
underllne LhaL kanL's undersLandlng of seosos commools ls based on Lhe cognlLlve
capaclLles LhaL everyone has and exlsLs ln a unlversally ob[ecLlve manner.
8eferrlng Lo nlgel Cross ln hls paper 'naLural lnLelllgence ln ueslgn', Lhls ablllLy ln
deslgnlng ls parL of human lnLelllgence and lL exlsLs naLurally ln every lndlvldual (Cross
1998). 1hls concurs wlLh kanL's undersLandlng of sub[ecLlve aesLheLlcs LhaL exlsLs ln each
person sourced from 'lnner feellng'. Powever, Cross also sLaLed LhaL some people are
beLLer deslgners Lhan oLhers due Lo Lhe varleLy of posslble geneLlc endowmenL or Lhrough
soclal and educaLlonal developmenL. 1hls clearly slgnlfles LhaL Lhere ls a form of concepLual
CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
30
sLrucLure LhaL can explaln Lhe ablllLy Lo deslgn beLLer buL Lhe ablllLy lLself exlsLs ln every
lndlvldual. 8eauLy, accordlng Lo kanL, ls fllled wlLh personal LasLe and Lhere ls no way Lo
value lL wlLh a concepLual unlversal prlnclple. ln addlLlon, Lhere ls no emplrlcal ground Lo
challenge Lhe [udgmenL of LasLe as lL relaLes Lo lndlvldual aesLheLlcs.
1herefore, a clear dlfferenLlaLlon beLween sub[ecLlve aesLheLlc [udgemenL and
deslgn acLlvlLy LhaL responds Lo lndlvldual aesLheLlcs ls necessary. Sub[ecLlve aesLheLlc
[udgemenL exlsLs on Lhe base of non-emplrlcal grounds and orlglns ln Lhe human necesslLy
of beauLy (LhaL cannoL be exhausLed as a parLlcular exemplar of a prlnclple or of a concepL).
Cn Lhe oLher hand, deslgn acLlvlLy ls noL based on feellngs, buL raLher, lL comprlses a
mlxLure of creaLlvlLy and analyLlcal reasonlng (uorsL 2006). Accordlng Lo kees uorsL ln hls
paper, 'Layers of ueslgn: undersLandlng ueslgn racLlce': o qooJ Jeslqo ptoctlce ls sttooq
ooJ cooslsteot lo lts lotellectool cote (lo lts meooloq-qlvloq ooJ voloe stotemeots), petvoslve
ooJ oll eocompossloq lo lts exptessloo" (2009, p. 163). 1hls sLaLemenL shows LhaL deslgn
requlres a form of sLrucLurlng of lnformaLlon ln lLs acLlvlLy and LhaL Lhls lnformaLlon does
noL rely on Lhe 'lnner feellng' of each lndlvldual.
Pow does sub[ecLlve aesLheLlc [udgemenL ln fashlon relaLe Lo Lhe deslgn process of
smarL Wearable 1echnology dlscussed ln Lhls research? 8eferrlng agaln Lo kanL's ldea LhaL
aesLheLlc necesslLy, l.e., [udgemenL of LasLe, dlffers from one person Lo anoLher buL
ob[ecLlvely exlsLs ln each person as common sense, ln relaLlon Lo deslgn acLlvlLy, Lhls
undersLandlng of kanL's aesLheLlc Lheory creaLes Lhe ldea LhaL noL only Lhe user, buL also
Lhe deslgner, has lndlvldual sub[ecLlvlLy ln aesLheLlc [udgmenLs. WhaL dlfferenLlaLes Lhe
user and Lhe deslgner ls Lhe deflnlLlon of deslgn lLself: Lhe creaLlon of ob[ecLs, lnformaLlon,
envlronmenLs, servlces eLc. LhaL afford Lhe opporLunlLy for people Lo creaLe value ln Lhelr
use" (Mel[kamp 2000, LancasLer 1991). 1hls deflnlLlon lndlcaLes LhaL Lhe purpose of deslgn
acLlvlLy ls focused on Lhe user and done by Lhe deslgner.
kanL has sLaLed lL ls noL plauslble Lo concepLuallze Lhe sLrucLure of beauLy (kanL
2000) and Lherefore deslgners are noL challenged Lo do so, buL raLher, uLlllze Lhelr own
CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
31
aesLheLlc sub[ecLlvlLy as lnLulLlon ln lmplemenLlng deslgn acLlvlLy. nlgel Cross (1999) ln hls
paper 'naLural lnLelllgence ln ueslgn' llsLed whaL experL deslgners say abouL deslgn:
ueslgn ls rheLorlcal: ln consLrucLlng a deslgn proposal, consLrucLs a parLlcular klnd of
argumenL, ln whlch a flnal concluslon ls developed agalnsL boLh known goals and
prevlously unsuspecLed lmpllcaLlons.
ueslgn ls exploraLory: ln Lhe process, deslgners seek ouL Lo flnd new soluLlons Lo Lhe
glven problem raLher Lhan reLurn wlLh already famlllar example or soluLlon.
ueslgn ls emergenL: ln lLs process, Lhe soluLlon-concepL mlghL be developed
LogeLher ln relevancy wlLh Lhe problem concepL.
ueslgn ls opporLunlsLlc: Lhe declslon LhaL ls Laken durlng deslgn process ls lnfluenced
by whaL ls learned along Lhe way, whlch may lnclude posslble fuLure problems. 1hls
means Lhe exploraLlon paLh cannoL be predlcLed oLher Lhan by golng Lhrough Lhe
process lLself.
ueslgn ls abducLlve: Lhe reasonlng process ln deslgn ls lnLulLlve and dlfferenL from
Lhe more famlllar concepLs of lnducLlve and deducLlve reasonlng. 1he emphaslzed
role of 'lnLulLlon' ln reasonlng lnvolves Lhe necessary sLep from funcLlon Lo form.
ueslgn ls reflecLlve: Lhe deslgner has Lo have a form of medlum ln expresslng parLly
formed ldeas and Lo be reflecLed upon (conslder, revlse, develop, re[ecL and reLurn).
ueslgn ls amblguous: lL Lends Lo have early LenLaLlve soluLlons LhaL are kepL
uncerLaln and open. 1hese are ofLen prepared by deslgners as necessary soluLlon-
concepLs LhaL may be lmpreclse and lnconcluslve.
ueslgn ls rlsky: deslgn ls ofLen uncomforLable and requlres rlsk-Laklng.

1he aforemenLloned llsL can be regarded as a seL of characLerlsLlcs LhaL comprlse
deslgn. 1hese characLerlsLlcs reveal how Lhe deslgn process necesslLaLes problem solvlng Lo
achleve a soluLlon and lmparL mlnor sub[ecLlve aesLheLlc [udgemenLs ln lLs lnLulLlve
reasonlng. AesLheLlc sub[ecLlvlLy as parL of human percepLlve ablllLy LhaL ls lnfluenced by
Llme, culLure and oLher varlous soclologlcal grounds, affecLs unlversally accepLed aesLheLlc
CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
32
[udgemenL (lord 2009). 1hus, Lhe role of deslgn ls Lo lncorporaLe Lhese lnfluences by
Lransformlng absLracL ldeas lnLo ob[ecLs LhaL fulfll Lhe user's necesslLy. lL ls arguable LhaL ln
smarL Wearable 1echnology, Lhe more successfully deslgned for lLs purpose an ob[ecL ls, Lhe
more appeallng lL ls Lo Lhe user. 1he Lerm 'successfully deslgned' lnvlLes mulLlple quesLlons
as Lo whaL consLlLuLes such quallLy, especlally ln Wearable 1echnology wlLh lLs body-worn
naLure and lnLerdlsclpllnary naLure.

2. 7. Art + Iash|on + Comput|ng = Wearab|e 1echno|ogy?
Works and llLeraLure revlewed ln Lhe prevlous secLlons provlde background
knowledge of exlsLlng examples of Wearable 1echnology from many dlsclpllnes. A few, noL
yeL all, characLerlsLlcs have been swlfLly Louched upon buL sLlll requlre furLher elaboraLlon
ln order Lo clarlfy Lhe consLlLuLlon of Wearable 1echnology ln Lhls research.
ln Lhe fleld of compuLlng, Wearable 1echnology ls able Lo progress lLs developmenL
naLurally Lhrough Lhe advancemenL of moblle compuLlng and medla, whlch ls Lyplfled by
Lhe mlnlaLurlzaLlon of hardware. lLs shorLfall ln lncorporaLlng Lhe user's corporeal quallLy ls
evldenced by a sLrong emphasls on funcLlonallLy, whlch resulLs ln Lhe 'borg' aesLheLlcs. 1he
ldea of merely embeddlng Lechnology Lo pre-exlsLlng garmenLs conLrasLs Lhe approach
found ln Lhe dlsclpllne of fashlon.
Cn Lhe oLher hand, fashlon, whlch has 'wearlng' as parL of lLs lnsLlLuLlonal bellef,
lncorporaLes Lechnology by approachlng lL as a parL of lLs deslgned aesLheLlcs. 1hus, Lhe
role of Lechnology ln Lhls dlsclpllne places more emphasls on Lechnology as an ornamenLal
elemenL. ln Lhe fleld of wearable arL, Lechnology ls adopLed as a medlum ln asslsLlng arLlsLs
Lo dellver Lhelr pracLlce. 1hls lnduces anoLher undersLandlng of how Lhe emphasls on
Lechnology ln wearable arL ls as a 'Lool' and ls adopLed accordlng Lo Lhe purpose of lLs
arLlsLlc and performaLlve expresslon.
8elLeraLlng kees uorsL's sLaLemenL LhaL good deslgn needs Lo encompass all-round
aspecLs of lnLellecLual meanlng-glvlng value sLaLemenLs and Lo be pervaslve ln Lhe end
producL, lL ls Lhen cruclal Lo explore how Wearable 1echnology also permeaLes Lhe
CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
33
dlscourse of cyberneLlcs as parL of Lhe humanlLles fleld and lLs relaLlonshlp Lo popular
culLure. 1he sLudles of cyberneLlcs and popular culLure porLray Lhe culLural reflecLlon of
Wearable 1echnology and correspond sLrongly Lo Lhe fleld of fashlon, arL and compuLlng.
Lxamlnlng Wearable 1echnology ln Lhe flelds of fashlon, compuLlng, arL, cyberneLlcs
and popular culLure, lL ls evldenL LhaL Wearable 1echnology ls an lnLerdlsclpllnary fleld and
ln order Lo elaboraLe Lhe poslLlon of Lhls research across Lhose flelds, a [usLlfylng deflnlLlon
ls necessary LhaL encompasses Lhese deslgn challenges. Pence, smarL Wearable 1echnology
here may be consLrued as o weotoble Jevlce wltb tbe oblllty lo seosloq o oset cootextoolly lo
lts fooctloool ooJ exptesslve poolltles. 1hus, tbe cbolleoqe ls lo Jeslqoloq o Jevlce tbot
voloes exptesslveoess ooJ fooctlooollty epoolly wblle cootJlootloq o level of smottoess
emboJleJ to tbe system.

2. 8. Lx|st|ng 1heor|es |n Des|gn|ng Wearab|e 1echno|ogy
Cver lLs developmenL, several Lheorles provldlng guldellnes for deslgners ln Lhe
sLages of deslgnlng Wearable 1echnology have emerged as Lhe resulL of on-hand pracLlce
and experlmenLs. Lach of Lhese guldellnes has aLLempLed Lo formulaLe cerLaln deslgn
aLLrlbuLes Lo help deslgners engaglng wlLh Lhe lnLerdlsclpllnary process ln deslgnlng
Wearable 1echnology.
C'Sulllvan and lgoe (2006) llsLed overall componenLs LhaL are lmporLanL ln Lhe
consLrucLlon of physlcal compuLlng, whlch are Lhen used as caLegorles for conslderaLlon by
Sablne Seymour (2008) ln her book as Lhe Lechnlcal componenLs of lashlonable Wearables:
lnLerfaces (connecLors, wlres, anLennas, eLc.), Mlcroprocessors, lnpuLs, CuLpuLs, SofLware,
Lnergy and MaLerlals. lurLhermore, she also sLaLed LhaL Lhe requlred lnLeracLlon dlcLaLes
Lhe cholce of lnpuLs and ouLpuLs Lypes (Seymour 2008).
1he examples of lnpuLs and ouLpuLs menLloned clarlfy Lhe llnk wlLh Lhe fleld of
physlcal compuLlng or more preclsely 'ublqulLous compuLlng'. Mark Welser aL Lhe xerox
alo AlLo 8esearch CenLre colned Lhls Lerm, whlch means LhaL Lhe presence of compuLlng ls
seamlessly everywhere (1991). ln Lhe 1990s l8M colned Lhe Lerm 'pervaslve compuLlng',
CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
34
whlch, over Lhe years, was ofLen used ln parallel Lo ublqulLous compuLlng. Wlreless
communlcaLlon as parL of Lhese flelds has lmparLed Lhe advance of seamless daLa Lransfer
from embedded lnpuLs Lo ouLpuLs and vlce versa (e.g. vla uM1S, Wl-ll, CS, C8S,
8lueLooLh, lnfrared, eLc.).

1ab|e 1. Inputs and Cutputs 1ypes of Iash|onab|e Wearab|es (Seymour 2008).
lnpuLs
Act|ve
Consclously conLrolled by a wearer
wheLher by uslng LacLlle or acousLlc
feedback sysLem LhaL allows an lnLulLlve
use of Lhe garmenL.
Lxamples:
ressure, bend, moLlon,
blomeLrlc daLa, sound,
vlsuals, humldlLy,
proxlmlLy, orlenLaLlon,
dlsplacemenL, smell,
acceleraLlon, eLc.
ass|ve
1yplcally blomeLrlc daLa gaLhered from
Lhe body or auLomaLlc daLa feeds vla
wlreless Lransmlsslon uslng
envlronmenLal daLa.
CuLpuLs
1he many ouLpuL opLlons can slmulaLe
all flve human senses:
- 1ouch - ScenL
- Sound - 1asLe
- vlsual
Lxamples:
LLus, LhermochromaLlc
lnks, phoLochromaLlc
lnks, speakers,
conducLlve fabrlcs,
scenL capsules, eLc.


Seamless daLa Lransfer ls also enhanced Lhrough currenL research ln
nanoLechnologles, elecLronlc LexLlles, bloLechnologles and dlglLal Lechnologles, whlch wlll
lead Lo Lrue lnLegraLlon beLween funcLlonallLy and aesLheLlc deslgn (Seymour 2008).
lurLhermore, Seymour sLaLed LhaL ln order Lo creaLe successful wearable deslgns, deslgners
CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
33
need Lo comprehenslvely undersLand Lhe purpose, Lhe user, Lhe lnLeracLlon and Lhe rlghL
prlce polnL (ln a commerclal conLexL) (2008). WlLhln Lhe deslgnlng acLlvlLy of lashlonable
Wearables lLself, Seymour provlded a seL of Lhe followlng guldellnes:

1ab|e 2. Gu|de||ne for the Construct|on of Iash|onab|e Wearab|es (Seymour 2008).
Iactor Cons|derat|ons
8ody
ergonomlcs/wearablllLy
lacemenL, form language, human movemenL,
proxlmlLy, slzlng, aLLachmenLs, welghL,
accesslblllLy, heaL, body shape, comforL, cuL of
garmenL, comparLmenLs
ercepLlon AesLheLlcs, look & feel, deslgn, culLural and
psychologlcal funcLlons
luncLlonallLy usable lnLeracLlon wlLh Lhe sysLem (lnpuLs &
ouLpuLs), wearer's conLrol, modular consLrucLlon
for mulLl-purpose
1echnology ublqulLous compuLlng, sensor Lechnology,
embedded sysLems deslgn, physlcal compuLlng
MaLerlals lnLeracLlve or reacLlve maLerlals/LexLlles,
elecLronlcs LexLlle, washlng/cleanlng, shleldlng,
durablllLy
Lnergy 8aLLerles, solar, klneLlc, fuel cells
8ecycle Lcologlcal, blodegradable, modular consLrucLlon
for dlssemble

ln Lhe deslgn process, deslgners are also requlred Lo facLor ln Lhe lnfluence of
embedded Lechnology ln Lhe garmenL and lnLegraLed funcLlonallLy ln elecLronlc LexLlles
Lowards 'wearablllLy'. lranclne Cemperle eL al (1998) have creaLed a seL of deslgn
guldellnes for wearablllLy, whlch lnclude: placemenL, form language, human movemenL,
CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
36
proxemlcs, slzlng, aLLachmenL, conLalnmenL, welghL, accesslblllLy, sensory lnLeracLlon,
Lhermal, aesLheLlcs and long-Lerm use (1998). Powever, noL all of Lhese guldellnes can
necessarlly be applled Lo all deslgn of Wearable 1echnology and only Lhe flrsL slx are
consldered approprlaLe ln a generallzable conLexL, whlle Lhe resL relaLe Lo speclflc deslgn
problems (Cemperle eL al 1998).
WlLhln Lhe fleld of compuLlng, several aLLempLs have also been made Lo esLabllsh
aLLrlbuLes/characLerlsLlcs and guldellnes for deslgnlng wearable compuLers. 1had SLarner
(2001) argued LhaL wearable compuLers requlres several key aLLrlbuLes:
- letslst ooJ ptovlJe coostoot occess to lofotmotloo setvlces: 1he devlce ls deslgned Lo
serve Lhe user conLlnuously, Lhus provldlng qulck access, moblllLy and mlnlmal physlcal
dlsLurbance for Lhe user.
- 5eose ooJ moJel cootext: 1he devlce needs Lo embed smarL sysLem LhaL ls lnLulLlve ln
placlng lLs conLexL and able Lo correspond or reacLlve Lo user's lnLeracLlve lnpuL by
provldlng cues and feedbacks. 1he devlce also requlres malleablllLy for Lhe user ln Lhe
conLexL of lLs ad[usLable seLLlng.
- AJopt lotetoctloo moJolltles boseJ oo tbe osets cootext: 1he devlce requlres
adapLablllLy Lo Lhe user's envlronmenL and ls able Lo dellver Lasks from Lhe user wlLh
mlnlmal deskLop-compuLer based Lype of lnLeracLlon and ad[usL lLs feedback
accordlngly Lo Lhe user's prlvacy needs.
- Aoqmeot ooJ meJlote lotetoctloos wltb tbe osets eovltoomeot: 1he wearable devlce
needs Lo be able Lo deLecL and complle unlversal lnformaLlon relevanL Lo Lhe user's
conLexL and envlronmenL, Lhus provldlng fllLraLlon accordlng Lo Lhe user's preferences.
1he seL of aLLrlbuLes by SLarner emphaslzes Lhe funcLlon of wearable compuLers as a
form of medlaLor beLween Lhe user and Lhe user's envlronmenLs (physlcal and vlrLual) and
provldes asslsLance Lhrough lLs lnLerface. lurLhermore, SLarner also acknowledged several
challenges for deslgnlng wearable compuLers LhaL lnclude: power use, heaL dlsslpaLlon,
neLworklng, prlvacy, lnLerface deslgn and wearable compuLer as lnLellecLual Lools (2001).
CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
37
korLuem eL al have also llsLed four fundamenLal elemenLs of wearable compuLlng,
whlch can be seen as a seL of characLerlsLlcs LhaL deflne wearable compuLlng deslgn
(korLuem eL al 1998):
- Pands-free or one-handed operaLlon. 1he deslgn needs Lo enable Lhe user for slngle-
handed lnLeracLlon requlrlng alLernaLlve lnpuL and ouLpuL lnLerface.
- MoblllLy. 1he devlce enables Lhe user Lo deparL from sLaLlc or deskLop based lnLeracLlon
and allows Lhe user Lo move freely whlle wearlng Lhe devlce.
- AugmenLed-8eallLy. 1he devlce ls able Lo presenL lnformaLlon ln a non-obLruslve
manner Lo Lhe user, dependlng on Lhe requlred conLexL.
1he aforemenLloned aLLrlbuLes of Lhe wearable compuLer creaLe Lhe ldea of locaLlng
lLs role ln Wearable 1echnology. 1he challenges found ln wearable compuLers are embraced
as parL of Lhe deslgn guldellnes for lashlonable Wearables (Seymour 2008). lurLhermore,
Cemperle's deslgn guldellnes for wearablllLy are Laken as parL of Seymour's hollsLlc
approach. Several oLher 'requlremenLs' ln Lhe deslgn needs of Wearable 1echnology have
also emerged ln recenL years. 1ao's (2001) caLegorlzaLlon of Lhese requlremenLs lncludes:
funcLlonallLy, connecLablllLy, durablllLy, malnLalnablllLy, usablllLy ln combaL,
manufacLurablllLy, wearablllLy, and affordablllLy. Cho (2004) clusLered her analysls and
concluded Lhe requlremenLs of Wearable 1echnology (or ln her Lerm 'dlglLal cloLhlng')
lnclude: durablllLy, easy care, comforL, safeLy and aesLheLlc saLlsfacLlon.
Along wlLh acknowledglng mulLlple deslgn guldellnes and Lheorles exlsLlng ln Lhe
fleld, lL may be valuable Lo undersLand Lhe deslgn process employed ln Lhe developmenL of
Wearable 1echnology. 1he quesLlon of when and how deslgners can use Lhese deslgn
aLLrlbuLes ln a deslgn process reveals furLher undersLandlng of lLs characLerlsLlcs and
quallLles. ln Lhe process, deslgn acLlvlLy draws upon a serles of problem-solvlng procedures
whereby deslgners allocaLe problems, synLheslze research flndlngs and lmplemenL soluLlons
ln (vlsual) [or maLerlal] forms (Lee eL al 2010). Lach deslgn process ls recognlzably dlfferenL
and unlque, relaLlve Lo lLs speclflc deslgn feaLures and demands. As an lnLerdlsclpllnary
fleld, Lhe complexlLy of Wearable 1echnology lnvlLes mulLlple deslgn conslderaLlons LhaL are
CPA1L8 2: Ll1L8A1u8L 8LvlLW
38
Lled ln wlLh dlfferenL dlsclpllnes. A comparaLlve sLudy by Lee eL al, elaboraLed dlfferences
beLween deslgn processes of varlous dlsclpllnes, resulLlng ln a deslgn process model for
smarL cloLhlng, a Lype of apparel LhaL comblnes elecLronlc englneerlng and apparel deslgn
(2010). 1he smarL cloLhlng deslgn process model comprlses of an experlmenLal sLage ln
whlch an lnlLlal deslgn proLoLype ls developed and Lhen uLlllzed as an analyLlcal Lool ln
reallzlng deslgn problems, whlch leads Lo conLexL-speclflc deslgn conslderaLlons. Moreover,
Lhe smarL cloLhlng deslgn process also lncludes rellablllLy and performance LesLlng before
enLerlng Lhe flnal producLlon sLage (Lee eL al 2004). 1hls parLlcular deslgn process model
dlsplays added layers of complexlLy ln lLs developmenL sLage, so much so LhaL a seL of
slmpllfled deslgn aLLrlbuLes ls necessary.

CPA1L8 3: uLSlCn A118l8u1LS Cl WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC?
39
CnA1Lk 3
DLSIGN A11kI8U1LS CI WLAkA8LL 1LCnNCLCG

1he prevlously menLloned deslgn aLLrlbuLes, guldellnes, challenges and
requlremenLs exlsLenL across a range of flelds conLrlbuLe Lo our undersLandlng of Lhe way ln
whlch Wearable 1echnology lnLerLwlnes mulLlple dlsclpllnes and lf Lhe deslgn of Wearable
1echnology ls successful, no predomlnanL dlsclpllne overrldes anoLher. 8ased on
observaLlon of dlfferenL examples from Lhls array of flelds, lL ls apparenL LhaL wearable
compuLlng ls an essenLlal parL of creaLlng a successful user lnLerface. A fashlonable
approach Lo deslgnlng plays an equal role ln accompllshlng comprehenslve deslgn pracLlce
of Wearable 1echnology.
1hls research aLLempLs Lo develop a seL of deslgn aLLrlbuLes for Wearable
1echnology drawlng from Lhe examlnaLlon of mulLlple Lheorles and Lhelr dlfferenL flelds.
1he lnlLlal moLlvaLlon for developlng Lhese new deslgn aLLrlbuLes was a response Lo Lhe
complexlLy of asslmllaLlng exlsLlng deslgn Lheorles and Lhe mulLl-layered declslons requlred
Lo effecLlvely deslgn Wearable 1echnology. 1he apparenL relaLlonshlp beLween a Lechnlcal
approach Lo wearable compuLlng and a deslgn-based approach from fashlon adds
complexlLy LhaL calls for a more slmpllsLlc, yeL hollsLlc, and flexlble approach, l.e. LhaL allows
deslgners Lo undersLand and deLangle Lhe sLeps of Lhe deslgn process, whlle slmulLaneously
remalnlng conLexL-aware.
1herefore, for Lhe purpose of caLegorlzlng and evaluaLlng Lhe deslgn process of
Wearable 1echnology, Lhe proposed deslgn aLLrlbuLes recognlze slgnlflcanL lnLeracLlons
beLween Lhem wlLh Lhe ob[ecLlve of dellneaLlng general sLraLa of deslgn conslderaLlons ln
Lhe whole process of deslgnlng Wearable 1echnology. 1hls deslgn paradlgm works closely
wlLh Lhe needs of Lhe user (lnfluenced by user cenLred deslgn), whlch may lead Lo Lhe
deslgn of more comforLable, lnLulLlve, aesLheLlcally-pleaslng, helpful and ulLlmaLely
wearable ouLcomes. lL ls lmporLanL Lo sLaLe aL Lhe ouLseL LhaL Lhese aLLrlbuLes do noL
CPA1L8 3: uLSlCn A118l8u1LS Cl WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC?
40
oppose each oLher and Lhe researcher acknowledges LhaL Lhere are slgnlflcanL overlaps or
lnLerplays.
3. 1. Des|gn Attr|butes of Wearab|e 1echno|ogy
3. 1. 1. S|ze]D|mens|ons
1he dlmenslons of Lhe devlce play a slgnlflcanL role ln Lhe deslgn of Wearable
1echnology. Levlsohn argues LhaL an lnLegral elemenL of lnLeracLlve sysLems should be Lhe
body (Levlsohn 2007). 1herefore, Lhe wearable devlce dlmenslons should noL exceed Lhe
user's expecLaLlon and anaLomy oLherwlse Lhe deslgn could be consldered a fallure. Addlng
load Lo Lhe body may affecL Lhe user's physlcal facLors. 1he mechanlcs of Lhe
musculoskeleLal sysLem ls alLered lmmedlaLely once load ls added Lo Lhe user's body (8aber
eL al. 1999). Moreover, Lhe effecLs of Lhe devlce on Lhe user's comforL and freedom of
movemenL plays an lmporLanL parL ln maklng Lhe deslgn fabrlcaLlon declslons.

3. 1. 2. Dev|ce os|t|on
1he poslLlonlng of Lhe devlce ls one of Lhe mosL lmporLanL aLLrlbuLes ln deslgnlng
Wearable 1echnology, slnce Lhls may sLrongly affecL Lhe user's comforL, appearance, and
sensaLlon. ln addlLlon, lL affecLs Lhe lnLeracLlvlLy ln lLs lnpuL and ouLpuL quallLles (volce
recognlLlon, buLLons, vlbro-LacLlle, vlslble, eLc.). 1he deslgn approach Lo poslLlonlng should
conslder ergonomlcs and anaLomy of Lhe human body. An example from one of Lhe
slmplesL deslgns of Wearable 1echnology ls Lhe wrlsLwaLch. lL ls worn on Lhe user's wrlsL,
whlch provldes baslc comforL and ablllLy Lo effecLlvely vlew Llme lnformaLlon for Lhe user.
uesplLe varlous aLLempLs ln hlsLory, lncludlng Lhe pockeL-waLch or clocks worn elsewhere
on Lhe body, mosL Wearable 1echnology examples reLurn Lo Lhe wrlsL-worn devlce.

3. 1. 3. ower Source
1he power source, whlch ls Lhe probably Lhe mosL llmlLlng facLor ln Wearable
1echnology (SLarner 2001), has several polnLs of conslderaLlon. 1he flrsL one ls Lhe Lype of
devlce power source. 1hls flrsL elemenL also deLermlnes Lhe followlng essenLlal
CPA1L8 3: uLSlCn A118l8u1LS Cl WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC?
41
characLerlsLlc, whlch ls longevlLy. lL ls also very lmporLanL Lo conslder wheLher Lhe devlce
power source ls rechargeable or noL. AnoLher elemenL, whlch should noL be overlooked, ls
Lhe quesLlon of wheLher Lhe devlce power source requlres a power polnL ln order Lo
funcLlon. ln oLher words, Lhe quesLlon of corded or cordless power source sLrongly
corresponds Lo lssues of usablllLy and funcLlon and moblllLy.

3. 1. 4. neat
1hls ls a cruclal deslgn aLLrlbuLe LhaL needs careful conslderaLlon slnce heaL affecLs
Lhe user's comforL (and ulLlmaLely safeLy) ln wearlng Lhe devlce. 1he devlce's poslLlon and
enveloplng maLerlal largely affecL proxlmlLy beLween elecLronlc componenLs and Lhe user's
body, whlle lLs power source wlll lnfluence heaL dlsslpaLlon.

3. 1. S. We|ght
1he welghL of Lhe wearable devlce affecLs Lhe user's comforL. 1hls parLlcular lssue ls
lnLerwoven wlLh oLher lssues: power source, slze/dlmenslons and devlce poslLlon. 1he slze
and Lype of power source deLermlnes Lhe slze and dlmenslons of Lhe devlce, and also Lhe
poslLlonlng of Lhe devlce affecLs Lhe user's comforL.
ln order Lo lllusLraLe Lhe effecL of welghL, Craves eL al. (1998) and Mlller eL al.
(1987) dlscovered LhaL uslng wrlsL-welghLs (of 2.3 kg and 1.3kg, respecLlvely) would
lncrease muscular and physlologlcal acLlvlLy Lo move Lhe arm abouL Lhe elbow. A greaLer
amounL of muscular acLlvlLy ls obvlously needed Lo move Lhe elbow once Lhe welghL ls
lncreased. 1he lssue of physlcal consLralnLs of a human body affecLs Lhe success of
Wearable 1echnology deslgns.

3. 1. 6. Durab|||ty]kes|stance
1he reslsLance and durablllLy of Lhe devlce(s) worn on Lhe user's body ls sLrongly
dependenL upon Lhe quallLy and Lhe robusLness of Lhe enveloplng maLerlal. 1here are a few
elemenLs LhaL requlre LhoughLful deslgn declslons, such as: flexlblllLy, absorbency of user's
CPA1L8 3: uLSlCn A118l8u1LS Cl WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC?
42
body naLural excreLlon, heaL dlsLrlbuLlon and robusLness, for example waLer reslsLance for
deslgns lnLended for ouLdoor use, e.g. CS devlces, sporLs devlces, eLc.

3. 1. 7. Washab|||ty
1he washablllLy facLor should be consldered ln Lhe process of maklng deslgn
declslons or whlle evaluaLlng Wearable 1echnology devlces ln order Lo respond Lo hyglene
lssues LhaL arlse as a consequence of usage. Several exemplary alLernaLlves LhaL provlde a
soluLlon Lo Lhls lssue are deLachable or posslbly, waLerproof encased elecLronlcal
componenLs.

3. 1. 8. Lnve|op|ng]Iabr|cat|on
1he cholce of Lhe enveloplng or fabrlcaLlng houslng maLerlal for a wearable devlce ls
relevanL Lo Lhe Lwo facLors menLloned before. WashablllLy and durablllLy need Lo be
anLlclpaLed by deslgn declslons abouL Lhe enveloplng maLerlal selecLed for a wearable
devlce. Lnveloplng/fabrlcaLlon lncludes Lhe cholce of maLerlals, flexlblllLy, and Lhe way ln
whlch lL covers Lhe lnLernal elecLronlcs, and provldes accesslblllLy Lo conLrols or sensors and
dlsplays.

3. 1. 9. Iunct|ona||ty
1he luncLlonallLy of a Wearable 1echnology devlce ls conLexLual dependlng on lLs
purpose. Accordlng Lo 8ens Mel[kamp (2000) deslgn can be deflned as Lhe creaLlon of value
for people. kelvln !. LancasLer (1991) deflned lL as 'tbe cteotloo of objects, lofotmotloo,
eovltoomeots, setvlces, etc. tbot offotJ tbe oppottoolty fot people to cteote voloe lo tbelt
ose'. 1herefore, 'value creaLlon' or funcLlonallLy ls obvlous and lmporLanL ln any klnd of
deslgn fleld ln order Lo acknowledge and fulfll Lhe cllenL's need. ln Lhe case of Wearable
1echnology, lL ls very lmporLanL for a devlce Lo serve lLs purpose upon creaLlon. lor
lnsLance, lf Lhe user ls lnLendlng Lo use a wearable CS sensor LhaL ls able Lo monlLor hearL
raLe, Lhen lL ls very lmporLanL for Lhe devlce Lo dellver Lhe resulLs demanded by Lhe user
CPA1L8 3: uLSlCn A118l8u1LS Cl WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC?
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whlle wearlng or uslng Lhe devlce. SafeLy and healLh producLs, for example, also expecL a
hlgher degree of accuracy and rellablllLy Lhan enLerLalnmenL and playful-purpose devlces.

3. 1. 10. Usab|||ty
1he usablllLy of a Wearable 1echnology devlce can be correlaLed wlLh Lhe word
"navlgaLlon". A user's ablllLy Lo navlgaLe hls/her way ln uslng Lhe devlce lnfluences Lhe
user's engagemenL and lmpresslon of lnLeracLlvlLy and responslveness of Lhe devlce.
1herefore, lL ls very lmporLanL for deslgners of Wearable 1echnology Lo observe slmpllclLy
ln creaLlng a user- frlendly devlce. 1here ls always a balance beLween conLrol and slmpllclLy.
An lncrease ln number/granularlLy of conLrols lncreases complexlLy and runs Lhe rlsks of
creaLlng lncreased confuslon.
!ohn Maeda's lows of 5lmpllclty (2006) ls appllcable for provldlng guldellnes for
deslgnlng usablllLy ln Wearable 1echnology. lor lnsLance, four ouL of Lhe (LoLal of) Len 'Laws
of SlmpllclLy' would already creaLe qulLe a demandlng seL of deslgn guldellnes: 8educe (slze,
wasLe, vlslblllLy and 'clunklness'), Crganlze (sLrucLure and hlerarchles), 1lme [reduce and
use Llme efflclenLly Lo achleve a goal or Lask], and Learn. 1he ldea of reduclng conLrols Lo
achleve Lhe purposed Lask of a wearable wlll beneflL Lhe user wlLh slmpllclLy. ln order Lo
achleve a LhoughLful reducLlon ln deslgn, Lhe deslgner musL carefully organlze Lhe funcLlons
of each conLrol. 1he fourLh law, whlch ls 1lme, suggesLs LhaL Lhe amounL of Llme needed for
a Lask Lo be performed or execuLed affecLs slmpllclLy ln deslgn and can be leveraged Lo
maxlmlse efflclency and pleasure of experlence and responslveness. ln deslgnlng Wearable
1echnology, lL ls very lmporLanL for Lhe devlce Lo be able Lo dellver Lhe Lask for whlch lL ls
purposely deslgned wlLhln an effecLlve perlod of Llme, and especlally conslderlng Lhe facL
LhaL Lhe devlce ls worn on Lhe body.

3. 1. 11. Sensat|on (See|ng, near|ng, etc.)
1he ldea of enhanclng Lhe body's funcLlonallLy and ablllLy ls ofLen Lhe purpose of
wearable expresslons. lL ls essenLlal Lo conslder whaL klnds of sensaLlons Lhe user mlghL
CPA1L8 3: uLSlCn A118l8u1LS Cl WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC?
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recelve whlle uslng Lhe devlce. 1hese sensaLlons could be ln many and varlous forms
creaLlng levels of engagemenL and lnLeracLlvlLy beLween Lhe user and Lhe Wearable
1echnology devlce. lor lnsLance, Lhe sensaLlon of hearlng, seelng, Louchlng, vlbraLlng and
perhaps one day, smell.

3. 1. 12. Connect|v|ty
WlLh Lhe rlse of Lhe lnLerneL age and wlreless communlcaLlon Lechnology, lL ls
lmposslble Lo separaLe Lhls facLor from Lhe deslgn of Wearable 1echnology. Levels of
connecLlvlLy achleved by Lhe user whlle wearlng Wearable 1echnology have Lhe poLenLlal Lo
lncrease levels of engagemenL beLween Lhe user and Lhe devlce and also wlLh Lhe soclal
sphere. 1he developmenL of moblle medla, pervaslve and ublqulLous compuLlng propels
moblllLy of devlce, Lhus lncreaslng poLenLlal funcLlonallLy and usablllLy for Lhe user.
1o elaboraLe Lhls ldea, conslder Lhe soclal mlcro-blogglng webslLe, 1wlLLer. lL has
spawned a new way of communlcaLlng and soclallzlng among lLs users and 1wlLLer can
creaLe soclal connecLlvlLy vla a Wearable 1echnology devlce. A recenL example of Lhe
synLhesls beLween sofLware plaLform (medlum) and Wearable 1echnology ls Lhe 1wlLLer
uress worn by arLlsL, lmogen Peap from collaboraLlng wlLh MorlLz Waldemeyer, durlng Lhe
Crammy Awards 2010 (uybwad 2010).







I|gure 12. Imogen neap at the Grammy Awards 2010 and the LLD co||ar of the
1w|tter dress (Dybwad 2010).

CPA1L8 3: uLSlCn A118l8u1LS Cl WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC?
43
WalLer MorlLz and lmogen Peap creaLed Lhe 1wlLLer dress. lL allows lmogen Peap Lo
recelve LweeLs from her fans and Lhe messages are dlsplayed on Lhe LLu collar of Lhe dress
and lmages are dlsplayed on an lod 1ouch bullL lnLo a purse she carrles. 1he wearable
devlce ls connecLed Lo a wlreless rouLer LhaL, ln Lurn, connecLs Lhe 1wlLLer uress Lo Lhe
vlrLual world. 1he ldea of 'lncludlng Lhe fans' on Lhe Crammy Awards sLage alms Lo creaLe a
Lwo-way connecLlon beLween Lhe fans and Lhe arLlsL, Lhrough Lhe medlum of Lhe Wearable
1echnology devlce. 1he facL LhaL, ln order Lo creaLe Lhe new level of engagemenL wlLh her
fans, she was wearlng a form of Wearable 1echnology LhaL evokes a sense of engagemenL
and generaLes levels of sensaLlon beLween Lhe wearer and her fans.

3. 2. Interre|at|onsh|ps and Cver|aps
ueslgn ALLrlbuLes of Wearable 1echnology
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8ody ergonomlcs/wearablllLy
ercepLlon
luncLlonallLy
1echnology
MaLerlals
Lnergy
8ecycle
= relaLed
I|gure 13. Matr|x d|agram d|sp|ay|ng the re|at|onsh|p between des|gn
cons|derat|ons for Iash|onab|e 1echno|ogy and des|gn attr|butes of Wearab|e 1echno|ogy.

CPA1L8 3: uLSlCn A118l8u1LS Cl WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC?
46
Comparlng deslgn aLLrlbuLes of Wearable 1echnology ln Lhls research Lo Sablne
Seymour's deslgn conslderaLlons for fashlonable 1echnology, Lhere are mulLlple overlaps
dlsplayed on Lhe maLrlx dlagram below. 1hese overlaps explaln Lhe lmporLance of a more
deslgnerly approach Lo aLLalnlng a comprehenslvely user-focused Wearable 1echnology.














I|gure 14. D|agram show|ng |nterre|at|onsh|ps and over|aps w|th|n des|gn
attr|butes of Wearab|e 1echno|ogy.

ln Lhe prevlous dlagram (llgure 13), luncLlonallLy and 1echnology play an lmporLanL
role by overlapplng all Lhe deslgn aLLrlbuLes of Wearable 1echnology. ercepLlon and
Lnergy also requlre aLLenLlve conslderaLlon by Lhe deslgners, whlle Lhe 8ecycle deslgn
conslderaLlon slgnlfles only a mlnor proporLlon ln Lhe deslgn aLLrlbuLes relevanL Lo
Wearable 1echnology. luncLlon, WelghL, SensaLlon, Slze/ulmenslons and
Lnveloplng/labrlcaLlon overlap wlLh mosL of Lhe deslgn conslderaLlons seL ouL by Seymour.
Moreover, by comparlng Lhe Lwo, lL becomes apparenL how deslgn aLLrlbuLes of Wearable
CPA1L8 3: uLSlCn A118l8u1LS Cl WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC?
47
1echnology ln Lhls research aLLempLs Lo unravel Lhe condensed llsL of deslgn conslderaLlons
for lashlonable 1echnology, Lhus provldlng a slmpllfled approach for deslgnlng Wearable
1echnology. luncLlonallLy and 1echnology (from Seymour's llsL) prove Lo be Lhe core
lngredlenLs ln deslgnlng Wearable 1echnology, Lhus clarlfylng LhaL good deslgn ls execuLed
ln accordance wlLh a full undersLandlng lLs deslgn purpose and a Lhorough masLerlng of Lhe
supporLlng Lechnology on Lhe parL of Lhe deslgner, Lhereby playlng a promlnenL parL ln
achlevlng successful deslgn ln Wearable 1echnology.
WlLhln Lhe seL of deslgn aLLrlbuLes for Wearable 1echnology, Lhere are also overlaps
and lnLerrelaLlonshlps beLween each of Lhem (shown ln llgure 14) and lL ls lmporLanL Lo
sLaLe LhaL Lhese overlaps do noL mean LhaL one ls more lmporLanL Lhan Lhe oLher, nor
should lL be mlsLaken as a form of hlerarchal sysLem. Powever, one (or several) facLor(s)
may be more domlnanL ln Lhe deslgn process, accordlng Lo Lhe parLlcular conLexL and
consLralnLs of Lhe speclflc deslgn problem/conLexL/user needs.
llgure 14 shows LhaL, noL only Lhese deslgn aLLrlbuLes are llnked Lo one anoLher, buL
also LhaL Lhey provlde a Lhlnklng map LhaL may asslsL deslgners wlLhln Lhe deslgn process or
problem space. 1he llnks drawn ln llgure 14 are noL consLrucLed wlLh a parLlcular deslgn
pro[ecL ln mlnd buL raLher Lhey are connecLed ln a neuLral way, where Lhe purpose ls Lo
show how Lhese lnLerrelaLlonshlps are complex and nuanced and requlre hollsLlc (or Lop-
down, whole-pro[ecL, as well as deLalled) conslderaLlon. Moreover, Lhls seL of deslgn
aLLrlbuLes can poLenLlally also be used as an evaluaLlon Lool for deslgners. 1hls complex
array of deslgn aLLrlbuLes has Lhe poLenLlal of belng uLlllzed as crlLerla for asslsLlng
deslgners, by funcLlonlng as a non-hlerarchal deslgn conslderaLlon checkllsL.
CPA1L8 4: lnl1lAL CASL S1uulLS
48
CnA1Lk 4
INI1IAL CASL S1UDILS

4. 1. Case Study on ersona| ro[ects
uurlng Lhe developmenL of Lhls research, plloL pro[ecLs were developed ln order Lo
sLudy posslble lmplemenLaLlons of Wearable 1echnology deslgn aLLrlbuLes wlLhln a deslgn
process. 1he plloL pro[ecLs summarlzed ln Lhls secLlon do noL form Lhe basls of Lhe maln
Lhesls meLhodology as Lhelr slgnlflcance and conLrlbuLlon were largely formaLlve, provldlng
Lhe opporLunlLy for sysLemaLlcally analyslng Lhe deslgn aLLrlbuLes dlscussed ln Lhe prevlous
chapLer ln Lhe conLexL of a real-llfe deslgn process. 1hese plloL pro[ecLs provlded lnlLlal
lnslghLs ln undersLandlng Lhe way a deslgner's Lhlnks Lhrough deslgn conslderaLlons ln Lhe
lLeraLlve process of developlng and reflnlng an ouLcome.

4. 1. 1. Case Study 1: 8|omuse erformat|ve Son|f|cat|on
1hls pro[ecL was a conLlnuaLlon of an earller pro[ecL (Wlreless Camelan ln 2008),
whlch was done as parL of a prevlous degree (see Appendlx u) and was done ln lebruary
2010. 1he ldea of capLurlng human blologlcal daLa and pro[ecLlng Lhls exLernally Lhrough
audlo feedback ls wldely prevalenL wlLhln Lhe blo-medlcal fleld as audlflcaLlon. Powever, ln
Lhe medlcal fleld Lhese blologlcal daLa remaln ln lLs capLured form, only used Lo analyse a
cerLaln healLh condlLlon wlLh dlagnosLlc or alerL funcLlonallLy and noL aesLheLlc quallLy as
Lhe ob[ecLlve. 1he poLenLlal of blo-daLa processlng as Lhe basls for generaLlng a
performaLlve arLlsLlc work was seen as an opporLunlLy Lo represenL someLhlng LhaL ls
normally an lnLernal (and posslbly prlvaLe) acLlvlLy of a human body ln an exLroverL way.
1he cholce of daLa was lnlLlally based on Lhe rhyLhmlcal quallLy found Lhough
blologlcal pulses, such as Lhe human hearL raLe. A pracLlcal survey of consumer-avallable
sensors Lo capLure human hearL raLe also led Lo Lhe lncluslon use of LlecLromyography
(LMC) and LlecLroencephalography (LLC) sensors ln order Lo mulLlply sLrands of audlo
feedback. 1he daLa capLured from lCube-x sensor Lechnology was LransmlLLed vla 8lueLooLh
CPA1L8 4: lnl1lAL CASL S1uulLS
49
Lo a sofLware program for sysLemaLlc daLa processlng developed ln Max/MS on a deskLop
compuLer. 1he processed daLa was used as parameLers Lo acLlvaLe varlous Camelan
(lndoneslan meLal gong) sound samples (acLuaLed accordlng Lo daLafeed from Lhe dlfferenL
sensors) and dlsLrlbuLed Lo a spaLlal (mulLl-channel, mulLl-speaker) audlo dlsplay sysLem.
1he daLa varlaLlon affecLed volume, Lempo (speed of onseL and movemenL) and noLes
(frequencles) of Camelan sound samples. 1hese sensors are wlred from dlfferenL parLs of
Lhe body Lo Lhe LransmlLLer unlL (worn on Lhe chesL, from around Lhe neck). 1hls 8lueLooLh
LransmlLLer unlL, whlle small ln slze, requlres a 9 volL baLLery ln order Lo funcLlon.


I|gure 1S. 8|omuse erformat|ve Son|f|cat|on


ln order for Lhe enLlre sysLem Lo funcLlon, lL requlres four separaLe componenLs: Lhe
seL of sensors and 8lueLooLh LransmlLLer aLLached Lo Lhe user's body, Lhe compuLer as daLa
processor, Lhe neLwork connecLlng Lhe sensors and base compuLaLlon, and Lhe audlo
sysLem Lhrough whlch audlo feedback ls pro[ecLed.

CPA1L8 4: lnl1lAL CASL S1uulLS
30
4. 1. 1. 1. Case Study 1 Ana|ys|s
1he funcLlonallLy of Lhe deslgn remalns Lrue Lo Lhe deslgn purpose lLself, whlch ls a
performance medlum. ln order Lo funcLlon well, Lhe daLa processlng sysLem requlred
reflnemenLs, especlally addresslng Lhe lssues of laLency and daLa range lnconslsLency LhaL
lnlLlally resulLed ln Lhe sysLem seemlng non-responslve lf Lhere was percepLlbly (> 13 ms)
delay beLween a physlcal acLuaLlon and audlble processes resulL. 1hese reflnemenLs were
prlnclpally relaLed Lo daLa processlng or Lhe sofLware parL of Lhe sysLem.
1he very speclflc hlerarchlcal sysLem acLlvaLlon also lnfluenced usablllLy of Lhe
sysLem, as lL demanded a very meLhodlcal proLocol by Lhe user. Lase of use becomes
almosL non-exlsLenL due Lo Lhls facLor (l.e. experL knowledge Lo operaLe and program Lhe
daLa processlng ls requlslLe). lurLhermore, Lhe user also experlenced dlfflculLles ln
recognlzlng or dlsLlngulshlng whlch sensors were relaLed Lo cerLaln sounds, almed aL
allowlng mlnlmal user navlgaLlon ablllLy of Lhe sysLem. 1he absLracL lnpuL meLhod Lhrough
galvanlc Lype sensors also creaLed a sLrong bargalnlng-sense beLween Lhe user and Lhe
sysLem, almosL Lo a polnL of relnforclng muscular acLlvlLy ln order Lo Lrlgger sounds. 1o
clarlfy, hearL raLe, muscle conducLlvlLy and so on, would normally be subconsclous non-
dellberaLe arLefacLs however Lhe creaLlon of an exLroverLed dlsplay lnvlLed acLuaLlon and
conflrmaLlon and dellberaLe manlpulaLlon of Lhe dlsplayed ouLcome, l.e. naLural blo-slgnals
were soon adopLed and lnLegraLed as performaLlve lngredlenLs ln Lhe lnLerface.
1esLlng Lhe worklng proLoLype, lL was found LhaL close proxlmlLy was requlred
beLween Lhe compuLer as daLa processor and Lhe user wearlng Lhe sensors whlch
consLralned Lhe dlsLance for daLa Lransmlsslon, Lhus llmlLlng Lhe user's movemenL Lo a
raLher sLaLlc locaLlon when uslng Lhe sysLem. Lxcesslve movemenL LhaL affecLs skln conLacLs
also affecLs and adds unwanLed 'nolse' Lo elecLrophyslologlcal slgnals. Powever, Lhls lssue
was noL consldered problemaLlc for Lhls conLexL as Lhe sysLem was lnLenLloned Lo be a
performaLlve plece, noL for dally wear.
Whlle mosL of Lhe sensors could be compacLly embedded lnLo a flgure-hugglng
garmenL, Lhe LLC sensor requlres dlrecL conLacL wlLh Lhe user's forehead. osslble
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lmplemenLaLlons ln deslgnlng may lnclude a form of headplece or a Lype of haL, whlch
seamlessly covers elecLronlc sensors. 1he wlres LhaL connecL each sensor Lo Lhe
LransmlLLers also affecLs usablllLy and funcLlonallLy by demandlng Lhe user Lo 'aLLach' each
sensor one by one, raLher Lhan one slngle moLlon of 'wearlng'. 1he lssue of fraglllLy was also
seen Lo affecL usablllLy and funcLlonallLy for Lhe user. 1he llmlLed lengLhs of Lhese wlres
creaLed consLralnL by llmlLlng Lhe user's movemenLs whlle uslng Lhe sysLem, however Lhls
could be ad[usLed. lL can be noLed, however, LhaL whlle Lhe LransmlLLer lLself ls 'wlreless'
Lhere remalns connecLlng wlres beLween Lhls LransmlLLer and Lhe sensors whlch have
speclflc slLes on Lhe body, someLlmes perlpheral, e.g. arms, forehead, flnger, eLc.
1hese llmlLlng lssues can be parLlally solved Lhrough Lhe correcL use of enveloplng
maLerlals or lnLegraLlng Lhe elecLronlcs lnLo a garmenL LhaL embodles (obscures and [olns
Lhe) elecLronlc sensors and componenLs. ln order for sensors Lo galn daLa, dlrecL, flrm,
conLlnuous skln conLacL ls requlred, whlch lndlcaLes LhaL Lhe body-worn garmenL or Lype of
cloLhlng needs Lo be flgure-hugglng (l.e. Lhe enveloplng maLerlal needs Lo be of flexlble and
durable naLure). ApproprlaLe and ad[usLable wlre-lengLh measuremenLs are beneflclal for
lncreaslng funcLlonallLy and usablllLy.
1he LransmlLLer's baLLery llfe ls very dependenL on Lhe sysLem's overall acLlvlLy, Lhus
creaLlng dlfflculLy ln predlcLlng lLs power and longevlLy. 1he placemenL of baLLery
comparLmenL Lherefore needs Lo be carefully consldered Lo allow easy replacemenL. 1he
use of one 9 volL baLLery was beneflclal as rechargeable Lypes are avallable aL reasonable
cosL for Lhls speclflcaLlon.
PeaL and overall welghL of Lhe sensors dld noL affecL Lhe user's comforL durlng Lhe
LesLlng phase Lherefore Lhese lssues were negllglble. Pyglene or washablllLy also need
furLher developmenL for elecLronlc componenLs ln dlrecL conLacL wlLh Lhe user's body, such
as deLachablllLy or dlsposable and replaceable parLs, and acknowledglng Lhe selecLlon of
enveloplng maLerlal from proxlmlLy Lo Lhe wearer's body.
luncLlonallLy and usablllLy emerged as domlnanL aLLrlbuLes Lo be consldered durlng
Lhe process as Lhey overlap and lnfluence oLher deslgn aLLrlbuLes. 1hls reveals how
CPA1L8 4: lnl1lAL CASL S1uulLS
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deslgners musL fully undersLand Lhe lmporLance of a deflned deslgn purpose and Lo Lake
lnLo accounL lLs requlremenLs or demands when maklng deslgn declslons.
As Lhe pro[ecL was ln a proLoLyplcal phase, Lhe sysLem appeared Lo be fraglle and
requlred speclflc hlerarchlcal sLeps ln order Lo be acLlvaLed. Powever, as menLloned earller,
Lhe reasonlng behlnd analyslng Lhe pro[ecL closely ln lLs early developmenL sLage was Lo
galn lnslghLs lnLo ways ln whlch Wearable 1echnology deslgn aLLrlbuLes could be adopLed as
a mlnd-mapplng means for oLher deslgners, sLraLeglc aLLrlbuLes for deslgners of wearable
Lechnologles more generally.
8y uslng Lhe seL of deslgn aLLrlbuLes as a mlnd-map, noL only are deslgners asslsLed
ln produclng soluLlons Lo Lhe self-deflned deslgn problems buL Lhey are also forced Lo
conslder an ellmlnaLlon process of unfeaslble deslgn soluLlons. 1he beneflL here lles ln Lhe
developmenL of a meLhodlcal and efflclenL workflow process, effecLlve even for new
unfamlllar deslgn scenarlos and new Lechnology lnLegraLlon.

4. 1. 2. Case Study 2: GS data |ogger
1he moLlvaLlon behlnd Lhls plloL sLudy pro[ecL was Lo explore posslblllLles of
deslgnlng a devlce wlLh CS capablllLy LhaL demanded a sLandalone operaLlonal sysLem
wlLh lndependenL power source (by comparlson wlLh Lhe prevlous proLoLype LhaL was base-
compuLer and neLwork dependenL). ln addlLlon, Lhls proLoLype provlded a vehlcle Lo
develop Lhe researcher's famlllarlLy wlLh elecLronlc componenLs, whlch are lnLegral Lo
deslgnlng Wearable 1echnology ln Lhls research. 1he sLudy was done ln SepLember 2010.
A slmple approach Lo selecLlng elecLronlc componenLs was Lo use pre-packaged and
pre-made klL componenLs and bulld Lhe devlce uslng onllne documenLaLlon manuals. 1hls
pro[ecL was noL lnlLlallzed as funcLlonallLy-drlven buL more as an open-plaLform exploraLlon
Lo reflne mlnd mapplng deslgn processes uslng Lhe researcher's Wearable 1echnology
deslgn aLLrlbuLes.
An Su memory card ls used Lo record CS daLa capLured by a mlnl CS anLenna
(parLs are avallable aL ladyada.neL). 1he chosen enveloplng maLerlal for elecLronlc
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componenLs (seen ln llgure 16) ls a 1 mm Lhlck plasLlc comparLmenL, sufflclenL Lo conLaln
one 9 volL baLLery as power source. 1he plasLlc comparLmenL was aLLached Lo a lanyard
allowlng lL Lo be worn around Lhe neck.
I|gure 16. GS |ogger

AfLer a few LesL runs, lL became apparenL LhaL lnlLlal CS synchronlzaLlon (Lhe lnlLlal
saLelllLe lock on before locaLlon could be Lracked) ofLen requlred several aLLempLs and was
noL robusL Lo be susLalned Lhrough urban landscape wlLh mulLlple sLorey bulldlngs and
lnLerference. Powever, afLer Lhe devlce esLabllshes CS recepLlon, lL ls able Lo sLore daLa
conLlngenL on Lhe memory card capaclLy. 1hese daLa are sLaLlc ln nMLA (naLlonal Marlne
LlecLronlc AssoclaLlon) senLences formlng CS coordlnaLes, Lhus requlrlng a compuLer for
furLher subsequenL daLa processlng.
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4. 1. 2. 1. Case Study 2 Ana|ys|s
1he cholce of plasLlc case wlLh LranslucenL quallLy as enveloplng maLerlal has proven
Lo be beneflclal as lL provldes clear vlslblllLy and lndlcaLlon of successful/unsuccessful CS
synchronlzaLlon. ln addlLlon, Lhe llghLness of Lhe plasLlc comparLmenL (welghlng ln LoLal of
73 g along wlLh all elecLronlc parLs) also lncreases Lhe posslblllLy of easy embodlmenL ln a
garmenL and does noL lnLerrupL user's comforL.
As lL requlres almosL consLanL user supervlslon ln order Lo ensure correcL
funcLlonlng, Lhe lssue of devlce poslLlonlng ls llmlLed Lo cerLaln areas of a user's body. An
alLernaLlve poslLlonlng ls on a user's shoulder, whlch allows easler CS saLelllLe
synchronlzaLlon. Powever Lhls poslLlonlng does noL allow easy user supervlslon, whlch leads
Lo a more effecLlve posslble alLernaLlve: on a user's wrlsL (whlch ls seen ln CS sporLs
waLches, for example).
1he devlce durablllLy also lnLroduces Lhe lssue of weaLher durablllLy. Slnce Lhe CS
logger was lnLended Lo be moblle and Lo allow ouLdoor usage, Lhe elecLronlcs comparLmenL
needs Lo be weaLher shlelded. 1he moblllLy of Lhe devlce ls also affecLed by lLs power
longevlLy, whlch afLer a few LesL runs, was found Lo be approxlmaLely 3 hours on opLlmum
synchronlzed funcLlonlng.
lnlLlal CS synchronlzaLlon was found Lo be raLher dlfflculL as Lhe urban landscape
lnLerrupLs slgnal acqulslLlon, Lhus affecLlng Lhe proLoLype's usablllLy. 8eplaclng Lhe CS
module wlLh one wlLh sLronger recepLlon may posslbly resolve Lhls problem, lndlcaLlng LhaL
furLher lnvesLlgaLlon lnLo poLenLlal avallable alLernaLlves ls necessary. More robusL
processors Lend Lo be larger, more power consumlng and more cosLly or requlre an aerlal
proLuberance. Lase of baLLery replacemenL procedure ls advanLageous as Lhe devlce ls
lnLended Lo be lndependenLly operaLlonal (cordless), whlch beneflLs Lhe usablllLy aLLrlbuLe
of Lhe deslgn.
When placed on a user's shoulder, Lhe devlce's overall dlmenslons do noL seem Lo
lnLerrupL comforL buL may posslbly lnvlLe reacLlons from Lhe surroundlng envlronmenL due
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Lo sllghL buL noLlceable alLeraLlon on a user's vlsual appearance. ln conLrasL, when placed
on a user's wrlsL, Lhe devlce provldes easy vlsual monlLorlng buL felL sllghLly uncomforLable
due Lo lLs relaLlvely large proporLlons. ln addlLlon, Lhls feellng of sllghL dlscomforL ls
affecLed by Lhe conLlnuous reflex of wanLlng Lo proLecL or shleld Lhe devlce from belng
physlcally ln conLacL wlLh oLher Lhlngs.
lL ls Lo be acknowledged LhaL Lhls CS logger ls noL a Wearable 1echnology devlce,
as lL does noL have any 'wearlng' noLlon. Powever, Lhe appllcaLlon of Lhe deslgn aLLrlbuLes
and Lhe evaluaLlon of mlndmapplng durlng Lhe deslgn of a moblle elecLronlc devlce (whlch
has furLher poLenLlal ln becomlng an elemenL of a Wearable 1echnology devlce), provlded
lnslghLs lnLo Lhe poLenLlal flexlblllLy of lLs appllcaLlon and Lhe fluldlLy of Lhese deslgn
aLLrlbuLes, even when applled Lo [usL Lhe moblle elecLronlc elemenLs of a Wearable
1echnology devlce.
1he analysls of Lhls CS logger proLoLype suggesLed LhaL ln Wearable 1echnology
deslgn, funcLlonallLy and usablllLy overlap wlLh one anoLher and also Lo some exLenL wlLh
Lhe devlce's poslLlonlng and dlmenslons. hyslcal sensaLlon experlenced by Lrlal-wearlng
Lhe devlce also revealed LhaL lLs wearablllLy ls very much lnfluenced by slze, welghL and
dlmenslons. lurLhermore, Lhe seL of deslgn aLLrlbuLes also provldes a paLhway for deslgners
ln dlssecLlng deslgn problems ln an eloquenL way by lnvlLlng soluLlon ldeas Lo appear
progresslvely. Powever, an assessmenL of Lhese emergenL soluLlon ldeas would also be
lnslghLful as Lhe lnvenLed, and even Lhe re[ecLed, soluLlons ln Lhe deslgn space all
conLrlbuLe Lo Lhe formulaLlon of Lhe 'prlmary generaLor' ln Lhe deslgn process (uorsL 2006).

4. 2. Case Study Conc|us|on
lL ls lmporLanL Lo sLaLe LhaL Lhese formaLlve case sLudles were used Lo provlde
reflecLlve 'self-[ournal'-llke foundaLlons ln explorlng Lhe deslgn process of Wearable
1echnology. 1hey conLrlbuLed Lo undersLandlng several emergenL characLerlsLlcs of Lhe way
ln whlch Lhese deslgn aLLrlbuLes work wlLhln Lhe deslgn process:
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Lach deslgn aLLrlbuLe of Wearable 1echnology lnfluences and affecLs oLhers ln a
deLermlnaLlve manner.
1hey asslsL deslgners ln creaLlng a more sLeady and fluld workflow.
1hey perform well as a meLhod for formulaLlng 'prlmary generaLors' ln a deslgn
process.
1hey asslsL ln recognlzlng posslble fuLure deslgn problems by forclng deslgners Lo
acknowledge, undersLand and conslder mulLlple dlfferenL aspecLs of Lhe deslgn
concurrenLly LogeLher.
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CnA1Lk S
CSI1ICNING WLAkA8LL 1LCnNCLCG DLSIGNLkS AND 1nL
nLNCMLNCLCGICAL AkCACn

.tbe Jeslqoets tosk ls to ptoJoce tbe solotloo. (ctoss 2006, p. 7)

Larller sLudles showlng forms of dlssaLlsfacLlon Lowards Lhe aesLheLlc experlence of
Wearable 1echnology (Co 2000, CrLh 2001) have asslsLed Lhe developmenL of a more user-
cenLred approach ln deslgn and also serve Lo brldge Lhe dlsconnecLed reallLy beLween Lhe
lnlLlal purpose concpeL of Lhe deslgners and Lhe acLual experlences ln use (8oehner eL al
2003, uunne eL al 2003, WaLler 2003, vlseu 2003). C'Mahony (2008, p, 10) also argues LhaL
cyborg-relaLed Lechnologles have conLlnuously fotceJ Jeslqoets to tblok cotefolly oboot
bow tbe coosomet wlll ose socb lotetoctlve ptoJocts os tbe mote boslc poestloo of wby tbey
woolJ woot to ose tbem. SLarner (2001) sLaLes LhaL researchers have noL Lhoroughly
consulLed Lhe deslgn Lrade-offs of Lhe area ln Wearable 1echnology, lL advocaLes a more
deslgned approach Lo wearable compuLlng.
1he ldea of garmenLs as a communlcaLlng medlum (Seymour 2008) propelled Lhe
necessary perforaLlon of lnLeracLlon deslgn ln Lackllng one of Lhe maln challenges ln
wearable compuLlng, whlch ls Lhe lmporLance of user lnLerface (hardware and sofLware),
and also Lhe lack of deslgn aesLheLlc values (SLarner 2001). Accordlng Lo kees uorsL ln hls
paper, 'loyets of ueslqo. uoJetstooJloq ueslqo ltoctlce: o qooJ Jeslqo ptoctlce ls sttooq
ooJ cooslsteot lo lts lotellectool cote (lo lts meooloq-qlvloq ooJ voloe stotemeots), petvoslve
ooJ oll eocompossloq lo lts exptessloo" (2009, p. 163).
1hese powerful sLaLemenLs clarlfy Lhe need of deslgners Lo be fully cognlsanL of Lhe
user and also provlde a skeLch descrlblng Lhe teclptocotloq naLure beLween Lhe user and
Lhe deslgner. WlLhln Lhls research of Lhe deslgn process ln Wearable 1echnology, Lhe plvoL
lles ln Lhe word: teclptocotloq". ln order Lo brlng Lhe absLracL skeLch Lo a more concreLe
and solld form, Lhls research alms Lo develop a framework for deslgners Lo undersLand and
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dlscuss Lhe quallLy of Lhelr Wearable 1echnology deslgn by lnLegraLlng Lhe user as a
reflecLlve lnpuL (lnsLead of belng dlrecLly engaged ln Lhe deslgn process), ln Lhe process Lo
whlch Lhe framework of deslgn aLLrlbuLes ls applled. 1hus, lL ls lmporLanL Lo sLaLe LhaL Lhls ls
noL user experlence research, buL raLher, research LhaL emphaslzes a deslgn process LhaL
recognlzes Lhe essenLlal and lnfluenLlal role of users for Wearable 1echnology deslgners.
1he deslgner ls poslLloned ln beLween Lhe Lechnology lLself and Lhe poLenLlal users
of Lhe wearable devlce. 1he key Lo good deslgnlng lles ln Lhe fulfllmenL of Lhe user's needs
wheLher Lhls ls achleved aesLheLlcally or ln a funcLlonal manner. 1hls creaLes a complex
array of deslgn declslons and conslderaLlons for deslgners, hence Lhe complexlLy and an
lnLrlcaLely woven naLure of deslgnlng for wearable Lechnologles.
ueslgnlng for Lhe user, who may brlng many dlfferenL quallLles, culLural experlence
and values or even expecLaLlons, requlres Lhe deslgner Lo be aLLenLlve ln ways of evaluaLlng
Lhe deslgn. 1hus deslgn aLLrlbuLes Lo help deslgners evaluaLe Lhelr Wearable 1echnology
devlces, poslLlonlng Lhe user as a promlnenL elemenL ln deslgn conslderaLlons, serve as a
flexlble mlnd-mapplng meLhod ln deslgnlng for a more human-cenLred approach. 1hls ls,
however, dlsLlncL from a parLlclpanL-deslgn or user-lnlLlaLed deslgn approach, whlch,
Lhough useful ln research concernlng usablllLy, dlsslpaLes Lhe role of Lhe deslgner and
deslgner-led aesLheLlc and maLerlals experLlse ln Lhe chosen medlum. lL ls lmporLanL Lo
sLaLe LhaL Lhls seL of facLors wlll hopefully lnduce dlscusslon amongsL deslgners ln
evaluaLlng and solvlng deslgn deflclLs and problems.
unllke Lhe way ln whlch sclenLlsLs solve problems Lhrough analysls, deslgners solve
problems Lhrough synLhesls, Lhus dlscoverlng mulLlple soluLlons Lo a deslgn problem and
Lhen apply a serles of ellmlnaLlon processes unLll Lhey flnd an accepLable one (Lawson
1980). 1hus, Lhe worklng emphasls for deslgners leans Lowards a soluLlon-focused sLraLegy,
whereas sclenLlsLs adopL a problem-focused sLraLegy, whlch usually resulLs ln
comprehenslve analysls of a problem and a dlsLllled hypoLheLlcal soluLlon (Lawson 1980,
Cross 2006).
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Cross (2006) also sLaLes LhaL a cenLral feaLure of deslgn acLlvlLy lles ln produclng
effecLlve and lmmedlaLe saLlsfacLory soluLlons raLher Lhan focuslng heavlly on problem
analysls. lurLhermore, Lawson (1980) wroLe LhaL Lhls ls a resulL of Lhe deslgn educaLlon and
Lralnlng, where Llme consLralnLs are lnLroduced ln deslgn pro[ecLs Lo reflecL real-llfe
slLuaLlons. 1he pro[ecL Llme frame dlfference beLween sclenLlsLs and deslgners are
consldered Lo be a key elemenL of Lhls behavlor. SclenLlsLs are ofLen requlred Lo refraln
from maklng flnal concluslons or sLaLemenL unLll furLher lnformaLlon on Lhe research
sub[ecL ls known and furLher research necessary" ls a common and [usLlflable soluLlon Lo a
sclenLlflc exploraLlon (Cross 2006).
1hls brlngs deslgners' approach Lo Lackllng deslgn problems lnLo quesLlon. Pow are
lmmedlaLe soluLlons Lo deslgn problems regarded as accepLable when analyses of Lhe
deslgn problems are ofLen consLralned Lo a speclflc amounL of Llme? 1hls ls mosL llkely
asslgned relaLlve Lo Lhe deslgn Lask. 8lLLel and Webber (1973) revealed LhaL deslgn
problems are lll-deflned, lll-sLrucLured or 'wlcked'. ueslgners ofLen enLer a deslgn pro[ecL
wlLhouL havlng Lhe necessary lnformaLlon provlded Lo Lhem, unllke Lhe way ln whlch
sclenLlsLs work. 1hus maklng deslgners more llkely Lo focus on Lhe soluLlon raLher Lhan Lhe
problem lLself. 8aLher Lhan lndulglng an exhausLlve analysls of deslgn problems, deslgners
Lend Lo seek Lhe 'prlmary generaLor' (uarke 1979) whlch: .botb Jefloes tbe llmlts of tbe
ptoblem ooJ soqqests tbe ootote of lts posslble solotloo" (Cross 2006, p. 7).
ln flndlng soluLlons Lo deslgn problems ln Wearable 1echnology, deslgners musL be
able Lo flnd Lhe prlmary generaLor ln Lhe deslgn acLlvlLy. 1he encounLered problems
menLloned earller, ls already a sLarL for deslgners ln comprehendlng Lhe naLure of Lhe
problem, Lhus puL ln llghL posslble soluLlons ln Lackllng Lhem. 1he seL of deslgn aLLrlbuLes
explalned ln Lhls research ls derlved noL only from prevlous Lheorles and guldellnes, buL also
from an aLLempL Lo deflne, redeflne and change Lhe aforemenLloned deslgn problems Lhus
suggesLlon posslble and saLlsfacLory soluLlons.
Pllller and Leaman (1976) suggesLed LhaL deslgn acLlvlLy ls slmllar Lo learnlng an
arLlflclal 'language', Lhe purpose of whlch ls Lo Lransform absLracL LhoughLs lnLo concreLe
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paLLerns on an acLual ob[ecL. Wearable 1echnology and lLs mulLl dlsclpllnary naLure creaLes
an absLracL dlmenslon for deslgners ln recognlzlng mulLlple problems and challenges, Lhus lL
ls necessary Lo develop an 'arLlflclal' language for undersLandlng, deflnlng and provldlng
soluLlons.

S. 1. henomeno|og|ca| Approach

A Jetetmloote metboJ of lopolty (JltecteJ towotJs) ottololoq o tlqotoos ooJ slqolflcoot Jesctlptloo of tbe
wotlJ of evetyJoy bomoo expetleoce os lt ls llveJ ooJ JesctlbeJ by speclflc loJlvlJools lo speclflc
cltcomstooces."
(olllo eL al. 1997, p.28)

1he Lerm henomenology orlglnaLes from Lhe Creek words: pboloomeooo and
loqos, whlch mean: .tbe octlvlty of qlvloq oo occooot, qlvloq o loqos, of votloos
pbeoomeoo, of tbe votloos woys lo wblcb tbloqs coo oppeot" (Sokolowskl 2000, p. 13). 1hls
research uses a henomenology-lnsplred approach Lo look lnLo Lhe deslgn process of
Wearable 1echnology. 1he declslon Lo uLlllze Lhls research meLhodology ls due Lo Lhe
naLure of Lhe deslgn process, whlch lnvolves an lLeraLlve process wlLh open-ended goals. lL
ls lmporLanL Lo clarlfy LhaL Lhls research ls bound Lo explore Lhe deslgner's perspecLlve ln
deslgnlng Lhelr Wearable 1echnology devlce, whlch lncludes hls or her organlzaLlonal
funcLlonlng and lnLeracLlonal relaLlonshlps wlLhln Lhe undersLandlng of Lhe deslgn brlef, Lhe
concepL generaLlon sLage and Lhe deslgn self-evaluaLlon sLage LhaL lles wlLhln Lhe deslgn
process.
1he research was conducLed by uslng seml-sLrucLured lnLervlews LhaL lnclude a seL
of quesLlons abouL Lhe deslgn process of Wearable 1echnology. lollowlng Lhe Lrue alm of
henomenology Lo always reLurn Lo Lhe concreLe, Lhe lnLervlews are rlgorously
documenLed and crlLlcally analysed ln order for Lhe research Lo undersLand Lhe 'llved
experlence' of deslgnlng Wearable 1echnology (Cronewald 2004). 1he quesLlons ln Lhe
lnLervlew asslmllaLe Lhe researcher's seL of deslgn aLLrlbuLes noL ln a blunL manner, buL
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raLher by Laklng on a suggesLlve prompLlng approach. 1he 'Lhemes' galned from Lhe
lnLervlews help answer Lhe research quesLlon.
1he 'Lhemes' menLloned above are Lhe deslgn aLLrlbuLes of Wearable 1echnology
explalned ln Lhe prevlous secLlon. 1hese deslgn aLLrlbuLes do noL operaLe as a hypoLhesls
buL raLher as a medlum for absLracLlng Lhe Lhemes ln order Lo undersLand Lhe meanlng of
Lhe llved experlence of deslgn aLLrlbuLes ln use when deslgnlng Wearable 1echnology.
1he cholce of research parLlclpanLs follows Pycner's Lheory LhaL lL ls Lhe
phenomenon LhaL dlcLaLes Lhe meLhod (noL vlce-versa) and LhaL lncludes Lhe declslon made
when chooslng parLlclpanLs (1999, p. 136). kruger also sLaLed LhaL when looklng for
research parLlclpanLs, Lhe researcher musL flnd people who have gone Lhrough experlences
relaLed Lo Lhe phenomenon belng researched (1988, p. 130). u1S deslgn sLudenLs LhaL have
underLaken Lhe sub[ecL lnLerdlsclpllnary ueslgn Lab were selecLed as sulLable candldaLes for
parLlclpaLlon ln Lhe research as Lhey have some experlence deslgnlng Wearable 1echnology
ln Lhe conLexL of a broader Lhree-year undergraduaLe deslgn educaLlon.

S. 2. kesearch Strategy Invo|v|ng art|c|pants
1he research sLraLegy follows Lhe process ouLllned by Collalzl (1978) wlLh alLeraLlons
ln accordance Lo Lhe research Loplc. 1he selecLed research parLlclpanLs were lnLervlewed
uslng a seml-sLrucLured lnLervlew meLhod, provldlng lnLervlew LranscrlpLs LhaL were
analysed by Lhe researcher. 1he researcher proceeded Lo exLracL slgnlflcanL sLaLemenLs
from Lhe lnLervlew and Lo formulaLe meanlngs from Lhem. 1he meanlngs are a resulL of
analyslng Lhe lnLervlew LranscrlpLs, ln order Lo flnd recurrlng Lhemes, by uslng Lhe seL of
deslgn aLLrlbuLes of Wearable 1echnology explalned prevlously as a reflecLlve llLeraLure
Lool. 1he nexL sLage lnvolved revlslLlng parLlclpanLs ln order Lo ellclL oplnlons on Lhe
resulLlng Lhemes of deslgn aLLrlbuLes, Lo valldaLe Lhe lnLerpreLaLlons.



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I|gure 17. kesearch Strategy D|agram



8enLz and Shaplro (1988) and kenslL (2000) sLaLed LhaL Lhe researcher musL allow
Lhe daLa Lo surface or emerge, whlch means lL ls lmporLanL for Lhe lnLervlew quesLlons Lo
be dlfferenL from Lhe acLual research quesLlons. 1hls ls supporLed by kvale (1996) who
draws a slmllar dlsLlncLlon beLween Lhe research quesLlons and Lhe lnLervlew quesLlons.
1hus, ln order Lo avold any such leadlng or seedlng, and Lo allow openness for research
posslblllLles, Lhe followlng quesLlons were used ln Lhe lnLervlews:


RESEARCHER
PARTICIPANTS
INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTS
STRUCTURED INTERVIEWS
RESEARCHER EXTRACT
SIGNIFICANT
STATEMENTS
FORMULATE
MEANINGS
INTEGRATE WITH DESIGN
ATTRIBUTES AS REFLECTION
TOOL OF LITERATURE
RESULTING IN THEMES WITH
RICH
DESCIPRIPTION OF
RECURRING DESIGN
ATTRIBUTES
REVISIT
REVISIT PARTICIPANTS TO
ELICIT FURTER OPINIONS
SLMl
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1ab|e 3. L|st of quest|ons for sem|-structured |nterv|ews w|th expected outcomes

1he blue coloured secLlon ls Lhe flrsL sLage of lnLervlew where Lhe researcher looked
Lo engage wlLh Lhe parLlclpanLs and Lo galn more knowledge ln regard Lo Lhe parLlclpanL's
background Lralnlng. ln Lhe followlng secLlon (red) were quesLlons LhaL aLLempLed Lo reveal
more of Lhe parLlclpanL's experlence ln regard Lo deslgnlng Wearable 1echnology. 1he
lnLervlews were ln seml-sLrucLured form. lollowlng ls a llsL of prompLs LhaL were used lf
necessary Lo reveal lnformaLlon relaLlng more closely Lo Lhe research quesLlon.
no. CuesLlons LxpecLed CuLcomes
1. lease descrlbe your Wearable
1echnology pro[ecL.
A descrlpLlon of Lhelr pro[ecL, hopefully
lncludes a cerLaln keyword ln explalnlng Lhelr
lnlLlal deslgn brlef
2. Pow many people were lnvolved ln Lhe
pro[ecL?
1he number of people ln Lhe pro[ecL. 1hls
helps clarlfy wheLher Lhe work was
collaboraLlve or noL.
3. uld Lhey come from dlfferenL flelds of
pracLlces?
Clarlfy lf Lhe pro[ecL ls a resulL of a
collaboraLlon across dlfferenL flelds
4. Accordlng Lo your background of pracLlce,
whaL are Lhe challenges of Lhe pro[ecL?
Lxplaln more of Lhe person's background
Lralnlng

3. lease descrlbe how you approached Lhe
deslgn brlef.
1o see lf Lhe person's background pracLlce
affecLed hls/her approach Lo deslgn process
6. Pow do you descrlbe your personal lnlLlal
deslgn-relaLed challenges on Lhe pro[ecL?
7. WhaL deslgn aLLrlbuLes lead Lo deslgn
conslderaLlons for Lhe pro[ecL?
1o look for Lhe posslblllLles of deslgn aLLrlbuLes
LhaL affecLed Lhe deslgn
8. WhaL are Lhe dlfflculLles of approachlng
Lhe deslgn brlef of Lhe pro[ecL?
9. WlLhln Lhe deslgn process, whaL recurrlng
deslgn problems appeared?
1o look for keywords relaLed Lo researcher's
own deslgn aLLrlbuLes
10. Pow dld you approach Lhese deslgn
problems?
1he undersLand more of how Lhe parLlclpanL
wenL Lhrough Lhe deslgn process and look for
keywords slgnalllng deslgn aLLrlbuLes LhaL
affecLed Lhe deslgn domlnanLly
11. Pow do you descrlbe Lhe deslgn process
ln deslgnlng for Lhe pro[ecL?
1o geL an ldea of how Lhe experlence of Lhe
deslgn process was llke
12. lf you could flx (a) cerLaln deslgn aspecL(s)
of Lhe pro[ecL, whaL or whlch aspecL
would lL (Lhey) be?
1o look for more ln-depLh deslgn aspecLs LhaL
affecLed Lhe pro[ecL
13. Would Lhere be a seL of general guldellnes
ln deslgnlng Wearable 1echnology, ln
whaL form of would you descrlbe Lhem Lo
be?
1o see lf Lhe parLlclpanLs have any lnpuLs
regardlng posslble fuLure personal pro[ecLs
relaLed Lo wearable Lechnologles, by reflecLlng
Lo Lhelr own pasL experlences.

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1ab|e 4. rompts that were used |n order to e||c|t more feedback dur|ng |nterv|ew









1he lnLervlews were Lape-recorded whlch generaLed Lhe flrsL Lype of daLa sLorage
uLlllzed ln Lhe research. AfLer each lnLervlew, Lhe researcher proceeded wlLh daLa
LranscrlpLlon, whlch followed Lhe fleld noLes meLhod, based on a model/scheme developed
by Leonard SchaLzman and Anselm SLrauss (1973), supplemenLed by Alan 8ryman and
8oberL 8urgess (2002):
1ab|e S. I|e|d Notes Method
CbservaLlonal noLes
(Cn)
'WhaL happened noLes' deemed lmporLanL enough Lo Lhe
researcher Lo make. 8alley (1996) emphaslzes Lhe use of all Lhe
senses ln maklng observaLlons.
1heoreLlcal noLes (1n) 'ALLempLs Lo derlve meanlng' as Lhe researcher Lhlnks or reflecLs
on experlences.
MeLhodologlcal noLes
(Mn)
'8emlnders, lnsLrucLlons or crlLlque' Lo oneself on Lhe process.
AnalyLlcal Memos (AM) Lnd-of-fleld-day summary or progress revlews.

1he fleld noLe meLhod menLloned prevlously ls a sLep Loward daLa LranscrlpLlon and
also daLa analysls, LhaL allows Lhe researcher Lo dlssecL lnformaLlon Lo reveal flndlngs vla
Lhe followlng sLages:
1. 1ranscrlpLlon
2. 8rackeLlng and Lhe phenomenologlcal reducLlon
kCM1S
luncLlon?
SensaLlon?
usablllLy?
ower source?
WelghL?
Slze/dlmenslons?
Lnveloplng/fabrlcaLlon?
PeaL?
Soclal ConnecLlvlLy?
uurablllLy/reslsLance?
WashablllLy?
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3. LlsLenlng Lo Lhe lnLervlews for a sense of Lhe whole
4. uellneaLlng unlLs of meanlng
3. uellneaLlng unlLs of meanlng relevanL Lo Lhe research quesLlon
6. LllmlnaLlng redundancles
7. ClusLerlng unlLs of relevanL meanlng
8. ueLermlnlng Lhemes from clusLers of meanlng
9. WrlLlng a summary for each lndlvldual lnLervlew
10. 8eLurn Lo Lhe parLlclpanL wlLh Lhe summary and Lhemes: ConducLlng a second
lnLervlew
11. Modlfylng Lhemes and summary
12. ldenLlfylng general and unlque Lhemes for all Lhe lnLervlews
13. ConLexLuallzaLlon of Lhemes
14. ComposlLe summary
1hese sLages are used ln Lhe phenomenologlcal process of lnLerpreLlng seml-
sLrucLured lnLervlews wlLh selecLed research parLlclpanLs and Lherefore resulLlng research
flndlngs of Lhe way Wearable 1echnology deslgn aLLrlbuLes perform ln a deslgn process.

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CnA1Lk 6
WnA1 IS DLSIGNING WLAkA8LL 1LCnNCLCG LIkL?

1he resulLlng lnLervlews wlLh parLlclpanLs produced research flndlngs LhaL reveal
rlch lnformaLlon ln helplng Lo undersLand how deslgners work Lhrough Lhe deslgn process
of Wearable 1echnology. 1here are 3 research parLlclpanLs who parLlclpaLed ln Lhe
lnLervlews. 8lgorous analysls of Lhe lnLervlew recordlngs and LranscrlpLlons examlned
Lhrough phenomenologlcal process lncluded Lhe sLeps descrlbed ln Lhe prevlous chapLer.

6. 1. art|c|pant 1
1hls lnLervlew was conducLed on 27 SepLember 2011. When asked Lo descrlbe Lhe
Wearable 1echnology pro[ecL, Lhe flrsL parLlclpanL clarlfled LhaL lL falls lnLo Lhe deflnlLlon of
Wearable 1echnology ln Lhls research, Lhus valldaLlng Lhelr parLlclpaLlon ln Lhls research.
1hese pro[ecLs are purposed for asslsLlng Lhe user by provldlng enhanced navlgaLlonal
ablllLy as pedesLrlans explorlng Lhe clLyscape ln an urban conLexL. 1he flrsL parLlclpanL
foregrounded Lhe foundaLlonal purpose of Lhelr pro[ecL, whlch was Lo explore Lhe posslble
use of deslgn Lo enhance walklng eLlqueLLe. 1hls purpose surfaced as a resulL of Lhelr
observaLlon of how pedesLrlan lanes have dlsappeared on Sydney's Ceorge SLreeL, Lhus also
drawlng on a locallzed observaLlon of Lhe urban conLexL.
8eflecLlng on Lhe flrsL parLlclpanLs' Wearable 1echnology pro[ecL, her undersLandlng
of deslgn acLlvlLy allgns wlLh Lhe deflnlLlon of a deslgner's Lask glven by kees uorsL (2006),
whlch ls Lo provlde soluLlons. 1he resulLlng observaLlon LhaL Lhere ls a lack of eLlqueLLe of
walklng ln a clLy space, creaLed Lhe maln problem LhaL Lhe deslgners aLLempLed Lo solve vla
deslgnlng a Wearable 1echnology devlce. 1he parLlclpanL also revealed Lhe collaboraLlve
naLure of Lhe pro[ecL by sLaLlng LhaL a group comprlslng Lwo fashlon deslgn sLudenLs
(lncludlng Lhe flrsL parLlclpanL) and one lndusLrlal deslgn sLudenL collaboraLed on Lhe
deslgn. 1hls collaboraLlve efforL ln solvlng Lhe deslgn problem reveals furLher knowlng LhaL
ln order Lo provlde soluLlons, deslgners ln Wearable 1echnology ofLen work collecLlvely and
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collaboraLlvely. Moreover, lL reflecLs a characLerlsLlc of Wearable 1echnology: Lhe
lnLerdlsclpllnary overlap of dlfferenL flelds.
ulfflculLles ln undersLandlng Lhe process of deslgnlng an ob[ecL LhaL lncludes
elecLronlc elemenLs embedded lnLo garmenLs were also menLloned ln Lhe flrsL lnLervlew, ln
whlch asslsLance from Lhe sub[ecL's LuLors was essenLlal ln pushlng Lhe pro[ecL forward Lo
compleLlon. 1he flrsL parLlclpanL's fashlon deslgn Lralnlng was also a subsLanLlal reason why
Lhe deslgn process was vlewed as an exploraLlon lnLo an unknown fleld. 1he lack of
knowledge ln avallable elecLronlc elemenLs LhaL can poLenLlally be used for Lhe garmenL
was consldered an absenL componenL ln her Lralnlng ln fashlon.
lL ls also apparenL LhaL Lhe flrsL parLlclpanL's approach Lo Lhe pro[ecL was by
percelvlng Lhe flnal deslgned ob[ecL Lo be a 'garmenL'. 1hls ls because of Lhe prellmlnary
deslgn Lralnlng recelved and lL was admlLLed LhaL prevlous lnLroducLory Lralnlng Lo
elecLronlc componenLs would have been beneflclal for Lhe pro[ecL. Moreover, Lhls also
explalns LhaL a deslgner's background Lralnlng lnfluences Lhe use of deslgn vocabulary ln
approachlng or descrlblng a deslgn pro[ecL.
1he knowledge gap ln elecLronlc componenL LhaL can be embedded ln a garmenL
led Lo Lhe noLlon LhaL lL was a challenglng aspecL of Lhe deslgn acLlvlLy. 1he facL LhaL Lhe
deslgn sLudenL conLlnuously referred Lo Lhe Wearable 1echnology ob[ecL as garmenL also
gave probable evldence LhaL Lhe elecLronlc elemenLs problem ln Lhls deslgn was
encounLered afLer Lhe lnlLlal pro[ecL ldea was concelved. 1hls was supporLed by a sLaLemenL
LhaL Lhe group already had Lhe ldea of how Lhe Wearable 1echnology ob[ecL would funcLlon
and operaLe, buL Lhe group had Lo make Lhe pro[ecL slmpler and aLLalnable Lo compleLe,
due Lo Lhe Llme consLralnL and llmlLed knowledge of elecLronlc elemenLs. 1hls reflecLs Lhe
way deslgners work wlLhln a deslgn process: llmlLed Lo speclflc Llme consLralnLs and Lhe
deslgner's ablllLy and obllglng necesslLy Lo redeflne deslgn problems ln achlevlng Lhe
soluLlon (uorsL 2006).
1he flrsL parLlclpanL also Louched upon sLages wlLhln deslgn process, by sLaLlng LhaL
Lhe end deslgn dld noL have Lo be a flnal deslgn producL, buL raLher an accepLable
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funcLlonlng proLoLype. 1hus, descrlblng agaln Lhe Llme llmlLaLlon of Lhe pro[ecL and Lhe
dlfflculLy ln Lackllng a mulLl-dlsclpllnary deslgn pro[ecL ln a shorL perlod. 1he lnlLlal approach
ln Lhe deslgn process lnvolved researchlng Lhe background Lo Lhe deslgn problem Lhrough
vldeos and llLeraLure, whlch Lhen Lransgressed lnLo dlvldlng workload for each member of
Lhe group. 1he flrsL parLlclpanL was glven Lhe Lask of deslgnlng Lhe aesLheLlcs, or Lhe 'look'
of Lhe garmenL, Lhus worklng Lhrough Lhe lnlLlal skeLchlng process. AfLerwards, Lhe skeLch
was broken down by flgurlng ouL posslble approaches for Lransformlng lLs concepL lnLo
physlcal reallLy. 1hls reveals furLher how a deslgner's background Lralnlng affecLs flow ln a
deslgn acLlvlLy, and also Lhe lLeraLlve naLure of Lhe process. 1he lmporLance of aesLheLlc ln
lLs deslgn was also hlghllghLed and furLher relnforced Lhe undersLandlng LhaL her fashlon
deslgn background lnforms her approach Lo deslgnlng ln Lhe pro[ecL. Lven Lhough Lhe
deslgn brlef was Lo deslgn an ob[ecL LhaL augmenLs and asslsLs Lhe acLlvlLy of walklng ln Lhe
clLy, Lhe group had Lo deflne Lhelr own deslgn problems by researchlng llLeraLure, as well as
creaLlng and analyslng vldeo documenLaLlon.
1he group also wenL Lhrough a bralnsLormlng and mlnd-mapplng process whlch Lhey
sald helped Lhem ln dlscusslng who Lhe posslble user of Lhe Wearable 1echnology may be,
hlnLlng LhaL user scenarlo sLudles were also developed durlng Lhe deslgn process, lndlcaLed
by lnvesLlgaLlng whlch group of people are sLruggllng mosL wlLh Lhe lack of eLlqueLLe ln
walklng Lhrough Lhe clLy. 1hus, reflecLlng on funcLlonallLy whlle deslgnlng Wearable
1echnology emerged Lhrough deflnlng lLs posslble audlence and ldenLlfylng who may flnd
Lhe devlce useful. lurLhermore, Lhe group declded Lo base Lhe deslgn on a Lype of garmenL
LhaL ls versaLlle. A premade blazer was chosen due Lo llmlLed Llme for Lhe pro[ecL and also
Lhe wearable appeal Lo a wlde audlence of poLenLlal adopLers.
1he premade blazer was Lhen embedded wlLh Lhe elecLronlc componenLs (power,
hardware, cables, llghLs, eLc.). 1he order ln whlch a Lype of cloLhlng was chosen flrsL, and
Lhen embedded wlLh elecLronlc parLs, descrlbes a klnd of approach slmllar Lo LhaL found ln
fashlon where elecLronlc elemenLs become parL of ornamenLal embelllshmenL raLher Lhan
havlng a more lnLegraLed funcLlonal ablllLy. 1he use of llghLs as a medlum for provldlng
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vlsual feedback (wheLher ornamenLal or for oLher funcLlonallLy) for Lhe user and her/hls
surroundlngs also affecLs lLs poslLlonlng, descrlbed by Lhe deslgner ln Lhe lnLervlew. 1he
group also had Lo alLer Lhe deslgn ln order Lo ensure usablllLy: easy accesslblllLy and
lnLulLlve acLlvaLlon, lnfluenced by effecLlve poslLlonlng and hardware selecLlon of Lhe
acLlvaLlng Lrlgger.
1he deslgner's flrsL reacLlon when LesLlng Lhe proLoLype was descrlbed as
'lnLeresLlng' and Lhe group was fasclnaLed by how people ln Lhe user's lndlvldual
surroundlngs were 'generally surprlsed' by Lhe blazer's vlsual feedback. 1he group
recognlzed Lhls 'surprlsed' effecL Lo be caused by Lhe unfamlllarlLy of slmllar Wearable
1echnology ln Lhe everyday llfe. Moreover, Lhe group also dlscovered LhaL Lhe user's
lndlvldual surroundlngs flnd Lhe deslgn proLoLype Lo be 'funny'. Powever, Lhls ls noL only
relaLed Lo Lhe look of Lhe proLoLype buL also Lhe ldea of Lhe pro[ecL and Lhe vlsual feedback
lL glves.
When asked abouL Lhe posslblllLy of revlslLlng and developlng Lhe deslgn proLoLype,
Lhe deslgner menLloned LhaL Lhe group would posslbly llke Lo creaLe more proLoLypes wlLh
more Lhan one Lype of vlsual feedback. She menLloned LhaL havlng more Lhan [usL one
vlsual feedback LhaL says S1ClnC, buL also oLher dlrecLlonal saylngs or phrases, wlll
lncrease Lhe llkellhood of lLs enhanced recepLlon and funcLlonallLy. 1he deslgner sLaLed Lhey
would also llke Lo explore dlfferenL vlsual feedback poslLlonlng and gauge how lL may affecL
effecLlve usablllLy. 1he emphasls of redeslgnlng Lhe non-elecLronlc componenLs was also
ralsed by Lhe deslgner, by saylng she would llke Lo come up wlLh more of an orlglnal deslgn,
wlLh Lhe hope of broadenlng lLs appeal Lo Lhe user.
1he deslgner also menLloned LhaL Lransformlng lnlLlal skeLch ldea lnLo reallLy was
seen as a domlnanL challenge as lL lncluded elecLronlc componenLs wlLh whlch Lhey were
unfamlllar. luncLlonallLy and usablllLy very much lnfluenced Lhls deslgn as Lhey lncluded
user scenarlo sLudles as parL of Lhelr deslgn purpose. 1hls lndlcaLed LhaL by placlng posslble
users wlLhln process of maklng deslgn declslons slgnlflcanLly affecLs Lhe end producL. 1he
cholce of enveloplng maLerlal was also menLloned as qulLe a challenge as Lhe Leam wanLed
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Lhe maLerlal Lo have sufflclenL sLrengLh and sLrucLure Lo provlde adequaLe physlcal supporL
for Lhe elecLronlc componenLs, whlle malnLalnlng vlslble vlsual feedback. 1he cholce of
power source was also a deslgn conslderaLlon LhaL lnfluenced Lhe overall welghL of Lhe
garmenL and Lhe elecLronlc componenLs.
8eflecLlng on Lhe flrsL lnLervlew wlLh a Wearable 1echnology deslgner revealed an
lLeraLlve deslgn process slmllar Lo oLher flelds of deslgn. 1he lnLegraLlon beLween non-
elecLronlc and elecLronlc elemenLs became a domlnanL challenge and lnLerleaved wlLh
mulLlple oLher deslgn conslderaLlons LhaL mosLly poslLloned Lhe user as Lhe cenLral
argumenL ln maklng deslgn declslons. 1he mulLl-dlsclpllnary naLure of Wearable 1echnology
also reveals LhaL ln order Lo malnLaln successful deslgn, a collaboraLlve worklng meLhod ls
ofLen necessary.
Several deslgn aLLrlbuLes of Wearable 1echnology explalned ln Lhls research also
emerged from Lhls case sLudy, dlscussed relaLlve Lo Lhelr lmporLance and overlap wlLh one
anoLher. luncLlonallLy and usablllLy were regarded as Lhe maln deslgn challenges and musL
resulL from comprehenslon of avallable and posslble elecLronlc parLs and senslble (praLlcal,
feaslble) user scenarlo sLudy. 1he cholce of Lhe enveloplng maLerlal was also sald Lo affecL
lLs durablllLy and devlce poslLlonlng and may affecL Lhe vlslblllLy of devlce feedback, Lhus
furLher lmpacLlng on funcLlonallLy and usablllLy.
1he way ln whlch a user's surroundlng envlronmenL (people) reacLs Lo exLraordlnary
vlsual feedback also lnfluences Wearable 1echnology deslgn. LlucldaLlng from Lhe daLa
galned ln Lhe flrsL lnLervlew, Lhe flrsL lnLervlewee's background reveals LhaL Lralnlng works
ln parallel wlLh her Lask descrlpLlon of Lhe pro[ecL, whlch lnvolved deslgnlng Lhe aesLheLlcs.
Per approach Lo deslgnlng also reflecLed her fashlon deslgn Lralnlng, Lhus her concern for
aesLheLlcs ln Lhe lnLervlew furLher supporLed her concern abouL Lhe reacLlon of people ln
Lhe user's surroundlng envlronmenL Lo Lhe devlce or garmenL. 1he deslgner's wlsh Lo
redeslgn ln order Lo broaden lLs appeal also lndlcaLed Lhe amblLlon of creaLlng seamless
lnLegraLlon beLween Lhe user, Lhe devlce and Lhe surroundlng envlronmenL.
CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
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ln Lhe followlng secLlon, unlLs (concepLs) of general meanlng are llsLed and fllLered
Lo exLracL unlLs of meanlng LhaL are relevanL Lo Lhe research quesLlon. 1hls phase of
reducLlon ls essenLlal ln Lhe phenomenologlcal approach for allowlng Lhe ellmlnaLlng of
redundanL unlLs of relevanL meanlng. 1he declslon Lo unpack Lhese unlLs for each quesLlon
was made consclously ln order Lo avold any mlslnLerpreLaLlon of Lhe lnLervlew LranscrlpLs.


6. 1. 1. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ngs
Several unlLs of meanlng emerged durlng analysls of Lhe flrsL quesLlon, shown ln Lhe
followlng Lable:

1ab|e 6. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 1: uest|on 1, 1a and 1b.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 1.
lease descrlbe
your Wearable
1echnology
pro[ecL

Ok.so
1
tbe ptoject tbot we JlJ, wblcb
ls
2
o blt of o wblle oqo oow, we
J
boJ to
Jeslqo sometbloq tbot woolJ osslst
wltb wolkloq lo tbe clty.tbe
4
flool
Jeslqo tbot me ooJ my qtoop come op
wltb wos o jocket tbot boJ loJlcotots
oo lt ooJ
5
olso boJ llqbts sbowloq
messoqes ooJ
6
we wooteJ to
Jocomeot kloJ of bow tbls woolJ offect
wolkloq tbtooqb o cooqestloo lo tbe
clty,
7
esseotlolly osloq tbe bllokets,
8
people woolJ koow ooJ
9
move oot of
yoot woy ot look ot tbe slqo,
10
we boJ
llke, o teJ llqbt soyloq stopploq ot tbe
bock ot lf yoo
11
ptess tbe bottoo tbot
soys stopploq people woolJ koow
tbtooqb tbot ooJ
12
tbey woolJ be oble
to oovlqote eoslet otoooJ yoo.

1.
1he pro[ecL Lhey dld
2.
A blL of a whlle ago
3.
Pad Lo deslgn someLhlng LhaL
asslsLs walklng ln Lhe clLy
4.
1he flnal deslgn Lhey came up
wlLh was a [ackeL wlLh
lndlcaLors
3.
Pad llghLs showlng messages
6.
1hey wanLed Lo documenL
7.
8y essenLlally uslng Lhe
bllnkers
8.
So LhaL people would know
9.
And move ouL of Lhe way by
looklng aL Lhe slgns
10.
1he [ackeL had a red llghL
saylng sLopplng aL Lhe back
11.
8y presslng Lhe buLLon, people
would know
12.
eople would be able Lo
navlgaLe easler around Lhe
user
uest|on 1a.
So you pracLlcally
become a walklng
Lrafflc llghL?

1J
es, ooJ we olso..
1
o lot of oot lJeos
bebloJ lt wos tblokloq oboot llke
15
bow
oo tbe tooJ tbete wete so mooy toles
ooJ bow peJesttloos,
16
ls kloJ of llke
ftee fot oll,
17
Jo wbot yoo woot, ooJ
18
tbete ote oo octool set toles ooJ
19
we
13.
?es
14.
A loL of Lhelr ldeas behlnd lL
was Lhlnklng on
13.
1here were so many rules for
pedesLrlans
16.
lL ls klnd of llke free for all
CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
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wete lookloq ot bow Ceotqe stteet
20
oseJ to bove peJesttloo looes,
21
tbey
bove, llke wbete to wolk.
22
Jowo tbe
tlqbt ot left ooJ
2J
bow tbots kloJ of
JlsoppeoteJ ooJ
24
lts oll jost o jomble
oow ooJ
25
tbetes oo, llke etlpoette

17.
uo whaL you wanL
18.
1here are no acLual seL rules
19.
1hey were looklng aL how
Ceorge SLreeL
20.
used Lo have pedesLrlan lanes
21.
1hey have . llke where Lo
walk"
22.
uown Lhe rlghL or lefL
23.
Pow Lhose Lhlngs have
dlsappeared
24.
lL's all a [umble now
23.
1here's no eLlqueLLe
uest|on 1b.
So baslcally lL's
almosL llke Lrylng
Lo brlng Lhe
eLlqueLLe forward
Lhrough Lhe
deslgn?
27
es.
27.
?es

AfLer reduclng 27 unlLs of general meanlng from quesLlon 1, Lhere were 11 unlLs of
relevance LhaL allgn wlLh Lhe research quesLlon, lncludlng:

1ab|e 7. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 1: uest|on 1, 1a and 1b.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 1
3.
Pad Lo deslgn someLhlng LhaL asslsLs walklng ln Lhe clLy
4.
1he flnal deslgn Lhey came up wlLh was a [ackeL wlLh lndlcaLors
10.
1he [ackeL had a red llghL saylng sLopplng aL Lhe back
11.
8y presslng Lhe buLLon, people would know
12.
eople would be able Lo navlgaLe easler around Lhe user
uest|on 1a
19.
1hey were looklng aL how Ceorge SLreeL
21.
used Lo have pedesLrlan lanes
23.
Pow Lhose Lhlngs have dlsappeared
24.
lL's all a [umble now
23.
1here's no eLlqueLLe
uest|on 1b
27.
?es


1he nexL Lable lncludes unlLs of general meanlng from quesLlons Lwo and Lhree:


CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
73
1ab|e 8. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 1: uest|on 2 and 3.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 2.
Pow many people
were lnvolved ln
Lhe pro[ecL?
um..
28
lo oot qtoop tbete wete
tbtee of os
29
tbot speclflcolly
wotkeJ oo tbe ptoject.
28.
1here were Lhree of Lhem
ln Lhe group
29.
Who speclflcally worked on
Lhe pro[ecL

uest|on 3.
uld Lhey come
from dlfferenL
flelds of
pracLlces?
1bete wete
J0
2 fosbloo stoJeots ooJ
J1
1 loJosttlol Jeslqo stoJeot.
30.
1wo fashlon sLudenLs
31.
Cne lndusLrlal deslgn
sLudenL

AfLer reduclng four unlLs of general meanlng from quesLlon 2 and 3, Lhere were
Lhree unlLs of relevanL meanlng LhaL allgn wlLh Lhe research quesLlon, lncludlng:

1ab|e 9. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 1: uest|on 2 and 3.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 2
28.
1here were Lhree of Lhem ln Lhe group
uest|on 3
30.
1wo fashlon sLudenLs
31.
Cne lndusLrlal deslgn sLudenL


unlLs of general meanlng from quesLlon 4 are seen ln Lhe followlng:

1ab|e 10. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 1: uest|on 4, 4a and 4b.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 4.
Accordlng Lo your
background of
pracLlce, whaL are
Lhe challenges of
Lhe pro[ecL?
J2
l qoess,
JJ
sloce we wete kloJ of
tooqbt to Jeslqo fot tbe boJy ooJ llke
oestbetlcs ooJ stoff os well.
J4
l tblok
wete tbe cbolleoqes, especlolly.. llke,
J5
coose we Joot teolly koow mocb
oboot bow to.
J6
lo tbe tetms of bow to
octoolly mokloq lt,
J7
we Joot teolly
koow mocb oboot bow to pot toqetbet,
llke tbe electtlcol slJe of lt ooJ tbe
llqbts ooJ
J8
bow tbot woolJ wotk lo o
qotmeot ooJ
J9
pottloq tbe tecbooloqy
loto lt.
32.
1hey guessed
33.
Slnce Lhey were LaughL Lo deslgn
for Lhe body and aesLheLlcs
34.
She Lhlnks Lhose were Lhe
challenges
33.
1hey don'L really know how
36.
ln Lerms of how Lo acLually
maklng lL
37.
1hey don'L know much how Lo
puL LogeLher Lhe elecLronlcal slde
and Lhe llghLs
38.
Pow LhaL would work ln a
CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
74
garmenL
39.
8y puLLlng Lechnology lnLo lL
uest|on 4a.
So lL's more of Lhe
ldea of
embeddlng Lhe
Lechnology LhaL
was qulLe a
challenge because
you say comlng
from a fashlon
background when
everyLhlng preLLy
much don'L have
Lhe elecLronlc
elemenL ln a way?
40
es,
41
bot l qoess tbeyte ttyloq to
eocootoqe tbot o llttle blt mote oow,
42
bot we oevet teolly covet tbot lo oot
lessoos.
4J
5o, we JlJot teolly koow
wbot kloJ of ptoJocts ot tbloqs tbot
we coolJ ose to pot loto lt
44
so lt wos
kloJ of botJ to Jeslqo wltb..
45
we kloJ
of koew wbot we wooteJ
46
bot we
Joot koow wbot wos ovolloble to ose..
40.
?es
41.
She guessed Lhey're Lrylng Lo do
lL a llLLle blL more now
42.
8uL Lhey never covered LhaL ln
Lhelr lessons
43.
So Lhey dldn'L really know whaL
klnd of producLs or Lhlngs Lhey
could use
44.
lL was klnd of hard Lo deslgn wlLh
43.
1hey klnd of knew whaL Lhey
wanLed
46.
8uL Lhey don'L know whaL was
avallable Lo use
uest|on 4b.
So, glven Lhe facL
LhaL you haven'L
been Lralned LhaL
way, do you
reckon lf you had
known more, lL
would be much
easler?

47
es.
48
lf we boJ koowo mote of tbe
electtlcol slJe of lt,
49
lt woolJve teolly
belpeJ os ooJ
50
lt woolJ belp os cteote
o bettet Jeslqo ptobobly lo tbe
eoJ.
51
becoose we kloJ of boJ to moke
lt o llttle blt slmplet fot os to octoolly
ptoJoce tbe Jeslqo
52
bot fot tbe octool
ptoject
5J
we oeeJeJ to bove o
ptototype
54
bot lt JlJot bove to be tbe
wotkloq ptoJoct.
47.
?es
48.
lf Lhey had known more of Lhe
elecLronlcal slde of lL,
49.
lL would've really helped Lhem
and
30.
lL would help Lhem creaLe a
beLLer deslgn probably ln Lhe end
31.
8ecause we klnd of had Lo make
lL a llLLle blL slmpler for Lhem Lo
acLually produce Lhe deslgn
32.
8uL for Lhe acLual pro[ecL
33.
Lhey needed Lo have a proLoLype
34.
8uL lL dldn'L have Lo be Lhe
worklng producL.


Pere, only LhlrLeen unlLs were relevanL Lo Lhe research quesLlon, lncludlng:


1ab|e 11. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 1: uest|on 4, 4a and 4b.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 4
33.
Slnce Lhey were LaughL Lo deslgn for Lhe body and
aesLheLlcs
34.
She Lhlnks Lhose were Lhe challenges
37.
1hey don'L know much how Lo puL LogeLher Lhe
elecLronlcal slde and Lhe llghLs
38.
Pow LhaL would work ln a garmenL
39.
8y puLLlng Lechnology lnLo lL
CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
73
uest|on 4a
43.
So Lhey dldn'L really know whaL klnd of producLs or
Lhlngs Lhey could use
43.
1hey klnd of knew whaL Lhey wanLed
46.
8uL Lhey don'L know whaL was avallable Lo use
uest|on 4b
48.
lf Lhey had known more of Lhe elecLronlcal slde of lL,
30.
lL would help Lhem creaLe a beLLer deslgn probably ln
Lhe end.
32.
8uL for Lhe acLual pro[ecL
33.
1hey needed Lo have a proLoLype
34.
8uL lL dldn'L have Lo be Lhe worklng producL.


unlLs of general meanlng from quesLlon 3 are llsLed ln Lhe Lable below, followed by a
Lable conLalnlng lLs unlLs of relevanL meanlng.

1ab|e 12. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 1: uest|on S, Sa and Sb.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on S.
lease descrlbe
how you
approached Lhe
deslgn brlef.
55
we JlJ bove some osslstooce ftom
Jlffeteot totots wbo ote mote
expetleoceJ
56
ooJ we boJ o few
lessoos sbowloq os Jlffeteot tbloqs
tbot we coolJ ose
57
bot becoose
evetyooe lo tbe closs wete Joloq socb
Jlffeteot tbloqs,
58
lt wos kloJ of, llke,
we JlJot bove mocb tlme
59
ooJ
evetyooe kloJ of wooteJ o ooe oo ooe
tlme
60
bot, ls tbot wbot yoo wete
oskloq fot, ot?
33.
1hey dld have some asslsLance
from dlfferenL LuLors who are
more experlenced
36.
1hey had a few lessons showlng
Lhem dlfferenL Lhlngs Lhey could
use
37.
8uL because everyone ln Lhe
class were dolng such dlfferenL
Lhlngs
38.
1hey dldn'L have much Llme
39.
Lveryone wanLed a one on one
Llme
60.
ls LhaL whaL was belng asked?
uest|on Sa.
?es, buL l 'm really
lnLeresLed ln
looklng lnLo how
you approach Lhe
deslgn brlef.

61
lltst of oll of cootse we JlJ tbe
teseotcb ooJ
62
we come op wltb tbe
lJeo ftom lookloq ot vlJeos
6J
ooJ
floJloq wbot tbe molo ptoblems wete
ooJ..
64
so we weot oboot lt tbot woy
fltst ooJ
65
l myself JlJ o lot of
Jeslqoloq llke fosbloo moJel
66
wblcb ls
tbe woy lve beeo tooqbt of
67
ooJ o lot
of my lJeos come oot tbot woy
68
wbeo
l woolJ sketcb Jowo bow l woot lt to
look fltst
69
ooJ tbeo wotk oot bow lt
woolJ wotk oftetwotJ.
61.
llrsL of all Lhey dld Lhe research
62.
1hey came up wlLh Lhe ldea
from looklng aL vldeos
63.
And flndlng whaL Lhe maln
problems were
64.
1hey wenL abouL lL LhaL way
flrsL
63.
She dld a loL of deslgnlng llke
fashlon model
66.
Whlch ls Lhe way she's been
LaughL
67.
A loL of Lhe ldeas came ouL LhaL
way
68.
When she would skeLch down
how she wanLs lL Lo look
CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
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69.
And Lhen work ouL how lL would
work afLerward
uest|on Sb.
So would you say,
ln Lerms of your
background
Lralnlng, whlch ls
fashlon deslgn,
how lL looks ls
whaL concerns
you Lhe mosL
when you were
approachlng Lhe
deslgn brlef?
70
es.
71
we boJ llke tbe bockqtoooJ
lJeo of bow we woot lt to Jo (lts tosk)
72
bot beloq tooqbt tbot woy,
7J
oestbetlcs ls polte lmpottoot wbeo
Jeslqoloq lt ooJ tbot wos..
74
lo my
qtoop we boJ Jlffeteot jobs ooJ
75
my
job wos to Jeslqo tbe oestbetlc of lt
ooJ tbeo
76
tbe loJosttlol qltl JlJ o lot
mote wotk wltb llke pottloq lt toqetbet
ooJ yeob,
77
o lot of lt wos sketcbloq
ooJ
78
tbots tbe woy l wotk.


70.
?es
71.
1hey had llke Lhe background
ldea of how Lhey wanL lL Lo do
(lLs Lask)
72.
8uL belng LaughL LhaL way,
73.
AesLheLlcs ls qulLe lmporLanL
when deslgnlng lL
74.
ln Lhe group Lhey had dlfferenL
[obs
73.
Per [ob was Lo deslgn Lhe
aesLheLlc of lL
76.
1he lndusLrlal glrl dld a loL more
work wlLh puLLlng parLs
LogeLher
77.
A loL of lL was skeLchlng
78.
1haL's Lhe way she works


1ab|e 13. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 1: uest|on S, Sa and Sb.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on S
33.
1hey dld have some asslsLance from dlfferenL LuLors who are
more experlenced
36.
1hey had a few lessons showlng Lhem dlfferenL Lhlngs Lhey
could use
37.
8uL because everyone ln Lhe class were dolng such dlfferenL
Lhlngs
38.
1hey dldn'L have much Llme
uest|on Sa
61.
llrsL of all Lhey dld Lhe research
62.
1hey came up wlLh Lhe ldea from looklng aL vldeos
63.
She dld a loL of deslgnlng llke fashlon model
66.
Whlch ls Lhe way she's been LaughL
67.
A loL of Lhe ldeas came ouL LhaL way
68.
When she would skeLch down how she wanLs lL Lo look
69.
And Lhen work ouL how lL would work afLerward
uest|on Sb
70.
?es
71.
1hey had llke Lhe background ldea of how Lhey wanL lL Lo do
(lLs Lask)
73.
AesLheLlcs ls qulLe lmporLanL when deslgnlng lL
73.
Per [ob was Lo deslgn Lhe aesLheLlc of lL
77.
A loL of lL was skeLchlng
78.
1haL's Lhe way she works

CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
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ln Lhe followlng Lwo Lables are Lhe unlLs of general meanlng and unlLs of relevanL
meanlng from quesLlon 6:

1ab|e 14. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 1: uest|on 6 and 6a.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 6.
Pow do you
descrlbe your
personal lnlLlal
deslgn-relaLed
challenges on Lhe
pro[ecL?
79
we boJ to tblok of wbo woolJ
octoolly weot tbe Jeslqo ooJ
80
wbo
sttoqqleJ tbe most wltb tbot..
81
wbo
ote tbe kloJ of people tbot oeeJ to be
somewbete ooJ
82
we boJ llke sboppets
ooJ bosloess people ooJ ool stoJeots
tbot wooteJ to wolk fost,
8J
so we
wooteJ sometbloq tbot kloJ of
vetsotlle, ooJ
84
becoose we JlJot bove
mocb tlme,
85
we oeeJeJ to bove o
ptototype tbot we coolJ jost cteote
ooJ
86
we ptobobly woolJve llkeJ to
bove cteoteJ sometbloq llttle blt mote
JeslqoeJ bot
87
we eoJeJ op osloq o
kloJ of, oot llke o blozet bot o kloJ of,
o ptemoJe jocket ooJ
88
we pot tbe
electtlcol llqbts loto lt.
79.
1hey had Lo Lhlnk of who would
acLually wear Lhe deslgn
80.
Who sLruggled Lhe mosL
81.
Who are Lhe people LhaL need
Lo be somewhere
82.
1hey had llke shoppers and
buslness people and unlverslLy
sLudenLs LhaL wanLed Lo walk
fasL
83.
1hey wanLed someLhlng LhaL ls
versaLlle
84.
Slnce Lhey dldn'L have much
Llme,
83.
1hey needed Lo have a
proLoLype Lo creaLe
86.
1hey probably would've llked Lo
have creaLed someLhlng llLLle
blL more 'deslgned'
87.
1hey ended up uslng a premade
[ackeL
88.
1hey puL Lhe elecLronlcal llghLs
lnLo lL
uest|on 6a.
So, baslcally,
when you were
Lhlnklng of lL Lhe
deslgn aLLrlbuLes,
one of Lhem belng
Lhe user hlm self
and how Lhey wlll
wear lL?
89
es.
89.
?es.






CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
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1ab|e 1S. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 1: uest|on 6 and 6a.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 6
79.
1hey had Lo Lhlnk of who would acLually wear Lhe deslgn
80.
Who sLruggled Lhe mosL
81.
Who are Lhe people LhaL need Lo be somewhere
82.
1hey had llke shoppers and buslness people and unlverslLy
sLudenLs LhaL wanLed Lo walk fasL
83.
1hey wanLed someLhlng LhaL ls versaLlle
83.
1hey needed Lo have a proLoLype Lo creaLe
86.
1hey probably would've llked Lo have creaLed someLhlng
llLLle blL more 'deslgned'
87.
1hey ended up uslng a premade [ackeL
88.
1hey puL Lhe elecLronlcal llghLs lnLo lL
uest|on 6a
89.
?es


1ab|e 16. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 1: uest|on 7 and 7a.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 7.
WhaL deslgn
aLLrlbuLes lead Lo
deslgn
conslderaLlons for
Lhe pro[ecL?
90
we boJ to cbooqe oot Jeslqo o llttle
blt becoose of tbe coosttolots of tbese
tbloqs,
91
ooe of tbe molo foctots wos
bow people woolJ teoct to lt ooJ
92
bow we woolJ be oble to Jocomeot
lt ooJ
9J
olso ot tbe eoJ, lt bos o lot to
Jo wltb bow tbe oset woolJ be oble to
octlvote tbe slqools
94
ooJ tbe osoqe of
llqbts.
90.
1hey had Lo change Lhe deslgn
a llLLle blL due Lo several
consLralnLs
91.
Cne of Lhe maln facLors was
how people would reacL Lo lL
92.
Pow Lhey would be able Lo
documenL lL
93.
ln Lhe end, wlLh how Lhe user
would be able Lo acLlvaLe Lhe
slgnals
94.
And Lhe usage of llghLs.
uest|on 7a.
Ah, Lhe Lrlgger?

95
es, so we boJ to .ose..
96
o lot of
tbe Jeslqo wos boseJ otoooJ tbot llke,
bow we woolJ qet tbe swltcbes ooJ
97
bow tbey woolJ be oble to Jo tbot
wltboot koowloq too mocb oboot
tecbooloqy ooJ
98
bow we woolJ be
oble to.qet tbose llt Jowo to
somewbete tbot tbe petsoo coolJ
octlvote lt,
99
so tbot kloJ of cbooqeJ
oot Jeslqo o llttle blt.
93.
?es
96.
1he deslgn was based around
how Lhey would geL Lhe
swlLches
97.
Pow Lhe user would be able Lo
do LhaL wlLhouL knowlng Loo
much abouL Lechnology
98.
Pow Lhey would be able Lo
poslLlon Lhe llghLs somewhere
LhaL Lhe user could acLlvaLe
99.
1haL changed Lhelr deslgn a
llLLle blL.

ulsplayed ln Lhe followlng Lable, are unlLs of relevanL meanlng from quesLlon 7:

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1ab|e 17. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 1: uest|on 7 and 7a.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 7
90.
1hey had Lo change Lhe deslgn a llLLle blL due Lo several
consLralnLs
91.
Cne of Lhe maln facLors was how people would reacL Lo lL
92.
Pow Lhey would be able Lo documenL lL
93.
ln Lhe end, wlLh how Lhe user would be able Lo acLlvaLe Lhe
slgnals
94.
And Lhe usage of llghLs.
uest|on 7a
96.
1he deslgn was based around how Lhey would geL Lhe
swlLches
97.
Pow Lhe user would be able Lo do LhaL wlLhouL knowlng Loo
much abouL Lechnology
98.
Pow Lhey would be able Lo poslLlon Lhe llghLs somewhere
LhaL Lhe user could acLlvaLe
99.
1haL changed Lhelr deslgn a llLLle blL.

ln Lhe nexL Lable, unlLs of general meanlng from quesLlon 8 are llsLed, followed by
Lhe unlLs of relevanL meanlng.

1ab|e 18. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 1: uest|on 8.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 8.
What are the
d|ff|cu|t|es of
approach|ng the
des|gn br|ef of the
pro[ect?
100
As lve solJ befote,
101
lt wos kloJ
of.. mololy flqotloq oot bow oll tbe
electtlcol potts ote qoloq to
wotk.
102
ooJ olso koowloq wbot l
coolJ ose lo tbe Jeslqo,
10J
coose l kloJ
of.. we kloJ of boJ oo lJeo of wbot
we wooteJ
104
bot we JlJot koow lf lt
wos posslble fot os to poll lt off.
100.
She had sald before
101.
lL was malnly flgurlng ouL how
all Lhe elecLronlcal parLs are
golng Lo work
102.
Also ln knowlng whaL she could
use ln Lhe deslgn
103.
1hey had an ldea of whaL Lhey
wanLed
104.
1hey dldn'L know lf lL was
posslble Lo pull off


1ab|e 19. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 1: uest|on 8.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 8
101.
lL was malnly flgurlng ouL how all Lhe elecLronlcal parLs are
golng Lo work
102.
Also ln knowlng whaL she could use ln Lhe deslgn
103.
1hey had an ldea of whaL Lhey wanLed
104.
1hey dldn'L know lf lL was posslble Lo pull off
CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
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unlLs of general meanlng and Lhose relevanL from quesLlon seven are shown ln Lhe
followlng Lwo Lables.


1ab|e 20. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 1: uest|on 9, 9a and 9b.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 9.
WlLhln Lhe deslgn
process, whaL
recurrlng deslgn
problems
appeared?
105
Moybe wbeo we weot oot to llke
Jemoosttote lt,
106
we JlJot expect
peoples teoctloo to be wbot tbey wete so
107
tbot wos kloJ of, come op ooJ..

103.
When Lhey wenL ouL Lo
demonsLraLe lL
106.
1hey dldn'L expecL people's
reacLlon Lo be whaL Lhey
were
107.
1haL reacLlon came up

uest|on 9a.
So, ls lL recurrlng?

108
es,
109
lt JlJ boppeo wbeo we wete
testloq bot yeob,
110
we JlJot bove eoooqb
tlme to llke.
111
we cbooqeJ o llttle blt of
bow we wolk ooJ tbe ploces we weot to
112
bot lt wosot kloJ of llke o.. tecottloq
ptoblem
11J
bot oo lotetestloq floJ.
108.
?es
109.
lL dld happen when Lhey
were LesLlng
110.
1hey dldn'L have enough
Llme
111.
1hey changed a llLLle blL of
how Lhey walk and Lhe
places Lhey wenL Lo
112.
lL wasn'L a recurrlng
problem
113.
lL was an lnLeresLlng flnd.
uest|on 9b.
Pow would you
descrlbe people's
reacLlons Lo LhaL,
ln general?

114
A lot of tbem qeoetolly sotptlseJ ooJ
115
tbey tbooqbt lt wos foooy
116
ooJ l qoess
tbls wos to be expecteJ becoose lts
sometbloq tbot bosot beeo seeo befote
117
ooJ lt woolJ ptobobly be Jlffeteot wltb o
lot of people osloq lt
118
ooJ lt becomes
mote molostteom ot llke, occeptoble
119
bot
l qoess wltb tbls kloJ of tbloq yoo coot
teolly expect tbls to boppeo.
114.
A loL of people were
generally surprlsed
113.
eople LhoughL lL was
funny
116.
She guessed Lhls was Lo be
expecLed because lL's
someLhlng LhaL hasn'L been
seen before
117.
lL would probably be
dlfferenL wlLh a loL of
people uslng lL
118.
lL becomes more
malnsLream or accepLable
119.
She could noL expecL lL Lo
be malnsLream


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1ab|e 21. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 1: uest|on 9, 9a and 9b.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 9
103.
When Lhey wenL ouL Lo demonsLraLe lL
106.
1hey dldn'L expecL people's reacLlon Lo be whaL Lhey were
uest|on 9a
108.
?es
109.
lL dld happen when Lhey were LesLlng
111.
1hey changed a llLLle blL of how Lhey walk and Lhe places
Lhey wenL Lo
112.
lL wasn'L a recurrlng problem
113.
lL was an lnLeresLlng flnd.
uest|on 9b
114.
A loL of people were generally surprlsed
113.
eople LhoughL lL was funny
116.
She guessed Lhls was Lo be expecLed because lL's someLhlng
LhaL hasn'L been seen before
117.
lL would probably be dlfferenL wlLh a loL of people uslng lL
118.
lL becomes more malnsLream or accepLable
119.
She couldn'L expecL lL Lo be malnsLream

Answers from quesLlon 10 produced several unlLs of general meanlng and also unlLs
of relevanL meanlng shown ln Lhe nexL Lwo Lables:

1ab|e 22. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 1: uest|on 10.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 10.
lf you could flx (a)
cerLaln deslgn
aspecL(s) of Lhe
pro[ecL, whaL or
whlch aspecL
would lL (Lhey)
be?
120
l tblok weve tolkeJ oboot tbls,
121
soyloq we woolJ llke to cteote mote
of tbem
122
ooJ kloJ of set tbem oot lo
Jlffeteot ploces
12J
ooJ we olso
woolJve llke to Jeslqo o few
Jlffeteot..
124
lo tbe eoJ weJ llke to
bove o few mote Jlffeteot slqools oo
tbe jocket
125
bot we woolJ llke to bove
o few mote Jlffeteot soyloq,
126
coose
we ooly boJ stopploq ot tbe eoJ,
127
we woolJve llke to bove llke o few
Jlffeteot Jltectloool soyloqs oo tbe
jocket
128
ooJ moybe sometbloq oo tbe
ftoot
129
ooJ moybe ttleJ Jlffeteot
tbloqs ooJ see bow tbot woolJve
wotkeJ
120.
l Lhlnk we've Lalked abouL Lhls
121.
1hey would llke Lo creaLe more
of Lhem
122.
SeL Lhem ouL ln dlfferenL places
123.
1hey also would've llked Lo
deslgn a few dlfferenL ones
124.
1hey would llke Lo have a few
more (dlfferenL) slgnals on Lhe
[ackeL
123.
1hey would llke Lo have a few
more dlfferenL saylngs
126.
1hey only had 'sLopplng' ln Lhe
end deslgn
127.
1hey would've llked Lo have few
dlfferenL dlrecLlonal saylngs on
Lhe [ackeL
128.
Maybe someLhlng on Lhe fronL
129.
Maybe Lrled dlfferenL Lhlngs
and see how LhaL would've
worked

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1ab|e 23. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 1: uest|on 10.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 10
121.
1hey would llke Lo creaLe more of Lhem
122.
SeL Lhem ouL ln dlfferenL places
124.
1hey would llke Lo have a few more (dlfferenL) slgnals on Lhe
[ackeL
126.
1hey only had 'sLopplng' ln Lhe end deslgn
127.
1hey would've llked Lo have few dlfferenL dlrecLlonal saylngs
on Lhe [ackeL
129.
Maybe Lrled dlfferenL Lhlngs and see how LhaL would've
worked

CuesLlon eleven provlded a number of unlLs of general meanlng along wlLh a small
quanLlLy of Lhe relevanL meanlng, shown ln Lhe followlng Lwo Lables:

1ab|e 24. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 1: uest|on 11, 11a, 11b and
11c.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 11.
Pow do you
descrlbe Lhe
deslgn process ln
deslgnlng for Lhe
pro[ecL?
1J0
lt wos polte oo eojoyoble ptocess
1J1
bot we eoJ op.we boJ o lot of tlme
to btolostotm
1J2
ooJ btooqbt op
ptoposols
1JJ
ooJ Jo o lot of teseotcb
so,
1J4
l tblok tbot wos qooJ tbot we
boJ polte oo omooot of tlme to Jo
bockqtoooJ teseotcb
1J5
wblcb we
teolly oeeJeJ to Jo becoose we oll
weot oot to Jo Jlffeteot tbloqs
1J6
tbete
wete olso Jlffeteot petspectlves ooJ
lts olso o qooJ tbloq.

1J7
All tbe vlsools, llke tbe vlJeos of
people oo tbe stteet ooJ pbotos ooJ
Jocomeotloq wete teolly
belpfol.
1J8
we olso JlJ o lot of mloJ
mopploq
1J9
wblcb kloJ of leJ os to oot
flool lJeo,
140
llke wtltloq Jowo oll tbe
key polots tbot wete tbe ptoblems tbot
people boJ eocoooteteJ wbllst wolkloq
141
ooJ llke tbloqs tbot coolJ be
lmptoveJ
142
ooJ wbot we wooteJ to
see boppeo.

130.
lL was qulLe an en[oyable
process
131.
1hey ended up havlng a loL of
Llme Lo bralnsLorm
132.
1hey broughL up proposals
133.
1hey dld a loL of research so,
134.
She Lhlnk LhaL was a good Lhlng
Lo have a loL of Llme for
background research
133.
She felL LhaL was needed as
Lhey wenL and do dlfferenL
Lhlngs
136.
1here were also dlfferenL
perspecLlves whlch she felL Lo
be a good Lhlng
137.
She found all Lhe vlsuals,
lncludlng vldeos of people on
Lhe sLreeL and phoLos and
documenLlng lL Lo be helpful
138.
1hey dld a loL of mlnd mapplng
139.
1he mlnd mapplng led Lhem Lo
a flnal ldea
140.
1he mlnd mapplng lncludes
wrlLlng down all Lhe key
CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
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problems people encounLered
whllsL walklng
141.
1hey also llsLed Lhlngs LhaL
could be lmproved
142.
Along wlLh Lhlngs Lhey wanL Lo
see happen
uest|on 11a.
1hls wlll seem llke
l'm repeaLlng Lhe
quesLlon buL Lhen
agaln lL ls quleL
lmporLanL, whaL
are Lhe maln
deslgn concerns
when you were
deslgnlng lL ln Lhe
process?
14J
um.lm jost ttyloq to.. coose lts
beeo o wblle.
144
om.Jo yoo meoo tbe
coocetos of llke.. wbeo, llke?

143.
She was Lrylng Lo remember as
lL has been a whlle
144.
uo you mean Lhe concerns?

uest|on 11b.
Ck, so lL could
elLher be, llke you
have Lhe lnlLlal
skeLch of Lhe ldea
and Lhe oLher parL
of Lhe group wlll
be Lhlnklng of
how Lo embed all
Lhe elecLronlcs
nlcely and Lhen of
course you wlll
have deslgn
concern, ok how
are we golng Lo
do LhaL? ls lL Lhe
slze LhaL maLLers
or maybe you
were Lhlnklng
would lL welghL
Loo much on Lhe
[ackeL? Cr whaL
abouL Lhe
dlmenslons?
Cn/off?

145
eob wbeo we pot lt toqetbet we
boJ polte o few coocetos llke,
146
tokloq
tbe sketcb loto o teollty
147
ooJ we
wete coocetoeJ oboot wbot kloJ of
jocket tbot wete qoloq to pot lt loto,
1147
os lve solJ befote we wooteJ
sometbloq tbot wos.woolJot stooJ
too mocb oot ftom tbe ctowJ
148
ooJ
sometbloq tbot woolJ be ..coo be
oseJ evetyJoy.
149
sseotlolly tbot wos
wbete oot Jeslqo wos beoJloq,
150
bot
we foooJ lt teolly polte Jlfflcolt to floJ
oo ltem of clotbloq ot llke o Jeslqoet
ltem tbot woolJ wotk fot evetyooe so
tbot wos ooe of oot molo ptoblems.
151
olso lmplemeotloq tbem loto tbe
sboolJets,
152
we oeeJeJ tbem to be
seeo
15J
ooJ we boJ tbe cooceto of
pottloq lt lo tbe bock ot tbe sboolJets
wbete woolJ be tbe most
vlslble.
154
some wltb tbe llqbts we
oeeJeJ to bove o motetlol tbot woolJ
soppott tbem
155
bot we olso oeeJeJ
tbem to be seeo olso.. tbot wos o blt
of tbe cooceto os well
156
ooJ bow tbot
jocket woolJ soppott tbe bottety pocks
ooJ tbloqs llke tbot
157
ooJ tbe welqbt
ooJ bow tbot woolJ wotk wltb tbe
fobtlc
143.
1hey had a few concerns when
puLLlng Lhlngs LogeLher
lncludlng Laklng Lhe skeLch lnLo
reallLy
146.
1hey were concerned abouL
whaL klnd of [ackeL Lo use
147.
She sald before Lhey wanLed
someLhlng LhaL wouldn'L sLand
Loo much ouL from Lhe crowd
148.
1hey wanLed someLhlng LhaL
can be used everyday
149.
LssenLlally LhaL was where Lhelr
deslgn was headlng
130.
Cne of Lhe maln problems was
Lhey found lL really qulLe
dlfflculL ls Lo flnd an lLem of
cloLhlng or a deslgner lLem LhaL
would work for everyone
131.
Also Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of
elecLronlc parLs
132.
1hey needed Lhe elecLronlc
parLs Lo be seen
133.
1hey had Lhe concern of puLLlng
lL on Lhe back or Lhe shoulders
where lL would be mosL vlslble
134.
Slmllar for Lhe llghLs, Lhey
needed Lo have a maLerlal LhaL
would supporL elecLronlc parLs
133.
1hey also needed Lhe elecLronlc
parLs Lo be seen, whlch was a
blL of Lhe concern
136.
Pow LhaL [ackeL would supporL
Lhe baLLery packs and elecLronlc
CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
84
parLs
137.
1hey were concerned on Lhe
welghL and how LhaL would
work wlLh Lhe fabrlc
uest|on 11c.
So, meanlng Lhe
welghL of Lhe
elecLronlcs and
how Lhe welghL of
Lhe garmenLs and
how lL would
supporL LhaL?


138.
?es


1ab|e 2S. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 1: uest|on 11, 11a, 11b and
11c.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 11.
130.
lL was qulLe an en[oyable process
131.
1hey ended up havlng a loL of Llme Lo bralnsLorm
132.
1hey broughL up proposals
133.
1hey dld a loL of research
134.
She Lhlnk LhaL was a good Lhlng Lo have a loL of Llme for
background research
133.
She felL LhaL was needed as Lhey wenL and do dlfferenL
Lhlngs
136.
1here were also dlfferenL perspecLlves whlch she felL Lo be a
good Lhlng
137.
She found all Lhe vlsuals, lncludlng vldeos of people on Lhe
sLreeL and phoLos and documenLlng lL Lo be helpful
138.
1hey dld a loL of mlnd mapplng
139.
1he mlnd mapplng led Lhem Lo a flnal ldea
140.
1he mlnd mapplng lncludes wrlLlng down all Lhe key
problems people encounLered whllsL walklng
141.
1hey also llsLed Lhlngs LhaL could be lmproved
142.
Along wlLh Lhlngs Lhey wanL Lo see happen
uest|on 11a.
144.
uo you mean Lhe concerns?
uest|on 11b.
143.
1hey had a few concerns when puLLlng Lhlngs LogeLher
lncludlng Laklng Lhe skeLch lnLo reallLy
146.
1hey were concerned abouL whaL klnd of [ackeL Lo use
147.
She sald before Lhey wanLed someLhlng LhaL wouldn'L sLand
Loo much ouL from Lhe crowd
148.
1hey wanLed someLhlng LhaL can be used everyday
149.
LssenLlally LhaL was where Lhelr deslgn was headlng
130.
Cne of Lhe maln problems was Lhey found lL really qulLe
dlfflculL ls Lo flnd an lLem of cloLhlng or a deslgner lLem LhaL
would work for everyone
CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
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131.
Also Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of elecLronlc parLs
132.
1hey needed Lhe elecLronlc parLs Lo be seen
133.
1hey had Lhe concern of puLLlng lL on Lhe back or Lhe
shoulders where lL would be mosL vlslble
134.
Slmllar for Lhe llghLs, Lhey needed Lo have a maLerlal LhaL
would supporL elecLronlcal parLs
136.
Pow LhaL [ackeL would supporL Lhe baLLery packs and
elecLronlcal parLs
137.
1hey were concerned on Lhe welghL and how LhaL would
work wlLh Lhe fabrlc
uest|on 11c.
133.
?es

ln Lhe followlng Lables are shown unlLs of general meanlng and unlLs of relevanL
meanlngs from quesLlon 12 and 13, respecLlvely.
1ab|e 26. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 1: uest|on 12 and 12a.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 12.
lf you could flx (a)
cerLaln deslgn
aspecL(s) of Lhe
pro[ecL, whaL or
whlch aspecL
would lL (Lhey)
be?

156
l woolJ petsooolly cbooqe tbe octool
jocket tbot we oseJ
157
becoose lt
ptobobly wosot tbe best Jeslqo fot
wbot we wete ttyloq to qo fot.
158
lf we
llke boJ mote tlme, lt woolJve beeo
olce to octoolly cteote oo otlqlool
Jeslqo tbot woolJ kloJ of solt oll
Jlffeteot types of people tbot woolJ
oeeJ tbls ptoJoct, l qoess.

136.
She would personally change Lhe
acLual [ackeL Lhey used
137.
8ecause lL probably wasn'L Lhe
besL deslgn for whaL Lhey were
Lrylng Lo do
138.
lf Lhey had more Llme, she felL lL
would've been nlce Lo creaLe an
orlglnal deslgn LhaL would sulL all
dlfferenL Lypes of people LhaL
would need Lhls producL
uest|on 12a.
So changlng Lhe
[ackeL Lo
someLhlng LhaL
would appeal
broader?
159
eob, mote oppeolloq .
139.
?es, more appeallng.

1ab|e 27. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 1: uest|on 12 and 12a.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 12.
136.
She would personally change Lhe acLual [ackeL Lhey used
137.
8ecause lL probably wasn'L Lhe besL deslgn for whaL Lhey
were Lrylng Lo do
138.
lf Lhey had more Llme, she felL lL would've been nlce Lo
creaLe an orlglnal deslgn LhaL would sulL all dlfferenL Lypes of
people LhaL would need Lhls producL
uest|on 12a.
139.
?es, more appeallng.

CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
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1ab|e 28. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 1: uest|on 13 and 13a.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 13.
Would Lhere be a
seL of general
guldellnes ln
deslgnlng
Wearable
1echnology, ln
whaL form of
would you
descrlbe Lhem Lo
be?
lm oot sote lf we boJ o speclflc
qolJelloe tbot we oeeJeJ to slt Jowo
to, lt wos o ptetty cteotlve
eovltoomeot tbot we wete lo ooJ
becoose lt wosot sometbloq tbot we
boJ to ptoJoce.lt wos mote of o kloJ
of cooceptool ooJ lookloq ot bow
people woolJ teoct, we weteot seot
wltb tbot mooy qolJelloes bot we JlJ
bove to Jo sometbloq tbot woolJ
cbooqe tbe woy people wete wolkloq
ot bow tbey woolJ lotetoct wltb tbe
eovltoomeot

160.
She's unsure lf Lhey had a speclflc
guldellne Lo use
161.
1hey were ln a preLLy creaLlve
envlronmenL
162.
Slnce lL wasn'L someLhlng LhaL we
had Lo produce, lL was concepLual
and Lo look aL how people would
reacL
163.
1hey weren'L provlded wlLh many
guldellnes
164.
1hey had Lo do someLhlng LhaL
would change Lhe way people
walk or how people would
lnLeracL wlLh Lhe envlronmenL
uest|on 13a.
1hrough Lhe
deslgn.

5o lt oeeJeJ to loteqtote tbe people
wltb tbe eovltoomeot, l qoess tbot wos
sometbloq tbot wos ooe of tbe molo
polots.l Joot koow lf lm qoloq o blt
off toplc bete.bot.
163.
lL needed Lo lnLegraLe people
wlLh envlronmenL
166.
She guess LhaL was one of Lhe
maln polnLs
167.
She's unsure lf she's gone off
Loplc

1ab|e 29. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 1: uest|on 13 and 13a.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 13.
160.
She's unsure lf Lhey had a speclflc guldellne Lo use
161.
1hey were ln a preLLy creaLlve envlronmenL
162.
Slnce lL wasn'L someLhlng LhaL we had Lo produce, lL was
concepLual and Lo look aL how people would reacL
164.
1hey had Lo do someLhlng LhaL would change Lhe way
people walk or how people would lnLeracL wlLh Lhe
envlronmenL
uest|on 13a.
163.
lL needed Lo lnLegraLe people wlLh envlronmenL
166.
She guess LhaL was one of Lhe maln polnLs

8ased on Lhe flndlngs shown ln Lhe aforemenLloned Lables of unlLs of general
meanlng and Lhe dellneaLlons exLracLed, on Lhe basls of Lhe flrsL lnLervlew, Lhere were 167
unlLs of general meanlng and afLer dellneaLlon, 126 unlLs of meanlng emerged LhaL were
relevanL Lo Lhe research quesLlon. 1he followlng analysls repeaLs Lhls observaLlon of Lhe
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lnLervlew as a whole ln order Lo ellmlnaLe redundanL unlLs followed by uslng Lhe meLhod of
clusLerlng Lhemes LhaL emerged from Lhe lnLervlew.

1ab|e 30. C|usters of re|evant mean|ngs from Interv|ew 1
ClusLers of relevanL meanlngs
AesLheLlcs
- Slnce Lhey were LaughL Lo deslgn for Lhe body and aesLheLlcs
- AesLheLlcs are qulLe lmporLanL when deslgnlng lL
- Per [ob was Lo deslgn Lhe aesLheLlc of lL
Lack of knowledge ln elecLronlc componenLs
- 1hey don'L know much how Lo puL LogeLher Lhe elecLronlc aspecLs or Lhe llghLs
- So Lhey dldn'L really know whaL klnd of producLs or Lhlngs Lhey could use
- lf Lhey had known more of Lhe elecLronlc slde of lL
- And Lhe usage of llghLs.
- lL was malnly flgurlng ouL how all Lhe elecLronlcal parLs are golng Lo work
- Also Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of elecLronlc parLs
- 1hey needed Lhe elecLronlc parLs Lo be seen
usablllLy
- ln Lhe end, wlLh how Lhe user would be able Lo acLlvaLe Lhe slgnals
- Pow Lhe user would be able Lo do LhaL wlLhouL knowlng Loo much abouL Lechnology
uevlce poslLlonlng
- Pow Lhey would be able Lo poslLlon Lhe llghLs somewhere LhaL Lhe user could acLlvaLe
- 1hey were concerned abouL whaL klnd of [ackeL Lo use
- 1hey needed Lhe elecLronlc parLs Lo be seen
- 1hey had Lhe concern of puLLlng lL on Lhe back or Lhe shoulders where lL would be mosL
vlslble
8ackground research
- llrsL of all Lhey dld Lhe research
- 1hey had Lo Lhlnk of who would acLually wear Lhe deslgn
- 1hey dld a loL of research
- She Lhlnk LhaL was a good Lhlng Lo have a loL of Llme for background research
- She found all Lhe vlsuals, lncludlng vldeos of people on Lhe sLreeL and phoLos and
documenLlng lL Lo be helpful
ueslgn process
- A loL of lL was skeLchlng
- 1hey broughL up proposals
- 1hey ended up havlng a loL of Llme Lo bralnsLorm
- 1he mlnd mapplng led Lhem Lo a flnal ldea
- 1he mlnd mapplng lncludes wrlLlng down all Lhe key problems people encounLered whllsL
walklng
- 1hey had a few concerns when puLLlng Lhlngs LogeLher lncludlng Laklng Lhe skeLch lnLo reallLy
1lme consLralnLs
- 1hey dldn'L have much Llme
- lf Lhey had more Llme, she felL lL would've been nlce Lo creaLe an orlglnal deslgn LhaL would
sulL all dlfferenL Lypes of people LhaL would need Lhls producL
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eople's reacLlons
- Cne of Lhe maln facLors was how people would reacL Lo lL
- 1hey dldn'L expecL people's reacLlon Lo be whaL Lhey were
- A loL of people were generally surprlsed
- eople LhoughL lL was funny
- She sald before Lhey wanLed someLhlng LhaL wouldn'L sLand Loo much ouL from Lhe crowd

1able 30 shows LhaL Lhere are elghL Lhemes LhaL emerged from Lhe flrsL lnLervlew
lncludlng: aesLheLlcs, lack of knowledge ln elecLronlc componenLs, usablllLy, devlce
poslLlonlng, background research, deslgn process, Llme consLralnLs and people's reacLlons.
1hus, lL became clear LhaL Lhe essence of Lhe cenLral Lheme revealed Lhrough Lhe clusLerlng
of meanlngs was: Lhe deslgn process and lLs challenges.

6. 1. 2. Interv|ew 1: re|evant mean|ngs |n re|at|on to the ma|n research quest|ons:
lrom Lhe flrsL lnLervlew, Lhere emerged elghL Lhemes of relevanL meanlngs and each
lnfluenced Lhe oLhers. 1hese Lhemes were Lhen fllLered Lhrough Lhe quesLlons asked by Lhls
research, expounded ln Lhe followlng:
1. Pow does Lhe deslgner's undersLandlng of deslgn aLLrlbuLes affecL Lhe deslgn process of
Wearable 1echnology?
ln order Lo elaboraLe relevance beLween flndlngs from Lhe flrsL lnLervlew and Lhe
research quesLlon above, lL ls necessary Lo clarlfy LhaL a deslgner's undersLandlng of deslgn
aLLrlbuLes ls lncluded as an lnLernal facLor, whlch ls very much lnfluenced by Lhe flrsL
parLlclpanL's background Lralnlng. 1he pro[ecL purpose forced her (and Lhe group) Lo do
background research, whlch lncluded Lhe developmenL of user scenarlos. 1hls means LhaL
Lhelr undersLandlng of usablllLy was foregrounded as one of Lhe maln concerns ln Lhelr
deslgn process, slgnlfylng lLs lmporLance as a deslgn aLLrlbuLe. 1hrough Lhelr background
research, funcLlonallLy also became anoLher maln concern, Lhrough Lhelr aLLempL Lo deflne
Lhelr own unlque deslgn problem LhaL emerged from expedlLlng background research
approprlaLe Lo Lhe glven deslgn brlef. Moreover, Lhe unlque deflnlLlon of funcLlonallLy also
lnfluenced conslderaLlons ln devlce poslLlonlng, whlch affecLed usablllLy, and ln Lurn
affecLed Lhe overall deslgn and Lhe reacLlon from Lhe user's surroundlng envlronmenL.
CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
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2. Pow do dlfferenL deslgns purposes LhaL have dlfferenL Lypes of funcLlonallLy and
usablllLy requlremenLs affecL Lhe deslgn process ln Wearable 1echnology?
lrom Lhe flrsL lnLervlew, lL became apparenL LhaL funcLlonallLy was drlven by Lhe
deslgn purpose and arose as a resulL of Lhe deslgner's background research explorlng and
expllcaLlng Lhe speclflc deslgn brlef. usablllLy requlremenLs were also drlven by Lhe
deslgner's background research and were deflned lnlLlally Lhrough bralnsLormlng and mlnd-
mapplng. Powever, addlLlonal requlremenLs may arlse durlng Lhe process, whlch may be
drlven by cerLaln lmpllcaLlons from parLlcular elemenLs of Lhe deslgn, such as llmlLaLlons of
elecLronlc componenLs, characLerlsLlcs of Lhe enveloplng maLerlal eLc. 1he lssue of
deslgnlng lLs appearance was also conLlngenL upon Lhe deflnlLlon of funcLlonallLy ln
accordance wlLh Lhe unlque deslgn purpose.

3. Pow can an undersLandlng of Lhe lnLerdlsclpllnary lLeraLlve deslgn process of Wearable
1echnology provlde a new concepLual undersLandlng of Lhe fleld?
1he collaboraLlve pro[ecL (beLween 2 fashlon deslgn sLudenLs and 1 lndusLrlal deslgn
sLudenL) descrlbed by Lhe flrsL lnLervlewee reflecLs Lhe lnLerdlsclpllnary naLure of Wearable
1echnology, furLher explalned by Lhe way ln whlch Lhe deslgner (and her group)
approached dlfflculLles ln embeddlng elecLronlc parLs lnLo Lhelr deslgn, and Lhus requlred
asslsLance from exLernal sources (LuLors). 1he lLeraLlve naLure of Lhe pro[ecL was also seen
by Lhe skeLchlng acLlvlLy performed by Lhe group, whlch resulLed ln Lhe proposal of mulLlple
ldeas and subsequenL ellmlnaLlon of unsulLable ldeas accordlng Lo Lhe lnLended soluLlon.
1hese flndlngs provlde paLhways for undersLandlng LhaL Wearable 1echnology ln lLs
deslgn process requlres collaboraLlve efforL, whlch corroboraLes lLs lnLerdlsclpllnary naLure.
1he lLeraLlve naLure ln lLs deslgn process ls almosL unavoldable slnce mulLlple elemenLs
(such as: elecLronlc clrculLry, fashlon, user sLudles, eLc.) auLomaLlcally synLheslze and
converge as Lhe deslgn acLlvlLy sLarLs, Lhus generaLlng almosL llmlLless posslblllLles of deslgn
CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
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soluLlons LhaL requlre a crlLlcal ellmlnaLlon process ln order Lo achleve a reflned flnal
deslgn.

6. 2. art|c|pant 2
1he second parLlclpanL revealed ln Lhe lnLervlew (conducLed on 29 SepLember 2011)
LhaL her pro[ecL maLched Lhe deflnlLlon of Wearable 1echnology as used ln Lhls research.
1he brlef for Lhls pro[ecL was Lhe same as Lhe flrsL parLlclpanL's. Powever, Lhe Lwo deslgners
approached Lhe problem wlLh dlsLlncL dlfferenL perspecLlves and meLhods. 1hls was useful
Lo augmenL and relnforce Lhe undersLandlng of Lhe Wearable 1echnology deslgn process.
1he second parLlclpanL descrlbed Lhe maln quallLles of a car as Lhe feaLures Lhey
lnlLlally aLLempLed Lo lncorporaLe lnLo Lhelr deslgn for walklng eLlqueLLe ln Lhe urban
envlronmenL. 8llnkers, a car horn, screechlng brake sounds, and LLu llghL slgnage were
embedded lnLo a blazer Lype garmenL Lo ellclL publlc reacLlons Lo Lhe wearer. She furLher
agreed LhaL Lhese feaLures were lnLenLlonally drlven Lo Lransform Lhe wearer lnLo a car
navlgaLlng ln a pedesLrlan envlronmenL.
1he pro[ecL was execuLed by a group of Lhree deslgn sLudenLs, lncludlng one
lndusLrlal deslgn sLudenL and Lwo fashlon deslgn sLudenLs (lncludlng Lhe second
lnLervlewee). 1he challenges ln Lhe pro[ecLs menLloned arose due Lo unfamlllarlLy wlLh
Lechnologlcal requlremenLs of Lhe deslgn, due Lo lack of prevlous Lralnlng ln Lhls deslgn
area. Per background Lralnlng ln fashlon deslgn conLrlbuLed Lo Lhls unfamlllarlLy. She
admlLLed LhaL Lhls lack of knowledge lmpacLed Lhe deslgn suggesLlng a slmpler approach
Lhan LhaL lnlLlally concelved ln Lhe group's ldeas.
Approachlng Lhe glven deslgn brlef, lL was menLloned LhaL her group needed Lo
underLake sufflclenL background research for Lhe pro[ecL as Lhey were brlefed Lo noL place
Loo much emphasls on Lhe aesLheLlc aspecL of Lhe pro[ecL. 1hls would seem Lo have sLeered
Lowards a more Lechnlcal and less aesLheLlc soluLlon Lhan Lhey would have found lnLulLlve.
1hls became a challenge ln Lhe process, as Lhe group were prevlously Lralned Lo do Lhe
opposlLe. 1hus, funcLlonallLy became Lhe drlvlng force, or ln uarke's (1979) Lerm, Lhe
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'prlmary generaLor' ln deslgnlng Lhe pro[ecL as Lhe group aLLempLed Lo lnLegraLe
Lechnologlcal elemenLs ln order Lo ellclL publlc reacLlons. 1hus, Lhe deslgn problems for Lhe
pro[ecL were deflned Lhrough Lhe deslgner's background research conducLed Lo supporL Lhe
pro[ecL.
WlLhln Lhe process, Lhe group followed Lhrough a serles of ellmlnaLlon processes of
deslgn soluLlons LhaL lncluded Lhe poLenLlal Lechnology Lo be embedded, and vlsual and
aesLheLlc aspecLs. 1hls ls slmllar Lo Lawson's (1980) Lheory, whlch explalns LhaL Lhe way ln
whlch deslgners work very much emphaslzes a soluLlon-focused sLraLegy. lurLhermore, Lhe
second parLlclpanL as a deslgner for Lhe pro[ecL also menLloned Lhe group's lnLenLlon Lo
creaLe a less avanL-garde vlsual appearance, whlch may LranslaLe as avoldlng 'borg'
aesLheLlcs descrlbed prevlously by 8hodes and Mase (2003). 1hls evldenced a consclous
efforL Lo achleve seamless embodlmenL of Lechnologlcal elemenLs by Lhe group. 1he second
parLlclpanL furLher menLloned LhaL Lhey had chosen a premade blazer as a base of garmenL
cholce due Lo lLs versaLlle naLure and due Lo Lhe Llme consLralnLs for Lhe pro[ecL lLself,
whlch prompLed her group Lo consclously choose a qulck and execuLable deslgn soluLlon.
1he welghL conslderaLlon emerged as an lmporLanL deslgn problem as lL was
deLermlned by Lhe cholce of power source for Lhe deslgn. 1he overlap beLween Lhe
problems of welghL and power source furLher affecLs Lhe usablllLy of Lhe deslgn as Lhe
second parLlclpanL admlLLed lL became almosL Loo heavy Lo wear for Lhe user. 8y lncreaslng
usablllLy, Lhe second parLlclpanL also menLloned LhaL her group would have llked Lo
reassess manual operaLlonal conLrols and posslbly alLer lL by enhanclng auLomaLlc
capablllLles Lo requlre only a mlnlmal Lrlggerlng sysLem and auLomaLed sensor acLlvaLlon,
LhaL ls, Lo creaLe a more naLural and lnLelllgenL user lnLerface deslgn. 1he group suggesLed a
preference for dlfferenL Lypes of blazer accordlng Lo dlfferenL age groups, gender, eLc. of
Lhe lnLended wearer, whlch was perhaps relaLed Lo her own background Lralnlng ln fashlon.
ln descrlblng Lhe process of deslgnlng Wearable 1echnology, Lhe second parLlclpanL
found Lhe lnlLlal process already dlffered from her prevlous deslgn experlence. She was
used Lo approachlng ldeas ln a very concepLual and vlsual manner, whllsL for Lhls parLlcular
CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
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pro[ecL, she had Lo casL aslde her usual approach and ad[usL Lo Lhe pro[ecL's Lechnologlcal
naLure. She also found lL daunLlng and frusLraLlng as she felL her prevlous background
Lralnlng ln fashlon was of mlnlmal advanLage Lowards Lhe pro[ecL.
When furLher asked lf she could suggesL concepLual guldellnes for deslgnlng
Wearable 1echnology, a balanced vlsual and Lechnologlcal approach was menLloned, as she
belleves a user's surroundlng envlronmenL plays a subsLanLlal parL ln deLermlnlng Lhe
usablllLy of Wearable 1echnology. She sLaLed LhaL soclal convenLlons, Lhe poLenLlal vlsual
response from Lhe user's surroundlngs, and undersLandlng of Lhe body conLrlbuLe Lo
versaLlllLy of a Wearable 1echnology.
1o furLher develop our undersLandlng of Lhe deslgn process of Wearable 1echnology
based on Lhe feedback from Lhe second parLlclpanL, followlng ls Lhe phenomenologlcal
process of ellclLlng unlLs of relevanL meanlngs and a summary and reflecLlon of lLs bearlng
on Lhe maln research quesLlons.


6. 2. 1. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ngs
ln Lhls secLlon, unlLs of general meanlng from Lhe second lnLervlew are llsLed,
followed by a process of ellmlnaLlon and ellclLlng unlLs of relevanL meanlng.

1ab|e 31. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 2: uest|on 1 and 1a.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 1.
lease descrlbe your
Wearable 1echnology
pro[ecL

1
lt wos lo tespoose to bow peok boot
peJesttloo ttofflc coo qet o blt
cbootlc
2
ooJ evetyboJy kloJ of Joes
tbelt owo tbloq,
J
so lo tespoose to
tbot we kloJ of took o bomotoos
opptoocb
4
ooJ took feototes tbot
woolJ be ossocloteJ wltb o cot
5
ooJ
see wbot woolJ boppeo lf tbey
soJJeoly qot kloJ of lojecteJ lo o
peJesttloo eovltoomeot. omm.
6
so
tbe ptoject ltself ls o jocket wltb
bllokets ottocbeJ loto ttoospoteot
sboolJet poJs
7
so tbe weotet coolJ
1.
lL was ln response Lo how
peak hour pedesLrlan Lrafflc
can geL a blL chaoLlc
2.
Lverybody klnd of does
Lhelr own Lhlng
3.
1hey Look a humorous
approach
4.
1hey Look feaLures LhaL
would be assoclaLed wlLh a
car
3.
1o see whaL would happen
lf car feaLures are suddenly
puL ln a pedesLrlan
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octlvote tbe tlqbt ot left sboolJet to
bllok occotJloq to wblcb Jltectloo
tbey wooteJ to qo
8
ooJ we olso boJ
speokets sewo loto tbe jocket
9
so
tbete wete jost oolse evety tlme tbe
blloket woolJ octlvote.. umm...o vety
looJ blloket oolse woolJ come oo
10
ooJ we olso kloJ of tbtew lo some
otbet soooJs socb os scteecbloq
btokes... omm... o boto tootloq...
11
so
lo oJJltloo to tbe ptoJoct ltself, tbe
ptoject wos mote oboot people's
teoctloos, llke lo teol llfe
12
totbet
tboo bow tbe jocket woolJ wotk
ltself.
envlronmenL
6.
1he pro[ecL ls a [ackeL wlLh
bllnkers aLLached lnLo
LransparenL shoulder pads
7.
1he wearer could acLlvaLe
Lhe rlghL or lefL shoulder Lo
bllnk accordlng Lo whlch
dlrecLlon Lhey wanLed Lo go
8.
1hey had speakers sewn
lnLo Lhe [ackeL
9.
1here were nolse every
Llme Lhe bllnker would
acLlvaLe, a very loud bllnker
nolse would come on
10.
1hey also puL ln oLher
sounds such as screechlng
brakes and a horn LooLlng
11.
1he pro[ecL was more abouL
people's reacLlons ln real
llfe
12.
8aLher Lhan how Lhe [ackeL
would work.
uest|on 1a.
So lL's almosL llke you
become a car?
1J
es

13.
?es

1ab|e 32. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 2: uest|on 1 and 1a.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 1.
1.
lL was ln response Lo how peak hour pedesLrlan Lrafflc
can geL a blL chaoLlc
4.
1hey Look feaLures LhaL would be assoclaLed wlLh a car
3.
1o see whaL would happen lf car feaLures are suddenly
puL ln a pedesLrlan envlronmenL
6.
1he pro[ecL ls a [ackeL wlLh bllnkers aLLached lnLo
LransparenL shoulder pads
7.
1he wearer could acLlvaLe Lhe rlghL or lefL shoulder Lo
bllnk accordlng Lo whlch dlrecLlon Lhey wanLed Lo go
8.
1hey had speakers sewn lnLo Lhe [ackeL
9.
1here were nolse every Llme Lhe bllnker would acLlvaLe,
a very loud bllnker nolse would come on
10.
1hey also puL ln oLher sounds such as screechlng brakes
and a horn LooLlng
11.
1he pro[ecL was more abouL people's reacLlons ln real
llfe
uest|on 1a.
13.
?es


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1able 33 and 34 show unlLs of general meanlng and unlLs of relevanL
meanlng from quesLlons 2 and 3 of Lhe lnLervlew wlLh parLlclpanL 2.

1ab|e 33. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 2: uest|on 2 and 3.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 2.
Pow many people
were lnvolved ln
Lhe pro[ecL?
14
1bete wete tbtee lo oot qtoop.
14.
1here were Lhree ln Lhe
group.
uest|on 3.
uld Lhey come
from dlfferenL
flelds of pracLlces?
15
1wo wete fosbloo Jeslqo locloJloq myself
16
ooJ 1 wos loJosttlol Jeslqo.

13.
1wo were fashlon deslgn
lncludlng Lhe 2
nd
parLlclpanL
16.
1he oLher person ls from
lndusLrlal deslgn.


1ab|e 34. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 2: uest|on 2 and 3.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 2.
14.
1here were Lhree ln Lhe group.
uest|on 3.
13.
1wo were fashlon deslgn lncludlng Lhe 2
nd
parLlclpanL
16.
1he oLher person ls from lndusLrlal deslgn.

lollowlng are unlLs of general meanlng and unlLs of relevanL meanlng from
quesLlon 4.

1ab|e 3S. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 2: uest|on 4 and 4a.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 4.
Accordlng Lo your
background of
pracLlce, whaL are
Lhe challenges of
Lhe pro[ecL?
17
uefloltely tbe tecbooloqy slJe of tbloqs
we kept lt polte lo fl.
18
we foooJ lt wos
eveo o cbolleoqe fot tbe loJosttlol qltl os
well to kloJ of qet oot beoJ otoooJ tbls.
19
1bots wby we kloJ of moke tbe ptoject
mote oboot people's teoctloo totbet tboo
tecbooloqy ltself.
20
lt wos oll bottety
opetoteJ ooJ moooolly opetoteJ os well
21
so yeob tbot wos Jefloltely tbe cbolleoqe

17.
1he Lechnology slde of
Lhlngs were Lhe challenge,
Lhus kepL lo fl
18.
1hey found lL was a
challenge for Lhe lndusLrlal
deslgn sLudenL
19.
1haL's why Lhey made Lhe
pro[ecL more abouL people's
reacLlon raLher Lhan
Lechnology lLself.
20.
lL was all baLLery operaLed
and manually operaLed
21.
1haL was deflnlLely Lhe
CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
93
challenge

uest|on 4a.
So, conLlnulng
wlLh Lhe prevlous
quesLlon, Lhe
fashlon deslgn
background, lL was
hard Lo embed Lhe
Lechnology lnLo
Lhe garmenL.
Would you say
LhaL lf you have
goLLen some sorL
of Lralnlng llke ln a
prevlous sub[ecL,
do you Lhlnk LhaL
would help you?

22
es Jefloltely fot tbot pottlcolot sobject


22.
?es


1ab|e 36. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 2: uest|on 4 and 4a.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 4.
17.
1he Lechnology slde of Lhlngs were Lhe challenge, Lhus
kepL lo fl
19.
1haL's why Lhey made Lhe pro[ecL more abouL people's
reacLlon raLher Lhan Lechnology lLself.
20.
lL was all baLLery operaLed and manually operaLed

uest|on 4a
22.
?es


CuesLlon 3 produced 16 unlLs of general meanlng and 12 unlLs of relevanL
meanlng shown ln Lable 37 and Lable 38.




CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
96
1ab|e 37. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 2: uest|on S.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on S.
Cf course when
you were glven
Lhe deslgn brlef,
you have a cerLaln
approach as a
fashlon deslgn
sLudenL. lease Lry
Lo descrlbe Lo me
how you approach
LhaL lnlLlal deslgn
brlef for Lhls
sub[ecL

2J
we wete kloJ of eocootoqeJ to oot tblok
of lt os oo oestbetlc ptoject
24
we wete oll
vety mocb eocootoqeJ to embtoce
tecbooloqy eveo tbooqb we kloJ of JlJo't
bove tbe ttololoq mote os o...
25
l qoess tbe
totots kloJ of boJ tbe vlsloo tbot yoo'll
oevet teolly qet tbe cbooce to Jo tbls oqolo
wltb tecbooloqy
26
so tbey wete kloJ of
posbloq ftom tbot ooqle
27
so we oll kloJ of
weot loto lt o llttle blt blloJly.
28
wbeo we
ttleJ to kloJ of moke tbe oestbetlc, we
wete eocootoqeJ to oot tblok too mocb
oboot tbot
29
bot l qoess tbe ooly woy lt
woolJ've fotmeJ wos to kloJ of tblok of
woys we coolJ blJe tbe tecbooloqy.
J0
l olso
fotqot tbe feotote tbot we locloJeJ lo lu
llqbts we olso moJe tbe slqo follow me ot
tbe bock.
J1
1bot wos lo tespoose to bow
people.. tbloqs llke lf tbete's o lot of
people woltloq oo tbe slJe of tbe tooJ to
ctoss, ooe woolJ ooly ctoss lf otbet people
stott to Jo lt,
J2
eveo tbot tbe llqbts Joo't qo
oo so tbot wos jost kloJ of o ploy oo tbot.
JJ
um, tbe fosbloo Jeslqo belpeJ lo, yoo
koow, tblokloq oboot motetlols tbot woolJ
covet tbe slqo wbeo lt woso't llt bot wlll
stlll sbloe tbtooqb wbeo lt wos, om...
J4
jost
koowleJqe oboot tbe qotmeot so wbete
tbe Jlffeteot swltcbes coolJ qo,
J5
bot
oestbetlcolly JlJo't teolly. we JlJo't teolly
bove scopeJ to kloJ of ollow lt...
J6
lt
woso't...lt wos mote oboot teoctloos.
J7
we
JlJo't bove tbe tlme ot tbe expettlse to
kloJ of tblok bow oestbetlc ooJ tecbooloqy
coo kloJ of be metqeJ toqetbet.

23.
1hey were encouraged Lo
noL Lhlnk of lL as an
aesLheLlc pro[ecL
24.
1hey were encouraged Lo
embrace Lechnology even
Lhough Lhey dldn'L have Lhe
Lralnlng
23.
1he LuLors had Lhe vlslon
LhaL Lhey'll never really geL
Lhe chance Lo do Lhls agaln
wlLh Lechnology
26.
1he LuLors were pushlng Lhe
sub[ecL from LhaL angle
27.
1hey all wenL lnLo lL a llLLle
blL bllndly
28.
When Lhey Lrled Lo make
Lhe aesLheLlc, Lhey were
encouraged noL Lhlnk Loo
much abouL LhaL
29.
She guessed Lhe only way Lo
form lL was Lo Lhlnk of ways
Lo hlde Lhe Lechnology
30.
AnoLher feaLure lncluded ln
LLu llghLs ls Lhey made Lhe
slgn 'follow me' aL Lhe back
31.
1he llghLs was ln response
Lo how when Lhere's a loL of
people walLlng on Lhe slde
of Lhe road Lo cross, one
would only cross lf oLher
people sLarL Lo do so
32.
Lven lf Lhe llghLs don'L go
on
33.
1he fashlon deslgn helped
ln Lhlnklng abouL maLerlals
LhaL would cover Lhe slgn
when lL wasn'L llL buL wlll
sLlll shlne Lhrough when lL
was
34.
knowledge abouL Lhe
garmenL so where Lhe
dlfferenL swlLches could go
33.
1hey dldn'L really Lhlnk of
Lhe aesLheLlcs
36.
lL was more abouL
reacLlons.
37.
1hey dldn'L have Lhe Llme or
CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
97
Lhe experLlse Lo Lhlnk how
aesLheLlc and Lechnology be
merged LogeLher.


1ab|e 38. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 2: uest|on S.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on S.
23.
1hey were encouraged Lo noL Lhlnk of lL as an aesLheLlc
pro[ecL
24.
1hey were encouraged Lo embrace Lechnology even Lhough
Lhey dldn'L have Lhe Lralnlng
27.
1hey all wenL lnLo lL a llLLle blL bllndly
29.
She guessed Lhe only way Lo form lL was Lo Lhlnk of ways Lo
hlde Lhe Lechnology
30.
AnoLher feaLure lncluded ln LLu llghLs ls Lhey made Lhe slgn
'follow me' aL Lhe back
31.
1he llghLs was ln response Lo how when Lhere's a loL of
people walLlng on Lhe slde of Lhe road Lo cross, one would
only cross lf oLher people sLarL Lo do so
32.
Lven lf Lhe llghLs don'L go on
33.
1he fashlon deslgn helped ln Lhlnklng abouL maLerlals LhaL
would cover Lhe slgn when lL wasn'L llL buL wlll sLlll shlne
Lhrough when lL was
34.
knowledge abouL Lhe garmenL so where Lhe dlfferenL
swlLches could go
33.
1hey dldn'L really Lhlnk of Lhe aesLheLlcs
36.
lL was more abouL reacLlons.
37.
1hey dldn'L have Lhe Llme or Lhe experLlse Lo Lhlnk how
aesLheLlc and Lechnology be merged LogeLher.

1he followlng Lables show unlLs of general meanlng and unlLs of relevanL
meanlng from quesLlon 6.

1ab|e 39. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 2: uest|on 6.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 6.
Movlng on, how
do you
descrlbe...so we
spoke abouL how
your background
J8
l foooJ Jefloltely vety Joootloq. omm... l
kloJ of...
J9
My fltst lJeos wete kloJ of
ptojects tbot wete oot vety feoslble to
moke to somewbot my expettlse... umm...
40
AoJ tbeo tbe ptocess become mote oboot
tooloq lt bock ooJ bow lt coolJ be
38.
She found lL deflnlLely very
daunLlng
39.
Per flrsL ldeas were pro[ecLs
LhaL were noL very feaslble
Lo make Lo somewhaL her
experLlse
CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
98
Lralnlng affecLed
Lhe way you
approached Lhe
deslgn brlef and
how lL's sllghLly
dlfferenL and
you're encouraged
Lo embrace Lhe
Lechnology lLself.
WhaL abouL you
personally, as a
fashlon deslgner
when you were
glven LhaL deslgn
brlef, whaL was
Lhe flrsL Lhlng LhaL
came Lo your
mlnd?
posslble....
41
bot yeob, tbot's ptobobly
wbot l fltst tbooqbt lt wos...
42
coose we
boJ tbe cbolce to eltbet keep lt os
sometbloq cooceptool ot moke lt teol..
umm...
4J
ooJ Jefloltely my fltst
lmptessloos wete to keep lt cooceptool
44
becoose l jost boJ oo lJeo wbete to stott,
45
my lJeos wete teolly blq...

40.
1he process became more
abouL Lonlng lL back and
how lL could be posslble
41.
1haL's probably whaL she
flrsL LhoughL lL was...
42.
1hey had Lhe cholce Lo
elLher keep lL as someLhlng
concepLual or Lo make lL
real
43.
Per deflnlLe flrsL
lmpresslons were Lo keep lL
concepLual
44.
She had no ldea where Lo
sLarL
43.
Per ldeas were really blg



1ab|e 40. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 2: uest|on 6.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 6.
38.
She found lL deflnlLely very daunLlng
39.
Per flrsL ldeas were pro[ecLs LhaL were noL very feaslble Lo
make Lo somewhaL her experLlse
40.
1he process became more abouL Lonlng lL back and how lL
could be posslble
42.
1hey had Lhe cholce Lo elLher keep lL as someLhlng
concepLual or Lo make lL real
43.
Per deflnlLe flrsL lmpresslons were Lo keep lL concepLual
44.
She had no ldea where Lo sLarL
43.
Per ldeas were really blg




1able 41 lncludes unlLs of general meanlng and Lable 42 shows unlLs of relevanL
meanlng from quesLlon 7.



CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
99
1ab|e 41. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 2: uest|on 7 and 7a.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 7.
Cf course ln Lhe
deslgn process
Lhere are cerLaln
deslgn aLLrlbuLes
LhaL came up
when you were
Lrylng Lo deslgn
Lhe [ackeL or when
you were Lrylng Lo
deslgn Lhe vlsual
feedback...whaL
were Lhe deslgn
aLLrlbuLes LhaL
emerged durlng
Lhe process whlch
became parL of
Lhe conslderaLlons
LhaL made, deslgn
wlse?
46
we Jefloltely cooslJeteJ keeploq lt vety
ootmol, lf tbot moke seose.
47
5o vlsoolly we
JlJo't woot lt to be ooytbloq ovoot-qotJe,
48
lt wos sometbloq tbot vety mocb boJ to
bleoJ lo wltb wbot people wete weotloq,
49
so losteoJ of Jeslqoloq sometbloq ftom
sctotcb, we oseJ o blozet ooJ tbeo we
olteteJ lt ftom tbete,
50
so lt woso't
teolly...tbe vlsool slJe of tbloqs woso't
teolly JeslqoeJ ot oll.
51
lt wos mote bow
we locotpotote tbe tecbooloqy.
52
1bot wos
tbe ooly JeslqoeJ pott.

46.
1hey deflnlLely consldered
keeplng lL very normal
47.
vlsually, Lhey dldn'L wanL lL
Lo be anyLhlng avanL-garde
48.
lL was someLhlng LhaL very
much had Lo blend ln wlLh
whaL people were wearlng
49.
lnsLead of deslgnlng
someLhlng from scraLch,
Lhey used a blazer whlch
was Lhen alLered
30.
1he vlsual slde of Lhlngs
wasn'L really deslgned aL all
31.
lL was more how Lhey
lncorporaLe Lhe Lechnology
32.
1haL was Lhe only deslgned
parL

uest|on 7a.
Ch ok. So Lhe
embodlmenL of
Lechnology lnLo
Lhe garmenL,
LhaL's Lhe maln
conslderaLlon?
5J
es

33.
?es


1ab|e 42. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 2: uest|on 7 and 7a.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 7.
47.
1hey deflnlLely consldered keeplng lL very normal
48.
vlsually, Lhey dldn'L wanL lL Lo be anyLhlng avanL-garde
49.
lL was someLhlng LhaL very much had Lo blend ln wlLh whaL
people were wearlng
30.
lnsLead of deslgnlng someLhlng from scraLch, Lhey used a
blazer whlch was Lhen alLered
31.
1he vlsual slde of Lhlngs wasn'L really deslgned aL all
32.
lL was more how Lhey lncorporaLe Lhe Lechnology
33.
1haL was Lhe only deslgned parL
uest|on 7a.
34.
?es

CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
100
1he followlng Lwo Lables show unlLs of general meanlng and unlLs of relevanL
meanlng from quesLlon 8.

1ab|e 43. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 2: uest|on 8.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 8.
ls Lhere any
dlfflculLy when
you were Lrylng Lo
embed LhaL
Lechnology? WhaL
would be Lhe
concreLe example
you encounLered
when you were
Lrylng Lo embed
Lechnology lnLo
Lhe garmenL lLself?
35
uefloltely o powet sootce
56
ooJ coose
evetytbloq wos bottety opetoteJ lt wos
vety beovy
57
ooJ we boJ tbe lu slqo tbot
wos moJe oot of 42 cbtlstmos llqbts wblcb
oeeJeJ oboot 6 AA tbot oeeJeJ to be pot
loto tbe bock of tbe jocket plos tbe
speokets
58
so lt wos vety beovy to weot
59
ooJ tbot wos ptobobly sometbloq tbot
woolJ bove oevet moJe lt osoble lo teol llfe
sltootloo.

33.
ueflnlLely a power source
36.
Slnce everyLhlng was
baLLery operaLed lL was very
heavy
37.
1hey had Lhe LLu slgn LhaL
was made ouL of 42
ChrlsLmas llghLs whlch
needed abouL 6 AA LhaL
needed Lo be puL lnLo Lhe
back of Lhe [ackeL plus Lhe
speakers
38.
So lL was very heavy Lo
wear
39.
1haL was probably
someLhlng LhaL would have
never made lL usable ln real
llfe slLuaLlon.



1ab|e 44. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 2: uest|on 8.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 8.
33.
ueflnlLely a power source
36.
Slnce everyLhlng was baLLery operaLed lL was very heavy
37.
1hey had Lhe LLu slgn LhaL was made ouL of 42 ChrlsLmas
llghLs whlch needed abouL 6 AA LhaL needed Lo be puL lnLo
Lhe back of Lhe [ackeL plus Lhe speakers
38.
So lL was very heavy Lo wear
39.
1haL was probably someLhlng LhaL would have never made lL
usable ln real llfe slLuaLlon.

CuesLlon 9 has produced 10 unlLs of general meanlng wlLh 8 unlLs of relevanL
meanlng, whlch are shown ln Lhe followlng Lwo Lables.


CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
101
1ab|e 4S. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 2: uest|on 9.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 9.
WlLhln Lhe process
lLself, were Lhere
any deslgn
problems LhaL
kepL on recurrlng?
lor example: ok
we declded we're
golng Lo use
ChrlsLmas llghLs,
we LesLed lL, Lhere
were cerLaln
problems and you
changed lL agaln,
or as you've sald
before Lhe ldeas
were blg, and you
sLarLed movlng
backwards and
you Lry Lo Lurn lL
down. Were Lhere
recurrlng deslgn
problems LhaL you
encounLered
durlng Lhe process
lLself?

60
ltobobly, bow blq we coolJ toke lt wos
tbe blqqest ptoblem. umm.
61
eob, lt
wos jost vety botJ wltb kloJ of, llmlteJ
tesootces ooJ llmlteJ tlme,
62
l tblok we
ooly boJ oboot tbtee weeks to Jo tbls ooJ
1 Joy o week.
6J
l meoo we boJ oot wbole
semestet bot lo tetms of octoolly mokloq lt
wbeo lt qot Jowo to lt, tbot's bow mocb
wos olloweJ fot tbe pbyslcol mokloq of tbe
jocket. umm.
64
eob llke we JlJ woot to
toke lt to o qtooJet scole
65
ooJ pot mote
feototes tbot woolJ bove ellclteJ o blqqet
teoctloo ftom tbe pobllc,
66
posslbly tbloqs
llke, yoo koow, smoll slqos comloq oot
ftom sboolJets ot sometbloq llke tbot,
67
bot lt jost eoJeJ to be tooeJ Jowo ot
kept cooceptool.
68
5o, yeob tbot's ptobobly
ooe Jeslqo tbloq,
69
coose we JlJo't bove
tbe expettlse we coolJo't cotty oot tbe
Jeslqo.

60.
robably, how blg Lhey
could Lake lL was Lhe blggesL
problem
61.
lL was [usL very hard wlLh
llmlLed resources and
llmlLed Llme
62.
1hey only had abouL Lhree
weeks Lo do lL and 1 day a
week
63.
1hey had a whole semesLer
buL ln Lerms of acLually
maklng lL LhaL's how much
was allowed for Lhe physlcal
maklng of Lhe [ackeL
64.
1hey wanLed Lo Lake lL Lo a
grander scale
63.
1o puL more feaLures LhaL
would have ellclLed a blgger
reacLlon from Lhe publlc
66.
osslbly Lhlngs such as small
slgns comlng ouL from
shoulders, eLc
67.
lL ended Lo be Loned down
or kepL concepLual
68.
1haL's probably one deslgn
Lhlng (problem)
69.
8ecause Lhey dldn'L have Lhe
experLlse, Lhey couldn'L
carry ouL Lhe deslgn


1ab|e 46. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 2: uest|on 9.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 9.
61.
lL was [usL very hard wlLh llmlLed resources and llmlLed Llme
62.
1hey only had abouL Lhree weeks Lo do lL and 1 day a week
64.
1hey wanLed Lo Lake lL Lo a grander scale
63.
1o puL more feaLures LhaL would have ellclLed a blgger
reacLlon from Lhe publlc
66.
osslbly Lhlngs such as small slgns comlng ouL from
shoulders, eLc
67.
lL ended Lo be Loned down or kepL concepLual
68.
1haL's probably one deslgn Lhlng (problem)
69.
8ecause Lhey dldn'L have Lhe experLlse, Lhey couldn'L carry
ouL Lhe deslgn
CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
102

CuesLlon 10 produced 11 unlLs of general meanlng shown ln Lable 47 and 8
unlLs of relevanL meanlng shown ln Lable 48.

1ab|e 47. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 2: uest|on 10.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 10.
lf you could flx
cerLaln deslgn
aspecLs of LhaL
pro[ecL, whaL or
whlch aspecL
would lL be?

70
ltobobly tbe swltcbes beloq oble to be
ootomotlc ot somebow seosot octlvoteJ lf
tbot mokes seose.
71
1bey wete oll kloJ of
moooolly...
72
yoo bove to ptess eocb
bottoos fot tbe potposes of expetlmeotloq
ooJ ttyloq to qet o teoctloo
7J
bot lf lt wos
kloJ of to be tokeo oot lo o teol lotqe scole
ptoject,
74
lt woolJ be qooJ ooe swltcb
coolJ coottol evetytbloq, ot lf ooe swltcb
boJ oll tbe bottoos
75
totbet tbeo, ok...left
booJ tbls floqet, ptess tbls, tlqbt booJ,
yoot plokle ptess tbot.
76
yeob jost
ptobobly tbe occesslblllty fot oll tbe
swltcbes...
77
ooJ l qoess jost kloJ of mokloq
tbe qotmeot o llttle blt mote loJlvlJool os
well,
78
ttyloq to btloq lo tbot Jeslqo
elemeot,
79
lJeolly we woolJ love to bove
ooe fot eocb oqe qtoop, eocb qeoJet,
80
bot
we jost... becoose tbe tlme, we boJ to Jo
tbe stooJotJ type block blozet.

70.
robably Lhe swlLches belng
able Lo be auLomaLlc or
somehow sensor acLlvaLed
71.
1hey were all manually
conLrolled
72.
?ou have Lo press each
buLLons for Lhe purposes of
experlmenLlng and Lrylng Lo
geL a reacLlon
73.
lf lL was klnd of Lo be Laken
ouL ln a real large scale
pro[ecL
74.
lL would be good one swlLch
could conLrol everyLhlng, or
lf one swlLch had all Lhe
buLLons
73.
8aLher Lhen, for example
lefL hand Lhls flnger, press
Lhls, rlghL hand, your plnkle
press LhaL
76.
robably Lhe accesslblllLy for
all Lhe swlLches
77.
Also she guessed, maklng
Lhe garmenL a llLLle blL more
lndlvldual
78.
8y Lrylng Lo brlng ln LhaL
deslgn elemenL
79.
ldeally Lhey would love Lo
have one for each age group
and each gender
80.
8ecause of Lhe Llme
llmlLaLlon, Lhey had Lo do
Lhe sLandard Lype black
blazer



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1ab|e 48. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 2: uest|on 10.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 10.
70.
robably Lhe swlLches belng able Lo be auLomaLlc or
somehow sensor acLlvaLed
71.
1hey were all manually conLrolled
72.
?ou have Lo press each buLLons for Lhe purposes of
experlmenLlng and Lrylng Lo geL a reacLlon
74.
lL would be good one swlLch could conLrol everyLhlng, or
lf one swlLch had all Lhe buLLons
76.
robably Lhe accesslblllLy for all Lhe swlLches
77.
Also she guessed, maklng Lhe garmenL a llLLle blL more
lndlvldual
79.
ldeally Lhey would love Lo have one for each age group
and each gender
80.
8ecause of Lhe Llme llmlLaLlon, Lhey had Lo do Lhe
sLandard Lype black blazer

ln Lable 49 and Lable 30, show Lhe unlLs of general meanlng and unlLs of
relevanL meanlng from quesLlon 11.

1ab|e 49. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 2: uest|on 11.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 11.
Pow do you
descrlbe Lhe
deslgn process
lLself?

81
lt wos Jlffeteot to wbot we wete oseJ to,
82
lt wos vety mocb... l wos vety mocb oseJ
to beloq stottloq wltb o vety cooceptool
lospltotloo tbot wos olwoys vlsool
8J
ooJ fot
tbls lt wos o lot oboot tecbolcolltles ooJ
electtoolcs ooJ tbloqs llke tbot...
84
so lt wos
Jlffeteot, lt coolJo't....
85
we floJ lt botJ to
kloJ of bove oll tbese koowleJqe
86
oboot
vlsool qotmeots ooJ bow tbey wotk
styllstlcolly ooJ, yoo koow, wbot tbloqs
woolJ be woto lo wbot eovltoomeots
87
ooJ
lt kloJ of jost boJ to be cost oslJe...
88
so l
foooJ tbot ospect of lt ftosttotloq to bove
oll tbls koowleJqe lo tbe oteo ooJ oot be
oble to ose lt
89
ooJ beloq eocootoqeJ to
oot ose lt olso...
90
so yeob tbot's ptobobly
wbot JlffeteJ lo tbe opptoocb ftom
ootmol.
81.
lL was dlfferenL Lo whaL
Lhey were used Lo
82.
She was very much used Lo
sLarL wlLh a very concepLual
lnsplraLlon LhaL was always
vlsual
83.
lor Lhls pro[ecL, lL was a loL
abouL LechnlcallLles and
elecLronlcs
84.
lL was dlfferenL
83.
1hey found lL hard Lo have
all Lhese knowledge
86.
knowledge on vlsual
garmenLs and how Lhey
work sLyllsLlcally and whaL
Lhlngs would be worn ln
cerLaln envlronmenLs
87.
1he knowledge [usL had Lo
be casL aslde
88.
She found LhaL aspecL
frusLraLlng Lo have all Lhls
knowledge ln Lhe area and
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noL be able Lo use lL
89.
And belng encouraged Lo
noL use lL
90.
1haL's probably whaL
dlffered ln Lhe approach
from normal (deslgnlng)

1ab|e S0. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 2: uest|on 11.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 11.
82.
She was very much used Lo sLarL wlLh a very concepLual
lnsplraLlon LhaL was always vlsual
83.
lor Lhls pro[ecL, lL was a loL abouL LechnlcallLles and
elecLronlcs
83.
1hey found lL hard Lo have all Lhese knowledge
86.
knowledge on vlsual garmenLs and how Lhey work
sLyllsLlcally and whaL Lhlngs would be worn ln cerLaln
envlronmenLs
87.
1he knowledge [usL had Lo be casL aslde
88.
She found LhaL aspecL frusLraLlng Lo have all Lhls knowledge
ln Lhe area and noL be able Lo use lL
89.
And belng encouraged Lo noL use lL
90.
1haL's probably whaL dlffered ln Lhe approach from normal
(deslgnlng)

ln Lhe followlng Lwo Lables show unlLs of general meanlng followed by unlLs of
relevanL meanlng from quesLlon 12.

1ab|e S1. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 2: uest|on 12 and 12a.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 12.
Would Lhere be a
seL of deslgn
guldellnes for
deslgners ln
deslgnlng such
pro[ecL, whaL
would you Lhlnk
Lhey would be
llke?
91
l tblok qlveo wbot l jost solJ,
92
tbete
sboolJ be some kloJ of vlsool qolJelloe os
well os jost tecbolcol... omm.
9J
l tblok lt's
lmpottoot to temembet tbot people
tespooJ to tbese tbloqs vlsoolly fltst ooJ
fotemost,
94
so ooJetstooJloq of tbe boJy
ooJ bow qotmeots flt
95
ooJ jost soclol
cooveotloos otoooJ eocb qotmeot
96
ooJ
wbot yoo cboose to ploce tecbooloqy lo
wlll olwoys ploy o pott lo lt... omm.
97
lo
tetms of tbe tecbooloqy slJe of tbloqs,
98
l
tblok lt's vety lmpottoot to kloJ of
loteqtote lt eoslly loto wbotevet
eovltoomeot lt's beeo pot loto
91.
Clven whaL she sald
prevlously
92.
1here should be some klnd
of vlsual guldellne as well as
Lechnlcal
93.
She Lhlnks lL's lmporLanL Lo
remember LhaL people
respond Lo Lhese Lhlngs
vlsually flrsL and foremosL
94.
1he undersLandlng of Lhe
body and how garmenLs flL
93.
Soclal convenLlons around
each garmenL
96.
Also whaL you choose Lo
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place Lechnology ln wlll
always play a parL
97.
ln Lerms of Lhe Lechnology
slde of Lhlngs
98.
She Lhlnks lL's very
lmporLanL for lL Lo be able
Lo lnLegraLe easlly lnLo
whaLever envlronmenL lL's
been puL lnLo
uest|on 12a.
versaLlllLy, would
you say?



99.
?ep, versaLlllLy.



1ab|e S2. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 2: uest|on 12 and 12a.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 12.
92.
1here should be some klnd of vlsual guldellne as well as
Lechnlcal
93.
She Lhlnks lL's lmporLanL Lo remember LhaL people respond
Lo Lhese Lhlngs vlsually flrsL and foremosL
94.
1he undersLandlng of Lhe body and how garmenLs flL
93.
Soclal convenLlons around each garmenL
96.
Also whaL you choose Lo place Lechnology ln wlll always play
a parL
97.
ln Lerms of Lhe Lechnology slde of Lhlngs
98.
She Lhlnks lL's very lmporLanL for lL Lo be able Lo lnLegraLe
easlly lnLo whaLever envlronmenL lL's been puL lnLo
uest|on 12a.
99.
?ep, versaLlllLy.



ln Lhe second lnLervlew, 99 unlLs of general meanlngs wlLh a LoLal of 77 unlLs of
relevanL meanlngs were exLracLed. 1he unlLs of relevanL meanlng were subsequenLly
fllLered Lhrough an ellmlnaLlve process Lo dlsLll non-redundanL unlLs of meanlng relevanL Lo
Lhe research quesLlons uslng Lhe clusLerlng of Lhemes LhaL emerged from Lhe lnLervlew.




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1ab|e S3. C|usters of non-redundant un|ts of re|evant mean|ngs from the |nterv|ew
w|th part|c|pant 2.
ClusLers of relevanL meanlngs
AesLheLlcs
- 1hey were encouraged Lo noL Lhlnk of lL as an aesLheLlc pro[ecL
- 1hey dldn'L really Lhlnk of Lhe aesLheLlcs
- 1hey dldn'L have Lhe Llme or Lhe experLlse Lo Lhlnk how aesLheLlc and Lechnology be
merged LogeLher
1echnologlcal emphasls
- 1hey were encouraged Lo embrace Lechnology even Lhough Lhey dldn'L have Lhe
Lralnlng
- 8ecause Lhey dldn'L have Lhe experLlse, Lhey couldn'L carry ouL Lhe deslgn
- lor Lhls pro[ecL, lL was a loL abouL LechnlcallLles and elecLronlcs
- 1hey were encouraged Lo embrace Lechnology even Lhough Lhey dldn'L have Lhe
Lralnlng
- lL was more how Lhey lncorporaLe Lhe Lechnology
- She guessed Lhe only way Lo form lL was Lo Lhlnk of ways Lo hlde Lhe Lechnology
usablllLy
- lL was all baLLery operaLed and manually operaLed
- robably Lhe swlLches belng able Lo be auLomaLlc or somehow sensor acLlvaLed
- 1hey were all manually conLrolled
- ?ou have Lo press each buLLons for Lhe purposes of experlmenLlng and Lrylng Lo geL a
reacLlon
- lL would be good one swlLch could conLrol everyLhlng, or lf one swlLch had all Lhe
buLLons
- robably Lhe accesslblllLy for all Lhe swlLches
eople's reacLlon
- 1he pro[ecL was more abouL people's reacLlons ln real llfe
- lL was more abouL reacLlons.
- lL was someLhlng LhaL very much had Lo blend ln wlLh whaL people were wearlng
- 1o puL more feaLures LhaL would have ellclLed a blgger reacLlon from Lhe publlc
- 1haL's why Lhey made Lhe pro[ecL more abouL people's reacLlon raLher Lhan
Lechnology lLself.
ueslgn process and dlfflculLles
- Per flrsL ldeas were pro[ecLs LhaL were noL very feaslble Lo make Lo somewhaL her
experLlse
- 1he process became more abouL Lonlng lL back and how lL could be posslble
- Per deflnlLe flrsL lmpresslons were Lo keep lL concepLual
- She had no ldea where Lo sLarL
- 1hey all wenL lnLo lL a llLLle blL bllndly
1lme consLralnLs
- lL was [usL very hard wlLh llmlLed resources and llmlLed Llme
- 1hey only had abouL Lhree weeks Lo do lL and 1 day a week
- 8ecause of Lhe Llme llmlLaLlon, Lhey had Lo do Lhe sLandard Lype black blazer
- 1hey dldn'L have Lhe Llme or Lhe experLlse Lo Lhlnk how aesLheLlc and Lechnology be
merged LogeLher.
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ower Source
- lL was all baLLery operaLed and manually operaLed
- Slnce everyLhlng was baLLery operaLed lL was very heavy
- 1hey had Lhe LLu slgn LhaL was made ouL of 42 ChrlsLmas llghLs whlch needed abouL 6
AA LhaL needed Lo be puL lnLo Lhe back of Lhe [ackeL plus Lhe speakers
WelghL
- Slnce everyLhlng was baLLery operaLed lL was very heavy
- So lL was very heavy Lo wear
vlsual aspecLs
- vlsually, Lhey dldn'L wanL lL Lo be anyLhlng avanL-garde
- 1he vlsual slde of Lhlngs wasn'L really deslgned aL all
- knowledge on vlsual garmenLs and how Lhey work sLyllsLlcally and whaL Lhlngs would
be worn ln cerLaln envlronmenLs
- 1here should be some klnd of vlsual guldellne as well as Lechnlcal
- She Lhlnks lL's lmporLanL Lo remember LhaL people respond Lo Lhese Lhlngs vlsually
flrsL and foremosL


ln Lable 33, Lhere are 39 non-redundanL unlLs of relevanL meanlng clusLered lnLo 9
Lhemes LhaL emerged uslng a phenomenologlcal reducLlon process. 1hese Lhemes lncluded:
aesLheLlcs, Lechnologlcal emphasls, Llme consLralnLs, power source, welghL, and vlsual
aspecLs. 1hrough Lhe process of clusLerlng meanlngs lnLo Lhemes, a cenLral Lheme emerged:
Lhe deslgn process, lLs dlfflculLles and deslgn aLLrlbuLes. 1he nexL secLlon dlscusses Lhe
relaLlonshlp of Lhese Lhemes Lo Lhe research quesLlons.

6. 2. 2. Interv|ew 2: re|evant mean|ngs |n re|at|on to the ma|n research quest|ons:
lrom Lhe second lnLervlew, Lhere emerged nlne Lhemes of relevanL meanlngs and
each ls lnfluenLlal upon Lhe oLhers. 1hese Lhemes were Lhen slfLed uslng Lhe research
quesLlons of Lhls research, followlng:
1. Pow does Lhe deslgner's undersLandlng of deslgn aLLrlbuLes affecL Lhe deslgn process
of Wearable 1echnology?
ln Lhe deslgn process, several deslgn aLLrlbuLes emerged ln a somewhaL organlc
manner and Lhelr overlaps wlLh one anoLher creaLed greaLer undersLandlng of Lhe deslgn
problems. AesLheLlc and vlsual aspecLs were dlscussed ln Lhe lnLervlew and emerged as
qulLe lmporLanL Lo Lhe deslgner ln consclously reallzlng Lhe deslgn aLLrlbuLes. A few aspecLs
CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
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were of exLernal naLure, such as Llme consLralnLs and people's reacLlons Lo Lhe wearer.
1hese aspecLs also drove Lhe approach Lo deslgn aLLrlbuLes and reallzaLlon of Lhe deslgn
problem. usablllLy, Lhe power source and welghL of Lhe Wearable 1echnology lnfluenced
one anoLher, and appeared sequenLlally as encounLered by Lhe second parLlclpanL (as a
deslgner) durlng Lhe process, raLher Lhan belng anLlclpaLed and formulaLed ln advance. 1hls
furLher relnforced deslgner's lLeraLlve way of Lhlnklng and soluLlon-focused sLraLegy.

2. Pow do dlfferenL deslgn purposes LhaL have dlfferenL Lypes of funcLlonallLy and usablllLy
requlremenLs affecL Lhe deslgn process ln Wearable 1echnology?
1he lnLervlew wlLh Lhe second parLlclpanL hlghllghLed LhaL Lhe funcLlonallLy of
Wearable 1echnology ls noL always sLeered by a speclflc deslgn purpose buL can also be
drlven by Lhe deslgner's lnlLlal ldea or lnsplraLlons. lor example, Lhe funcLlonal feaLures of
Wearable 1echnology accordlng Lo Lhe second parLlclpanL were lnsplred by feaLures of a
car, whlch were Lhen embedded lnLo a wearable plece. 1he deslgn purpose, whlch was Lo
asslsL pedesLrlans movlng ln an urban space, does noL necessarlly lnclude Lhe brlef of
embeddlng car feaLures. 1hls was more of a LhemaLlc, lnsplraLlonal or concepLual coheslve
moLlve Lhan an essenLlal or funcLlon-conLlngenL arLefacL. usablllLy as a deslgn aLLrlbuLe of
Wearable 1echnology emerged durlng Lhe deslgn process buL was reallzed by Lhe deslgner
prlmarlly vla Lhe lmplemenLaLlon of oLher deslgn aLLrlbuLes, such as Lhelr approach Lo
welghL and power source.
lf compared Lo Lhe flrsL lnLervlew, Lhere ls a slgnlflcanL dlfference ln Lhe deslgners'
undersLandlng of usablllLy. Lven Lhough Lhe flrsL and Lhe second parLlclpanL worked
LogeLher on Lhe same pro[ecL addresslng Lhe same brlef, Lhe flrsL parLlclpanL vlewed
usablllLy as secondary Lo aesLheLlcs or parLlally shaped by aesLheLlc cholces ln Lhe deslgn
process, whereas Lhe second parLlclpanL vlewed lL Lhrough a more Lechnlcal lens, l.e. Lhe
consequence of such deslgn crlLerla as selecLlon of Lhe devlce's power source, welghL, and
auLomaLed vs. manual operaLlon of Lhe sysLem's conLrol, eLc.

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3. Pow can an undersLandlng of Lhe lnLerdlsclpllnary lLeraLlve deslgn process of Wearable
1echnology provlde a new concepLual undersLandlng of Lhe fleld?
urawlng on Lhe lnLervlew wlLh Lhe second parLlclpanL, dlfferenL roles or [ob
descrlpLlons ln a group of deslgners collaboraLlng on a brlef were apparenL. 1he second
parLlclpanL gave Lhe sense of emphaslzlng less Lhe vlsual and aesLheLlc quallLles of Lhe
deslgn. Powever, as Lhe group worked collaboraLlvely, Lhe flrsL parLlclpanL's role ln
deslgnlng Lhe 'look' complemenLs Lhe second parLlclpanL's conslderaLlons concernlng Lhe
more Lechnlcal deslgn aLLrlbuLes such as power source and welghL.
1he mulLlple deslgn aLLrlbuLes, LhaL overlap one anoLher, may requlre a
collaboraLlve work efforL, so as Lo malnLaln Lhe hollsLlc deslgn vlew LhaL encompasses all
deslgn aLLrlbuLes whlle provldlng a more efflclenL deslgn process of Wearable 1echnology.
1he collaboraLlve work mode also reflecLs Lhe mulLl-dlsclpllnary naLure of Wearable
1echnology.

6. 3. art|c|pant 3
1he Lhlrd lnLervlew conducLed on 30 SepLember 2011 wlLh parLlclpanL 3 revealed
how her group's Wearable 1echnology pro[ecL followed a slmllar deslgn brlef Lo Lhe
prevlous parLlclpanLs, whlch was Lo deslgn a devlce LhaL asslsLs walklng or lnLeracLlng wlLhln
Lhe clLy. Powever, she revealed LhaL her group's deslgn was derlvaLlve of a prevlous
personal pro[ecL of her own LhaL explored Lhe ldea of fear and lonellness of belng ln Lhe
clLy. 1hus, Lhe deslgn for Lhe devlce was a neck devlce capable of deLecLlng a user's
hearLbeaL and sendlng Lhe daLa Lo anoLher user, maklng lL an lnLerconnecLed devlce
requlrlng a mlnlmum of Lwo users ln order Lo funcLlon. A polnL Lo be consldered here ls LhaL
Lhe Lhlrd parLlclpanL recelved a slmllar brlef Lo Lhe prevlous Lwo parLlclpanLs, buL Lhrough
Lhe process, produced a dlfferenL LranslaLlon of Lhe lnlLlal deslgn brlef.
1he group conslsLed of four members lncludlng Lhree fashlon deslgn sLudenLs and
one vlsual communlcaLlon deslgn sLudenL, hence Lhe deslgn pro[ecL was expedlLed
collaboraLlvely. 1he dlfflculLles of worklng wlLhln a group were menLloned and LhaL some
CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
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group members dlsagreed aL cerLaln polnLs, whlch conLrlbuLed Lo Lhe lLeraLlve naLure of Lhe
deslgn process. ln addlLlon, exLenslve background research for Lhe pro[ecL, conducLed due
Lo unfamlllarlLy wlLh Lhe Lechnologlcal elemenLs requlred, was consLrued as conLrlbuLlng Lo
Lhe lLeraLlve deslgn process. 1he group pursued a repeLlLlve ellmlnaLlon process of Lhe less
feaslble ldeas, Lhe consequence of Llme consLralnLs.
1echnologlcal elemenLs of Lhe deslgn were consLrued as challenglng durlng Lhe
deslgn process, largely due Lo a lack of prevlous Lralnlng ln Lhls area. 1hls was Lhe
consequence of her Lralnlng as a fashlon deslgn sLudenL, whlch lnvolved llLLle Lo no
exposure Lo Lechnologlcal experLlse, oLher Lhan Lhose commonly found ln fashlon (e.g.
LexLlle Lechnology). 1he effecL of learnlng abouL unfamlllar Lechnlques for deslgnlng was
evldenL ln Lhe parLlclpanL's rellance upon Lhe lnLerneL, as an lnlLlal Lool for Lackllng a
challenglng aspecL of Lhe deslgn. 1uLors provlded furLher asslsLance ln undersLandlng deslgn
conslderaLlons and Lhelr lmpllcaLlons durlng Lhe concepLual process.
Several deslgn aLLrlbuLes emerged ln a raLher organlc way durlng lLeraLlve sLages of
Lhe deslgn process. Slze and dlmenslons overlapped wlLh Lhe selecLlon of a sulLable power
source. 1he physlcal conflguraLlons of mechanlcal elemenLs and devlce poslLlonlng emerged
durlng Lhe deslgn process, as Lhe parLlclpanL's group aLLempLed Lo produce a less bulky
appearance of deslgn for Lhe user. Agaln, Lhls ls evldence LhaL Lhe group Lrled Lo avold Lhe
'borg' aesLheLlc commonly found ln Wearable 1echnology (8hodes & Mase 2003) by Lrylng
Lo malnLaln sleeker vlsual appearance.
1he cholce of maLerlals emerged as a concern of Lhe deslgn for Lhe Lhlrd parLlclpanL
who, lf glven an opporLunlLy Lo redeslgn, would have preferred for Lhe enLlre devlce Lo be
made from one Lype of maLerlal. 1he end deslgn for Lhe pro[ecL conslsLed of Lwo [olned
parLs, half made from plasLlc and half made from wood. 1he concern wlLh appearance may
be Lhe consequence of Lhe deslgner's background Lralnlng ln fashlon. lssues relaLed Lo Lhe
cholce of maLerlal concerned Lhe group who wanLed Lo ensure a solld enveloplng maLerlal
whlle malnLalnlng lLs compacL physlcal conflguraLlon encapsulaLlng Lhe Lechnologlcal
elemenLs.
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WlLhln Lhe deslgn process, Lhe Lhlrd parLlclpanL menLloned LhaL Lhe process
conslsLed malnly of narrowlng down ldeas and vlslLlng prevlously dlscussed deslgn lssues
repeaLedly. Moreover, Lhe group shlfLed Lhelr perspecLlve Lowards deslgn problem, from
lnlLlally looklng aL cerLaln parLs of Lhe body for afflxlng Lhe Lechnology, Lo how Lhey could
LranslaLe Lhe deslgn brlef Lhrough Lhe deslgn. 1hese conslderaLlons slL ln parallel wlLh Lhe
naLure of deslgn process lLself whlch ls soluLlon-focused, lnsLead of problem-focused, and
Lhe group declded Lo ellmlnaLe unfeaslble ldeas and perspecLlves Lo fulfll Lhe deslgn brlef
(Lawson 1980).
When asked whaL mlghL consLlLuLe guldellnes for deslgnlng Wearable 1echnology,
Lhe Lhlrd parLlclpanL menLloned LhaL lL needed Lo be pracLlcal. She elaboraLed 'pracLlcallLy'
by menLlonlng durablllLy and waLerprooflng as requlremenLs of Wearable 1echnology
deslgn and LhaL Lhe devlce musL be consLanLly avallable (vlewable, conLrollable, Louchable)
for Lhe user whlle belng worn.
ln order Lo furLher mlne flndlngs galned from Lhe lnLervlew, a serles of
phenomenologlcal reducLlon fllLers are applled below ln order Lo garner Lhe emerglng
Lhemes. 1hese are ouLllned below.

6. 3. 1. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ngs
ln Lhls secLlon, unlLs of general meanlngs exLracLed from Lhe process of lnLervlewlng
parLlclpanL 3 are summarlzed along wlLh Lhe unlLs of relevanL meanlng.

1ab|e S4. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 3: uest|on 1 and 1a.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 1.
lease descrlbe
your Wearable
1echnology
pro[ecL.
1
ep, ok, lts boslcolly o oeck Jevlce,
2
tbot
seoses wbeo tbe weotet ls JlsttesseJ ooJ
ttoosmlts o beottbeot of o ftleoJ, ot o
pottoet.
J
so lt coot be loJlvlJoolly Jooe,
4
so tbe pottoet woolJ olso be weotloq lt
ooJ
5
lt woolJ wotk llke tbot

1.
lL's baslcally a neck devlce
2.
lL senses when Lhe wearer
ls dlsLressed and LransmlLs
a hearLbeaL of a frlend, or a
parLner
3.
lL can'L be lndlvldually done
4.
1he wearer's parLner
would also be wearlng lL
3.
lL would work llke LhaL
CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
112
uest|on 1a.
So, Lhere are Lwo
wearers, so lL's llke
a palrlng?
6
eob, well tbete coolJ be mote,
7
lts
boslcolly oo lotetcoooecteJ Jevlce.

6.
1here could be more
wearers
7.
lL's baslcally an
lnLerconnecLed devlce


1ab|e SS. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 3: uest|on 1 and 1a.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 1.
1.
lL's baslcally a neck devlce
2.
lL senses when Lhe wearer ls dlsLressed and LransmlLs a
hearLbeaL of a frlend, or a parLner
3.
lL can'L be lndlvldually done
uest|on 1a.
6.
1here could be more wearers
7.
lL's baslcally an lnLerconnecLed devlce

lollowlng are unlLs of general meanlng and unlLs of relevanL meanlng from
quesLlons 2, 3 and 3a.

1ab|e S6. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 3: uest|on 2, 3 and 3a.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 2.
Pow many people
were lnvolved ln
Lhe pro[ecL?
8
well boslcolly lo tbe qtoop Jeslqoloq lt,
tbete wete foot.
9.
1here were four members
ln Lhe group
uest|on 3.
uld Lhey come
from dlfferenL
flelds of pracLlces?
9
1bete wete tbtee ftom losbloo Jeslqo
locloJloq myself, ooJ
10
ooe wos ftom
vlscomm(*),
11
so lts oo lotetJlsclpllooty
sobject.
10.
1here were Lhree from
lashlon deslgn lncludlng
herself
11.
Cne was from vlsComm(*)
12.
lL's an lnLerdlsclpllnary
sub[ecL.
uest|on 3a.
Cause, l LhoughL lL
would be [usL
beLween lndusLrlal
and fashlon?
12
No, lt wos opeo to evetyooe tbete,
1J
o
few vlscomm(*) wete lo tbe closs.
14
Mololy, lt wos fosbloo ooJ loJosttlol
stoJeots, wbo cbose tbe closs.

13.
lL was open Lo everyone
Lhere
14.
A few vlsComm(*) were ln
Lhe class.
13.
Malnly, lL was fashlon and
lndusLrlal sLudenLs
(*) vlsComm: vlsual CommunlcaLlon

1ab|e S7. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 3: uest|on 2, 3 and 3a.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 2.
8.
1here were four members ln Lhe group
CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
113
uest|on 3.
9.
1here were Lhree from lashlon deslgn lncludlng herself
10.
Cne was from vlsComm(*)
11.
lL's an lnLerdlsclpllnary sub[ecL.
uest|on 3a.
12.
lL was open Lo everyone Lhere
13.
Malnly, lL was fashlon and lndusLrlal sLudenLs
(*) vlsComm: vlsual CommunlcaLlon

uurlng Lhe lnLervlew, quesLlon 4 evolved Lo become conversaLlonal, whlch ls shown
ln Lhe followlng Lable ellclLlng unlLs of general meanlng acqulred and followed by a Lable of
unlLs of relevanL meanlng.

1ab|e S8. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 3: uest|on 4, 4a-4f.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 4.
Accordlng Lo your
background of
pracLlce, whaL are
Lhe challenges of
Lhe pro[ecL?
16
ltobobly tbe tecbolcol elemeots.

16.
robably Lhe Lechnlcal
elemenLs.

uest|on 4a.
So LhaL's lncludlng
Lhe machlnery?
17
es,
18
so bow to moke lt wotk ooJ stoff
llke tbot,
19
oltbooqb tbe lotetoet wos polte
belpfol, so.
17.
?es, lncludlng Lhe
machlnery
18.
Pow Lo make Lhe
machlnery works
19.
1he lnLerneL was qulLe
helpful
uest|on 4b.
1he lnLerneL?
20
ep.

20.
?es

uest|on 4c.
Ch so you dld
research and all
LhaL Lhrough
Lhere?
21
ep.

21.
?es, she dld research vla
lnLerneL

uest|on 4d.
So wlLh Lhls
devlce, how do
you deLecL Lhe
person's mood?
22
MooJ?
(lottlclpoot oocleot oo ptevloos poestloo
oskeJ)

22.
Mood?

uest|on 4e.
?es, meanlng, how
do Lhe devlce
recognlze LhaL Lhe
person's sLressed?
2J
lts tbtooqb o setles of seosots,
24
so
tbeyte oll foltly teoJlly ovolloble,
25
mololy
tbe beott-tote ls tbe cote,
26
bot tbtooqb
Jetectloos ot tbe oeck, tbetes llke, om,
cbooqes lo tbe sklo cooJoctlvlty, ooJ stoff
llke tbot.
23.
lL's Lhrough a serles of
sensors
24.
1hey are all falrly readlly
avallable
23.
Malnly Lhe hearL-raLe ls Lhe
core emphasls of Lhe
pro[ecL
CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
114
26.
ln addlLlon, Lhrough
deLecLlng changes ln Lhe
skln conducLlvlLy around
Lhe neck
uest|on 4f.
Ch so lL ls a
galvanlc Lype, so lL
Louches Lhe skln?
27
eob, so tbetes o seosot tbot wlll toocb
tbe sklo,
28
so lts oll boseJ oo tbe beott tote
mololy, tbooqb,
29
coose tbe ptoject wos
boseJ oll otoooJ tbe beott.
27.
1here's a sensor LhaL wlll
Louch Lhe skln
28.
lL's all based malnly on Lhe
hearL raLe
29.
1he pro[ecL was based all
around Lhe hearL

1ab|e S9. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 3: uest|on 4, 4a-4f.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 4.
16.
robably Lhe Lechnlcal elemenLs.
uest|on 4a.
18.
Pow Lo make Lhe machlnery works
19.
1he lnLerneL was qulLe helpful
uest|on 4b. (none)
uest|on 4c.
21.
?es, she dld research vla lnLerneL
uest|on 4d. (none)
uest|on 4e.
23.
lL's Lhrough a serles of sensors
23.
Malnly Lhe hearL-raLe ls Lhe core emphasls of Lhe pro[ecL
26.
ln addlLlon, Lhrough deLecLlng changes ln Lhe skln
conducLlvlLy around Lhe neck
uest|on 4f.
27.
1here's a sensor LhaL wlll Louch Lhe skln
29.
1he pro[ecL was based all around Lhe hearL

1he nexL Lwo Lables dlsplay unlLs of general meanlng and unlLs of relevanL
meanlngs arlslng from quesLlon 3.

1ab|e 60. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 3: uest|on S.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on S.
WlLh Lhe dlfflculLles
LhaL you've
encounLered wlLh Lhe
Lechnlcal elemenLs,
glven wlLh your
background pracLlce,
would you say LhaL
you haven'L had
enough prevlous
Lralnlng for lL?
J0
well, we teolly boveo't boJ ooy lo tbe
tecbolcol elemeot,
J1
bot tbeo tbe
tevetse slJe wos loJosttlol stoJeots
JlJo't koow bow to opptoocb lt
J2
wltboot comloq op wltb lJeos tbot
wete olteoJy pteseot lo tbe motket,
so.

30.
1hey haven'L had any
Lralnlng abouL Lhe Lechnlcal
elemenL
31.
lndusLrlal sLudenLs dldn'L
know how Lo approach lL
32.
revlously presenL ldeas on
Lhe markeL was used as an
approach

CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
113

1ab|e 61. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 3: uest|on S.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on S.
30.
1hey haven'L had any Lralnlng abouL Lhe Lechnlcal
elemenL
31.
lndusLrlal sLudenLs dldn'L know how Lo approach lL
32.
revlously presenL ldeas on Lhe markeL was used as an
approach

unlLs of general meanlng and unlLs of relevanL meanlng from quesLlon 6, 6a,
6b and 6c are dlsplayed ln Lhe followlng Lwo Lables.

1ab|e 62. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 3: uest|on 6, 6a-6c.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 6.
Ck. When you
were flrsL glven
Lhe deslgn brlef,
how dld you
approach lL? Pow
dld you and you
group maLes
approach lL?
JJ
um, well lt's sllqbtly boseJ off oo
loJlvlJool ptoject we oeeJeJ to Jo befote,
J4
so we boseJ lt oo mloe, mololy,
J5
wblcb ls
o booJ, sott of, Jevlce
J6
tbot sbooe o llqbt
lo tbe Jltectloo of bome wbeo oo loJlvlJool
ls feelloq JlsttesseJ.

33.
1he pro[ecL was sllghLly
based off on lndlvldual
pro[ecL Lhey dld
beforehand
34.
1hey malnly based lL on
hers
33.
lL ls a hand devlce
36.
lL can shlne a llghL ln Lhe
dlrecLlon of home when an
lndlvldual ls feellng
dlsLressed

uest|on 6a.
Ck. So Lhe
lndlvldual pro[ecL
was a hand plece?
J7
ep.

37.
?es, lL was a hand plece.

uest|on 6b.
And dld lL use Lhe
same mechanlsm
as Lhe one done
wlLh Lhe group?
J8
eob, vety slmllot lo tbe Jetectloo lo tbe
mooJs ooJ stoff llke tbot.

38.
lL ls very slmllar ln Lhe
deLecLlon of moods

uest|on 6c.
8uL Lhe feedback
ls dlfferenL?

J9
eob, ooe wos boseJ mololy otoooJ
bomeslckoess ooJ coooectloo to bome ooJ
40
tbe otbet ooe wos boseJ oo coooectloo
to people, loJlvlJools.
39.
1he flrsL one was based
malnly around
homeslckness and
connecLlon Lo home
40.
1he second one was based
on connecLlon Lo people
and lndlvlduals

CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
116

1ab|e 63. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 3: uest|on 6, 6a-6c.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 6.
33.
1he pro[ecL was sllghLly based off on lndlvldual pro[ecL Lhey
dld beforehand
uest|on 6a.
37.
?es, lL was a hand plece.
uest|on 6b.
38.
lL ls very slmllar ln Lhe deLecLlon of moods
uest|on 6c.
39.
1he flrsL one was based malnly around homeslckness and
connecLlon Lo home
40.
1he second one was based on connecLlon Lo people and
lndlvlduals


ln Lhe followlng Lwo Lables, are Lhe unlLs of general meanlng and unlLs of
relevanL meanlng from quesLlon 7 and 7a.

1ab|e 64. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 3: uest|on 7 and 7a.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 7.
Pow would you
descrlbe your
personal lnlLlal
deslgn relaLed
challenge?

41
um, well loltlolly lt woolJ be comloq op
wltb oo otlqlool Jeslqo lJeo,
42
tecbolcolly,
we boJ osslstooce ftom o belpet lo tbe
closs, ooJ be wos llke o totot's belpet.... lm
oot sote...o totot olJ.
4J
um, boslcolly tbe
totot btooqbt blm lo jost coose be koew be
coo belp os wltb tbe tecbolcol elemeots.
44
5o we stotteJ wltb blm ooJ JlJ fottbet
teseotcb.
41.
lnlLlally lL would be comlng
up wlLh an orlglnal deslgn
ldea
42.
1hey had Lechnlcal
asslsLance from an exLra
LuLor ln Lhe class
43.
1he LuLor broughL hlm ln
because so he can help
Lhem wlLh Lhe Lechnlcal
elemenLs
44.
1hey sLarLed wlLh LuLor's
asslsLance and dld furLher
research
uest|on 7a.
So, baslcally would
you say LhaL Lhe
research parL ls a
sLrong elemenL of
how you lnlLlally
approach Lhe
deslgn challenges?
45
eob, l'J soy so,
46
coose os sooo os yoo
stott lookloq op woys to Jetect tbloqs,
47
tbete's sott of oolloe tototlols of slmllot
ptojects
48
ooJ tbeo bow to Jo tbem ot
wbotevet tbey JlJ.

43.
?es, research ls a sLrong
parL of Lhe lnlLlal approach
Lo deslgn challenges
46.
1hey sLarL looklng up ways
Lo deLecL Lhlngs
47.
1hey found onllne LuLorlals
of slmllar pro[ecLs
48.
lncludlng how Lo do Lhe
slmllar pro[ecLs.

CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
117
1ab|e 6S. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 3: uest|on 7 and 7a.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 7.
41.
lnlLlally lL would be comlng up wlLh an orlglnal deslgn ldea
44.
1hey sLarLed wlLh LuLor's asslsLance and dld furLher research
uest|on 7a.
43.
?es, research ls a sLrong parL of Lhe lnlLlal approach Lo
deslgn challenges
46.
1hey sLarL looklng up ways Lo deLecL Lhlngs
47.
1hey found onllne LuLorlals of slmllar pro[ecLs

unlLs of relevanL meanlng from quesLlons 8, 8a and 8b are shown ln Lable 66
followed by Lhelr unlLs of relevanL meanlngs ln Lable 66.

1ab|e 66. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 3: uest|on 8, 8a and 8b.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 8.
ln Lhe process of
deslgnlng lL, of
course you've
encounLered a loL
of deslgn
aLLrlbuLes. lL could
be Lhe slze, Lhe
welghL and Lhen
Lhe look of lL, or
how lL could be
powered, Lhose
sorLs of Lhlngs. So
whaL deslgn
aLLrlbuLes lead Lo
Lhe deslgn
conslderaLlons
LhaL you made
durlng Lhe
process?
49
ltobobly oll of tbem.
50
1bete woso't os
mocb of oo lssoe, mololy slze woolJ be tbe
blq ooe,
51
becoose we oeeJeJ lt booseJ lo
o sollJ boosloq, l soppose, to soft boosloq.
52
wltb weotoble 1ecbooloqy, tecbooloqy
bos come o looq woy,
5J
so yoo coo qet
polte sllm ooJ sott of Jlsctete powet
sootces ooJ sott of powet bootJs to qo oo
clotbloq.

49.
robably all of Lhem
30.
1he slze would be one of
Lhe maln lssues
31.
1hey needed Lhe Lechnlcal
elemenLs housed ln a solld
houslng
32.
1echnology has come a
long way
33.
Sllm and dlscreLe power
sources and power boards
Lo be embedded Lo
cloLhlng ls aLLalnable
uest|on 8a.
So baslcally, lL's
more of Lhe slze of
Lhe enLlre devlce
lLself, noL
necessarlly Lhe
slze of Lhe
elemenLs, would
you say?
54
lt woolJ be tbe slze of tbe elemeots
55
bot
we oeeJeJ to stock tbe elemeots op om os
opposeJ to spteoJloq tbem oot flot, lo tbot
tespect.

34.
lL would be Lhe slze of Lhe
elemenLs
33.
1hey needed Lo sLack up
Lhe elemenLs as opposed Lo
spreadlng Lhem flaL

CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
118
uest|on 8b.
So maklng lL as
compacL as
posslble?
56
eob tbot wos ptobobly o llttle blt
Jlfflcolt.

36.
Maklng lL compacL was
dlfflculL

1ab|e 67. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 3: uest|on 8, 8a and 8b.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 8.
30.
1he slze would be one of Lhe maln lssues
31.
1hey needed Lhe Lechnlcal elemenLs housed ln a solld
houslng
33.
Sllm and dlscreLe power sources and power boards Lo be
embedded Lo cloLhlng ls aLLalnable
uest|on 8a.
34.
lL would be Lhe slze of Lhe elemenLs
33.
1hey needed Lo sLack up Lhe elemenLs as opposed Lo
spreadlng Lhem flaL
uest|on 8b.
36.
Maklng lL compacL was dlfflculL


1able 68 and Lable 69 dlsplay unlLs of general meanlng and unlLs of relevanL
meanlng from quesLlons 9 and 9a.

1ab|e 68. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 3: uest|on 9 and 9a.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 9.
Could you please
Lell me whaL are
Lhe dlfflculLles of
approachlng Lhe
deslgn brlef?
57
As o qtoop, ptobobly, lts jost bovloq
Jlffeteot Jeslqo lJeos.

37.
lL ls havlng dlfferenL deslgn
ldeas wlLhln a group

uest|on 9a.
So maklng lL work
as a group?

58
eob, Jeslqoloq lo o qtoop ls olwoys o
llttle blt Jlfflcolt....
59
tbe btlef wos polte
btooJ...
60
um, lt focoses mote oo tbe
expetleoce of tbe weotet ooJ bow tbey
lotetocteJ wltb tbe clty otoooJ tbem.
61
um, so mololy lt wos focosloq oo tbe
eovltoomeot of tbe clty ooJ ptoblems
teloteJ to llvloq lo tbe clty...
62
om, so we
focoseJ oo tbe Jlsttess ooJ tbls sott of feot
lt coolJ coose
6J
ooJ woys to posltlvely
lmpoct tbot.
38.
ueslgnlng ln a group ls
always a llLLle blL dlfflculL
39.
1he deslgn brlef was qulLe
broad
60.
1he pro[ecL focuses more
on Lhe experlence of Lhe
wearer and how Lhey
lnLeracLed wlLh Lhe clLy
61.
Malnly Lhe pro[ecL was
focuslng on Lhe
envlronmenL of Lhe clLy
and problems relaLed Lo
llvlng ln Lhe clLy
CPA1L8 6: WPA1 lS uLSlCnlnC WLA8A8LL 1LCPnCLCC? LlkL?
119
62.
1hey focused on Lhe
dlsLress and fear lL could
cause
63.
And ways Lo poslLlvely
lmpacL dlsLress and fear of
llvlng ln Lhe clLy

1ab|e 69. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 3: uest|on 9 and 9a.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 9.
37.
lL ls havlng dlfferenL deslgn ldeas wlLhln a group
uest|on 9a.
38.
ueslgnlng ln a group ls always a llLLle blL dlfflculL
39.
1he deslgn brlef was qulLe broad

1he followlng Lwo Lables dlsplay unlLs of general meanlng (Lable 70) and
unlLs of relevanL meanlng (Lable 71) from quesLlons 10 and 10a.

1ab|e 70. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 3: uest|on 10 and 10a.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 10.
WlLhln Lhe deslgn
process lLself whaL
recurrlng deslgn
problems
appeared?
64
eob, om becoose oot bose fot tbloqs we
coolJ Jo wltb tbe tecbooloqy we boJ wos
so btooJ
65
we boJ lots of tbloqs lt coolJ Jo
lo oot mloJs ooJ
66
jost ttyloq to otqoolze
tbem wos o llttle blt messy,
67
so we qot
coofoseJ wltblo ootselves.
64.
1helr base knowledge on
Lhe Lechnologlcal
capablllLles was so broad
63.
1hey had learnL loLs of
Lhe Lechnologlcal
capablllLles ln Lhelr mlnds
66.
1rylng Lo organlze Lhe
ldeas was a llLLle blL
messy
67.
1hey goL confused wlLhln
Lhemselves
uest|on 10a.
So wlLhln Lhe
research lLself LhaL
gave you a loL of
opLlons and LhaL
gave you some
sorL of a base
undersLandlng of
whaL Lhe
Lechnology are
capable Lo do?
And Lhen
narrowlng lL down
68
lt wos, yeob.
69
l tblok lo tbe eoJ stlll, lt
wos stlll o llttle blt voqoe
70
becoose we
JlJo't teolly bove eoooqb tlme to Jevelop lt
folly...
71
we sott of left o few optloos
opeo....
72
os well os seoJloq tbe slqool of
Jlsttess yoo boJ tbe optloo of jost seoJloq
o slqool.
7J
5o llke, yoo woolJ seoJ o love
beott to someooe jost os o temloJet tbot
yoo love tbem...
74
yoo coolJ seoJ yoot
beott beot to someooe ooJ tbot sott of
ospect os well ooJ Jlffeteot ooes llke tbot.

68.
narrowlng down ldeas
was a recurrlng problem
69.
She Lhlnks ln Lhe end lL
was sLlll a llLLle blL vague
70.
1hey dldn'L really have
enough Llme Lo fully
develop lL
71.
1hey lefL a few opLlons
open
72.
CLher Lhan sendlng Lhe
slgnal of dlsLress Lhe
wearer had Lhe opLlon of
[usL sendlng a slgnal
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Lo Lhe one LhaL's
really necessary
for Lhe pro[ecL,
would you say
LhaL's a recurrlng
problem?
73.
1he wearer would send a
love hearL Lo someone
[usL as a remlnder of love
74.
1he wearer could send
hearL beaL Lo someone,
eLc.

1ab|e 71. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 3: uest|on 10 and 10a.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 10.
64.
1helr base knowledge on Lhe Lechnologlcal capablllLles was
so broad
67.
1rylng Lo organlze Lhe ldeas was a llLLle blL messy
uest|on 10a.
68.
narrowlng down ldeas was a recurrlng problem
70.
1hey dldn'L really have enough Llme Lo fully develop lL

1he followlng Lables dlsplay unlLs of general meanlng and unlLs of relevanL
meanlng from quesLlon 11, 11a-11e.

1ab|e 72. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 3: uest|on 11, 11a-11e.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 11.
Ck. now LhaL Lhe
pro[ecL's done, lf
you could flx a
cerLaln deslgn
aspecL of Lhe
pro[ecL whaL
would lL be?
75
um, l woolJ woot lt to wotk ptopetly.

73.
She would wanL lL Lo work
properly.

uest|on 11a.
Cf course, buL ln a
more concreLe
sense?
76
ltobobly tbe motetlol.

76.
robably Lhe maLerlal

uest|on 11b.
So Lhe enveloplng
maLerlal?
77
eob, tbe motetlol of wbot tbe tbloq ls
moJe of.

77.
1he maLerlal of whaL Lhe
Lhlng ls made of

uest|on 11c.
WhaL dld you use?

78
lt wos sott of o cltcolot Jevlce woto
otoooJ tbe oeck bot mololy tbe sboolJets.
79
5o tbe beoJ of lt, otoooJ tbe cbest wos
moJe of o sollJ botJ wooJ ooJ tbeo we
cotveJ tbot oot
80
ooJ tbeo tbe oeck plece
wos moJe oot of beot seosltlve plostlc
81
ooJ tbeo we jost jolo tbe two
82
ooJ lt wos
o blt messy to be booest
8J
bot becoose we
78.
lL was a clrcular devlce
worn around Lhe neck buL
malnly Lhe shoulders
79.
1he head of around Lhe
chesL was made of carved
ouL solld hard wood
80.
1he neck plece was made
ouL of heaL senslLlve plasLlc
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boveo't boJ mocb expetleoce wltb botJ
motetlols ooJ wotkloq wltb motetlollty lo
tbot woy,
84
tbot wos tbe best we coolJ Jo
ot tbe tlme qlveo.
85
lt JlJo't look too boJ lo
tbe eoJ
86
bot obvloosly l'J woot tbe wbole
tbloq to be tbe some motetlol ot to stlll
wotk o llttle blt bettet toqetbet.
81.
1hey [usL [oln Lhe Lwo
82.
lL was a blL messy
83.
1hey haven'L had much
experlence wlLh hard
maLerlals and maLerlallLy ln
LhaL way
84.
lL was Lhe besL Lhey could
do aL Lhe Llme glven.
83.
lL dldn'L look Loo bad ln Lhe
end
86.
She would wanL Lhe whole
parL Lo be Lhe same
maLerlal
uest|on 11d.
So Lhls devlce ls
acLually rlgld, lL's
noL flexlble?

87
well tbe plostlc ls sllqbtly flexlble,
88
lt's o
motetlol tbot yoo coo boll ooJ moolJ llke
plostlcloe
89
ooJ lt sets botJ. llostlmoke.
90
lt bos become polte popolot oow,
90
bot lt
qlves o llttle blt of flexlblllty.
87.
1he plasLlc ls sllghLly
flexlble
88.
lL's a maLerlal LhaL you can
boll and mould llke
lasLlclne
89.
lL seLs hard: lasLlmake
90.
lL has become qulLe
popular now
91.
lL glves a llLLle blL of
flexlblllLy
uest|on 11e.
So does lL ad[usL
Lo Lhe conLour of a
person's shoulder
and neck?

91
we moJe lt foltly boslc.
92
um, lt coolJ flt
lots of people
9J
becoose fot tbe exblbltloo
we boJ lotetoctlve vlJeo wbete evetyooe
wos pottloq lt oo ooJ ttyloq lt oot
94
ooJ
tbot wotkeJ polte well,
95
l tblok lf yoo bove
ooe ot two slzes lo tbe sott of qeoetlc slze,
lt woolJ be ok.
96
8ecoose we ttleJ lt oo o
few people ooJ
97
lt flts to llke, teolly llttle
qltls ooJ polte blq meo.
92.
1hey made lL falrly baslc.
93.
lL could flL loLs of people
94.
ln Lhe exhlblLlon Lhey had
an lnLeracLlve vldeo where
everyone was Lrylng lL on
93.
lL worked qulLe well
96.
She Lhlnks by havlng one or
Lwo generlc slze, lL would
be ok
97.
1hey Lrled lL on a few
people
98.
lL flLs Lo llke, really llLLle
glrls and qulLe blg men.

1ab|e 73. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 3: uest|on 11, 11a-11e.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 11.
73.
She would wanL lL Lo work properly
uest|on 11a.
76.
robably Lhe maLerlal
uest|on 11b.
77.
1he maLerlal of whaL Lhe Lhlng ls made of
uest|on 11c.
78.
lL was a clrcular devlce worn around Lhe neck buL malnly Lhe
shoulders
79.
1he head of around Lhe chesL was made of carved ouL solld
hard wood
80.
1he neck plece was made ouL of heaL senslLlve plasLlc
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81.
1hey [usL [oln Lhe Lwo
82.
lL was a blL messy
83.
1hey haven'L had much experlence wlLh hard maLerlals and
maLerlallLy ln LhaL way
86.
She would wanL Lhe whole parL Lo be Lhe same maLerlal
uest|on 11d.
87.
1he plasLlc ls sllghLly flexlble
uest|on 11e.
92.
1hey made lL falrly baslc
93.
lL could flL loLs of people
96.
She Lhlnks by havlng one or Lwo generlc slze, lL would be ok.
98.
lL flLs Lo llke, really llLLle glrls and qulLe blg men.

1able 74 and 73 presenL unlLs of general meanlng along wlLh unlLs of relevanL
meanlng from quesLlon 12, 12a and 12b.

1ab|e 74. Un|ts of genera| mean|ng from art|c|pant 3: uest|on 12, 12a and 12b.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 12.
Pow do you
descrlbe Lhe
deslgn process ln
deslgnlng for Lhe
pro[ecL?
99
lt wos polte looq, l'J soy.
100
wbeo ovet
tbe eotltety of tbe tlme we boJ.... om we
kept qoloq ovet cettolo tbloqs os l've solJ
befote,
101
wbot lt JlJ...lt wos oottowloq lt
Jowo oqolo ooJ oqolo.

99.
1he deslgn process was
qulLe long
100.
CverLlme, Lhey kepL on
golng over cerLaln Lhlngs
101.
1he process was abouL
narrowlng lL down
repeaLedly
uest|on 12a.
So Lhere's a loL of
ellmlnaLlon
process or
ellmlnaLlon sLages
on Lhe process
lLself?
102
eob, ooJ tbeo tefloloq wbot we've qot
ooJ tbeo qoloq bock ooJ Joloq lt oqolo
10J
becoose cettolo people weteo't boppy.

102.
lL was abouL reflnlng
Lhlngs and Lhen golng
over Lhem repeaLedly
103.
8ecause cerLaln people
weren'L happy

uest|on 12b.
So wlLh Lhe lnlLlal
deslgn brlef LhaL
you sald, lL was
qulLe broad and
you were glven
baslcally Lhe
opLlon of looklng
aL all of Lhese
posslblllLles of
uslng Lhe
Lechnology and
now Lrylng Lo
narrow lL down,
LhaL would be
104
eob, so loltlolly we weot wltb lookloq ot
cettolo oteos of tbe boJy tbot we wooteJ
tbe tecbooloqy to qo oo os o woy,
105
JlJ
oot teolly wotk tbot well.
106
um, ooJ tbeo
we focoseJ oo oteos tbot we ptevloosly
lookeJ loto,
107
so oteos of comfott ot
feot...tbloqs llke tbot.

104.
lnlLlally Lhey wenL wlLh
looklng aL cerLaln areas of
Lhe body Lhey wanLed Lhe
Lechnology Lo go on
103.
lL dld noL really work LhaL
well
106.
1hey focused on areas
Lhey prevlously looked
lnLo
107.
1hey looked lnLo areas of
comforL or fear
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pracLlcally, Lhe
maln subsLanLlal
parL of Lhe deslgn
process?

1ab|e 7S. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 3: uest|on 12, 12a and 12b.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 12.
99.
1he deslgn process was qulLe long
100.
CverLlme, Lhey kepL on golng over cerLaln Lhlngs
101.
1he process was abouL narrowlng lL down repeaLedly
uest|on 12a.
102.
lL was abouL reflnlng Lhlngs and Lhen golng over Lhem
repeaLedly
uest|on 12b.
104.
lnlLlally Lhey wenL wlLh looklng aL cerLaln areas of Lhe
body Lhey wanLed Lhe Lechnology Lo go on
103.
lL dld noL really work LhaL well
106.
1hey focused on areas Lhey prevlously looked lnLo

unlLs of general meanlng and unlLs of relevanL meanlngs from quesLlon 13 and
13a are shown ln Lable 76 and Lable 77.

1ab|e 76. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 3: uest|on 13 and 13a.
uest|ons Answers Un|ts of genera| mean|ng
uest|on 13.
!usL Lhlnklng ouL
loud, would Lhere
be a seL of general
guldellnes ln
deslgnlng
Wearable
1echnology, ln
whaL form would
you say lL should
be?
107
um, obvloosly ptoctlcol....
108
coose
ooytbloq weotoble bos to be, sott of be o
llttle blt Jotoble.
109
ltobobly, wotetptoof
os well.
110
A lot of tbloqs oteo't sott of
qlveo tbot.

107.
Cbvlously a pracLlcal
guldellne
108.
8ecause anyLhlng wearable
has Lo be a llLLle blL durable
109.
robably waLerproof as
well
110.
A loL of wearable Lhlngs
aren'L waLerproof

uest|on 13a.
So baslcally
waLerprooflng, do
you Lhlnk lL wlll
111
A llttle blt,
112
olso yoo woo't wotty so
mocb oboot wbot yoo'te Joloq coose tbot's
tbe Jlffeteoce betweeo weotoble
1ecbooloqy ooJ booJ belJ tecbooloqy.
111.
WaLerprooflng lncrease
wearablllLy
112.
A user won'L worry so
much abouL whaL Lhey're
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lncrease Lhe
wearablllLy of lL?

11J
oo coo olwoys pot yoot pbooe owoy,
114
wbeteos o weotoble ooe stoy oo yoo ooJ
114
yoo'te oble to fotqet oboot lt ooJ jost
tblok oboot wbeo yoo bove to.
116
5o, l tblok
l octoolly moJe mloe wotetptoof jost
becoose tbe tecbooloqy ls fot weotoble
tbloqs tbot olteoJy qoes towotJs tbot.

dolng because LhaL's Lhe
dlfference beLween
Wearable 1echnology and
hand held Lechnology
113.
A user can always puL Lhe
phone away
114.
Whereas a wearable devlce
sLay on
113.
A user ls able Lo forgeL
abouL lL and [usL Lhlnk
abouL Lhe devlce when you
have Lo
116.
She acLually made hers
waLerproof
117.
8ecause Lhe Lechnology ls
Lo be worn


1ab|e 77. Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from art|c|pant 3: uest|on 13 and 13a.
Un|ts of re|evant mean|ng
uest|on 13.
107.
Cbvlously a pracLlcal guldellne
108.
8ecause anyLhlng wearable has Lo be a llLLle blL durable
109.
robably waLerproof as well
110.
A loL of wearable Lhlngs aren'L waLerproof
uest|on 13a.
111.
WaLerprooflng lncrease wearablllLy
112.
A user won'L worry so much abouL whaL Lhey're dolng
because LhaL's Lhe dlfference beLween Wearable 1echnology
and hand held Lechnology
113.
A user can always puL Lhe phone away
114.
Whereas a wearable devlce sLay on
113.
A user ls able Lo forgeL abouL lL and [usL Lhlnk abouL Lhe
devlce when you have Lo
116.
She acLually made hers waLerproof
117.
8ecause Lhe Lechnology ls Lo be worn


1he lnLervlew wlLh arLlclpanL 3 produced 117 unlLs of general meanlng
along wlLh 70 unlLs of relevanL meanlng. 1he unlLs of relevanL meanlng were Lhen
clusLered Lo produce several Lhemes of non-redundanL unlLs of meanlng connecLed
Lo Lhe research quesLlons. 1he Lhemes acqulred lnclude: Lechnologlcal lssues,
background research, deslgn process, lack of prevlous Lralnlng, Lhe enveloplng
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maLerlal, waLerprooflng and durablllLy, slze, power source, deslgn characLerlsLlcs of
Wearable 1echnology and deslgnlng as a group (collaboraLlon) (see Lable 78).

1ab|e 78. C|usters of non-redundant un|ts of re|evant mean|ng from the |nterv|ew
w|th part|c|pant 3.
ClusLers of relevanL meanlngs
1echnologlcal lssues
- robably Lhe Lechnlcal elemenLs.
- Pow Lo make Lhe machlnery works
- lL's Lhrough a serles of sensors
- 1here's a sensor LhaL wlll Louch Lhe skln
8ackground research
- 1he lnLerneL was qulLe helpful
- ?es, she dld research vla lnLerneL
- 1hey sLarLed wlLh LuLor's asslsLance and dld furLher research
- ?es, research ls a sLrong parL of Lhe lnlLlal approach Lo deslgn challenges
- 1hey found onllne LuLorlals of slmllar pro[ecLs
ueslgn process
- lnlLlally lL would be comlng up wlLh an orlglnal deslgn ldea
- 1rylng Lo organlze Lhe ldeas was a llLLle blL messy
- narrowlng down ldeas was a recurrlng problem
- revlously presenL ldeas on Lhe markeL was used as an approach
- 1he deslgn process was qulLe long
- CverLlme, Lhey kepL on golng over cerLaln Lhlngs
- 1he process was abouL narrowlng lL down repeaLedly
- lL was abouL reflnlng Lhlngs and Lhen golng over Lhem repeaLedly
Lack of prevlous Lralnlng
- 1hey haven'L had any Lralnlng abouL Lhe Lechnlcal elemenL
- lndusLrlal sLudenLs dldn'L know how Lo approach lL
Lnveloplng maLerlal
- 1hey needed Lhe Lechnlcal elemenLs housed ln a solld houslng
- 1he maLerlal of whaL Lhe Lhlng ls made of
- robably Lhe maLerlal
- 1hey haven'L had much experlence wlLh hard maLerlals and maLerlallLy ln LhaL way
- She would wanL Lhe whole parL Lo be Lhe same maLerlal
WaLerprooflng and durablllLy
- 8ecause anyLhlng wearable has Lo be a llLLle blL durable
- WaLerprooflng lncrease wearablllLy
- She acLually made hers waLerproof
- robably waLerproof as well
- A loL of wearable Lhlngs aren'L waLerproof
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Slze
- 1he slze would be one of Lhe maln lssues
- Sllm and dlscreLe power sources and power boards Lo be embedded Lo cloLhlng ls
aLLalnable
- Maklng lL compacL was dlfflculL
- lL would be Lhe slze of Lhe elemenLs
- 1hey needed Lo sLack up Lhe elemenLs as opposed Lo spreadlng Lhem flaL
- lL could flL loLs of people
- She Lhlnks by havlng one or Lwo generlc slze, lL would be ok.
- lL flLs Lo llke, really llLLle glrls and qulLe blg men.
ower source
- Sllm and dlscreLe power sources and power boards Lo be embedded Lo cloLhlng ls
aLLalnable
ueslgn characLerlsLlcs of Wearable 1echnology
- A user won'L worry so much abouL whaL Lhey're dolng because LhaL's Lhe dlfference
beLween Wearable 1echnology and hand held Lechnology
- Whereas a wearable devlce sLay on
- A user ls able Lo forgeL abouL lL and [usL Lhlnk abouL Lhe devlce when you have Lo
- 8ecause Lhe Lechnology ls Lo be worn
ueslgnlng as a group
- 1here were four members ln Lhe group
- lL ls havlng dlfferenL deslgn ldeas wlLhln a group
- ueslgnlng ln a group ls always a llLLle blL dlfflculL


ln Lable 77, Lhere are 43 non-redundanL unlLs of relevanL meanlngs, clusLered lnLo
Lhe 10 Lhemes LhaL were ouLllned menLloned prevlously. 1he cenLral Lheme LhaL emerged
from Lhe lnLervlew wlLh parLlclpanL 3: Wearable 1echnology characLerlsLlcs and lLs deslgn
process, along wlLh lLs deslgn lssues and problems.

6. 3. 2. Interv|ew 3: re|evant mean|ngs |n re|at|on to the ma|n research quest|ons:
ln Lhe followlng reflecLlon of Lhe Lhemes ln relaLlon Lo Lhe research quesLlons
exLrapolaLes Lhe maln knowledge generaLed by Lhe lnLervlew wlLh parLlclpanL 3.
1. Pow does Lhe deslgner's undersLandlng of deslgn aLLrlbuLes affecL Lhe deslgn process of
Wearable 1echnology?
lrom Lhe lnLervlew wlLh parLlclpanL 3, comes Lhe undersLandlng LhaL deslgn
aLLrlbuLes LhaL appeared durlng Lhe deslgn process of Wearable 1echnology were more
llkely Lo be conLexLual Lo Lhe speclflc deslgn purposes. 1he deslgn aLLrlbuLes appeared ln a
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varled and organlc way due Lo a deslgner's lndlvlduallsLlc approach Lo background research
relaLed Lo speclflc deslgn pro[ecL requlremenLs. Several deslgn aLLrlbuLes emerged as
lmporLanL durlng Lhe deslgn process LesLlng Lhe Wearable 1echnology wlLh users, such
as lLs slze and dlmenslons, durablllLy and maLerlal. 1hls lndlcaLes lmporLance of proLoLyplng
ln Lhe deslgn process, as lL poslLlons Lhe deslgner as an observer, enabllng evaluaLlon and
self-crlLlclsm of Lhe deslgn, whlch, ln Lurn, lmproves Lhe deslgner's undersLandlng of Lhe
problem and requlslLe deslgn aLLrlbuLes.

2. Pow do dlfferenL deslgn purposes LhaL have dlfferenL Lypes of funcLlonallLy and usablllLy
requlremenLs affecL Lhe deslgn process ln Wearable 1echnology?
urawlng from Lhe lnLervlew wlLh parLlclpanL 3, lL became apparenL LhaL speclflc
Lypes of funcLlonallLy and usablllLy propelled Lhe deslgn process of Wearable 1echnology,
by forclng deslgners Lo emphaslze cerLaln deslgn aLLrlbuLes. 1hls also moLlvaLes deslgners'
prlorlLlzaLlon of lmporLanL deslgn aLLrlbuLes ln relaLlon Lo Lhe deslgn pro[ecL's funcLlonallLy
and usablllLy requlremenLs. 1hus, Lhe acL of ellmlnaLlng Lhe less relevanL deslgn aLLrlbuLes
ln Lhe pro[ecL was lnLerlocked wlLh Lhe deslgner's famlllarlLy wlLh usablllLy and funcLlonallLy
requlremenLs.
1he pro[ecL deslgned by parLlclpanL 3's group almed Lo uLlllze Lhe 'fear' aspecL of
walklng ln Lhe clLy as parL of deflnlng Lhelr deslgn purpose, Lhus shaplng enLlrely unlque
funcLlonallLy and usablllLy requlremenLs, somewhaL adapLed by Lhelr own agenda. 1hls was
also evldenL LhroughouL Lhe lnLervlew, where parLlclpanL 3's emphasls on deslgn aLLrlbuLes
lncluded maLerlal, slze and waLerprooflng or durablllLy. 1he Lhlrd parLlclpanL's deslgn
pro[ecL was less lnLlmaLe and less soclable compared wlLh Lhe prevlous parLlclpanLs'
pro[ecLs, LhaL requlred vlslble and audlble feedback from Lhe devlce ln order Lo achleve Lhe
lnLended funcLlonallLy and usablllLy requlremenLs.

3. Pow can an undersLandlng of Lhe lnLerdlsclpllnary lLeraLlve deslgn process of Wearable
1echnology provlde a new concepLual undersLandlng of Lhe fleld?
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1he flndlngs from lnLervlewlng parLlclpanL 3 help us undersLand LhaL Lhere are
dlfflculLles Lo be anLlclpaLed when aLLempLlng Lo Lackle an lnLerdlsclpllnary deslgn pro[ecL ln
a collaboraLlve envlronmenL. As menLloned prevlously, Wearable 1echnology requlres
concurrenL deslgn conslderaLlons from mulLlple dlfferenL dlsclpllnes, whlch necesslLaLes
deslgners worklng collaboraLlvely Lo lnpuL Lhelr experLlse and knowledge.
1he dlscovery of emergenL deslgn aLLrlbuLes revealed durlng Lhe process (noL
anLlclpaLed from Lhe ouLseL) was reporLed ln each sLudy. ln Lhe nexL chapLer, Lhe Lhemes
exLracLed from Lhe Lhree case sLudles are dlscussed ln relaLlon Lo Lhe proposed framework
of deslgn aLLrlbuLes of Wearable 1echnology proposed by Lhe research as a vehlcle for
concepLuallzlng Wearable 1echnology deslgn.

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CnA1Lk 7
DISCUSSICN AkISING IkCM kLSLAkCn IINDINGS

1hls secLlon presenLs an overvlew LhaL draws LogeLher Lhe research ln lLs enLlreLy
(lncludlng lLs approach and flndlngs) Lo provlde a summaLlve concluslon. 1hese flndlngs are
lnLended Lo be percelved as emerglng ldeas, raLher Lhan concreLe Lheorles and shall open
paLhways for posslble fuLure research endeavours.
ln Lhe flrsL parL of Lhe Lhesls, a fresh aLLempL Lo deflne Lhe meanlng and
undersLandlng of Wearable 1echnology was underLaken by revlewlng Lhe exlsLlng bodles of
work across dlfferenL flelds along wlLh Lhelr concomlLanL llLeraLure ln order Lo presenL a
fuller, lnLerdlsclpllnary undersLandlng of Lhe research sub[ecL. Wearable Lechnologles have
defled convenLlonal boundarles and have been parLlally addressed from dlfferenL angles,
lacklng an lnLegraLlve lnLerdlsclpllnary vlew. lnLrlnslc Lo Lhls lnLerdlsclpllnary characLer,
Wearable 1echnology perforaLes mulLlple flelds, adopLlng dlfferenL emphases ln each and
dlfferenL feaLures from Lhese lnfluences, as well as Lhe research approaches lnherenL ln
dlfferenL flelds (for example ln flne arLs, compuLlng, pop culLure, englneerlng, deslgn,
fashlon, and cyberneLlcs dlscourse). 1he lnLerdlsclpllnary or genre-LranscendenL characLer
of Wearable 1echnology Lhus encapsulaLes aspecLs of ldenLlLy creaLlon, funcLlonallLy and
pragmaLlsm, as well as lndlvlduallsaLlon, expresslon and lnLerface.
ln Lhe beglnnlng, Lhls presenLed a challenge as no slngular deflnlLlve explanaLlon,
whlch Lraverses all Lhese flelds, was Lo be found. Powever, Lhereln, was a moLlvaLlng
lmpeLus for Lhe research. lL qulckly became apparenL LhaL each fleld has lLs own conLexLual
ldeas (or LheoreLlcal frameworks) for pro[ecLlng lLs pracLlce, whlle malnLalnlng some shared
characLerlsLlcs, whlch can be conflaLed as techno|ogy as part of body, worn ob[ect or
artefact. Powever, Lhls descrlpLlon can be problemaLlc lf Lhe Lerm 'Lechnology' ls Laken ln a
llLeral way.
ln fashlon, Lechnology can be loosely ldenLlfled wlLh any mechanlsm lnvolved wlLh
Lhe producLlon of Lhe arLefacL, Lhus only manlfesLed as wlLness Lo Lhe Lechnology and lL
does noL conLrlbuLe Lo enhanclng a user's ablllLy, oLher Lhan advanced garmenL Lechnology
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LhaL ls reacLlve Lo a user's slLuaLlonal condlLlon (e.g. SporLswear). Moreover, Lechnology as
an ornamenLal elemenL ls commonly found Lhrough examples of Wearable 1echnology ln
fashlon, funcLlonlng as embelllshmenL. ln flne arLs, Lechnology can also be LranslaLed as any
mechanlsm lncluded as parL of an ob[ecL's ablllLy ln helghLenlng lLs funcLlon as an arLlsLlc
plaLform ln a performaLlve manner. 1he mechanlsm ln flne arLs ls noL always elecLronlc and
lncludes any sysLem wheLher dlglLal or analogue. Whereas people ofLen assume Lechnology
lmplles dlglLal Lechnology and recenL Lechnology, LhaL ls noL Lhe correcL onLology, whlch ln
vernacular parlance usually perLalns Lo Lhe appllcaLlon of sclenLlflc knowledge for pracLlcal
purposes, l.e. lL has chlefly Lo do wlLh purposeful knowledge appllcaLlon and asslsLance or
enhancemenL raLher Lhan Lo do wlLh Lhe mechanlsm lLself. ln conLrasL, referrlng Lo Lhe Lwo
flelds menLloned above, Wearable 1echnology ls deflned Lhrough lLs ablllLy as an expresslve
medlum, whlle ln compuLlng lLs emphasls ls very much forced upon exLendlng human
capablllLles by allowlng furLher moblllLy Lhrough advanced wearable Lechnologlcal
hardware soluLlons. 1hls emphasls ln wearable compuLlng resulLs ln a characLer LhaL ls
negllgenL Lo Lhe Lerm 'wearable' lLself, Lhus lacklng Lhe appeal found ln fashlon where
'wearlng' carrles Lhe emphasls.
1hrough Lhe exploraLlon of pop culLure and cyberneLlcs dlscourse, a deeper
LheoreLlcal foundaLlon can be gleaned as Lhe confluence beLween human and Lechnology
provlde a culLural background for undersLandlng Lhe physlcal manlfesLaLlon of Wearable
1echnology. lL ls apparenL LhaL, Lhrough lLs wldespread appeal, pop culLure has pushed
Wearable 1echnology forward ln Lhe publlc eye by dlsplaylng lLs Lechnologlcal funcLlon as
an exLenslon of human ablllLy and lLs prosLheLlc quallLy. CLher Lhan ln pop culLure, Lhe
noLlon of cyborg belngs ls also found ln cyberneLlcs dlscourse, ofLen uLlllsed ln analogles for
descrlblng culLural dlscusslons and ldeas.
Wearable 1echnology ls embodled by mulLlple flelds wlLh a varleLy of emphasls ln
each fleld, Lhus requlrlng Lhe deflnlLlon of marglns LhaL allow a sLreamllned and focused
research lnqulry. 1hls research consLralns lLs focus Lo lnclude only Wearable 1echnology
LhaL embodles elecLronlc componenLs and has Lhe ablllLy of exLendlng user's ablllLy Lhrough
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lLs funcLlon. 1he research furLher focused on expllcaLlng deslgn aLLrlbuLes, wlLh Lhe
poLenLlal Lo asslsL, affecL and lnfluence Lhe deslgn process of Wearable 1echnology. A serles
of deslgn aLLrlbuLes were developed Lhrough a process of selecLlve condenslng and
converglng exlsLlng Lheorles, characLerlsLlcs and deslgn guldellnes of Wearable 1echnology
ln fashlon and compuLlng.
1hese deslgn aLLrlbuLes were subsequenLly applled wlLhln Lhe lnLervlew sLrucLure,
wlLh parLlclpanLs who were experlenced ln deslgnlng Wearable 1echnology. 1he resulLlng
lnLervlews produced several research flndlngs LhaL provlde lnslghLs abouL Lhe Wearable
1echnology deslgn process and Lhe sLraLegles employed by deslgners.

1ab|e 79. C|usters of re|evant mean|ngs from |nterv|ew 1, 2 and 3.
C|usters of re|evant mean|ngs
Interv|ew 1 Interv|ew 2 Interv|ew 3
AesLheLlcs AesLheLlcs 1echnologlcal lssues
Lack of knowledge
ln elecLronlc
componenLs
1echnologlcal
emphasls
8ackground research
usablllLy usablllLy ueslgn process
uevlce poslLlonlng eople's reacLlon
Lack of prevlous
Lralnlng
8ackground
research
ueslgn process and
dlfflculLles
Lnveloplng maLerlal
ueslgn process 1lme consLralnLs
WaLerprooflng and
durablllLy
1lme consLralnLs ower source Slze
eople's reacLlons
WelghL ower source
vlsual aspecLs
ueslgn characLerlsLlcs
of Wearable
1echnology
ueslgnlng as a group

ln Lhe prevlous chapLer, Lhere were 19 clusLers of relevanL meanlngs LhaL
emerged from lnLervlews wlLh 3 parLlclpanLs. 1he analysls of Lhese 3 lnLervlews polnLed
Lowards cenLral Lhemes LhaL can help undersLand Lhe deslgner's experlence of deslgnlng
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Wearable 1echnology. ln Lhls chapLer, Lhese clusLers are grouped accordlng Lo Lhelr
overlaps and examlned Lo elaboraLe research flndlngs. 1he Lhemes draw from and reflecL
Lhe pracLlce of user-orlenLed deslgn scenarlos and are used Lo lnLerrogaLe Lhe maln
research concerns ln Lhls Lhesls.
Seen ln Lable 79, clusLers of relevanL meanlng are llsLed accordlng Lo each lnLervlew,
whlch hlghllghLs Lhelr slmllarlLles. CLher Lhan dlsplaylng Lhelr overlaps, Lhese slmllarlLles are
used as a foundaLlon for grouplng Lhe Lhemes for dlscusslons. 1hese grouplngs conslsL of:
AesLheLlcs, vlsual aspecLs and people's reacLlon.
ueslgn process, background research and Llme consLralnLs
1echnologlcal lssues and/or emphasls, lack of background or prevlous Lralnlng and
deslgnlng as a group
ueslgn characLerlsLlcs of Wearable 1echnology and emerglng deslgn aLLrlbuLes of
Wearable 1echnology: usablllLy, devlce poslLlon, power source, welghL, enveloplng
maLerlal, waLerprooflng/durablllLy and slze.

7. 1. Aesthet|cs, v|sua| aspects and peop|e's react|on
lnLervlews wlLh Lhree dlfferenL parLlclpanLs descrlbed ways ln whlch aesLheLlcs
became a subsLanLlal deslgn conslderaLlon durlng Lhe deslgn process. 1he flrsL parLlclpanL's
maln role ln her group was Lo deslgn Lhe aesLheLlc, 'look' and feel for Lhe Wearable
1echnology devlce, whlch was clearly emphaslsed her lnLeresL durlng Lhe lnLervlew. 1he
second parLlclpanL descrlbed her experlence durlng Lhe deslgn process as frusLraLlng
because she and her group were encouraged noL Lo emphaslze aesLheLlc quallLy of Lhe
pro[ecL, raLher Lo favour funcLlonallLy, whlch ran conLrary Lo Lhelr usual deslgn paradlgm.
1he Lhlrd parLlclpanL, Louched upon her vlew of aesLheLlcs ln Wearable 1echnology by
menLlonlng Lhe cholce of power source and maLerlal LhaL were lnfluenLlal deLermlnlng Lhe
devlce's slze, and Lhus affecLed Lhe aesLheLlc of Lhe resulLlng Wearable 1echnology devlce.
1he lssue of aesLheLlcs ls dlscussed ln deLall earller ln Lhe Lhesls (SecLlon 2.6) leadlng
Lo an undersLandlng LhaL lL ls based upon personal LasLe and has no emplrlcal groundlng,
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l.e. lL ls hlghly sub[ecLlve. lL ls necessary for Lhls research Lo lnclude aesLheLlcs ln lLs
dlscusslon, as LhroughouL Lhe llLeraLure revlew and lnLervlews, Lhe word aesLheLlcs
repeaLedly surfaced boLh amongsL earller research and amongsL Lhe lnLervlewed deslgners.
8esearchers someLlmes shy away from hlghly sub[ecLlve and un-measurable quallLles such
as aesLheLlc values, however Lhelr lmporLance so domlnaLes Lhe dlscusslon and Lhe
llLeraLure, LhaL ln fashlon parLlcularly, and ln wearable arL, lL ls ofLen Lhe drlvlng moLlvaLlon,
and posslbly Lhls emphasls ls whaL dlsLlngulshes Wearable 1echnology deslgn from Lhe
wearable compuLlng paradlgm, whlch cenLres on funcLlonallLy, lnLeracLlon and lnLerface. ls
lL Lhen posslble Lo propose a serles of deslgn aLLrlbuLes as a sLraLegy for deslgners
approachlng Wearable 1echnology deslgn? 1hls research has relnforced Lhe solldlLy of Lhe
relaLlonshlp beLween deslgn aLLrlbuLes and aesLheLlc deslgn.
A flndlng emerged LhroughouL Lhe research ls LhaL aesLheLlcs ln Wearable
1echnology relaLe Lo Lhe physlcal appearance of Wearable 1echnology whlch ls sLrongly
conLlngenL on a deslgner's sub[ecLlve [udgemenL ('LasLe'). lL ls a challenge LhaL requlres
deslgners Lo be honesL and Lruly remalns falLhful Lo Lhe speclflc purpose of Lhe deslgn's
funcLlonallLy. 1he physlcal appearance deslgn ls also ofLen found Lo be 'unusual' from a
user's perspecLlve ln Lhe conLexL of Lhelr quoLldlan surroundlngs, Lhus suggesLlng LhaL, ln
order Lo achleve accepLable physlcal appearance deslgn, Wearable 1echnology needs Lo
seamlessly lnLegraLe physlcal deslgn, deLermlned less by personal (sub[ecLlve LasLes)
[udgmenL of Lhe user, l.e. perhaps advocaLlng LhaL a model of unlversallLy and uLlllLy over
expresslveness and lndlvlduallLy may prove easler Lo asslmllaLe.
1he physlcal appearance of Wearable 1echnology ls characLerlsed by Lhe alLered
shapes of Lhe human body LhaL appear as a by-producL of wearlng Lhe Lechnology. 1hus, lL
ls heavlly lnfluenced by Lhe selecLlon of enveloplng maLerlal, Lype of elecLronlc elemenLs ln
Lhe sysLem, and Lhe poslLlonlng of devlce. 1he body-worn naLure of Wearable 1echnology
glves rlse Lo a unlque slLuaLlon ln whlch mulLlple deslgners of dlfferenL flelds need Lo work
collaboraLlvely ln order Lo achleve a fully cognlsanL deslgn. 1hls was evldenL ln Lhe facL LhaL
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noL all deslgners were famlllar wlLh elecLronlc componenLs requlred for maklng Wearable
1echnology and noL all deslgners were famlllar wlLh deslgnlng for Lhe human body.
1he frusLraLlon over noL belng able Lo approach Lhe deslgn process aesLheLlcally, Lhe
emphasls on deslgnlng aesLheLlcs and Lhe vlslblllLy of Lhe power source and slze as
lnfluences on aesLheLlcs can all be relaLed Lo Lhe parLlclpanLs' background Lralnlng as
fashlon deslgn sLudenLs. As parL of Lhls vlsual pracLlce, Lhe deslgn process ln fashlon ofLen
commences wlLh skeLchlng, as menLloned by Lhe flrsL parLlclpanL durlng Lhe lnLervlew. 1hls
acL of skeLchlng ls an lmporLanL meLhod known Lo LranslaLe absLracL ldeas lnLo concreLe
form, whlch has exlsLed slnce long before Lhe 8enalssance era (Cross 1998). 1he meLhod of
skeLchlng ldeas asslsLs deslgners ln Lhe process of self-crlLlclsm of Lhe deslgn, Lhus
faclllLaLlng Lhe ellmlnaLlve process of redundanL ldeas.
Several researchers, e.g. 8hodes and Mase (2003), have expressed Lhe aesLheLlcs
concerns of Wearable 1echnology and Lhrough Lhelr dlscusslon of Lhe ofLen-found 'borg'
aesLheLlcs of exlsLlng Wearable 1echnology works. Moreover, many Wearable 1echnology
devlces emphaslze Lechnologlcal capablllLles, whlle marglnallzlng Lhe aesLheLlcs of Lhe
devlce as secondary ln lmporLance. 1hls ralses Lhe quesLlon: WhaL sorL of aesLheLlcs ls
sulLable for Lhe deslgn of Wearable 1echnology?
lnLeresLlngly, one of Lhe clusLers of relevanL meanlng LhaL emerged from one of Lhe
lnLervlews, polnLs Lo a slmllar connecLlon. 1he user, or ln Lhls case, Lhe wearer, wlll
experlence reacLlons from Lhe publlc or hls/her surroundlngs lf Lhe deslgn purpose of Lhe
devlce requlres aLLenLlon from non-users. Cne of Lhe deslgn purposes of Lhe flrsL and
second parLlclpanL's pro[ecL ls Lo Lransform pedesLrlans by glvlng Lhem car-llke quallLles,
such as Lhe horn sound (audlo) and Lurnlng llghLs (vlsual). 1hus, aLLenLlon from a user's
surroundlng envlronmenL ls unavoldable and necessary, even deslrable and conLlngenL.
Powever, Lhe Lhlrd parLlclpanL's Wearable 1echnology deslgn purpose ls based upon more
emoLlonal quallLles expressed beLween users, and does noL necessarlly requlre feedback or
aLLenLlon from a user's surroundlngs. 1herefore, deslgn purpose dlcLaLes aesLheLlc
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requlremenLs of Wearable 1echnology as lL deLermlnes Lhe necessary reacLlons or
responses from a user's surroundlngs.
1he lmporLance of Lhe vlsual deslgn of Wearable 1echnology ls closely lnLerrelaLed
wlLh Lhe aesLheLlcs, as lL ls parL of Lhe deslgn process lnvolvlng malnly Lhe deslgners. 1he
process of aesLheLlc [udgemenLs occurs only when Lhe deslgn proLoLype ls LesLed by a user
ln real envlronmenLs. 1herefore, Lhe vlsual appearance, or 'look', of Wearable 1echnology ls
a plaLform LhaL Lhe deslgners sLeward. 1he process lLself wlll lnclude skeLchlng as lL provldes
an approach for LranslaLlng absLracLlve ldeas lnLo vlsual or 'concreLe' forms (commonly
found LhroughouL all deslgn-relaLed flelds).
urawlng on Lhe lnLervlews, Lhe subsLanLlal lnfluence of a fashlon deslgn approach ln
deslgnlng Wearable 1echnology ls borne ouL Lhrough Lhelr concern wlLh Lhe vlsual, as Lhese
deslgners are accusLomed Lo deslgnlng for Lhe human body. 1hey undersLand LhaL unless
Lhe deslgn purpose requlres aLLenLlon grabblng, Lhe deslgn should noL be vlsually lnLruslve,
ouL of Lhe ordlnary or avanL-garde. lL ls also lmporLanL Lo clarlfy LhaL vlsual deslgn can be
LranslaLed broadly as Lhe 'overall look' of Lhe Wearable 1echnology devlce along wlLh lLs
vlsual feedbacks, whlch ls a consequence of lLs deslgn purpose.

7. 2. Des|gn process, background research and t|me constra|nts
1he lmporLance of background research ln Lhe deslgn process of Wearable
1echnology ls also essenLlal ln ensurlng deslgn problems are clearly deflned. 1hls parL of
deslgn process also conLrlbuLes Lo Lhe way ln whlch deslgners deLermlne purposeful deslgn
funcLlonallLy LhaL, ln Lurn, lnfluences oLher deslgn aLLrlbuLes. A serles of mlnd-mapplng
acLlvlLles was also menLloned as parL of Lhe deslgn process of Wearable 1echnology, Lhus
maklng lL clear LhaL deslgners redeflne and reshape Lhelr own deslgn problems.
1he deslgn process experlenced by Lhree dlfferenL parLlclpanLs all referred Lo Lhe
lLeraLlve naLure of deslgn process. 1he sLages lncludlng skeLchlng, mlnd-mapplng,
bralnsLormlng and revlslLlng several deslgn lssues were as menLloned parL of Lhe deslgn
process. A menLloned prevlously, Lhe meLhod of skeLchlng was uLlllzed Lo help Lransformlng
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ldeas lnLo vlsual forms, whlle mlnd-mapplng was seen as a means of ensurlng hollsLlc deslgn
problems, deslgn conslderaLlons and sLreamllnlng ldeas.
1he narrowlng down of ldeas was experlenced as parL of Lhe deslgn process, as Lhe
deslgners aLLempLed Lo flnd feaslble soluLlons Lo Lhe deslgn problems. 1hese problems are
lnLerrelaLed, whlch requlred Lhem Lo mlnd-map ln order Lo ellmlnaLe non-relevanL and
unfeaslble deslgn soluLlons. 1he Llme frame of Lhe pro[ecLs consLralned and propelled Lhe
parLlclpanLs ln managlng Lhelr soluLlon-focused deslgn sLraLegy, whlch reflecLs Lhe naLure of
Lhe general deslgn process lLself (Cross 2006).
1he lnLroducLlon of deslgn aLLrlbuLes for Wearable 1echnology earller ln Lhe Lhesls,
ls proposed preclsely Lo asslsL deslgners when mlnd-mapplng deslgn problems for a
Wearable 1echnology pro[ecL. 8evlewed wlLh Lhe lnslghLs of lnLervlew analysls and Lhe
clusLered relevanL meanlngs LhaL emerged from Lhem, foregrounded Lhe slLuaLlon LhaL
when a deslgner beglns a deslgn process wlLh no prlor Lralnlng or experlence ln deslgnlng
slmllar pro[ecLs, Llmeframe has Lhe Lendency Lo become a consLralnL LhaL can compromlse
effecLlve deslgn soluLlons.

7. 3. 1echno|og|ca| |ssues or |ack of prev|ous tra|n|ng and des|gn|ng as a group
1he Lechnologlcal lssues encounLered by Lhe parLlclpanLs durlng Lhe deslgn process
were seen as problemaLlc as Lhey had llLLle Lo no prevlous experlence ln deslgns LhaL merge
fashlon and Lechnology. 1he lnLervlewee's background Lralnlng ln fashlon deslgn may have
exposed Lhem Lo LexLlle Lechnology, whlch ls dlfferenL Lo Wearable 1echnology as lL ls
percelved ln Lhls research. 1he lnfuslon of elecLronlc elemenLs as parL of a garmenL's
funcLlonallLy becomes Lhe emphasls ln Wearable 1echnology, whlch adds a new layer Lo Lhe
deslgn process.
ln fashlon, Lhe deslgn problems may lnclude Lhe cholce of maLerlals, cllmaLe, gender
and soclal convenLlons. 1he role of fashlon deslgn ln undersLandlng Lhe human body as a
deslgn space ls pushed furLher when Lhe worn garmenLs does noL only funcLlon as a
coverlng for Lhe body, buL lL also has Lechnologlcal funcLlons. When Lechnologlcal funcLlon
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ls added ln becomlng Wearable 1echnology, Lhe deslgners need Lo comprehenslvely
undersLand noL only Lhe hardware speclflcaLlons buL also Lhe sofLware, whlch deLermlnes
lLs funcLlonallLy and usablllLy. lnLeresLlngly, even Lhough Lhe Lhree parLlclpanLs' groups
conslsLed of sLudenLs from varlous areas of sLudles (fashlon deslgn, lndusLrlal deslgn and
vlsual communlcaLlon sLudenLs), dlfflculLles lnfuslng Lechnology ln Lhelr deslgns were
encounLered noneLheless. 1hese problems were malnly caused by Lhelr mlnlmal exposure
Lo avallable Lechnology, an unfamlllarlLy wlLh elecLronlc capable of dellverlng Lhe deslgn
purpose deflned ln Lhe lnlLlal deslgn brlef.
1hls supporLs experLs from oLher flelds worklng LogeLher wlLh fashlon deslgners Lo
achleve successful deslgns. 1hls lndlcaLes LhaL, ln order Lo achleve successful Wearable
1echnology LhaL adequaLely conslders Lhe vlsual, Lhe user and Lhe Lechnology work
collaboraLlvely, lnLegraLlng Lechnologlcal experLs and deslgners.

7. 4. Des|gn character|st|cs of Wearab|e 1echno|ogy and emerg|ng des|gn attr|butes of
Wearab|e 1echno|ogy
Cbserved ln all Lhree lnLervlews, lL was apparenL LhaL Lhe fashlon deslgn background
affecLed Lhe way ln whlch parLlclpanLs percelve Wearable 1echnology. 1he parLlclpanLs
undersLood LhaL Lechnologlcal funcLlon was noL an addlLlon Lo Lhe deslgn buL was an
lnLegral parL of lL. 1hls consclousness led Lhem Lo Lake lnLo accounL Lhe Lechnologlcal
capablllLles along wlLh Lechnlcal speclflcaLlons ln Lhelr deslgn conslderaLlons durlng Lhe
process. 1hls was evldenL ln Lhe deslgn aLLrlbuLes LhaL only emerged durlng Lhe process. ln
Lhe lnLervlews Lhese lncluded: usablllLy, devlce poslLlon, power source, welghL, enveloplng
maLerlal, waLerprooflng/durablllLy and slze.
1he slmllarlLles found beLween Lhe Lwo are hlghllghLed lnslde Lhe box on Lhe Lable
above, showlng noL only LhaL Lhe parLlclpanLs were consclous of Lhese deslgn aLLrlbuLes, buL
also LhaL Lhey lncluded Lhem ln Lhelr concepLuallzaLlon of Lhe deslgn problem. 1he
aLLrlbuLes LhaL were noL found ln Lhe lnLervlews were sLlll menLloned buL ln a non-dlsLlncL
manner. lor example, Lhe deslgn pro[ecL for parLlclpanLs 1 and 2 was a garmenL capable of
CPA1L8 7: ulSCuSSlCn A8lSlnC l8CM 8LSLA8CP llnulnCS
138
asslsLlng user navlgaLlon ln hlgh-denslLy pedesLrlan space. 1he deslgn was execuLed by
embeddlng feaLures found ln a car lnLo a blazer-Lype garmenL, Lhus enabllng Lhe acL of
slgnalllng oLher pedesLrlans. 1he deslgn purpose does noL necessarlly requlre wlreless
connecLlvlLy. PeaL and washablllLy does noL yeL seem Lo be of hlgh enough relevance Lo be
ranked ln Lhe deslgn problems, slnce Lhe pro[ecL was flnlshed ln a proLoLyplcal sLage.
Powever, uLlllzlng deLachable elecLronlc parLs could raLher easlly solve Lhe washablllLy
deslgn aLLrlbuLe, whlle heaL and sensaLlon would requlre furLher LesLlng of Lhe proLoLype.

1ab|e 80. Compar|son between des|gn attr|butes of Wearab|e 1echno|ogy
proposed |n th|s research and des|gn attr|butes of Wearab|e 1echno|ogy ra|sed by the
part|c|pants dur|ng |nterv|ews.
DLSIGN A11kI8U1LS CI WLAkA8LL 1LCnNCLCG
kCCSLD IN1LkVILW kLSUL1S
luncLlonallLy
usablllLy usablllLy
uevlce poslLlonlng uevlce poslLlonlng
ower source ower source
WelghL WelghL
Lnveloplng maLerlal Lnveloplng maLerlal
uurablllLy uurablllLy
Slze Slze
PeaL
WashablllLy
SensaLlon
ConnecLlvlLy



1he deslgn pro[ecL of parLlclpanL 3 seLs a dlfferenL deslgn agenda, lncludlng Lhe
exchanglng of prlvaLe daLa (e.g. Lhe use of a hearL raLe sensor) beLween users, Lhus shlfLlng
emphasls Lo dlfferenL deslgn aLLrlbuLes. arLlclpanL 3's Wearable 1echnology devlce
requlred wlreless connecLlvlLy ln order Lo funcLlon and also Look lnLo accounL Lhe sorL of
feedback sensaLlons Lhe user would recelve from Lhe devlce.
CPA1L8 7: ulSCuSSlCn A8lSlnC l8CM 8LSLA8CP llnulnCS
139
1he domlnance of usablllLy as one of Lhe deslgn aLLrlbuLes of Wearable 1echnology
was evldenL ln lnLervlew resulLs, emerglng as Lhe cenLral focus for deslgners ln LhaL lL ls
lnLerllnked wlLh all oLher deslgn aLLrlbuLes, or could be LhoughL of as an 'umbrella' aLLrlbuLe
LhaL lnfluences all oLhers, upon whlch all oLher aLLrlbuLes are conLlngenL. 1hus, funcLlonallLy
operaLes above all oLher deslgn aLLrlbuLes as Lhe governlng ldea modlfylng oLher deslgn
aLLrlbuLes, and lL musL consLanLly confer wlLh Lhe speclflc deslgn purpose. Allgned wlLh Lhe
deslgners' loyalLy Lo Lhe speclflc deslgn purpose, and lLs conLlngenL funcLlonallLy, lL ls
lnevlLable LhaL Wearable 1echnology deslgn requlres absoluLe conLexL awareness on Lhe
parL of Lhe deslgner.










I|gure 18. Iterat|ve use of des|gn attr|butes |n Wearab|e 1echno|ogy des|gn.

undersLandlng how and when Lhese deslgn aLLrlbuLes can be helpfully applled ls
clarlfled by undersLandlng Lhe deslgn process of Wearable 1echnology, as lL reveals Lhe
naLural lf somewhaL unsLrucLured dlscovery of Lhese aLLrlbuLes by deslgners lncremenLally
as Lhe deslgn process unfolds. luncLlonallLy and usablllLy as deslgn aLLrlbuLes have been
shown Lo be Lhe domlnaLlng conslderaLlons for deslgners ln deLermlnlng whlch oLher deslgn
aLLrlbuLes are necessary Lo prlorlLlze. ln reLrospecL, Lhe aLLrlbuLes have also become a seL of
CPA1L8 7: ulSCuSSlCn A8lSlnC l8CM 8LSLA8CP llnulnCS
140
evaluaLlon Lools LhaL may be uLlllzed by deslgners Lo reflne and organlze oLher deslgn
aLLrlbuLes durlng Lhe process.
As seen ln Lhe sequenLlal flowcharL dlagram (llgure 18), commenclng wlLh recelvlng
Lhe deslgn brlef, deslgners subsequenLly deflne whaL klnds of funcLlonallLy Lhe deslgn
needs, along wlLh whlch usablllLy aLLrlbuLes are necessary. 1hen, exLrapolaLlng from
funcLlonallLy and usablllLy, Lhe deslgner can deLermlne whlch oLher deslgn aLLrlbuLes are
relevanL Lo Lhe deslgn. AL Lhls sLage, deslgners are asslsLed by Lhe process of mlnd-mapplng
poLenLlal deslgn problems, and ellmlnaLlng redundanL or non-expedlenL soluLlons, ofLen
accordlng Lo pragmaLlc consLralnLs. 1he deslgner progress Lo proLoLyplng Lhe deslgn whlle
consLanLly referrlng Lo Lhe prevlous funcLlonallLy and usablllLy requlremenLs as evaluaLlve
Lools Lo furLher redeflne prevlously deLermlned deslgn aLLrlbuLes.
1he flndlngs of Lhls research have been beneflclal ln conLrlbuLlng Lo our
undersLandlng of Lhe deslgn process of Wearable 1echnology:
ueslgn purpose deflnes Lhe conLexL of Wearable 1echnology,
ueslgn purpose dlcLaLes Lhe funcLlonallLy and usablllLy of Wearable
1echnology,
luncLlonallLy and usablllLy are Lhe base foundaLlon for deslgners ln
prlorlLlzlng relevanL deslgn aLLrlbuLes of Wearable 1echnology,
ueslgnlng Wearable 1echnology ls essenLlally deslgnlng Lechnology Lo be
worn on Lhe human body, meanlng LhaL a fashlon deslgn approach alone ls
noL sufflclenL, as lL requlres deslgnlng Lhe Lechnology,
WlLhln a deslgn process, Llmeframe can become a consLralnL, Lhus llmlLlng
deslgn ldeas and poLenLlally compromlslng deslgn soluLlons,
AesLheLlcs ln Wearable 1echnology are conLexLual and can only be observed
and LesLed Lhrough Lhe process of proLoLyplng,
ueslgnlng Lhe vlsual appearance of Wearable 1echnology requlres Lhe
deslgner's awareness of Lhe conLexL and purpose of Lhe deslgn.

CPA1L8 7: ulSCuSSlCn A8lSlnC l8CM 8LSLA8CP llnulnCS
141
ln conducLlng Lhe research Lowards Lhls Lhesls, Lhe researcher acknowledges a
problem LhaL emerged was Lhe dlfflculLy ln flndlng sulLable parLlclpanLs for Lhe case sLudles,
l.e. deslgners who have experlenced deslgnlng Wearable 1echnology (accordlng Lo Lhe
deflnlLlon ln Lhls research). 1hls llmlLed Lhe recrulLmenL by excludlng parLlclpanLs wlLh more
varled background Lralnlng, who would have been beneflclal Lo our undersLandlng of Lhe
lmpllcaLlons of background educaLlon on Lhe deslgn process of Wearable 1echnology.
1he ramlflcaLlons of aesLheLlc sub[ecLlvlLy ln percelvlng Wearable 1echnology also
opened Lhe way for a fuLure research agenda lnqulrlng how lL affecLs Lhe deslgn process
LhaL exLends way beyond Lhe scope of Lhls Lhesls. 1he elasLlclLy of whaL aesLheLlcs can be
and can mean across dlfferenL dlsclpllnes ls acknowledged buL lnLenLlonally noL Lackled
here. CulLe aparL from Lhe dlsclpllne of aesLheLlcs ln phllosophy, lL ls clear LhaL aesLheLlcs
are shaped by lndlvldual, culLural and learned experlence and slmulLaneously are consLanLly
clLed as hlghly lmporLanL by Lhe deslgners Lhemselves ln Lhls sLudy.
1he scope of Lhls research ls lnLenLlonally consLralned wlLhln a deslgn perspecLlve Lo
ensure a focused approach. lL ls a response Lo Lhe dearLh of genulnely lnLerdlsclpllnary
deslgn sLraLegy for Lhls relaLlvely young fleld of deslgnlng wearable Lechnologles LhaL has
Lhe dlfflculL Lask of asslmllaLlng culLural, Lechnlcal and soluLlon-focused Lhlnklng
encompasslng a wlde arc of knowledge. Powever, Lhe process of underLaklng Lhls research
and Lhe wlde scope of deslgn pracLlce evldenL ln Lhe lnLerdlsclpllnary ouLward-looklng
llLeraLure survey also symbollcally mlrror Lhe naLure of Wearable 1echnology lLself, whlch ls
mulLldlsclpllnary and collaboraLlve.






CPA1L8 8: CCnCLuSlCn
142
CnA1Lk 8
CCNCLUSICN

1hls chapLer presenLs Lhe research concluslon, whlch ls dlvlded lnLo several secLlons.
1he flrsL secLlon dlscusses slgnlflcanL conLrlbuLlons of Lhls research followed by a secLlon
dlscusslng fuLure research posslblllLles and acknowledges challenges encounLered durlng
Lhe research.

8. 1. S|gn|f|cant Contr|but|ons of th|s kesearch
Ma[or ouLcomes from Lhls research wlll beneflL emerglng and growlng fleld of
Wearable 1echnology, lncludlng undersLandlng:

8. 1. 1. Wearab|e 1echno|ogy as a Mu|t| D|sc|p||nary I|e|d
1he exploraLlon of relaLed llLeraLure provlded an overall undersLandlng of Lhe
lnLersecLlon Wearable 1echnology across several dlfferenL flelds: compuLlng, arL, fashlon,
cyberneLlcs dlscourse and pop culLure. lLs mulLl dlsclpllnary exlsLence ofLen overlaps and
one fleld affecLs anoLher, whlch presenLs a complex slLuaLlon. ueslgnlng Wearable
1echnology auLomaLlcally lnvlLes absoluLe undersLandlng LhaL Lhe ob[ecL Lo be deslgned ls
Lo be worn on Lhe body, and Lhus requlres a mulLl-dlsclpllned approach ln deslgn.
Moreover, lLs mulLl-dlsclpllned naLure ls evldenL ln Lhe deslgn acLlvlLy, whlch lnvolves
collaboraLlve deslgn (lnvolvlng deslgners and/or experLs from dlfferenL flelds). 1hls was
borne ouL ln Lhe resulLs of seml-sLrucLured lnLervlews conducLed for Lhls research, whlch
showed LhaL a deslgner's lack of knowledge ln cerLaln areas necesslLaLed lnLeracLlon wlLh
oLher deslgners (ln Lhe form of asslsLance and/or deslgnlng LogeLher as a Leam).

8. 1. 2. Wearab|e 1echno|ogy Des|gn Attr|butes
A seL of Wearable 1echnology deslgn aLLrlbuLes were lnLroduced and dlscussed ln
ChapLer 3 conslsLlng of slze/dlmenslons, washablllLy, durablllLy, enveloplng/fabrlcaLlon,
CPA1L8 8: CCnCLuSlCn
143
soclal connecLlvlLy, sensaLlon, usablllLy, funcLlonallLy, devlce poslLlon, power source, heaL
and welghL. 1hese deslgn aLLrlbuLes overlap each oLher and are proposed as a form of
asslsLance or sLraLegy for deslgners ln concepLuallzlng Lhelr deslgn. 1hese deslgn feaLures
were developed ln response Lo Lhe revlewed llLeraLure on Wearable 1echnology deslgn.
1hrough Lhe lnLervlew analysls, lL was found LhaL Lhese deslgn aLLrlbuLes can be beneflclal
Lo lncreaslng Lhe efflclency of a deslgner's mlnd-mapplng sLage ln Lhe deslgn process.
Several observaLlons arlslng from Lhe deslgn aLLrlbuLes lnclude:
luncLlonallLy and usablllLy ofLen affecLs deslgners prlorlLlzlng of Lhe relevance of
oLher deslgn aLLrlbuLes
1he domlnance of each deslgn aLLrlbuLe ls also conLexLual Lo lLs deslgn purpose.
1hese deslgn aLLrlbuLes are a seL of concepLuallzaLlon sLraLegles for deslgners
formulaLlng posslble deslgn problems.
1hese characLerlsLlcs furLher demonsLraLe LhaL Wearable 1echnology deslgn
aLLrlbuLes are hlghly flexlble ln use ln Lhe deslgn process and faclllLaLe deslgners Lackllng
mulLlple deslgn conslderaLlons slmulLaneously.

8. 1. 3. Wearab|e 1echno|ogy Des|gn rocess
undersLandlng Lhe Wearable 1echnology deslgn process ls developed Lhrough Lhe
seml-sLrucLured lnLervlews wlLh deslgners, wlLh experlence deslgnlng wearable Lechnology.
1hrough Lhls research lL ls undersLood LhaL Lhe Wearable 1echnology deslgn process ls
lLeraLlve and collaboraLlve, due Lo Lhe mulLl-dlsclpllnary naLure of Wearable 1echnology.
luncLlonallLy and usablllLy were seen as moLlvaLlons drlvlng Lhe progresslon of Lhe deslgn
process as Lhey were dlcLaLed by lLs speclflc deslgn purpose. 1hus, Lhese Lwo deslgn
aLLrlbuLes emerge as evaluaLlve crlLerla durlng Lhe process.
ro[ecL Llme consLralnLs have Lhe poLenLlal Lo force deslgners Lo compromlse Lhelr
deslgn declslons. 1he proposed Wearable 1echnology deslgn aLLrlbuLes proved asslsLlve as
a seL of concepLuallzaLlon sLraLegy and for worklng wlLh experLs of dlfferenL (buL relaLed)
flelds. 1hus, Lhe ouLcomes of Lhls research conLrlbuLe Lo a more efflclenL deslgn process.
CPA1L8 8: CCnCLuSlCn
144
ln Lerms of undersLandlng Lhe deslgn of Wearable 1echnology lLself, lL has become
clear LhaL lL ls absoluLely essenLlal for Lhe deslgners Lo be crlLlcally aware of human body as
Lhe surface on whlch Lhe Lechnology ls worn. 1herefore, Lhe deslgner's undersLandlng of
Lhe human body, lLs conLours, llmlLaLlons, ablllLy and overall characLerlsLlcs are cruclal Lo
achlevlng a successful deslgn. 1he deslgn aLLrlbuLes lncluded ln Lhls research provlde a flrsL
sLep for deslgners ln Lhlnklng more comprehenslvely abouL Lhe body and deslgn funcLlon ln
Lhe mlnd mapplng process.

8. 2. Iuture kesearch oss|b|||t|es
1he undersLandlngs presenLed ln Lhe prevlous chapLer lncluded several key polnLs
LhaL furLher emphaslze Lhe mulLl-dlsclpllnary deslgn process of wearable Lechnology. 1hls
clearly corroboraLes Lhe lnlLlal research hypoLhesls deflnlng Lhe sub[ecL scope of Lhe
research over-archlng mulLldlsclpllnary flelds.
As menLloned ln ChapLer 2, Lhe deflnlLlon of Wearable 1echnology ln Lhls research ls
a wearable devlce, whlch has Lhe ablllLy Lo sense a user slLuaLed ln Lhelr conLexL for lLs
funcLlonal and expresslve quallLles, poLenLlaLlng many challenges. 1hls research has
explored Lhe deslgner's perspecLlve deslgnlng Wearable 1echnology ln order Lo beLLer
undersLand lLs mulLldlsclpllnary complexlLy. Powever, Lhere are many quesLlons LhaL would
be lnLeresLlng Lo explore ln fuLure research, such as:
Pow does deslgnlng Wearable 1echnology as a Leam (collaboraLlve) affecL Lhe flnal
deslgn producL?
1o whaL exLenL can Wearable 1echnology deslgn aLLrlbuLes lncrease efflclency ln a
deslgn process?
Pow percepLlble are Lhe AesLheLlcs of Wearable 1echnology from Lhe perspecLlve of
Lhe user/wearer?
1hese quesLlons can be answered Lhrough furLher research ln Lhe fleld of deslgn
Lhlnklng ln Wearable 1echnology, by applylng Lhe deslgn aLLrlbuLes ln a collaboraLlve deslgn
process lnvolvlng more Lhan [usL Lhe Wearable 1echnology deslgner. An ldeal proposlLlon
CPA1L8 8: CCnCLuSlCn
143
may lnclude a Wearable 1echnology deslgner, a Lechnology experL (hardware or/and
sofLware) and a fashlon deslgner. CLher posslble fuLure research may lnclude furLher
evaluaLlon upon Wearable 1echnology proLoLypes by lnvolvlng new users LhaL have never
been exposed Lo Lhe Lechnology.
lurLhermore, poLenLlal appllcaLlons of Wearable 1echnology ln a broad range of
flelds suggesL a promlslng area of fuLure developmenL. llelds such as healLh and sclence wlll
beneflL and experlenced advanLages from Wearable 1echnology. lL Lransforms Lhe way we
llve our llves Loday (for example a slmple klneLlc waLch). 1he growLh of dlglLal Lechnology
and lLs mlnlaLurlzaLlon opens new paLhways for Wearable 1echnology Lo be asslmllaLed
more ublqulLously ln Lhe fuLure.
PollsLlcally, Lhls research has conLrlbuLes Lo fuLure research enqulry as lL reframes
and reposlLlons Lhe Wearable 1echnology as a deslgn fleld. 1hls research has magnlfled our
undersLandlng of deslgnlng Wearable 1echnology and lLs deslgn process as well as posslble
deslgn aLLrlbuLes from Lhe deslgner's perspecLlve. Pere, a new approach Lo deslgnlng
Wearable 1echnology has been proposed and dlscussed ln an aLLempL Lo recognlze Lhose
deslgn aLLrlbuLes LhaL are of hlghesL prlorlLy and ways ln whlch Lhey lnLeracLlvely overlap.
More speclflcally, Lhe accompllshmenLs of Lhls Lhesls are:
An analysls of Wearable 1echnology and lLs lnfuslon ln Lhe flelds of fashlon,
compuLlng, arL, pop culLure and cyberneLlcs dlscourse.
1he newly - deflned deslgn space of Wearable 1echnology wlLh lLs
characLerlsLlc axes elaboraLed, Lhus lnvlLlng new enqulry of research.
1he enumeraLlon of deslgn aLLrlbuLes supporLed by seml-sLrucLured
lnLervlews.
1he developmenL and lnvesLlgaLlon of Lhe deslgn aLLrlbuLes LhaL are mosL
llkely Lo be promlnenL challenge(s) wlLhln Lhe deslgn process.

lL ls apparenL LhaL Lhese quesLlons sLlll afford furLher lnvesLlgaLlons. Powever, Lhese
research flndlngs should be consLrued as a slgnlflcanL endeavour Lowards deslgnlng beLLer
CPA1L8 8: CCnCLuSlCn
146
Wearable 1echnology. lnlLlally, Lhe mulLldlsclpllnary exlsLence of Wearable 1echnology
provlded evldence of how lL has managed Lo evolve and progress, however Lhe fleld lLself ls
noL well researched ln Lerms of deslgn Lhlnklng, lncludlng deslgn processes and deslgn
aLLrlbuLes. 1herefore, my wlsh ls for Lhls research ls Lo be LhoughL of as a caLalysL, whlch
conLrlbuLes Lo conLlnulng progress ln Lhe fleld of deslgn Lhlnklng research of Wearable
1echnology.

ALnulCLS
147
ALNDICLS

ALNDIk A: kLSLAkCn Ak1ICIAN1S IN1LkVILW 1kANSCkI1S

1he followlng are Lranscrlbed lnLervlew LranscrlpLs from Lhe research
parLlclpanLs (lnLervlewee answers are ln lLallcs).

Ak1ICIAN1 1 (|nterv|ew date: 27]11]2102)

no. CuesLlons
1. lease descrlbe your wearable Lechnology pro[ecL.

Ok.so tbe ptoject tbot we JlJ, wblcb ls o blt of o wblle oqo oow, we
boJ to Jeslqo sometbloq tbot woolJ osslst wltb wolkloq lo tbe
clty.tbe flool Jeslqo tbot me ooJ my qtoop come op wltb wos o
jocket tbot boJ loJlcotots oo lt ooJ olso boJ llqbts sbowloq
messoqes ooJ we wooteJ to Jocomeot kloJ of bow tbls woolJ offect
wolkloq tbtooqb o cooqestloo lo tbe clty, esseotlolly osloq tbe
bllokets, people woolJ koow ooJ move oot of yoot woy ot look ot
tbe slqo, we boJ llke, o teJ llqbt soyloq stopploq ot tbe bock ot lf
yoo ptess tbe bottoo tbot soys stopploq people woolJ koow tbtooqb
tbot ooJ tbey woolJ be oble to oovlqote eoslet otoooJ yoo.

So you pracLlcally become a walklng Lrafflc llghL?

es, ooJ we olso.. o lot of oot lJeos bebloJ lt wos tblokloq oboot
llke bow oo tbe tooJ tbete wete so mooy toles ooJ bow peJesttloos,
lts kloJ of llke ftee fot oll, Jo wbot yoo woot, ooJ tbete ote oo
octool set toles ooJ we wete lookloq ot bow Ceotqe stteet oseJ to
bove peJesttloo looes, tbey bove, llke wbete to wolk.Jowo tbe tlqbt
ot left ooJ bow tbots kloJ of JlsoppeoteJ ooJ lts oll jost o jomble
oow ooJ tbetes oo, llke etlpoette

So baslcally lL's almosL llke Lrylng Lo brlng Lhe eLlqueLLe forward
Lhrough Lhe deslgn?

es.
2. Pow many people were lnvolved ln Lhe pro[ecL?
um.. lo oot qtoop tbete wete tbtee of os tbot speclflcolly wotkeJ oo
tbe ptoject
3. uld Lhey come from dlfferenL flelds of pracLlces?
1bete wete 2 fosbloo stoJeots ooJ 1 loJosttlol Jeslqo stoJeots
ALnulx A
148
4. Accordlng Lo your background of pracLlce, whaL are Lhe challenges
of Lhe pro[ecL?
l qoess, sloce we wete kloJ of tooqbt to Jeslqo fot tbe boJy ooJ llke
oestbetlcs ooJ stoff os well.l tblok wete tbe cbolleoqes, especlolly..
llke, coose we Joot teolly koow mocb oboot bow to.lo tbe tetms of
bow to octoolly mokloq lt, we Joot teolly koow mocb oboot bow to
pot toqetbet, llke tbe electtlcol slJe of lt ooJ tbe llqbts ooJ bow tbot
woolJ wotk lo o qotmeot ooJ pottloq tbe tecbooloqy loto lt.

So lL's more of Lhe ldea of embeddlng Lhe Lechnology LhaL was qulLe
a challenge because you say comlng from a fashlon background
when everyLhlng preLLy much don'L have Lhe elecLronlc elemenL ln a
way?

es, bot l qoess tbeyte ttyloq to eocootoqe tbot o llttle blt mote
oow, bot we oevet teolly covet tbot lo oot lessoos. 5o, we JlJot
teolly koow wbot kloJ of ptoJocts ot tbloqs tbot we coolJ ose to pot
loto lt so lt wos kloJ of botJ to Jeslqo wltb.. we kloJ of koew wbot
we wooteJ bot we Joot koow wbot wos ovolloble to ose.

So, glven Lhe facL LhaL you haven'L been Lralned LhaL way, do you
reckon lf you had known more, lL would be much easler?

es. lf we boJ koowo mote of tbe electtlcol slJe of lt, lt woolJve
teolly belpeJ os ooJ lt woolJ belp os cteote o bettet Jeslqo ptobobly
lo tbe eoJ.becoose we kloJ of boJ to moke lt o llttle blt slmplet fot
os to octoolly ptoJoce tbe Jeslqo bot fot tbe octool ptoject we
oeeJeJ to bove o ptototype bot lt JlJot bove to be tbe wotkloq
ptoJoct.

3. lease descrlbe how you approached Lhe deslgn brlef.
we JlJ bove some osslstooce ftom Jlffeteot totots wbo wote mote
expetleoceJ ooJ we boJ o few lessoos sbowloq os Jlffeteot tbloqs
tbot we coolJ ose bot becoose evetyooe lo tbe closs wete Joloq socb
Jlffeteot tbloqs, lt wos kloJ of, llke, we JlJot bove mocb tlme ooJ
evetyooe kloJ of wooteJ o ooe oo ooe tlme bot, ls tbot wbot yoo
wete oskloq fot ot?

?es, buL l 'm really lnLeresLed ln looklng lnLo how you approach Lhe
deslgn brlef.

lltst of oll of cootse we JlJ tbe teseotcb ooJ we come op wltb tbe
ALnulx A
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lJeo ftom lookloq ot vlJeos ooJ floJloq wbot tbe molo ptoblems
wete ooJ..so we weot oboot lt tbot woy fltst ooJ l myself JlJ o lot
of Jeslqoloq llke fosbloo moJel wblcb ls tbe woy lve beeo tooqbt of
ooJ o lot of my lJeos come oot tbot woy wbeo l woolJ sketcb Jowo
bow l woot lt to look fltst ooJ tbeo wotk oot bow lt woolJ wotk
oftetwotJ.

So would you say, ln Lerms of your background Lralnlng, whlch ls
fashlon deslgn, how lL looks ls whaL concerns you Lhe mosL when
you were approachlng Lhe deslgn brlef?

es.we boJ llke tbe bockqtoooJ lJeo of bow we woot lt to Jo (lts
tosk) bot beloq tooqbt tbot woy, oestbetlcs ls polte lmpottoot wbeo
Jeslqoloq lt ooJ tbot wos.. lo my qtoop we boJ Jlffeteot jobs ooJ
my job wos to Jeslqo tbe oestbetlc of lt ooJ tbeo tbe loJosttlol qltl
JlJ o lot mote wotk wltb llke pottloq lt toqetbet ooJ yeob, o lot of lt
wos sketcbloq ooJ tbots tbe woy l wotk.

6. Pow do you descrlbe your personal lnlLlal deslgn-relaLed challenges
on Lhe pro[ecL?
we boJ to tblok of wbo woolJ octoolly weot tbe Jeslqo ooJ wbo
sttoqqleJ tbe most wltb tbot.. wbo ote tbe kloJ of people tbot oeeJ
to be somewbete ooJ we boJ llke sboppet ooJ bosloess people ooJ
ool stoJeots tbot wooteJ to wolk fost, so we wooteJ sometbloq tbot
kloJ of vetsotlle, ooJ becoose we JlJot bove mocb tlme, we oeeJeJ
to bove o ptototype tbot we coolJ jost cteote ooJ we ptobobly
woolJve llkeJ to bove cteoteJ sometbloq llttle blt mote JeslqoeJ
bot we eoJeJ op osloq o kloJ of, oot llke o blozet bot o kloJ of, o
ptemoJe jocket ooJ we pot tbe electtlcol llqbts loto lt.

So, baslcally, when you were Lhlnklng of lL Lhe deslgn aLLrlbuLes, one
of Lhem belng Lhe user hlm self and how Lhey wlll wear lL?

es.
7. WhaL deslgn aLLrlbuLes lead Lo deslgn conslderaLlons for Lhe
pro[ecL?
we boJ to cbooqe oot Jeslqo o llttle blt becoose of tbe coosttolots of
tbese tbloqs, ooe of tbe molo foctots wos bow people woolJ teoct to
lt ooJ bow we woolJ be oble to Jocomeot lt ooJ olso ot tbe eoJ, lt
bos o lot to Jo wltb bow tbe oset woolJ be oble to octlvote tbe
slqools ooJ tbe osoqe of llqbts.

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Ah, Lhe Lrlgger?

es, so we boJ to .ose.. o lot of tbe Jeslqo wos boseJ otoooJ tbot
llke, bow we woolJ qet tbe swltcbes ooJ bow tbey woolJ be oble to
Jo tbot wltboot koowloq to mocb oboot tecbooloqy ooJ bow we
woolJ be oble to.qet tbose llt Jowo to somewbete tbot tbe petsoo
coolJ octlvote lt, so tbot kloJ of cbooqeJ oot Jeslqo o llttle blt.
8. WhaL are Lhe dlfflculLles of approachlng Lhe deslgn brlef of Lhe
pro[ecL?
As lve solJ befote, lt wos kloJ of..mololy flqotloq oot bow oll tbe
electtlcol potts ote qoloq to wotk.ooJ olso koowloq wbot l coolJ
ose lo tbe Jeslqo, coose l kloJ of..we kloJ of boJ oo lJeo of wbot we
wooteJ bot we JlJot koow lf lt wos posslble fot os to poll lt off.

9. WlLhln Lhe deslgn process, whaL recurrlng deslgn problems
appeared?
Moybe wbeo we weot oot to llke Jemoosttote lt, we JlJot expect
peoples teoctloo to be wbot tbey wete so tbot wos kloJ of, come op
ooJ ..

So, ls lL recurrlng?

es, lt JlJ boppeo wbeo we wete testloq bot yeob, we JlJot bove
eoooqb tlme to llke. we cbooqeJ o llttle blt of bow we wolk ooJ tbe
ploces we weot to bot lt wosot kloJ of llke o.. tecottloq ptoblem
bot oo lotetestloq floJ.

Pow would you descrlbe people's reacLlons Lo LhaL, ln general?

A lot of tbem qeoetol sotptlseJ ooJ tbey tbooqbt lt wos foooy ooJ l
qoess tbls wos to be expecteJ becoose lts sometbloq tbot bosot
beeo seeo befote ooJ lt woolJ ptobobly be Jlffeteot wltb o lot of
people osloq lt ooJ lt becomes mote molostteom ot llke, occeptoble
bot l qoess wltb tbls kloJ of tbloq yoo coot teolly expect tbls to
boppeo.


10. lf you could flx (a) cerLaln deslgn aspecL(s) of Lhe pro[ecL, whaL or
whlch aspecL would lL (Lhey) be?
l tblok weve tolkeJ oboot tbls, soyloq we woolJ llke to cteote mote
of tbem ooJ kloJ of set tbem oot lo Jlffeteot ploces ooJ we olso
woolJve llke to Jeslqo o few Jlffeteot.. lo tbe eoJ weJ llke to bove
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131
o few mote Jlffeteot slqools oo tbe jocket bot we woolJ llke to bove
o few mote Jlffeteot soyloq, coose we ooly boJ stopploq ot tbe eoJ,
we woolJve llke to bove llke o few Jlffeteot Jltectloool soyloqs oo
tbe jocket ooJ moybe sometbloq oo tbe ftoot ooJ moybe ttleJ
Jlffeteot tbloqs ooJ see bow tbot woolJve wotkeJ.
11. Pow do you descrlbe Lhe deslgn process ln deslgnlng for Lhe
pro[ecL?
lt wos polte oo eojoyoble ptocess bot we eoJ op.we boJ o lot of
tlme to btolostotm ooJ btooqbt op ptoposols ooJ Jo o lot of
teseotcb so, l tblok tbot wos qooJ tbot we boJ polte oo omooot of
tlme to Jo bockqtoooJ teseotcb wblcb we teolly oeeJeJ to Jo
becoose we oll weot oot to Jo Jlffeteot tbloqs tbete wete olso
Jlffeteot petspectlves ooJ lts olso o qooJ tbloq. All tbe vlsools, llke
tbe vlJeos ooJ people oo tbe stteet ooJ pbotos ooJ Jocomeotloq
wete teolly belpfol.we olso JlJ o lot of mloJ mopploq wblcb kloJ of
leJ os to oot flool lJeo, llke wtltloq Jowo oll tbe key polots tbot wete
tbe ptoblems tbot people boJ eocoooteteJ wbllst wolkloq ooJ llke
tbloqs tbot coolJ be lmptoveJ ooJ wbot we wooteJ to see boppeo..


1hls wlll seem llke l'm repeaLlng Lhe quesLlon buL Lhen agaln lL ls
quleL lmporLanL, whaL are Lhe maln deslgn concerns when you were
deslgnlng lL ln Lhe process?

um.lm jost ttyloq to.. coose lts beeo o wblle.om.Jo yoo meoo
tbe coocetos of llke.. wbeo, llke?

Ck, so lL could elLher be, llke you have Lhe lnlLlal skeLch of Lhe ldea
and Lhe oLher parL of Lhe group wlll be Lhlnklng of how Lo embed all
Lhe elecLronlcs nlcely and Lhe of course you wlll have deslgn
concern, ok how are we golng Lo do LhaL? ls lL Lhe slze LhaL maLLers
or maybe you were Lhlnklng would lL welghL Loo much on Lhe
[ackeL? Cr whaL abouL Lhe dlmenslons? Cn/off?

eob wbeo we pot lt toqetbet we boJ polte o few coocetos llke,
tokloq tbe sketcb loto o teollty ooJ we wete coocetoeJ oboot wbot
kloJ of jocket tbot wete qoloq to pot lt loto, os lve solJ befote we
wooteJ sometbloq tbot wos.woolJot stooJ too mocb oot ftom tbe
ctowJ ooJ sometbloq tbot woolJ be ..coo be oseJ evetyJoy.
sseotlolly tbot wos wbete oot Jeslqo wos beoJloq, bot we foooJ lt
teolly polte Jlfflcolt to floJ oo ltem of clotbloq ot llke o Jeslqoet ltem
tbot woolJ wotk fot evetyooe so tbot wos ooe of oot molo
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132
ptoblems. olso lmplemeotloq tbem loto tbe sboolJets, we oeeJeJ
tbem to be seeo ooJ we boJ tbe cooceto of pottloq lt lo tbe bock ot
tbe sboolJets wbete woolJ be tbe most vlslble.some wltb tbe llqbts
we oeeJeJ to bove o motetlol tbot woolJ soppott tbem bot we olso
oeeJeJ tbem to be seeo olso.. tbot wos o blt of tbe cooceto os well
ooJ bow tbot jocket woolJ soppott tbe bottety pocks ooJ tbloqs llke
tbot ooJ tbe welqbt ooJ bow tbot woolJ wotk wltb tbe fobtlc

So, meanlng Lhe welghL of Lhe elecLronlcs and how Lhe welghL of Lhe
garmenLs and how lL would supporL LhaL?

es

12. lf you could flx (a) cerLaln deslgn aspecL(s) of Lhe pro[ecL, whaL or
whlch aspecL would lL (Lhey) be?
l woolJ petsooolly cbooqe tbe octool jocket tbot we oseJ becoose lt
ptobobly wosot tbe best Jeslqo fot wbot we wete ttyloq to qo fot.lf
we llke boJ mote tlme, lt woolJve beeo olce to octoolly cteote oo
otlqlool Jeslqo tbot woolJ kloJ of solt oll Jlffeteot types of people
tbot woolJ oeeJ tbls ptoJoct, l qoess..

So changlng Lhe [ackeL Lo someLhlng LhaL would appeal broader.

eob, mote oppeolloq .
13. Would Lhere be a seL of general guldellnes ln deslgnlng wearable
Lechnology, ln whaL form of would you descrlbe Lhem Lo be?
lm oot sote lf we boJ o speclflc qolJelloe tbot we oeeJeJ to slt
Jowo to, lt wos o ptetty cteotlve eovltoomeot tbot we wete lo ooJ
becoose lt wosot sometbloq tbot we boJ to ptoJoce.lt wos mote of
o kloJ of cooceptool ooJ lookloq ot bow people woolJ teoct, we
weteot seot wltb tbot mooy qolJelloes bot we JlJ bove to Jo
sometbloq tbot woolJ cbooqe tbe woy people wete wolkloq ot bow
tbey woolJ lotetoct wltb tbe eovltoomeot.

1hrough Lhe deslgn.

5o lt oeeJeJ to loteqtote tbe people wltb tbe eovltoomeot, l qoess
tbot wos sometbloq tbot wos ooe of tbe molo polots.l Joot koow lf
lm qoloq o blt off toplc bete.bot.


1haL's alrlghL..um Lhank you very much LhaL was really helpful and
ALnulx A
133
Lhank you very much!


1bots ok





Ak1ICIAN1 2 (|nterv|ew date: 29]11]2012)

no. CuesLlons
1. lease descrlbe your wearable Lechnology pro[ecL.
lt wos lo tespoose to bow peok boot peJesttloo ttofflc coo qet o blt
cbootlc ooJ evetyboJy kloJ of Joes tbelt owo tbloq, so lo tespoose to
tbot we kloJ of took o bomotoos opptoocb ooJ took feototes tbot
woolJ be ossocloteJ wltb o cot ooJ see wbot woolJ boppeo lf tbey
soJJeoly qot kloJ of lojecteJ lo o peJesttloo eovltoomeot. omm.
so tbe ptoject ltself ls o jocket wltb bllokets ottocbeJ loto
ttoospoteot sboolJet poJs so tbe weotet coolJ octlvote tbe tlqbt ot
left sboolJet to bllok occotJloq to wblcb Jltectloo tbey wooteJ to qo
ooJ we olso boJ speokets sewo loto tbe jocket so tbete wete jost
oolse evety tlme tbe blloket woolJ octlvote.. umm...o vety looJ
blloket oolse woolJ come oo ooJ we olso kloJ of tbtew lo some
otbet soooJs socb os scteecbloq btokes... omm... o boto tootloq... so
lo oJJltloo to tbe ptoJoct ltself, tbe ptoject wos mote oboot people's
teoctloos, llke lo teol llfe totbet tboo bow tbe jocket woolJ wotk
ltself

So lL's almosL llke you become a car?

es

Ch LhaL's amazlng

2. Pow many people were lnvolved ln Lhe pro[ecL?
1bete wete tbtee lo oot qtoop
3. uld Lhey come from dlfferenL flelds of pracLlces?
1wo wete fosbloo Jeslqo locloJloq myself ooJ 1 wos loJosttlol
Jeslqo.
4. Accordlng Lo your background of pracLlce, whaL are Lhe challenges
of Lhe pro[ecL?
uefloltely tbe tecbooloqy slJe of tbloqs we kept lt polte lo fl. we
ALnulx A
134
foooJ lt wos eveo o cbolleoqe fot tbe loJosttlol qltl os well to kloJ of
qet oot beoJ otoooJ tbls. 1bots wby we kloJ of moke tbe ptoject
mote oboot people's teoctloo totbet tboo tecbooloqy ltself. lt wos oll
bottety opetoteJ ooJ moooolly opetoteJ os well so yeob tbot wos
Jefloltely tbe cbolleoqe

So, conLlnulng wlLh Lhe prevlous quesLlon, Lhe fashlon deslgn
background, lL was hard Lo embed Lhe Lechnology lnLo Lhe garmenL.
Would you say LhaL lf you have goLLen some sorL of Lralnlng llke ln a
prevlous sub[ecL, do you Lhlnk LhaL would help you?

es Jefloltely fot tbot pottlcolot sobject

3. um. Cf course when you were glven Lhe deslgn brlef, you have a
cerLaln approach as a fashlon deslgn sLudenL. leas Lry Lo descrlbe
Lo me how you approach LhaL lnlLlal deslgn brlef for Lhls sub[ecL


ltom o fosbloo Jeslqo petspectlve?

?es, accordlng Lo your background

we wete kloJ of eocootoqeJ to oot tblok of lt os oo oestbetlc ptoject
we wete oll vety mocb eocootoqeJ to embtoce tecbooloqy eveo
tbooqb we kloJ of JlJo't bove tbe ttololoq mote os o... l qoess tbe
totots kloJ of boJ tbe vlsloo tbot yoo'll oevet teolly qet tbe cbooce to
Jo tbls oqolo wltb tecbooloqy so tbey wete kloJ of posbloq ftom tbot
ooqle so we oll kloJ of weot loto lt o llttle blt blloJly. wbeo we ttleJ
to kloJ of moke tbe oestbetlc, we wete eocootoqeJ to oot tblok too
mocb oboot tbot bot l qoess tbe ooly woy lt woolJ've lofotmeJ lt
wos to kloJ of tblok of woys we coolJ blJe tbe tecbooloqy. l olso
fotqot tbe feotote tbot we locloJeJ lo lu llqbts we olso moJe tbe
slqo follow me ot tbe bock. 1bot wos lo tespoose to bow people..
tbloqs llke lf tbete's o lot of people woltloq oo tbe slJe of tbe tooJ to
ctoss, ooe woolJ ooly ctoss lf otbet people stott to Jo lt, eveo tbot
tbe llqbts Joo't qo oo so tbot wos jost kloJ of o ploy oo tbot. um, tbe
fosbloo Jeslqo belpeJ lo, yoo koow, tblokloq oboot motetlols tbot
woolJ covet tbe slqo wbeo lt woso't llt bot wlll stlll sbloe tbtooqb
wbeo lt wos, om... jost koowleJqe oboot tbe qotmeot so wbete tbe
Jlffeteot swltcbes coolJ qo, bot oestbetlcolly JlJo't teolly. we JlJo't
teolly bove scopeJ to kloJ of ollow lt... lt woso't...lt wos mote oboot
teoctloos. we JlJo't bove tbe tlme ot tbe expettlse to kloJ of tblok
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133
bow oestbetlc ooJ tecbooloqy coo kloJ of be metqeJ toqetbet.


6. Movlng on, how do you descrlbe...so we spoke abouL how your
background Lralnlng affecLed Lhe way you approached Lhe deslgn
brlef and how lL's sllghLly dlfferenL and you're encouraged Lo
embrace Lhe Lechnology lLself. WhaL abouL you personally, as a
fashlon deslgner when you were glven LhaL deslgn brlef, whaL was
Lhe flrsL Lhlng LhaL came Lo your mlnd?


lo tetms of tbe ptoject? Ot lo tetms of bow l woolJ...

l foooJ Jefloltely vety Joootloq. omm... l kloJ of... My fltst lJeos
wete kloJ of ptojects tbot wete oot vety feoslble to moke to
somewbot my expettlse... umm... AoJ tbeo tbe ptocess become
mote oboot tooloq lt bock ooJ bow lt coolJ be posslble.... bot yeob,
tbot's ptobobly wbot l fltst tbooqbt. lt wos... coose we boJ tbe
cbolce to eltbet keep lt os sometbloq cooceptool ot moke lt teol..
umm... ooJ Jefloltely my fltst lmptessloos wete to keep lt
cooceptool becoose l jost boJ oo lJeo wbete to stott, my lJeos wete
teolly blq...


7. Cf course ln Lhe deslgn process Lhere are cerLaln deslgn aLLrlbuLes
LhaL came up when you were Lrylng Lo deslgn Lhe [ackeL or when
you were Lrylng Lo deslgn Lhe vlsual feedback...whaL were Lhe
deslgn aLLrlbuLes LhaL emerged durlng Lhe process whlch became
parL of Lhe conslderaLlons LhaL made, deslgn wlse?
we Jefloltely cooslJeteJ to keep lt vety ootmol, lf tbot moke seose.
so vlsoolly we JlJo't woot lt to be ooytbloq ovoot-qotJe, lt wos
sometbloq tbot vety mocb boJ to bleoJ lo wltb wbot people wete
weotloq, so losteoJ of Jeslqoloq sometbloq ftom sctotcb, we oseJ o
blozet ooJ tbeo we olteteJ lt ftom tbete, so lt woso't teolly...tbe
vlsool slJe of tbloqs woso't teolly JeslqoeJ ot oll. lt wos mote bow
we locotpotote tbe tecbooloqy . 1bot wos tbe ooly JeslqoeJ pott.

Ch ok. So Lhe embodlmenL of Lechnology lnLo Lhe garmenL, LhaL's
Lhe maln conslderaLlon?

es

ALnulx A
136
8. ls Lhere any dlfflculLy when you were Lrylng Lo embed LhaL
Lechnology? WhaL would be Lhe concreLe example you encounLered
when you were Lrylng Lo embed Lechnology lnLo Lhe garmenL lLself?

uefloltely o powet sootce ooJ coose evetytbloq wos bottety
opetoteJ lt wos vety beovy ooJ we boJ tbe leJ slqo tbot wos moJe
oot of 42 cbtlstmos llqbts wblcb oeeJeJ oboot 6 AA tbot oeeJeJ to
be pot loto tbe bock of tbe jocket plos tbe speokets so lt wos vety
beovy to weot ooJ tbot wos ptobobly sometbloq tbot woolJ bove
oevet moJe lt osoble lo teol llfe sltootloo.

9. WlLhln Lhe process lLself, were Lhere any deslgn problems LhaL kepL
on recurrlng? lor example: ok we declded we're golng Lo use
ChrlsLmas llghLs, we LesLed lL, Lhere were cerLaln problems and you
changed lL agaln, or as you've sald before Lhe ldeas were blg, and
you sLarLed movlng backwards and you Lry Lo Lurn lL down. Were
Lhere recurrlng deslgn problems LhaL you encounLered durlng Lhe
process lLself?


ltobobly, bow blq we coolJ toke lt wos tbe blqqest ptoblem.
umm. eob, lt wos jost vety botJ wltb kloJ of, llmlteJ tesootces ooJ
llmlteJ tlme, l tblok we ooly boJ oboot tbtee weeks to Jo tbls ooJ 1
Joy o week. l meoo we boJ oot wbole semestet bot lo tetms of
octoolly mokloq lt wbeo lt qot Jowo to lt, tbot's bow mocb wos
olloweJ fot tbe pbyslcol mokloq of tbe jocket. umm. eob llke we
JlJ woot to toke lt to o qtooJet scole ooJ pot mote feototes tbot
woolJ bove ellclteJ o blqqet teoctloo ftom tbe pobllc, posslbly tbloqs
llke, yoo koow, smoll slqos comloq oot ftom sboolJets ot sometbloq
llke tbot, bot lt jost eoJeJ to be tooeJ Jowo ot kept cooceptool. 5o,
yeob tbot's ptobobly ooe Jeslqo tbloq, coose we JlJo't bove tbe
expettlse we coolJo't cotty oot tbe Jeslqo.

10. lf you could flx cerLaln deslgn aspecLs of LhaL pro[ecL, whaL or whlch
aspecL would lL be?

ltobobly tbe swltcbes beloq oble to be ootomotlc ot somebow
seosot octlvoteJ lf tbot mokes seose. 1bey wete oll kloJ of
moooolly...yoo bove to ptess eocb bottoos fot tbe potposes of
expetlmeotloq ooJ ttyloq to qet o teoctloo bot lf lt wos kloJ of to be
tokeo oot lo o teol lotqe scole ptoject, lt woolJ be qooJ ooe swltcb
coolJ coottol evetytbloq, ot lf ooe swltcb boJ oll tbe bottoos totbet
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137
tbeo, ok...left booJ tbls floqet, ptess tbls, tlqbt booJ, yoot plokle
ptess tbot. yeob jost ptobobly tbe occesslblllty fot oll tbe
swltcbes...ooJ l qoess jost kloJ of mokloq tbe qotmeot o llttle blt
mote loJlvlJool os well, ttyloq to btloq lo tbot Jeslqo elemeot,
lJeolly we woolJ love to bove ooe fot eocb oqe qtoop, eocb qeoJet,
bot we jost... becoose tbe tlme, we boJ to Jo tbe stooJotJ type block
blozet.


11. Pow do you descrlbe Lhe deslgn process lLself?

wltb tecbooloqy?

?es

lt wos Jlffeteot to wbot we wete oseJ to, lt wos vety mocb... l wos
vety mocb oseJ to beloq stottloq wltb o vety cooceptool lospltotloo
tbot wos olwoys vlsool ooJ fot tbls lt wos o lot oboot tecbolcolltles
ooJ electtoolcs ooJ tbloqs llke tbot...so lt wos Jlffeteot, lt coolJo't....
we floJ lt botJ to kloJ of bove oll tbese koowleJqe oboot vlsool
qotmeots ooJ bow tbey wotk styllstlcolly ooJ, yoo koow, wbot
tbloqs woolJ be woto lo wbot eovltoomeots ooJ lt kloJ of jost boJ to
be cost oslJe...so l foooJ tbot ospect of lt ftosttotloq to bove oll tbls
koowleJqe lo tbe oteo ooJ oot be oble to ose lt ooJ beloq
eocootoqeJ to ose lt olso...so yeob tbot's ptobobly wbot JlffeteJ lo
tbe opptoocb ftom ootmol.

12. Would Lhere be a seL of deslgn guldellnes for deslgners ln deslgnlng
such pro[ecL, whaL would you Lhlnk Lhey would be llke?
l tblok qlveo wbot l jost solJ, tbete sboolJ be some kloJ of vlsool
qolJelloe os well os jost tecbolcol... omm. l tblok lt's lmpottoot to
temembet tbot people tespooJ to tbese tbloqs vlsoolly fltst ooJ
fotemost, so ooJetstooJloq of tbe boJy ooJ bow qotmeots flt ooJ
jost soclol cooveotloos otoooJ eocb qotmeot ooJ wbot yoo cboose
to ploce tecbooloqy lo wlll olwoys ploy o pott lo lt... omm. lo tetms
of tbe tecbooloqy slJe of tbloqs, l tblok lt's vety lmpottoot to kloJ of
loteqtote lt eoslly loto wbotevet eovltoomeot lt's beeo pot loto

versaLlllLy, would you say?

ep

ALnulx A
138
AnyLhlng else?

Iost lo qeoetol, ot speclflc to tecbooloqy?

um, [usL ln general, even lf you're comlng from a fashlon deslgn
background and Lhen glven Lhls pro[ecL and Lhen, of course as you
menLloned before, you were encouraged Lo embrace Lechnology
buL Lhen agaln, Lhere were mlnlmum guldellne ouL Lhere LhaL
provldes you a hlerarchy on how Lo do lL, and Lhlngs Lo conslder, and
as you've sald before you had Lo go lnLo lL bllndly, and lf you're [usL
Lhlnklng ouL loud whaL sorL of guldellnes, do you Lhlnk should be
Lhere?

Not teolly...tbot's tbe molo tbloq.

Cteot so tbot's lt, tbook yoo vety mocb fot yoot tlme






Ak1ICIAN1 3 (|nterv|ew date: 30]11]13)
no. CuesLlons
1. lease descrlbe your wearable Lechnology pro[ecL.
ep, ok, lts boslcolly o oeck Jevlce, tbot seoses wbeo tbe weotet ls
JlsttesseJ ooJ ttoosmlts o beottbeot of o ftleoJ, ot o pottoet.so lt
coot be loJlvlJoolly Jooe, so tbe pottoet woolJ olso be weotloq lt
ooJ lt woolJ wotk llke tbot

So, Lhere are Lwo wearers, so lL's llke a palrlng?

eob, well tbete coolJ be mote, lts boslcolly oo lotetcoooecteJ
Jevlce.

Ch rlghL, Ck.

2. Pow many people were lnvolved ln Lhe pro[ecL?
well boslcolly lo tbe qtoop Jeslqoloq lt, tbete wete foot.
3. uld Lhey come from dlfferenL flelds of pracLlces?
ALnulx A
139
1bete wete tbtee ftom losbloo Jeslqo locloJloq myself, ooJ ooe wos
ftom vlscomm

So lL's an lnLerdlsclpllnary sub[ecL

Cause, l LhoughL lL'll be [usL beLween lndusLrlal and fashlon

no, lL was open Lo everyone Lhere, a few vlsComm were ln Lhe class.
Malnly, lL was fashlon and lndusLrlal (sLudenLs), who chose Lhe class.

ep
4. Accordlng Lo your background of pracLlce, whaL are Lhe challenges
of Lhe pro[ecL?
ltobobly tbe tecbolcol elemeots.

So LhaL's lncludlng Lhe machlnery?

es, so bow to moke lt wotk ooJ stoff llke tbot, oltbooqb tbe lotetoet
wos polte belpfol, so.

1he lnLerneL?

ep.

Ch so you dld research and all LhaL Lhrough Lhere?

ep.

So wlLh Lhls devlce, how dld you deLecL Lhe person's mood?

MooJ?

?es, meanlng, how do Lhe devlce recognlze LhaL Lhe person's
sLressed?

lts tbtooqb o setles of seosots, so tbeyte oll foltly teoJlly ovolloble,
mololy tbe beott-tote ls tbe cote, bot tbtooqb Jetectloos ot tbe oeck,
tbetes llke, om, cbooqes lo tbe sklo cooJoctlvlty, ooJ stoff llke tbot.

Ch so lL ls a galvanlc Lype, so lL Louches Lhe skln?

eob, so tbetes o seosot tbot wlll toocb tbe sklo, so lts oll boseJ oo
ALnulx A
160
tbe beott-tote mololy, tbooqb, coose tbe ptoject wos boseJ oll
otoooJ tbe beott mooltot.

3. WlLh Lhe dlfflculLles LhaL you've encounLered wlLh Lhe Lechnlcal
elemenLs, glven wlLh your background pracLlce, would you say LhaL
you haven'L had enough prevlous Lralnlng for lL?
well, we teolly boveo't boJ ooy lo tbe tecbolcol elemeot, bot tbeo
tbe tevetse slJe wos loJosttlol stoJeots JlJo't koow bow to
opptoocb lt wltboot comloq op wltb lJeos tbot wete olteoJy pteseot
lo tbe motket, so.

6. Ck. When you were flrsL glven Lhe deslgn brlef, how dld you
approach lL? Pow dld you and you group maLes approach lL?
um, well lt's sllqbtly boseJ off oo loJlvlJool ptoject we oeeJeJ to Jo
befote, so we boseJ lt oo mloe, mololy, wblcb ls o booJ, sott of,
Jevlce tbot sbooe o llqbt lo tbe Jltectloo of bome wbeo oo loJlvlJool
ls feelloq JlsttesseJ.

Ck. So Lhe lndlvldual pro[ecL was a hand plece?
ep.

And dld lL use Lhe same mechanlsm as Lhe one done wlLh Lhe group?
eob, vety slmllot lo tbe Jetectloo lo tbe mooJs ooJ stoff llke tbot.

8uL Lhe feedback ls dlfferenL?
eob, ooe wos boseJ mololy otoooJ bomeslckoess ooJ coooectloo to
bome ooJ tbe otbet ooe wos boseJ oo coooectloo to people,
loJlvlJools.
7. Pow would you descrlbe your personal lnlLlal deslgn relaLed
challenge?

um, well loltlolly lt woolJ be comloq op wltb oo otlqlool Jeslqo lJeo,
tecbolcolly, we boJ osslstooce ftom o belpet lo tbe closs, ooJ be wos
llke o totot's belpet.... lm oot sote...o totot olJ. um, boslcolly tbe
totot btooqbt blm lo jost coose be koew be coo belp os wltb tbe
tecbolcol elemeots. 5o we stotteJ wltb blm ooJ JlJ fottbet teseotcb.

So, baslcally would you say LhaL Lhe research parL ls a sLrong
elemenL of how you lnlLlally approach Lhe deslgn challenges?
eob, l'J soy so, coose os sooo os yoo stott lookloq op woys to Jetect
tbloqs, tbete's sott of oolloe tototlols of slmllot ptojects ooJ tbeo
bow to Jo tbem ot wbotevet tbey JlJ.
ALnulx A
161

8. ln Lhe process of deslgnlng lL, of course you've encounLered a loL of
deslgn aLLrlbuLes. lL could be Lhe slze, Lhe welghL and Lhen Lhe look
of lL, or how lL could be powered, Lhose sorLs of Lhlngs. So whaL
deslgn aLLrlbuLes lead Lo Lhe deslgn conslderaLlons LhaL you made
durlng Lhe process?
robably all of Lhem. 1here wasn'L as much of an lssue, malnly slze
would be Lhe blg one, because we needed lL housed ln a solld
houslng, l suppose, Lo sofL houslng. WlLh Wearable 1echnology,
Lechnology has come a long way, so you can geL qulLe sllm and sorL
of dlscreLe power sources and sorL of power boards Lo go on
cloLhlng.

So baslcally, lL's more of Lhe slze of Lhe enLlre devlce lLself, noL
necessarlly Lhe slze of Lhe elemenLs, would you say?
lL would be Lhe slze of Lhe elemenLs buL we needed Lo sLack Lhe
elemenLs up um as opposed Lo spreadlng Lhem ouL flaL, ln LhaL
respecL.

9. Could you please Lell me whaL are Lhe dlfflculLles of approachlng Lhe
deslgn brlef?
As o qtoop, ptobobly, lts jost bovloq Jlffeteot Jeslqo lJeos.

So maklng lL work as a group?
eob, Jeslqoloq lo o qtoop ls olwoys o llttle blt Jlfflcolt.... tbe btlef
wos polte btooJ... um, lt focoses mote oo tbe expetleoce of tbe
weotet ooJ bow tbey lotetocteJ wltb tbe clty otoooJ tbem. um, so
mololy lt wos focosloq oo tbe eovltoomeot of tbe clty ooJ ptoblems
teloteJ to llvloq lo tbe clty... om, so we focoseJ oo tbe Jlsttess ooJ
tbls sott of feot lt coolJ coose ooJ woys to posltlvely lmpoct tbot.
10. WlLhln Lhe deslgn process lLself whaL recurrlng deslgn problems
appeared?
eob, om becoose oot bose fot tbloqs we coolJ Jo wltb tbe
tecbooloqy we boJ wos so btooJ we boJ lots of tbloqs lt coolJ Jo lo
oot mloJs ooJ jost ttyloq to otqoolze tbem wos o llttle blt messy, so
we qot coofoseJ wltblo ootselves.

So wlLhln Lhe research lLself LhaL gave you a loL of opLlons and LhaL
gave you some sorL of a base undersLandlng of whaL Lhe Lechnology
are capable Lo do? And Lhen narrowlng lL down Lo Lhe one LhaL's
really necessary for Lhe pro[ecL, would you say LhaL's a recurrlng
problem?
ALnulx A
162
lt wos, yeob. l tblok lo tbe eoJ stlll, lt wos stlll o llttle blt voqoe
becoose we JlJo't teolly bove eoooqb tlme to Jevelop lt folly...we
sott of left o few optloos opeo.... os well os seoJloq tbe slqool of
Jlsttess yoo boJ tbe optloo of jost seoJloq o slqool. 5o llke, yoo
woolJ seoJ o love beott to someooe jost os o temloJet tbot yoo love
tbem...yoo coolJ seoJ yoot beott beot to someooe ooJ tbot sott of
ospect os well ooJ Jlffeteot ooes llke tbot.
11. Ck. now LhaL Lhe pro[ecL's done, lf you could flx a cerLaln deslgn
aspecL of Lhe pro[ecL whaL would lL be?
um, l woolJ woot lt to wotk ptopetly.

Cf course, buL ln a more concreLe sense?
ltobobly tbe motetlol.

So Lhe enveloplng maLerlal?
eob, tbe motetlol of wbot tbe tbloq ls moJe of.

WhaL dld you use?
lt wos sott of o cltcolot Jevlce woto otoooJ tbe oeck bot mololy tbe
sboolJets. 5o tbe beoJ of lt, otoooJ tbe cbest wos moJe of o sollJ
botJ wooJ ooJ tbeo we cotveJ tbot oot ooJ tbeo tbe oeck plece wos
moJe oot of beot seosltlve plostlc ooJ tbeo we jost jolo tbe two ooJ
lt wos o blt messy to be booest bot becoose we boveo't boJ mocb
expetleoce wltb botJ motetlols ooJ wotkloq wltb motetlollty lo tbot
woy, tbot wos tbe best we coolJ Jo ot tbe tlme qlveo. lt JlJo't look
too boJ lo tbe eoJ bot obvloosly l'J woot tbe wbole tbloq to be tbe
some motetlol ot to stlll wotk o llttle blt bettet toqetbet.

So Lhls devlce ls acLually rlgld, lL's noL flexlble?
well tbe plostlc ls sllqbtly flexlble, lt's o motetlol tbot yoo coo boll
ooJ moolJ llke plostlcloe ooJ lt sets botJ. llostlmoke. lt bos become
polte popolot oow, bot lt qlves o llttle blt of flexlblllty.

So does lL ad[usL Lo Lhe conLour of a person's shoulder and neck?
we moJe lt foltly boslc. um, lt coolJ flt lots of people becoose fot tbe
exblbltloo we boJ lotetoctlve vlJeo wbete evetyooe wos pottloq lt oo
ooJ ttyloq lt oot ooJ tbot wotkeJ polte well, l tblok lf yoo bove ooe
ot two slzes lo tbe sott of qeoetlc slze, lt woolJ be ok. 8ecoose we
ttleJ lt oo o few people ooJ lt flts to llke, teolly llttle qltls ooJ polte
blq meo.

12. Pow do you descrlbe Lhe deslgn process ln deslgnlng for Lhe
ALnulx A
163
pro[ecL?
lt wos polte looq, l'J soy. wbeo ovet tbe eotltety of tbe tlme we
boJ.... om we kept qoloq ovet cettolo tbloqs os l've solJ befote, wbot
lt JlJ...lt wos oottowloq lt Jowo oqolo ooJ oqolo.

So Lhere's a loL of ellmlnaLlon process or ellmlnaLlon sLages on Lhe
process lLself?
eob, ooJ tbeo tefloloq wbot we've qot ooJ tbeo qoloq bock ooJ
Joloq lt oqolo becoose cettolo people weteo't boppy.

So wlLh Lhe lnlLlal deslgn brlef LhaL you sald, lL was qulLe broad and
you were glven baslcally Lhe opLlon of looklng aL all of Lhese
posslblllLles of uslng Lhe Lechnology and now Lrylng Lo narrow lL
down, LhaL would be pracLlcally, Lhe maln subsLanLlal parL of Lhe
deslgn process?
eob, so loltlolly we weot wltb lookloq ot cettolo oteos of tbe boJy
tbot we wooteJ tbe tecbooloqy to qo oo os o woy, JlJ oot teolly
wotk tbot well. um, ooJ tbeo we focoseJ oo oteos tbot we
ptevloosly lookeJ loto, so oteos of comfott ot feot...tbloqs llke tbot.


13. !usL Lhlnklng ouL loud, would Lhere be a seL of general guldellnes ln
deslgnlng Wearable 1echnology, ln whaL form would you say lL
should be?

um, obvloosly ptoctlcol.... coose ooytbloq weotoble bos to be, sott of
be o llttle blt Jotoble. ltobobly, wotetptoof os well.

A lot of tbloqs
oteo't sott of qlveo tbot.

So baslcally waLerprooflng, do you Lhlnk lL wlll lncrease Lhe
wearablllLy of lL?
A llttle blt, olso yoo woo't wotty so mocb oboot wbot yoo'te Joloq
coose tbot's tbe Jlffeteoce betweeo weotoble 1ecbooloqy ooJ booJ
belJ tecbooloqy. oo coo olwoys pot yoot pbooe owoy, wbeteos o
weotoble ooe stoy oo yoo ooJ yoo'te oble to fotqet oboot lt ooJ jost
tblok oboot wbeo yoo bove to. 5o, l tblok l octoolly moJe mloe
wotetptoof jost becoose tbe tecbooloqy ls fot weotoble tbloqs tbot
olteoJy qoes towotJs tbot.


ALnulx 8
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ALNDIk 8: DIAGkAM SnCWING IN1LkkLLA1ICNSnIS AND
CVLkLAS WI1nIN DLSIGN A11kI8U1LS CI WLAkA8LL
1LCnNCLCG




D|agram show|ng |nterre|at|onsh|ps and over|aps w|th|n des|gn attr|butes of
wearab|e techno|ogy





ALnulx C
163
ALNDIk C: GLCSSAk
1he followlng are Lerms encounLered ln Lhls Lhesls.


Aesthet|cs

AppreclaLlon of beauLy, relaLed Lo sub[ecLlvlLy and/or
general consensus of oplnlons.

8ackground tra|n|ng

An lndlvldual's educaLlonal/professlonal Lralnlng
Connect|v|ty

AblllLy Lo connecL Lo a cerLaln neLwork.
Dev|ce pos|t|on|ng

LocaLlon upon where Lhe Wearable 1echnology devlce ls
locaLed on a user's wearer's body.

Des|gn a. 1he creaLlon of value for people (Mel[kamp 2000).
b. 1he creaLlon of ob[ecLs, lnformaLlon, envlronmenLs,
servlces, eLc. LhaL afford Lhe opporLunlLy for people
Lo creaLe value ln Lhelr use (LancasLer 1991).
Des|gn process SLages or procedures of deslgnlng an ob[ecL or arLefacL.
Durab|||ty]kes|stance

LongevlLy of use of Wearable 1echnology devlce and/or
capablllLy of Wearable 1echnology devlce Lo wlLhsLand
cerLaln envlronmenL condlLlons (eg. WeaLher-proof,
durable fabrlcs, eLc).

Lmerg|ng, emergent

8ecomlng apparenL/arlslng.
Lnve|op|ng]fabr|cat|on

Lncaslng maLerlal of elecLronlcal elemenLs of a
Wearable 1echnology devlce.
Iunct|ona||ty

A funcLlonal quallLy of a devlce LhaL allows lL Lo dellver
resulLs demanded by a user whlle wearlng or uslng a
devlce.

neat

1emperaLure released from elemenLs of Wearable
1echnology devlce.

Interre|at|onsh|ps

1he way Lwo or more Lhlngs are relaLed Lo oLher(s).
ALnulx C
166
Iterat|ve lnvolvlng repeLlLlon
Mu|t|d|sc|p||nary

lnvolvlng mulLlple dlsclpllnes of sLudles/flelds
Non-redundant un|ts of
re|evant mean|ng

SelecLed unlLs of relevanL meanlng LhaL are non-
redundanL Lo Lhe research lnqulry durlng
phenomenologlcal process.
ower source

Wearable 1echnology devlce source of power (eg.
8aLLerles, solar panels, eLc.)

ro[ect t|me

1lmeframe/ perlod scope of a pro[ecL from sLarL Lo
flnlsh.
Sensat|on

A form of feedback resulLlng from uslng/wearlng
Wearable 1echnology devlce
S|ze]d|mens|ons

Cverall dlmenslons of Wearable 1echnology devlce.
Smart Wearab|e
1echno|ogy

A wearable devlce wlLh Lhe ablllLy ln senslng a user
conLexLually ln lLs funcLlonal and expresslve quallLles
(nugroho 2013).
Un|ts of genera| mean|ng

unlLs of meanlng ellclLed from raw daLa durlng
phenomenologlcal process

Un|ts of re|evant
mean|ng

unlLs of meanlng derlved from unlLs of general meanlng
LhaL are relevanL Lo research lnqulry durlng
phenomenologlcal process.

Usab|||ty

A quallLy LhaL allows a user Lo navlgaLe hls/her way ln
uslng Lhe devlce, whlch lnfluences Lhe user's
engagemenL and lmpresslon of lnLeracLlvlLy and
responslveness of Lhe devlce.

User A person who uses or wear and operaLes Wearable
1echnology devlce.
Washab|||ty

Washable quallLy of an ob[ecL or lLs enveloplng maLerlal
(ln Lhls research: Wearable 1echnology devlce).

We|ght

lorce of Wearable 1echnology devlce due Lo gravlLy
ALnulx u
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ALNDIk D: CCNILkLNCL ALkS
-Pawall lnLernaLlonal Conference ln ArLs and PumanlLles (PlCAP)-2009

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-new lnLerfaces of Muslcal Lxpresslons (nlML)-2009









































Understanding and Evaluating User Centred Design in
Wearable Expressions

Jeremiah Nugroho
University of Technology Sydney
702-730 Harris Street,
Ultimo, NSW 2007

Jeremiah.Nugroho@students.uts.edu.au

Kirsty Beilharz
University of Technology Sydney
Sense-Aware Lab
P.O. Box 123 Broadway NSW 2007
+61 2 9514 2292
Kirsty.Beilharz@uts.edu.au


ABSTRACT
In this paper, we describe the shaping factors, which simplify
and help us understand the multi-dimensional aspects of
designing Wearable Expressions. These descriptive shaping
factors contribute to both the design and user-experience
evaluation of Wearable Expressions.
Keywords
Wearable expressions, body, user-centered design.
1. INTRODUCTION
Screen-based desktop computers are beginning to transform
into additional electronic gadgetry, such as mobile phones, MP3
players, game consoles, PDAs and of course in the form of
Wearable Technologies, which in this paper are called
"Wearable Expressions". This nomenclature emphasises the
usability, ergonomics and user-centred perspective rather than
the technology itself, looking towards engagement, usefulness,
ease and enjoyability of use. Hence, the central issue in
Wearable Expressions is comprehension from the user's
perspective, i.e. both comprehensibility of content and also of
controls, manipulators and other interactive elements of the
interface and representation (display).

It is very important to state in the beginning that Wearable
Expressions is Wearable Technology. However, there are
instances that need to be acknowledged in order to avoid
misinterpretation.

The first instance is Wearable Computing, which is thought to
have started when a pocket-sized analogue computer was
developed by Edward O. Thorpe in 1961 to predict roulette
games results in Las Vegas [10]. However, the important
distinction in this early stage is that wearable computers were
basically portable gadgets, not worn on the body and not
especially correlated or designed with the body-based nature of
a wearable device in mind. Essentially these are miniaturised,
portable computers following the traditional screen-based
desktop computing paradigm.

The second instance is Wearable Art. The main theme and
purpose here is more likely - if not always - for purely aesthetic
reasons. The reason why Wearable Art is included as Wearable
Expressions is because the tendency towards fashion is very
strong and also there is a sense of technology embedded.
Further, that fashion is very much related with the world of
garments and materials, reflects the technological culture of the
world we live in today [10].

Therefore, we emphasis that Wearable Expressions mentioned
in this paper should be perceived as smart gadgets or devices
that are wearable on the users body, not limited to a fashion
ensemble but which also embed certain computing intelligence
in the wearable device itself. Technology as art that has no user-
centred functionality to impart, gather, communicate or
interpret information is not the kind of expression explored in
this paper.
2. USER CENTERED DESIGN IN
WEARABLE EXPRESSIONS
The public has not responded the emergence of Wearable
Expressions in the commercial market field positively. An
example is the reception of the earphone-embedded Oakley
THUMP sunglasses. These sunglasses have MP3 players and
earpieces embedded into them. However, there are several
common issues, such as the six-hour power supply and also the
reasonably high market price might be a significant issue for
users [9].
Figure 1. Oakley THUMP Pro [9]

The paucity of wearable technology take-up in the consumer
marketplace is also evidenced by the lack of wearable
expressions in our everyday life. For instance, we are still very
often choosing to hold our phone to our ears when there are
numerous and various wireless or non-wireless mobile phone
hands-free headsets available on the market. There are simple
yet often taken for granted reasons and explanations. For
example, issues that would very commonly appear include cost,
comfort and appearance. Where many researchers have focused
on the capabilities of the technology, this research also
emphasises the ergonomics, usability, usefulness and aesthetic
Permission to make digital or hard copies of all or part of this work for
personal or classroom use is granted without fee provided that copies are
not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that
copies bear this notice and the full citation on the first page. To copy
otherwise, or republish, to post on servers or to redistribute to lists,
requires prior specific permission and/or a fee.
NIME2010, June, 2010, Sydney, Australia
Copyright remains with the author(s).

ALnulx u
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possibilities of the Wearable Expression in trying to understand
people's receptiveness and take-up of new designs.
2.1 The Importance of User Centered
Design in Wearable Expressions
The understanding of the user cannot be ignored in the design
process of wearable expressions or technology, which place the
user in the epicentre of experiencing Wearable Expressions
[13]. The fact that the technology is worn on users body invites
multiple layers of considerations in designing Wearable
Expressions.

Comfort and appearance are amongst other important key
factors, which if broken down piece by piece, creates a complex
matrix of understanding that requires full attention by the
designers in the process of building, creating and improvising
Wearable Expressions. Therefore it is very important and
essential to discuss the matter in order to allow Wearable
Expressions to expand and be embraced by more users. Some of
these overlooked attributes have led to Wearable Expression
being misunderstood as a portable, miniaturisation of the
desktop or even hand-held computing paradigm. Qualities
derived from desktop computing such as screens, hard surfaces,
textual communication do not always translate as the best
mechanism for communication in a body-worn, washable,
flexible, expressive modality.
3. SHAPING FACTORS
For the purposes of categorising and evaluating Wearable
Expression, these shaping factors loosely group attributes of the
design, recognising that there is significant interaction between
these attributes and that some attributes are measured
quantitatively while others are measured using a qualitative,
relatively individual scale. Overall, the objective is to
understand Wearable Expression using design paradigms closer
to the user's which, therefore may lead to the design of more
comfortable, intuitive, aesthetically-pleasing, helpful and
ultimately wearable outcomes.

3. 1 Shaping Factors to Evaluate and
Understand User Experience Design in
Wearables
Within this section, it is very important to state beforehand that
these factors do not oppose each other and we acknowledge that
there are significant overlaps or interplays.
3.1.1 Size/dimensions
The dimensions of the device play a significant role in the
design of Wearable Expressions. Levisohn argues that an
integral element of interactive systems should be the body [5].
Therefore, the Wearable Expressions device dimensions should
not exceed the users expectation and anatomy otherwise the
design could be considered a failure. Adding load to the body
may affect the users physical factors. The mechanics of the
musculoskeletal system is altered immediately once load is
added to the users body [1]. Moreover, the effects of the device
on the users comfort and freedom of movements plays an
important part in making the design fabrication decisions.

3.1.2 Device Positions
The positioning of the device is one of the most important
factors in designing Wearable Expressions, since this may
strongly affect the users comfort, appearance, and sensation. It
also affects the ways in which we interact with it (voice
recognition, buttons, vibro-tactile, visible, etc.). The design
approach should consider ergonomics and anatomy of the
human body. One example from one of the simplest designs of
Wearable Expressions is the wristwatch. It is worn on the
users wrist, which provides basic comfort and ability to
effectively view time information for the user. Despite various
attempts in history, including the pocket-watch or clocks worn
elsewhere on the body, we return to the wrist-worn device.

3.1.3 Power Source
There are several aspects to the issue of power source. The first
one is the type of device power source. This first element also
determines the following essential element, which is longevity.
It is also very important to consider whether the device power
source is rechargeable or not.

Another element, which should not be overlooked, is the
question of whether the device power source requires a power
point in order to function. In other words, the question of
corded or cordless power source strongly corresponds to issues
of usability and function and mobility.

3.1.4 Heat
The issue of Heat is very crucial in designing or assessing
Wearables. Heat affects the users comfort (and ultimately
safety) in wearing the device because it will certainly involve
contact with the users body.

3.1.5 Weight
The weight of the wearable device affects the users comfort.
This particular issue is interwoven with other issues: Power
Source, Size/Dimensions and Device Position. The size and
type of Power Source determines the Size and Dimensions of
the device, and also the positioning of the device affects the
users comfort.

In order to illustrate the element of weight, Graves et al. and
Miller et al. discovered that using wrist-weights (of 2.3 kg and
1.3kg, respectively) would increase muscular and physiological
activity to move the arm about the elbow [3, 8]. A greater
amount of muscular activity is obviously needed to move the
elbow once the weight is increased. The issue of physical
constraints of a human body affects the success in designing
Wearable Expressions.

3.1.6 Durability/Resistance
The resistance and durability of the device(s) worn on the users
body is strongly dependent upon the quality and the robustness
of the enveloping material. There are a few elements that
require thoughtful design decisions, such as: flexibility,
absorbency of users body natural excretion, heat distribution
and robustness, for example water resistance for designs
intended for outdoor use, e.g. GPS devices, sports devices, etc

3.1.7 Washability
The washability factor should be considered in the process of
making design decisions or while evaluating Wearable
Expression devices in order to respond to hygiene issues that
may arise after usage.

3.1.8 Enveloping/fabrication
The choice of enveloping or fabricating material of a wearable
device is relevant to the two factors mentioned before.
ALnulx u
177



Washability and Durability need to be anticipated by design
decisions about the enveloping of a wearable device.
Enveloping/fabrication includes the choice of materials,
flexibility, and the way in which it covers the internal
electronics, and provides accessibility to controls or sensors and
displays.

3.1.9 Functionality
The Functionality of a wearable device is contextual depending
on its purpose. According to Rens Meijkamp design can be
defined as the creation of value for people [7]. Kelvin J.
Lancaster defined it as the creation of objects, information,
environments, services etc that afford the opportunity for people
to create value in their use [4]. Therefore it is obvious and
important in any kind of design field to acknowledge and fulfil
a clients need. In the case of wearables, it is very important for
a device to serve its purpose upon creation. For instance, if the
user is intending to use a wearable GPS sensor that is able to
monitor heart rate, then it is very important for the device to
deliver the results demanded by the user while wearing or using
the device. Safety and health products, for example, also exact a
higher degree of accuracy and reliability that entertainment and
playful-purpose devices.

3.1.10 Usability
The Usability of a Wearable Expression device can be
correlated with the word "navigation". A users ability to
navigate his/her way in using the device influences the users
engagement and impression of interactivity and responsiveness
of the device. Therefore, it is very important for the designers of
Wearable Expressions to observe simplicity in creating a user-
friendly device. There is always a balance between control and
simplicity. An increase in number/granularity of controls
increases complexity, risking increased confusion.

We believe John Maedas Law of Simplicity applies best in
providing a guideline in designing the Usability in Wearables.
For instance, four out of the entire ten Laws of Simplicity would
already create quite a demanding set of design guidelines:
Reduce [size, waste, visibility and clunkiness], Organize
[structure and hierarchies], Time [reduce and use efficiently
time to achieve a goal or task], and Learn [6]. The idea of
reducing controls to achieve the purposed task of a wearable
will benefit the user with simplicity. In order to achieve a
thoughtful reduction in design, the designer must carefully
organize the functions of each control. The fourth law, which is
Time, discusses how the amount of time needed for a task to be
performed or executed would affect simplicity in design and
can be leveraged to maximise efficiency and pleasure of
experience, responsiveness. In designing Wearables, it is very
important for the device to be able to deliver the task it is
purposely designed to do within an effective period of time,
considering the fact that the device is worn on the body.

3.1.11 Sensation (see, hear, etc.)
The idea of enhancing the body's functionality and ability is the
purpose of wearable expressions. It is essential to consider what
sort of sensations the user might receive while using the device.
These sensations could be in many and various forms creating
levels of engagement and interactivity between the user and the
Wearable Expressions device. For instance, the sensation of
hearing, seeing, touching, vibrating and, maybe one day, smell.

Stelarc is an Australian artist who has performed extensively in
Japan, Europe and the USA including new music, dance
festivals and experimental theatre. He has used medical
instruments, prosthetics, robotics, virtual reality systems and the
Internet to explore alternative, intimate and involuntary
interfaces with the body. He has performed with a third hand, a
virtual arm, a virtual body, a stomach sculpture, and
exoskeleton, and a six legged walking robot. His work as an
artist is very much themed with the bodily prosthetic issue [11].

One of his works, which will be shortly discussed here, is The
Third Hand. In this work, he mimics the substitution of the
body by a technological construct. The Third Hand may be
regarded as a form of physical extension of the body, which is
connected to an attempt to represent discomfort of this kind of
technology [2].

Another very interesting aspect of this piece is the interpretation
of computer technologies as sterile and non-organic which have
evolved by their pairing with the human body. In addition, the
human body is seen as increased and augmented by its
attachment to technology (Cyborg notion). With this project,
Stelarc viewed The Third Arm as a prosthesis of his own body,
thus exposing it as a structure that may be assembled or
disassembled. These extra body parts somehow evoke a new
questioning of the prosthetic body parts as a means of
articulating loss [2].








Figure 3. Stelarc and The Third Hand [11].
The idea of extending the body by using The Third Hand in
Stelarcs work reflects the sensation of adding bodily functions
and ability. We believe if Stelarcs Third Hand is used
simultaneously, it will create the sensation of having three
hands, instead of two, which if later on replaced will create the
sensation of loss.

3.1.12 Social Connectivity
With the rise of the Internet age and wireless communication
technology it is impossible to separate this factor in designing
wearable expressions. Levels of social connectivity gained by
the user while wearing Wearable Expressions has the potential
to increase levels of engagement between the user and the
device and also with the social sphere.

In order to elaborate on this subject, consider the social micro-
blogging website: Twitter. It has created a new way of
communicating and socializing among its users and Twitter can
create social connectivity in terms of Wearable Expression
device. A recent example of the marriage between them
would be the Twitter dress worn by an artist known as Imogen
Heap during the Grammy Awards 2010 [12].

Walter Moritz and Imogen Heap created the Twitter dress. It
allows Imogen Heap to receive tweets from her fans and the
ALnulx u
178



messages are
displayed on the
LED collar of the dress and images are displayed on an iPod
Touch built in a Fendi purse she carries. The wearable device is
connected to a wireless router that connects the Twitter dress to
the virtual world [12].

The idea of including the fans to the Grammy Awards stage
creates a two-way connection between the fans and the artist,
through the medium of Wearable Expression devices. The fact
that in order to create the new level of engagement with her
fans she was wearing a form of Wearable Expression, there is a
sense of engagement and levels of sensation between her and
her fans.

Figure 5. Imogen Heap at the Grammy Awards 2010 and
the LED collar of the Twitter dress [12].
4. FUTURE DEVELOPMENT
This first step has involved a survey of existing wearable
technologies, devices and wearable artworks to arrive at this
framework of attributes important in the design and evaluation
of the user experience for Wearable Expression, particularly
guided by a design and user-centred approach. The next step
will be to evaluate designs and assess the efficacy of this
framework for analysis and evaluation on a small group of
prototypes for different purposes, exhibiting distinct physical
characteristics (e.g. flexibility, location on the body, type of
sensors and information conveyed). Our evaluation will look at
a) how the Wearable Expressions perform for the user, assessed
in several different ways to correlate the results, e.g.
observation and reflection on a goal-oriented task and
questionnaires/interview to gather more qualitative impressions;
and b) how the Framework performs as a metric of important
design criteria. We will examine the relationship of scores for
design attributes in our Framework against users' impressions
and performance in the corresponding dimensions. The second
iteration of the Framework will be modified and improved
accordingly. The outcome will be a Framework that can be used
by designers in the prototype and iterative stages of new
Wearable Expression product design to hopefully achieve a
more user-centred and taken-up generation of Wearable
Expression devices.

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