You are on page 1of 36

Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology

Chapter 01
The Science of Biology


Multiple Choice Questions

1. Science is subdivided into specific areas of study termed disciplines. These divisions are
artificial but are helpful to narrow the massive scope of scientific knowledge to a manageable
amount. iven what you know about each! which scientific division is likely to present the
best answer to a "uestion about how fluid dynamics affect blood pressure in mammals#
$. Biochemistry % study of chemical reactions needed for life function! usually at the cellular
level.
B. Biophysics % study of biological processes through physics
C. Bioinformatics % use of technology to study and store biological data
&. Biology % study of life

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
LO: 01.01.01 Compare biology to other natural sciences.
Section: 01.01 The Science o Lie
Topic: !eneral

'. Based on hierarchical levels of biological organi(ation! which of these choices represents
the broadest level#
$. )ndocrine system
B. * toed sloths
C. School of piranhas
D. $ma(on Basin
). +aguars! giant anteaters! macaws! capybaras

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
LO: 01.01.03 Characteri"e the hierarchical organi"ation o living systems.
Section: 01.01 The Science o Lie
Topic: !eneral

1-1
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
*. )1periments are carried out to test a hypothesis by changing one variable at a time and
including an unchanged variable termed a2n3 44444.
$. e1perimental variable
B. altered variable
C. control
&. stable variable

Blooms Level: 1. #emember
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

-. The method of reasoning that uses construction of general principles by careful
e1amination of many specific cases is called5
A. inductive reasoning.
B. theoretical reasoning.
C. deductive reasoning.
&. e1perimental reasoning.
). hypothetical reasoning.

Blooms Level: 1. #emember
LO: 01.0$.01 Compare the (ierent types o reasoning use( by biologists.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

1-'
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
6. &r. 7atard was trying to determine the cause of a mysterious epidemic affecting fish in the
gulf of 0ew .e1ico. /is proposal that the deaths were caused by an organism called a protist
is considered a2n3 444444444
$. theory.
B. data set.
C. conclusion.
D. hypothesis.
). e1periment.

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

8. $fter &arwin concluded his voyage on the Beagle! he proposed that the process of natural
selection was a mechanism for5
$. se1ual selection.
B. overpopulation of finches on the alapagos 9slands.
C. speciation.
D. evolution.
). artificial selection.

Blooms Level: 1. #emember
LO: 01.03.01 *+amine %ar&ins theory o evolution by natural selection as a scientiic theory.
Section: 01.03 An *+ample o Scientiic ,n-uiry: %ar&in an( *volution
Topic: *volution. %ar&in

1-*
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
:. $ scientific theory is5
$. a suggested e1planation that accounts for observations.
B. a way to organi(e how we think about a problem.
C. a concept that is supported by e1perimental evidence that e1plains the facts in an area of
study.
&. a way to understand a comple1 system by reducing it to its working parts.

Blooms Level: 1. #emember
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

;. <hat common life characteristic would cells from a daisy! an apple and a dog all have#
A. &0$
B. tissues
C. organs
&. viruses

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.01.0$ %escribe the characteristics o living systems.
Section: 01.01 The Science o Lie
Topic: !eneral

=. $ yellow >acket! an insect in the order hymenoptera! stung me. $ wasp! an insect in
hymenoptera! stung me. $ hornet! an insect in hymenoptera! stung me. 9 see a pattern. $ll
insects in this order must have stingers. <hat type of reasoning does this represent#
A. inductive reasoning
B. deductive reasoning
C. reductionism
&. comparative reasoning

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.0$.01 Compare the (ierent types o reasoning use( by biologists.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

1--
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
10. ?ou e1plain to your study group that a hypothesis is5
$. constant over time.
B. a theory.
C. an e1planation that accounts for careful observations.
&. a proposition that will be true and fits the known facts.

Blooms Level: 1. #emember
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

11. $ suggested e1planation that might be true and is sub>ect to testing by further
observations is a2n35
$. e1periment.
B. hypothesis.
C. generality.
&. theory.
). scientific principle.

Blooms Level: 1. #emember
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

1-6
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
1'. Based on the literature! you hypothesi(e that students in traditional biology lectures will
have the same grades as students in online biology lectures. ?ou decide to test your hypothesis
by comparing grades of students in traditional and online biology lectures over a semester. $s
a result of the e1periment! you observe that the grades in the traditional lectures and the
grades in the online lectures are not significantly different. <hat do these observations allow
you to do#
$. accept the hypothesis without further "uestion
B. re>ect the null hypotheses
C. develop a scientific theory
&. re>ect the hypothesis

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

1*. ?our microwave will not turn on! and you speculate that a circuit breaker in the house has
been tripped. 9n scientific terminology! the steps would be described as5
$. forming conclusions from the results of e1periments.
B. developing an observation based on a hypothesis.
C. developing a hypothesis based on an observation.
&. testing a prediction generated from a hypothesis.

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

1-8
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
1-. $ student poses the "uestion5 /ow does the presence of dissolved salt affect the free(ing
point of water# To answer this "uestion! the student set up two conditions. 9n the first
condition! the student added salt to water in a container and referred to this condition as the
variable. 9n the second condition! the student did not add any salt to water in a second
container and referred to this condition as the control. The student took both containers and
attempted to free(e the water at various temperatures to assess the free(ing point. <ould this
be a valid e1periment#
$. ?es! because there is more than one variable.
B. ?es! because there is one variable and a control
C. 0o! because there is not more than one variable
&. 0o because there is only one variable and a control

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

16. @arl Aopper suggested that scientists use Bimaginative preconception!B which means that
successful scientists5
A. often predict the outcome of e1periments.
B. do not keep records of e1periments that fail.
C. cannot predict the outcome of e1periments.
&. do not need to do e1periments to test their ideas.
). only perform applied research.

Blooms Level: 1. #emember
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

1-:
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
18. The proposal that one type of organism can change gradually into another type over a
long period of time is known as5
A. evolution.
B. preservation.
C. natural history.
&. preconception.

Blooms Level: 1. #emember
LO: 01.03.01 *+amine %ar&ins theory o evolution by natural selection as a scientiic theory.
Section: 01.03 An *+ample o Scientiic ,n-uiry: %ar&in an( *volution
Topic: *volution. %ar&in

1:. &arwinCs ideas on evolution were advanced for his time. /is approach to science and
natural selection were supported by what main tenant#
A. Dperation of natural laws produces constant change and improvement.
B. Earious organisms and their structures resulted from a spontaneous action.
C. Species were unchangeable over the course of time.
&. The world is fi1ed and constant.

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.03.01 *+amine %ar&ins theory o evolution by natural selection as a scientiic theory.
Section: 01.03 An *+ample o Scientiic ,n-uiry: %ar&in an( *volution
Topic: *volution. %ar&in

1-;
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
1;. Besides &arwin! the theory of evolution by means of natural selection was also
independently proposed by5
$. Thomas .althus.
B. Aeter 7aven.
C. $lfred <allace.
&. Charles Fyell.
). @arl Aopper.

Blooms Level: 1. #emember
LO: 01.03.01 *+amine %ar&ins theory o evolution by natural selection as a scientiic theory.
Section: 01.03 An *+ample o Scientiic ,n-uiry: %ar&in an( *volution
Topic: *volution. %ar&in

1=. The term that &arwin used to describe the concept that those with superior physical!
behavior or other attributes are more likely to survive than those that are not so well endowed!
and thus are more likely to pass their traits to the ne1t generation! is called5
$. geometric progression
B. superior beings
C. biological diversity
&. survival of modifications
E. natural selection

Blooms Level: 1. #emember
LO: 01.03.01 *+amine %ar&ins theory o evolution by natural selection as a scientiic theory.
Section: 01.03 An *+ample o Scientiic ,n-uiry: %ar&in an( *volution
Topic: *volution. %ar&in

1-=
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
'0. $ key contribution to &arwinCs thinking was the concept of limits put on the geometric
growth of populations by nature! originally proposed by5
A. Thomas .althus.
B. Aeter 7aven.
C. @arl Aopper.
&. 7ussel <allace.
). Charles Fyell.

Blooms Level: 1. #emember
LO: 01.03.01 *+amine %ar&ins theory o evolution by natural selection as a scientiic theory.
Section: 01.03 An *+ample o Scientiic ,n-uiry: %ar&in an( *volution
Topic: *volution. %ar&in

'1. &arwinCs book in which he described his views on evolution is5
A. Dn the Drigin of Species.
B. Survival of the Gittest.
C. Dn the Arinciple of Aopulation.
&. Arinciples of eology.

Blooms Level: 1. #emember
LO: 01.03.01 *+amine %ar&ins theory o evolution by natural selection as a scientiic theory.
Section: 01.03 An *+ample o Scientiic ,n-uiry: %ar&in an( *volution
Topic: *volution. %ar&in

''. 7ecent discoveries of microscopic fossils have e1tended the known history of life to
about5
$. ' billion years ago.
B. 1 billion years ago.
C. *.6 billion years ago.
&. -.6 billion years ago.

Blooms Level: 1. #emember
LO: 01.03.0$ %escribe the evi(ence that supports the theory o evolution.
Section: 01.03 An *+ample o Scientiic ,n-uiry: %ar&in an( *volution
Topic: *volution. %ar&in

1-10
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
'*. 9n California! a species of salamanders were geographically separated over time. The
group that lived in southern California relied heavily on large gold blotches on their skin that
helped to camouflage them from predators. The group that lived along the coast adopted a
color pattern that mimicked a poisonous! colorful newt common to that area. 9nstead of being
camouflaged! these salamanders advertised their colors. <hat type of selection process has
occurred over time#
$. theoretical selection
B. natural selection
C. e1perimental selection
&. artificial selection

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
LO: 01.03.01 *+amine %ar&ins theory o evolution by natural selection as a scientiic theory.
Section: 01.03 An *+ample o Scientiic ,n-uiry: %ar&in an( *volution
Topic: *volution. %ar&in

'-. The same basic array of bones is modified to give rise to the wing of a bat and the fin of a
porpoise. Such anatomical structures are called5
$. evolutionary modifications.
B. homologous.
C. inherited.
&. uniform.
). analogous.

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.03.0$ %escribe the evi(ence that supports the theory o evolution.
Section: 01.03 An *+ample o Scientiic ,n-uiry: %ar&in an( *volution
Topic: *volution. %ar&in

1-11
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
'6. Structures that have similar structure and function but different evolutionary origins are
called5
$. inherited.
B. analogous.
C. homologous.
&. evolutionary modifications.
). uniform.

Blooms Level: 1. #emember
LO: 01.03.0$ %escribe the evi(ence that supports the theory o evolution.
Section: 01.03 An *+ample o Scientiic ,n-uiry: %ar&in an( *volution
Topic: *volution. %ar&in

'8. The rate at which evolution is occurring cannot be estimated by5
$. studying comparative anatomy.
B. inferring that apes are related to humans.
C. measuring the degree of difference in genetic coding.
&. interpretation of the fossil record.

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.03.0$ %escribe the evi(ence that supports the theory o evolution.
Section: 01.03 An *+ample o Scientiic ,n-uiry: %ar&in an( *volution
Topic: *volution. %ar&in

1-1'
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
':. &ifferences in domesticated animals over relatively short periods of time most likely
occur through5
$. e1perimental selection
B. artificial selection
C. natural selection
&. adaptation
). evolution

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.03.0$ %escribe the evi(ence that supports the theory o evolution.
Section: 01.03 An *+ample o Scientiic ,n-uiry: %ar&in an( *volution
Topic: *volution. %ar&in


$s part of your research pro>ect! you travel to an island to learn more about the habitats and
relationships of spiders! centipedes and insects. ?ou and your assistant plot out five different
areas of the island and count the numbers of spiders! centipedes! and insects living in each
plot. ?our results show the following5

1-1*
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
Alot
9nsects
Spiders
Centipedes
1
*00
'6
-
'
-'8
1:
10
*
1-:
16
'1
-
:*=
:;
0
6
:=
1*
=*

LO: 01.0$.01 Compare the (ierent types o reasoning use( by biologists.
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

1-1-
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
';. The most plausible e1planation for the high number of spiders in plot - is5
$. there are too many insects overall.
B. there are no centipedes to prey on the spiders and there are abundant insects upon which to
feed.
C. the spiders preyed on the centipedes and ignored the insects.
&. the insects and spiders worked together to eliminate the centipedes.

Blooms Level: .. *valuate
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

'=. The plots that were staked out on the island were part of the5
$. applied research.
B. basic research.
C. e1perimental design.
&. constructed model.

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.0$.01 Compare the (ierent types o reasoning use( by biologists.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

*0. Based in the information provided! the best e1planation for the low numbers of spiders
and insects in plot 6 is5
$. there were not enough spiders to catch and consume all the insects.
B. there were not enough insects to support a large centipede population.
C. centipedes are actively consuming insects and spiders.
&. centipedes prefer spiders to insects.

Blooms Level: .. *valuate
LO: 01.0$.01 Compare the (ierent types o reasoning use( by biologists.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

1-16
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
*1. The hypothesis that closely matches the data provided is5
$. herbivorous insects feed on spiders and centipedes.
B. spiders are the top predators on all islands.
C. herbivorous insects survive best on islands where spiders and centipedes live.
D. herbivorous insects and spider populations are decreased by centipedes.

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

*'. 9f you were to design a long-term research study to determine why there are no human
births in Fapland during the months of $ugust! September! and Dctober! you would need to
also e1amine a comparison population of humans in which births took place every month. The
primary reason for including a comparison population within the design of this e1periment
would be to5
$. accumulate more facts that could be reported to other scientists.
B. test the effects of more than one variable at the same time.
C. prove that there are no births in Fapland during $ugust! September! and Dctober.
D. act as a control that would ensure that the results obtained are due to a difference in only
one variable.

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

1-18
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
**. *ssay on the /rinciple o /opulation! written by Thomas .althus in 1:=;! influenced
&arwinCs thoughts as he struggled to understand what mechanisms could be at work to
produce evolution. .althus proposed that populations of animals and plants! including
humans!
A. increased geometrically in numbers while the nutrients available only increased
arithmetically.
B. increased arithmetically in numbers while the nutrients available only increased
geometrically.
C. evolved from mainland to islands! thus e1plaining why the island flora and fauna
resembled the mainland species so closely.
&. increased geometrically in numbers while the nutrients available increased arithmetically.
). decreased arithmetically in numbers while the nutrients available increased geometrically.

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.03.01 *+amine %ar&ins theory o evolution by natural selection as a scientiic theory.
Section: 01.03 An *+ample o Scientiic ,n-uiry: %ar&in an( *volution
Topic: *volution. %ar&in

*-. $ student set up an e1periment to test if plants give off water vapor. Gifty pea plants!
growing in pots! were covered with individual glass containers and left overnight. The ne1t
morning! the inside of each lid was covered in droplets of water. The lab student concluded
that plants generally give off water vapor. <hat criti"ue would you make of the e1perimental
design#
A. There was no control so the water could have come from other sources such as air in the
>ar or the soil.
B. There was not a large enough sample of pea plants used to get ade"uate data.
C. The student did not have a clearly stated hypothesis before beginning the e1periment.
&. The e1periment was not precise! meaning it was not reproducible.

Blooms Level: 0. Analy"e
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

1-1:
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
*6. 9t is known that many trees lose their leaves in response to decreasing day length. $s a
result! you think that !ing1o trees may also lose their leaves in response to decreasing day
length. This statement is an e1ample of5
$. an e1periment
B. a theory
C. a hypothesis
&. deductive reasoning

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.0$.01 Compare the (ierent types o reasoning use( by biologists.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

*8. .ultiple independent e1periments have demonstrated that phytochrome helps trigger
seasonal change responses in the plant such as changing color and loosening of leaves. Alants
have the ability adapt to seasonal changes in their surroundings. This statement is an e1ample
of5
A. a theory
B. an e1periment
C. inductive reasoning
&. deductive reasoning
). a hypothesis

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.0$.01 Compare the (ierent types o reasoning use( by biologists.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

1-1;
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
*:. Alants are raised under artificial lights turned off and on by an electric clock. Some are
given long periods of light! others short periods. This is an e1ample of5
$. inductive reasoning
B. a theory
C. an e1periment
&. deductive reasoning
). a hypothesis

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

*;. Both walnut and ingko trees lose their leaves in the fall when day length starts
decreasing. Based on these observations one may conclude that many tree species will lose
their leaves in the fall in response to decreasing day length. This statement is an e1ample of5
A. inductive reasoning
B. an e1periment
C. a theory
&. deductive reasoning

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

1-1=
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
*=. !ing1o trees are known to lose their leaves at a certain time each year throughout the
Hnited States. Based on this information! !ing1o trees in China must behave the same way.
These statements are an e1ample of5
$. an e1periment
B. a theory
C. inductive reasoning
D. deductive reasoning

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.0$.01 Compare the (ierent types o reasoning use( by biologists.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

-0. .ost individuals in academia are basic researchers! funded through research grants from
agencies or foundations. Based on your knowledge of applied research! an industrial company
would most likely employ individuals
A. who develop alternative fuel sources.
B. who identify a new species of beetle in the ama(on rain forest.
C. looking at novel proteins involved in the development of a neurological disease.
&. who document fossils found in a specific archeological e1pedition.

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

1-'0
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
-1. <ings of birds and butterflies have similar functions! but different evolutionary origins.
They are5
$. homologous structures.
B. phylogenetic structures.
C. physiological structures.
D. analogous structures.

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.03.0$ %escribe the evi(ence that supports the theory o evolution.
Section: 01.03 An *+ample o Scientiic ,n-uiry: %ar&in an( *volution
Topic: *volution. %ar&in

-'. $n alien from another planet landed on earth. /e is fascinated by cars and is determined
to figure out how they work. /e decides to disassemble one of them and e1amine each part
independently. /e removes one of the tires and proceeds to learn all he can about the tire. /e
then removes one of the headlights and proceeds to learn all he can about the headlight. <hat
type of approach is this alien taking to learn about the car#
$. deductive reasoning
B. inductive reasoning
C. reductionism
&. )mergent properties

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
LO: 01.0$.01 Compare the (ierent types o reasoning use( by biologists.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: *volution. %ar&in

1-'1
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
-*. <hile you are riding the ski lift up to the top of the mountain on a very cold day you start
to shiver involuntarily. ?ou know that the shivering is your bodys attempt to help regulate
your body temperature and is an e1ample of what type of mechanism#
$. energy utili(ation
B. evolutionary adaptation
C. homeostasis
&. sensitivity

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.01.0$ %escribe the characteristics o living systems.
Section: 01.01 The Science o Lie
Topic: !eneral

--. ?ou have been assigned to address a problem of overpopulation of species I in a nearby
county. Dne of the members of your team suggests introducing species ?! which is a natural
predator of species I! but not normally found in the area. $fter some discussion! you go
ahead and introduce species ?. <hat aspects of the hierarchical organi(ation may be affected
within a period of a several years#
$. organism! population! species
B. population! community
C. population! species! community! biosphere
D. population! species! community

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
LO: 01.01.03 Characteri"e the hierarchical organi"ation o living systems.
Section: 01.01 The Science o Lie
Topic: !eneral

1-''
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
-6. ?ou have been assigned to analy(e some e1traterrestrial material recently collected from
.ars. $fter e1amining a sample using a microscope you >ump up e1citedly and shout to your
colleagues that you have confirmed the e1istence of life on .ars. Dne of your colleagues
takes a look at your sample and remarks that all he sees is a single-celled BblobB with little
internal structure. $ssuming that life on .ars can be classified into similar domains and
kingdoms as )arth! to which domain does your BblobB belong#
A. $rchaea
B. Gungi
C. $nimalia
&. Arotista

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
LO: 01.00.01 %iscuss the uniying themes in biology.
Section: 01.00 )niying Themes in Biology
Topic: !eneral

-8. <hy was the determination of the actual se"uence of the human genome considered to be
descriptive science#
$. 9t did not involve deductive reasoning.
B. 9t involved hypothesis-driven research.
C. 9t did not involve hypothesis-driven research.
&. 9t involved deductive reasoning.

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.00.01 %iscuss the uniying themes in biology.
Section: 01.00 )niying Themes in Biology
Topic: !eneral

1-'*
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
-:. ?ou look outside and reali(e that your grass needs to be mowed. ?ou pick up the
container of gasoline and see that you have appro1imately a third of a gallon left. ?ou
hypothesi(e that this amount will be enough to mow your entire lawn. Hnfortunately! half way
through mowing your lawn you run out of gasoline. ?ou grumble and think to yourself that
the ne1t time you mow the lawn! you hypothesi(e that you will need to have at least two-
thirds of a gallon of gasoline available. /ow did the results of your lawn-mowing e1perience
influence the validity of your new hypothesis for future gasoline needs#
A. ?our prediction of future gas needs is based on e1perimental data and therefore increases
the validity of your hypothesis.
B. The hypothesis was invalidated by your e1perimental evidence.
C. ?our hypothesis was supported by trial and error. Dne more trial added to your data set.
&. ?our prediction proved that your hypothesis is correct.

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

-;. <hy is it necessary to take an interdisciplinary approach to studying biology#
$. 9nterdisciplinary approaches are re"uired to answer all scientific "uestions since all
disciplines borrow knowledge from each.
B. $n interdisciplinary approach is the only way we can further our biological knowledge.
C. 7esearch methods used to solve many biological "uestions often re"uire a number of
different types of approaches and the e1pertise of a variety of scientists.

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.01.01 Compare biology to other natural sciences.
Section: 01.01 The Science o Lie
Topic: !eneral

1-'-
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
-=. /ow does peer review influence the development of scientific theories#
$. Aeer review allows other scientists to know what is current in their field.
B. Careful evaluation of research results by other scientists ensures that only solid and
legitimate research results are published! and helps prevent faulty research or false claims
from being viewed as scientific fact.
C. Aeer review increases competition among scientists and thus increases the "uality of the
published work.
&. Aeer review makes it e1tremely difficult for work to be published other than earth-
shattering scientific theories.

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral


Check All That Apply Questions

60. Cell theory is one of the foundations of biology. <hat are the tenants of the cell theory#
Check all that apply.
44444 $ll organisms are made up of more than one cell.
44444 $ll cells have the ability to move.
44I44 Cells carry genetic material passed to daughter cells during cellular division.
44I44 Cells arise from other cells through the process of cell division.
44444 Drganisms are formed through spontaneous generation
44I44 $ll living organisms consist of cells

Blooms Level: 1. #emember
LO: 01.00.01 %iscuss the uniying themes in biology.
Section: 01.00 )niying Themes in Biology
Topic: !eneral

1-'6
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
61. &arwinCs theory of evolution is supported by many modern pieces of evidence. Check all
that apply.
44I44 0ew measurements of the age of the earth.
44I44 $n understanding of the mechanism of heredity.
44444 /uman population growth.
44444 Comparative studies of animal structures.
44I44 Similarities in &0$ of related species.

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.03.0$ %escribe the evi(ence that supports the theory o evolution.
Section: 01.03 An *+ample o Scientiic ,n-uiry: %ar&in an( *volution
Topic: *volution. %ar&in


Multiple Choice Questions

6'. $manda was studying turtles based on &0$ analysis. Hnder the current classification
scheme! which of the following turtle species are thought to be most closely related# 213
!raptemys ouachitensis! 2'3 Trachymes scripta! 2*3 Apalone spiniera! 2-3 !raptemys 1honni.

$. 1 and * due to inductive reasoning
B. 1 and * due to deductive reasoning
C. ' and * due to inductive reasoning
&. ' and * due to deductive reasoning
E. 1 and - due to inductive reasoning
G. 1 and - due to deductive reasoning

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
LO: 01.0$.01 Compare the (ierent types o reasoning use( by biologists.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

1-'8
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
6*. .arceau is studying small single-celled organisms that contain phospholipid membranes.
These organisms can be broadly classified into the domain5
$. $nimalia
B. Bacteria
C. Gungi
&. Arotista

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.00.01 %iscuss the uniying themes in biology.
Section: 01.00 )niying Themes in Biology
Topic: !eneral


LO: 01.03.0$ %escribe the evi(ence that supports the theory o evolution.
Section: 01.03 An *+ample o Scientiic ,n-uiry: %ar&in an( *volution
Topic: *volution. %ar&in

1-':
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
6-. The common ancestor that produced the most evolutionary recent derived characters is
$. 1'
B. =
C. ;
D. 8

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
LO: 01.03.0$ %escribe the evi(ence that supports the theory o evolution.
Section: 01.03 An *+ample o Scientiic ,n-uiry: %ar&in an( *volution
Topic: *volution. %ar&in

66. The species that have had proportionally the most time to evolve are5
$. 7 and &
B. $! J and G
C. $! J! and 7
&. $! & and 7
). G

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
LO: 01.03.0$ %escribe the evi(ence that supports the theory o evolution.
Section: 01.03 An *+ample o Scientiic ,n-uiry: %ar&in an( *volution
Topic: *volution. %ar&in

1-';
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
68. Bacterial cells are placed into a '60mF li"uid growth medium in a closed laboratory
flask. $ccording to .althusian theory! they will reproduce e1ponentially and then5
$. continue reproducing geometrically as long as there are no limitations on food supply.
B. continue reproducing geometrically until the food supply is used up! then they will cease
to grow.
C. continue reproducing arithmetically until the food supply is used up! then they will cease
to grow.
&. continue reproducing arithmetically as long as there are no limitations on food supply.

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.03.01 *+amine %ar&ins theory o evolution by natural selection as a scientiic theory.
Section: 01.03 An *+ample o Scientiic ,n-uiry: %ar&in an( *volution
Topic: *volution. %ar&in

6:. 9f two different species of fish fossils were found in two different layers of sedimentary
rock! what might one infer about the specimens#
$. The species in the higher layer died first
B. The species in the higher layer evolved from the species in the lower layer
C. The two species are unrelated
&. They died at the same time
E. The species in lower layer died first

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
LO: 01.03.01 *+amine %ar&ins theory o evolution by natural selection as a scientiic theory.
Section: 01.03 An *+ample o Scientiic ,n-uiry: %ar&in an( *volution
Topic: *volution. %ar&in

1-'=
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
6;. $ dental student wants to test if fluoride is an effective additive against tooth decay. The
student studies tooth decay in a population of people who live in neighborhoods supplied with
fluoridated water. This student would like to ask whether access to fluoridated water prevents
tooth decay. <hat would be an effective control group to ask this "uestion#
A. 9ndividuals with access to water with no fluoride added.
B. 9ndividuals who have fluoride added to their toothpaste but not their water.
C. 9ndividuals with access to differing amounts of fluoride in the water.
&. 9ndividuals with access to fluoridated water.

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

6=. <hich statement represents the biological characteristics that kittens! oak trees! swans!
earth worms! elephants and crickets have in common#
A. &0$ nucleotides form the basis of all inherited life! with cells that are formed from other
cells.
B. 70$ nucleotides form the basis of inherited life! with cells that are formed spontaneously
from the environment.
C. 70$ nucleotides form the basis of all inherited life! with cells that are formed from other
cells.
&. &0$ nucleotides form the basis of inherited life! with cells that are formed spontaneously
from the environment.

Blooms Level: 1. #emember
LO: 01.00.01 %iscuss the uniying themes in biology.
Section: 01.00 )niying Themes in Biology
Topic: !eneral

1-*0
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
80. Eiruses defy characteri(ation as living organisms even though they possess nucleic acids
and proteins. The reason why viruses are not considered to be alive is because they
$. cannot form spontaneously.
B. form spontaneously.
C. cannot reproduce without a host cell.
&. lack genetic material.

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.00.0$ Contrast living an( nonliving systems.
Section: 01.00 )niying Themes in Biology
Topic: !eneral

Ahil is conducting a seed germination e1periment. /e places * groups of lettuce seeds in a
*-K Celsius incubator with ade"uate moisture. Dne set of seeds is placed in a dark area with
no light source. $ second set is placed under artificial light and third set of seeds is placed in
direct sunlight. This e1periment is intended to test AhilCs hypothesis that light is necessary for
lettuce seed germination.
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science

81. Based on the e1perimental design! which variable was the control#
$. .oisture
B. ermination rate
C. Temperature
&. Type of light
E. Seeds in the dark

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

1-*1
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
8'. Based on the e1perimental design! which variable was the dependent variable#
A. ermination rate
B. Type of light
C. Seeds in the dark
&. .oisture
). Temperature

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

8*. Dsmometer cells in the brain sense an increase in the salt concentration of plasma. This
information is sent to the hypothalamus! which notifies the pituitary gland to release the
hormone! $&/. $&/ causes the kidney to save water! which lowers the salt concentration of
the plasma. <hat characteristic of life does this overall pathway represent#
$. )volutionary adaptation
B. )nergy utili(ation
C. /omeostasis
&. Cellular organi(ation
). Sensitivity

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.01.0$ %escribe the characteristics o living systems.
Section: 01.01 The Science o Lie
Topic: !eneral

1-*'
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
8-. $ chemical imbalance in the blood can cause the heart to stop pumping blood! which will
have a detrimental effect on other organs. This observation can be attributed to5
$. )volutionary conservation
B. )mergent properties
C. 7eductionism
&. )"uilibrium state

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
LO: 01.00.0$ Contrast living an( nonliving systems.
Section: 01.00 )niying Themes in Biology
Topic: !eneral

Fuke went to a pediatrician when he was 8 months old. The pediatrician consulted a graph
and concluded that Fuke was in the =:
th
percentile for height! weight and length. The
pediatrician predicted that Fuke would be tall when he reached adulthood.
LO: 01.0$.01 Compare the (ierent types o reasoning use( by biologists.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science

86. <hat type of reasoning did the pediatrician use to generate her prediction about FukeLs
future growth in height#
$. $pplied theory
B. 7eductionism
C. &eductive reasoning
D. 9nductive reasoning

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
LO: 01.0$.01 Compare the (ierent types o reasoning use( by biologists.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

1-**
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
88. <hat type of logic is being used when the pediatrician uses the graph to make
conclusions about FukeLs progress#
$. $pplied theory
B. 7eductionism
C. 9nductive reasoning
D. &eductive reasoning

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
LO: 01.0$.01 Compare the (ierent types o reasoning use( by biologists.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

Turtle hatchling survivorship rate is low in many turtle species due to predation. $manda
researched the predatory rate on a species of turtle eggs in the 7ed 7iver. The eggs were
harvested from trapped turtles and the eggCs cloaca film 2reproductive discharge3 was either
washed off or left on once gathered. 7esearch suggests that predators use the femaleCs cloaca
scent to locate the eggs.
The eggs were only handled when wearing gloves and then reburied along islands where the
turtles were trapped. The nests were monitored by cameras and manually on foot and data on
nest predation was recorded.
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science

8:. Based on the e1perimental design! what is the dependent variable#
$. Cloaca film on eggs
B. Time eggs spent in ground
C. 0umber of hatchlings
&. )ggs without cloaca film

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

1-*-
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
8;. Based on the e1perimental design! what is the independent variable#
$. 9nducing egg laying
B. 0umber of hatchlings
C. 0o cloaca film on eggs
&. Time eggs spent in ground

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

8=. Based on the e1perimental design! what is the control#
$. 0o cloaca scent on eggs
B. /atchling survival rate
C. Time eggs spent in ground
D. Cloaca scent on eggs

Blooms Level: 0. Analy"e
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

:0. Eiruses contain &0$ or 70$! but lack genes necessary for metabolism and reproduction.
<hy are viruses not considered to be alive#
$. Eiruses do not contain internal organelles.
B. Eiruses do not have the ability to evolve in their environment.
C. Eiruses are unable to reproduce independently of a host.
&. Eiruses do not contain nucleic acids.

Blooms Level: $. )n(erstan(
LO: 01.00.0$ Contrast living an( nonliving systems.
Section: 01.00 )niying Themes in Biology
Topic: !eneral

1-*6
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part
Chapter 01 - The Science of Biology
:1. &r. )dward +enner reali(ed that cows have a disease called cowpo1! which is like a
disease that infects humans called smallpo1M +enner noticed that milkmaids whose hands were
infected with cowpo1 were not contracting smallpo1. +enner infected a child with the pus
from a cowpo1 blister! and found that the child did not contract smallpo1. <hich statement
represents a supporting hypothesis#
$. The cowpo1 virus prevented the small po1 virus from entering the childLs immune system.
B. The cowpo1 infection will have no affect on the childLs immunity to the small po1 virus.
C. The smallpo1 virus was so similar to the cowpo1 virus that the childLs immune system
recogni(ed it and was able to fight it.
D. The cowpo1 infection will prevent the child from being infected by the small po1 virus.

Blooms Level: 0. Analy"e
LO: 01.0$.0$ %emonstrate ho& to ormulate a hypothesis.
Section: 01.0$ The 'ature o Science
Topic: !eneral

:'. $t one time! a beautiful wood desk you may do your homework on was a living tree! but
its tissues have been replaced with minerals. 0ow! it only e1hibits what property of life#
A. Drgani(ation
B. Sensitivity
C. .etabolism
&. /omeostasis

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
LO: 01.01.0$ %escribe the characteristics o living systems.
Section: 01.01 The Science o Lie
Topic: !eneral

1-*8
, '01- by .craw-/ill )ducation. This is proprietary material solely for authori(ed instructor use. 0ot authori(ed for sale or distribution in
any manner. This document may not be copied! scanned! duplicated! forwarded! distributed! or posted on a website! in whole or part