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Ex/MCE/2102/21/2008

MASTER OF CIVIL ENGG. EXAMINATION, 2008


(1st Semester)
ADVANCED HYDROLOGY AND
GROUND WATER
Time : Three hours Full Marks : 100
Answer any five questions.
1. Define mean, standard deviation and skewness co-efficient of
a distribution. Sketch the probability density function of a
random variable with positive, zero and negative skewness
co-efficients.
The annual rainfall and run-off of a watershed both expressed
in centimetres for a period of 17 years are given below. Do you
suspect any dependence between rainfall and run-off? If so,
obtain the regression line to predict the annual run-off from
annual rainfall. What is the standard error of estimate?
Year Rainfall Run-off Year Rainfall Run-off
(cm) (cm) (cm) (cm)
1981 113 74 1990 119 78
1982 128 104 1991 152 109
1983 127 96 1992 137 96
1984 104 61 1993 165 124
1985 108 59 1994 151 103
1986 115 82 1995 160 134
1987 167 109 1996 130 87
1988 154 102 1997 149 106
1989 99 57
6+14=20
Turn over
( 2 )
( 3 )
2. Explain the method of design flood estimation using unit
hydrograph method.
On the basis of available date, annual flood peaks of a
small stream for a period of 35 years, 50 year and 100 year
flood have been estimated to be 660 m
3
/s and 740 m
3
/s using
Gumbels method. Estimate 200 year flood for the stream.
Standard deviation and mean for 35 years are 1.12847 and
0.54034 respectively. 8+12=20
3. (a) Define :
(i) Aquifer
(ii) Aquitard
(iii) Aquiclude
(iv) Aquifuge.
(b) An unconfined aquifer has a thickness of 30 m. A fully
penetrating 20 cm diameter well in this aquifer is pumped
at a rate of 35 lit/s. The drawdown measured in two
observation wells located at distances of 10 m and 100 m
from the well are 7.5 m and 0.5 m respectively. Determine
the average hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer. At what
distance from the well the drawdown is insignificant?
8+12=20
4. (a) What are the different sources of intrusion of saline water
in an aquifer?
(b) Discuss with necessary sketches the occurence of fresh water
and salt water in a coastal aquifer. 8+12=20
5. (a) What is recharging of groundwater? What are the purposes
of artificial recharging?
(b) Name different methods of recharging. Explain, with a neat
sketch the basin method of recharging. 8+12=20
6. (a) What are the different factors affecting ground water
contamination?
(b) Discuss with necessary sketches different transport processes
of contaminants present in ground water.
(c) Name the different mechanisms responsible for retarding
the contaminant movement in ground water. 3+13+4=20