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Free Energy Research

Basics and Experiments



2014




FE R&D Group




Free Energy Principles



Contents


Foreword..........................................................................................................................................2
A special words for smart skeptics ..........................................................................................3
First (classical) principle .................................................................................................................4
Generalization of the principle ....................................................................................................6
Gravitational field........................................................................................................................8
Heat pump .............................................................................................................................13
Magnetic field............................................................................................................................14
Electric field ..............................................................................................................................20
Second (synergy) principle............................................................................................................26
Dielectric absorption..................................................................................................................28
Van der Graaf generator ............................................................................................................29
Third principle ...............................................................................................................................30
Afterword ......................................................................................................................................33
Appendix A. ..................................................................................................................................34




















Revision 3

FE R&D group http://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/ferd041/info

2014




Foreword

Many people spend lot of efforts, time, money and other valuable resources trying to replicate or
build some presumably FE/OU device. How we can avoid wasting time, resources and getting
frustrated about negative results?
I often give an example can you build a radio or TV set yourself? Well, it could be a
challenging task even for experienced personbut most of OU researchers are amateurs.
So what to do when your next project does not work? With radio its easy, it was done before,
and we know that it is possibleso if it does not work you know for sure that something gone
wrong in our implementation Nobody going to say that radio or TV transmission is
impossibleand all radio / TV sets we see are fakes (*)
When building FE device we are in much more difficult situation. There are not so many
working examples around us and prevailing social perception of FE is that it is a fake.
There are many alternative theories like new physics with hundreds of pages of bla-bla-bla,
exotic words and tons of formulasbut they are useless for our real world engineering task.
Obviously we need a simple and practically applicable theory or method to check ideas. So that
we could know ahead could the device work in principle or not. It would be very unfortunate
throw away almost ready device but with some minor issue, and same in opposite spend years
trying build device which could not possibly work.
I spent a lot of time analyzing, comparing and trying replicate different devices. At the end I
think I have general and simple concepts of the FE. Everything started from Teslas article about
increasing human energy (see app. 1). It took several years for me to understand it and come up
with generalized principle based on it. I call it a First or Classic or Teslas principle. We can see
examples of it in nature. I continue thinking about different principles and I came up with two
more. May be there will be more, who knows?
By some reason it appeared that it is very difficult to explain these principles. Its kind of alien
knowledge to what we were told in school and university. I keep trying come up with short and
clear explanation. Please give me feed back and hopefully together we can improve this book, so
more people can benefit from understanding of the principles.
To illustrate principles I decided present possible systems or setups. Each of this sketches give
some idea what system is and where energy supposed come from. These are not complete plans
to build practical devices. I would like to provide such plans but I dont have them (yet)
Each of concept devices can be used as a starting point for research. I still believe that principles
I am describing here give huge advantage and transforming abstract search into more or less
defined engineering problem.
Please dont be frustrated if something does not work right away. Most of our everyday
technology, which we are even not noticing anymore in our everyday life came out of many
years of hard work of scientists and engineers.







* I know one guy who did not manage make crystal radio work and at the end he claimed that it is a fakeas most
of FE devices (actually, I not sure if it is funny)



A special words for smart skeptics

Heavier-than-air flying machines are
impossible.
Lord Kelvin,
President of Royal Society, 1895 (*)


- FE not possible due to laws of thermodynamic.
Before you say this please check your books one more timeand think carefully when these
laws can be applied.


- Nobody ever seen device with COP > 100% before
I sure you have seen one or perhaps tworight in your house. Both are using heat pumps and
I hope you can recognize them now ;-)


- Nothing free in this world
Money is humans invention and has nothing to do with laws of Physics. Sun shines free for
everyone. Building a FE device allows one tap energy himself and avoid paying constantly rising
energy prices.


























(*) Ironically he discovered one of most interesting FE processes in nature (see Kelvin Dropper)


First (classical) principle

I think it is obvious that environment or space around us contains energy, we can try extracting it
and use for our needs. So we dont need any fuel. I think first time such idea was described by
Nikola Tesla in his article The problem of increasing human energy with special references to
the harnessing of the Suns energy by Nikola Tesla, Century Illustrated Magazine, June 1900
And most important part is A Departure from known methods possibility of a self-acting
engine or machine, inanimate, yet capable, like a living being, of deriving energy from the
medium The ideal way of obtaining motive power.
Complete article available e.g. here http://www.tfcbooks.com/tesla/1900-06-00.htm and most
important part of it in Appendix A in the end of this book.
I believe that everyone FE researcher read this article, but amazingly small attention was paid to
this principle and it seems to be ignored until now. One possible reason is a difficulty to
understand it. It took probably 5 years for me to get the Teslas idea since I first time read this
article.

Lets consider this principle in more details and use example from nature - natural water cycle
(or hydrologic cycle).


pic.1 Natural Water Cycle (source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Water_cycle)

Water vaporized from ocean (lake, ground etc.) goes up into atmosphere, condense there, form
clouds and drops as rain or snow, then flow thru rivers and returns to ocean.

This is a natural water flow which exists in environment. Humans use it to harness energy by
inserting special devices (like hydropower stations) into the flow to capture energy.

As you probably know Tesla built first hydro power station in Niagara Falls in 1895 (*). Perhaps
working on that project brought him the idea of extracting energy from environment.

I think is important to consider where energy comes from? Most people will say from Sun and
will be right, but not exactly. When water evaporates, it takes up energy from its surroundings
and cools the environment. When it condenses, it releases energy and warms the environment.
So if we assume that same amount of water first vaporized and condensed afterwards, from
global point of view no energy was consumed, heat was just transferred from one place to
another. Also water transferred from ground to some point above the ground and gravitation is
actual force which drives water down back to ground level and drive turbines in hydropower
station. So in theory, heat from Sun is not required here to continue the hydro cycle.
I am aware that this is very controversial claim and probably will not be accepted by many
people. As an argument to support my claim I can give an example we know that outer planets
(e.g. Saturn, Jupiter) located far away from Sun and therefore receive less Suns energy
(radiation) but we also know that there are very powerful tornados in their atmospheres, much
stronger than in Earths atmosphere (so this extra energy should come from somewhere and
gravitational field is very good candidate for such energy source).

Coming back to Earth and closer to Teslas principle lets try do some generalization.





























* see e.g. this http://www.teslasociety.com/adams.htm

Generalization of the principle


"If you only knew the magnificence of the 3, 6 and 9,
then you would have a key to the universe.
Nicola Tesla (*)




pic.2 Idealized FE system

I presented working cycle of system based on Teslas principle on pic.2

Lets say we have a field (gravitational for example) and we have a working body some
substance which can change it aggregate state from liquid to gas and back (e.g. water).

The working cycle is shown on the picture.

Explanations:
4 -> 1 working body make a phase transition to the state where it does not interact with a field
(e.g. water vaporizing)

1 -> 2 working body moves to gain some potential energy (e.g. vapor comes up, we dont do
work here against the field)

2 -> 3 working body make phase transition to initial state (e.g. vapor condensing)

(*) some people think that N.T. refers to frequencies and harmonics; other suggests that it is a Fibonacci sequence
which defines a spiral, but

3 -> 4 now working body start interacting with a field (water dropping down),
on this phase we can capture some energy.
The cycle repeats.

This is a quite simplified picture but it represents the principle.

Different fields can be used (gravitational, magnetic and eclectic), different working bodies and
phase transitions, so there are a lot of different systems possible.

We know 3 fields in nature (gravitational, magnetic and electric).
From practice we see also static and pulsed systems. In static system field present all the time
and working body make phase transitions, in pulse systems field appeared only for short time
and trigger phase transition in working body which continues itself by inertia after
triggering field removed. This gives us 6 possible FE setups/systems (Tab. 1)

Table 1. Field and corresponding phase transitions

field / mode static system pulse system
gravitation water cycle grav. wheels (?)
magnetic MEG, MHD negative inductance
electric vacuum tube,
Kelvin dropper
spark gap

As we see from practice some time it is enough to have only sharp parameter variation (not
phase transition). Some of possible phase transitions and property variations presented in Tab.2
Of course there could be much more implementations, on different levels etc.

Table 2. Possible FE systems based on 1st principle

field / mode phase transition parameter variation
gravitation liquid gas
magnetic Curie point,
ionization
saturation
electric electrostatic
induction
permittivity variation

So now, when you see some claim about FE you can ask yourself
- What field used to perform work?
- What phase transition or related property change?
- Are there proper conditions to allow field perform work ?
- Is system parametric (load not affecting control) ?

And based on the answers you can make good guess could it work or not

Lets now consider some application of the principle and possible systems.



Gravitational field


Pic.3 Conventional hydropower

As we know water cycle most common FE process we can see in nature. Conventionally its
done this way - we insert our device to harness energy into flow naturally existing in the
environment. So we need proper conditions and we change environment (usually not into better
direction).

However, in we could create our own flow, isolated from environment and capture energy in
it. We can do something like this:



pic4. Concept of Isolated hydro power station

* Oil here used to prevent water from vaporizing in a wrong place

Key to working system is phase transition (liquid-gas) which allow gravitational filed perform
some useful work


A toy illustrating this principle: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Drinking_bird

Since our system isolated we can use other working bodies e.g. with low vaporization
temperature, or we can lower pressure, so again vaporization will happen easier

One issue I see here is system will be quite big but still we could build it e.g. as a standard part
of every building, so why not? (*)






* You are welcome to make some calculation and estimate required dimensions for such system to deliver
practically usable power



Lets take a look on another possible setup


pic5. Concept of device which use gravitation as a power source


Explanation:
- put electrolyze device into lake (any water reservoir)
- bubbles come up, put on the bubbles way a turbine, here our FE
- on the top, we collect bubbles, burn and drop water back to lake, use released energy to supply
power for electrolyze device
- COP of electrolyze device and burner not 100%, but we can use some part of FE to compensate
loses
- power of device depends on how deep we put electrolyze device



pic6a. My version of Lazarevs
Kolcar (cycler)
Another interesting toy which everyone can build at home is
Kulibins fountain or Lazarevs Kolcar or mono-therm.

Construction: A bottle separated in two parts with a
membrane, some amount of water placed in both upper and
lower compartment. A tube allows water to come from the
bottom of the bottle to the upper compartment.

Water under action of gravity will be pushed thru membrane
from top to bottom compartment of bottle. At the same time
pressure in the bottom part will rise and some water will be
pushed thru the tube back into upper compartment.


pic6b. Construction of Lazarevs Kolcar
1-porous membrane, 2-water, 3-tube

Some historical information about Ivan Kulibin: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ivan_Kulibin

Here some reading about Kulibins fountain and other gravity powered device
http://ua-
hho.do.am/publ/idei_po_ehnergii/v_vlasov_fountain_kulibina_as_a_generator_of_energy/2-1-0-
151
(unfortunately cant find any better text about Lazarevs Kolcar)



As I stated at the beginning for every field we use two approaches of building devices are
possible (static and pulse). There is a small problem with gravitation field; we dont know
effective ways to switch it off (so far). However I believe that we still have some FE mechanical
systems with dynamically unbalanced wheels.


pic7. Campbell wheel (source: google image search)

















* I was not paying much attention to this topic because I dont think that mechanical FE system is good idea. But if
you have good example please send it to me.
Heat pump

I feel that it is absolutely necessary mention this device even if it doesnt fit very nice in my
classification. Heat pumps commonly used now days in heating/cooling systems and according
to Wiki have COP range 2 to 7.2. In other worlds many of us have FE device installed at home
(I let you decide for yourself why these devices still consume a lot of electricity )




pic.8 Heat pump (source: http://www.heatpump-reviews.com/heat-pump.html)


See also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_pump


Magnetic field

Nickel Curie Point Engine http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YzwGzJm41_o

In the video work performed by magnetic and gravitational field, heat used only to change
property of nickel washer and could be recycled.


Pic9. Nickel Curie Point Engine working points
(source: captured frames from above video)

Nickel washer attracted by magnet and pull pendulum into left. Due to heat nickel washer
occasionally loses its magnetic properties (when temperature reach Curie point) and became
non-magnetic, so pendulum returns to vertical position. Then washer cools down and process
repeats.

We can use not only heat but something else e.g. saturation.
See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Permeability_%28electromagnetism%29



Pic10. Magnetic permeability of Nickel vs Temperature

Variation of permeability in transformer core can be used to modulate field of permanent
magnet. So we can build a non-mechanical system, a special version of transformer.
Using proper coils arrangement we can change core permeability and avoid load reaction on
modulation coils, so work will be performed by permanent magnet.



pic11. MEG concept (INKOMP by Valery Ivanov, source mazeto.net)

There is well established theory for magnetic circuit calculations and simulation. Such system
can be designed using same methods which used to design conventional motors and generators.


pic.12 Magnetic circuit




pic13. Some pictures from my MEG experiments





pic14. Eclin-Brown generator
- mechanical implementation of PM flux
modulating device



Another interesting concept device can be based on variable inductor.


pic15. Non-linear inductance concept (mechanical)




pic16. Variable inductor good candidate to implement non-mechanical device


Compressing magnetic field (mechanically or by changing core properties) we can gain energy.

See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Explosively_pumped_flux_compression_generator

(as usual, military applications go first )





More interesting links:
http://sparkbangbuzz.com/mag-audio-amp/mag-audio-amp.htm
http://www.rfcafe.com/references/popular-electronics/magnetic-amplifiers-jul-1960-popular-
electronics.htm
http://www.themeasuringsystemofthegods.com/magnetic%20amplifiers.pdf


Here another interesting possible FE system (presumably developed by Tesla)


pic17. Electricity from air device sketch

Air (or some gas) ionized, ions moving in magnetic field separated and charge absorbed by two
collector plates. This is more sustainable version of modern MHD generators where ions
produced by burning some fuel. (See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MHD_generator)



So far we discussed static systems with magnetic field. Now lets consider some pulse systems.


pic18. Robert Adams pulse motor

Core in motor stator coil attracted to rotor magnet, so rotor rotates, when magnet comes near to
coil it is pulsed to create repelling force so it push rotor further. Significant part of energy used
to create this repelling force can be recuperated.
Another interesting effect which could be observed in pulse motors is that sharp magnetic field
pulses create negative inductance (avalanche magnetization) in driving coil cores. Some heat
energy converted into electricity. This is process is opposite to one which happen in magnetic
refrigerator.

pic19. Negative inductance test
setups

a) with ant aligned coils



b) with step-down flyback

Despite technical difficulties I believe that it is possible to build non-mechanical systems which
will use avalanche magnetization to convert environment heat to electricity (Zaevs concept).
Some interesting links:
Magnetic refrigeration http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_refrigeration
Gadolinium motor http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E2qO-AbH08A


Electric field

Now lets consider systems which use electric field.

Pic20. Concept of device using electric field and ionization.

High voltage ionize air and one type of ions (e.g. negative) moved by fan towards a collector
plate which is connected thru capacitor to ground. Positive charges pumped from the ground
wire. Load connected thru DC-DC step-down converter to the capacitor.

pic.21 Also symmetrical version (which does not require ground) possible.

For charge transfer we could use special tube (see below) or some other special setup e.g.
electrostatic sparing or ultrasonic evaporation.


This device employs also second principle of FE (non-linear growth of energy in capacitor).
In these setups we have current (moving charges) supplied by one source and static electric field
accelerating these charges provided by other source. In other words this allows us combine
current and voltage from different power sources and so gain power. (UxI concept)


Interesting historical link
http://longstreet.typepad.com/thesciencebookstore/2013/07/history-of-lines-atomospheric-
electricity.html


We cold build a special vacuum tube and implement same principle as above on a low level
using electrons instead of ions (as perhaps did Tesla, Moray and Gray).


pic.22 "Static" electric field accelerates charges



pic.23 source Theory and applications of electron tubes, Herbert J Reich, page 58

Secondary emission which is responsible for negative resistance behavior and could be a source
of usable energy appeared in first tubes and was considered as a parasite effect, so there were
special changes in tube construction made to reduce or completely avoid this effect in newer
tubes. But some traces of the effect are still three even in modern tubes.



pic.24 Temperature variation modulate capacitance

This is a twin-brother device of non-linear inductance device. But here we modulate
capacitance changing dielectrics properties inside capacitor. Changing charge density
(mechanically or changing dielectric properties) we can also gain energy.

Also dual system to MEG possible we can use electret and modulate its field changing
dielectric parameters.

Some interesting links:
http://ether.sciences.free.fr/electrets.htm
http://www.sae.edu/reference_material/audio/pages/Microphones.htm
http://www.capturedlightning.org/hot-streamer/pool/dielectric.htm



Tesla coil based system could provide extra energy.


pic.25 Spark gap transmitter one of first FE devices ;-)

It is sad to hear how Teslas followers claim that Tesla never claimed or achieved Free Energy.
There are at least two possible sources of FE in spark gap transmitters:
- Earths natural electric field in combination with ionization provides negative resistance in
antenna
- Spark gap itself can be source of energy (see below)

Such system most probably will not be acceptable in modern word because it produces very high
radio interferencebut it may be it would be possible use 2 or 3 phase systems to reduce radio
emission.

Another FE process observed in nature was discovered by Lord Kelvin when he observed static
electricity in water falls. Traditionally mainstream science denied FE here usually claiming that
work performed by gravity ;-).



pic26. Kelvin dropper


There are some difficulties preventing practical applications
- Effectively stepping down HV
- maintaining high charge flow

However with advancing of power electronics there more and more chances that we see such
devices in use.

(see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kelvin_water_dropper)


Spark gap represents most possible energetic phase transition (gas - plasma)


pic. 27 Concept of device utilizing electron avalanche in spark gap
(picture source: www.skif.biz)

Electron avalanche initiated with very short high voltage pulse. It produces 50 or even 100 times
more energy than required to start the avalanche (you should not try it at home :-)
This extra energy can be captured and used. Most known example is Edvin Grays devices.


pic.28 Variation of spark gap device (picture source: www.skif.biz)


* Here DC-DC step down converter should be used to convert charge collected by capacitor into
practically usable voltage


Edvin Gray used similar setup but he didnt have high voltage power MOSFETs in 1960s


pic29. EVGray setup

* here HV DC power supply switched with electronic tube and current limited by resistor
connected in series. We dont know for sure but it could be also that Gray use bifilar coil (two
cylinders on the sketch) to collect displacement currents instead of capacitor used in system
presented on pic. 27 and 28
































* Peter and John probably still having nice time laughing on innocent FE researchers searching for Electro-Radiant
Event and Cold Electricity :-/

Second (synergy) principle

Since a nonlinear system does not exhibit linear superposition, a combination of inputs often
produces surprising, synergistic effects the whole becomes greater than the sum of its parts.
Quote fromTapping Zero-Point Energy by Moray B. King


pic. 30 Nonlinear system example
(source: Tapping Zero-Point Energy by Moray B. King)

We often see this principle used together with first principle.


pic31. Charge and energy stored in capacitor

For example energy stored in capacitor will grow quadratically depending on the charge.

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/capeng2.html

(and we see similar quadratic growth in many other physical processes)



pic32. An experiment with charge transfer

Here simple experiment with a power source which provide 20v. Moving metallic object back
and forth we can charge a metallic can to any voltage, e.g. to 400v

This is what actually demonstrated here:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XaaP1bWFjDA#t=2680



























* It is absolutely bizarre situation that FE device shown on one of the first Physics classes and at same time they
claimed that it is not possible

Dielectric absorption

Dielectric absorption is quite unfortunate effect when you perform measurements but it can be
used as a power source. Dielectric absorption manifests in both situation when capacitor
discharged and when capacitor charged.



pic33. Dielectric absorption when capacitor discharged
(picture source: Analog Devices ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION,
Chapter 7. Data Converter Support Circuits, page 101
http://www.analog.com/library/analogdialogue/archives/39-06/chapter%207%20support%20circuits%20f.pdf)


These effects relatively small e.g. about 10% of overall capacitor energy for standard capacitors
(the worst possible capacitor should be selected).



Van der Graaf generator



pic.34 Van der Graaf generator
(picture source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Van_de_Graaff_generator)

Van der Graaf generator is just automated version of experiment shown on pic. 32. If we
would use it to charge capacitor then we could get a modification of system shown on pic. 20,21


Pic.35 Small Testatica machine

You probably agree that following this logic we can guess that Testatica machine could use same
principle.


See http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrostatic_generator and
http://www.coe.ufrj.br/~acmq/whyhow.html

Third principle

We can use S-shaped Negative Differential Resistance to supply additional power to a load if we
subject NDR to short pulses. In some way we saw already this principle in pulse systems when
discussed first principle (e.g. discharge in gas can be represented as NDR).
I still think it is appropriate list it as a separate principle because it refers to one of fundamental
property of mater inertia. We use small portion of energy to start some process and then we can
capture more energy back. Such behavior can be observer in many completely different systems.
Keeping in mind this principle could help us recognize potentially FE system/process.


As an illustration of my words I am adding here simulation results of very simple NDR
resistance circuit.



pic36. Test S-shaped NDR based on function f(x) = 1.3+(x-1)*(x-5)*(x-4)/15;












* Despite simple illustration that it is possible often mainstream science denies possibility use NDR to gain energy


pic37. Simulation


pic38. Simulation results power supply voltage and current


pic39. Simulation results power from power supply and in load


pic40a. Energy delivered by power supply pic40b. Energy dissipated on load resistor


pic41. Negative resistance


Links about NDR:
1. Demystifying the Negative Differential Resistance Phenomenon
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Circuit_Idea/Negative_Differential_Resistance
2. Zinc Negative Resistance Oscillator http://www.sparkbangbuzz.com/els/zincosc-el.htm
3. Negative resistance in electrical discharge http://mysite.du.edu/~jcalvert/phys/dischg.htm
4. FE Basics, chapter 6 https://www.dropbox.com/s/plsrxlltgkl9wtb/fe_basics.pdf



Afterword

I would like ask reader excuse me for imperfections in this book, low resolution and hand drawn
pictures, bad formatting, wrong spelling and difficult to follow explanations. This is a third
redaction of the book and I still not happy about it content. I invite everyone to send me feedback
and contribute to improvement of the book. Only together we can bring bright future into our
everyday reality.

Best wishes to you and good luck in FE research




14 years in 21
st
century but future still not here


Appendix A.

THE PROBLEM OF INCREASING HUMAN ENERGY
WITH SPECIAL REFERENCES TO THE HARNESSING OF THE SUN'S ENERGY.
by Nikola Tesla
Century Illustrated Magazine, June 1900
http://www.tfcbooks.com/tesla/1900-06-00.htm
A DEPARTURE FROM KNOWN METHODSPOSSIBILITY OF A "SELF-ACTING"
ENGINE OR MACHINE, INANIMATE, YET CAPABLE, LIKE A LIVING BEING, OF
DERIVING ENERGY FROM THE MEDIUMTHE IDEAL WAY OF OBTAINING
MOTIVE POWER.

When I began the investigation of the subject under consideration, and when the preceding or
similar ideas presented themselves to me for the first time, though I was then unacquainted with
a number of the facts mentioned, a survey of the various ways of utilizing the energy of the
medium convinced me, nevertheless, that to arrive at a thoroughly satisfactory practical solution
a radical departure from the methods then known had to be made. The windmill, the solar
engine, the engine driven by terrestrial heat, had their limitations in the amount of power
obtainable. Some new way had to be discovered which would enable us to get more energy.
There was enough heat-energy in the medium, but only a small part of it was available for the
operation of an engine in the ways then known. Besides, the energy was obtainable only at a
very slow rate. Clearly, then, the problem was to discover some new method which would make
it possible both to utilize more of the heat-energy of the medium and also to draw it away from
the same at a more rapid rate.
I was vainly endeavouring to form an idea of how this might be accomplished, when I read some
statements from Carnot and Lord Kelvin (then Sir William Thomson) which meant virtually that
it is impossible for an inanimate mechanism or self-acting machine to cool a portion of the
medium below the temperature of the surrounding, and operate by the heat abstracted. These
statements interested me intensely. Evidently a living being could do this very thing, and since
the experiences of my early life which I have related had convinced me that a living being is
only an automaton, or, otherwise stated, a "self-acting-engine," I came to the conclusion that it
was possible to construct a machine which would do the same. As the first step toward this
realization I conceived the following mechanism. Imagine a thermopile consisting of a number
of bars of metal extending from the earth to the outer space beyond the atmosphere. The heat
from below, conducted upward along these metal bars, would cool the earth or the sea or the air,
according to the location of the lower parts of the bars, and the result, as is well known, would be
an electric current circulating in these bars. The two terminals of the thermopile could now be
joined through an electric motor, and, theoretically, this motor would run on and on, until the
media below would be cooled down to the temperature of the outer space. This would be an
inanimate engine which, to all evidence, would be cooling a portion of the medium below the
temperature of the surrounding, and operating by the heat abstracted.




DIAGRAM b. OBTAINING ENERGY FROM THE AMBIENT MEDIUM
A, medium with little energy; B, B, ambient medium with much energy; O, path of the energy.
But was it not possible to realize a similar condition without necessarily going to a height?
Conceive, for the sake of illustration, [a cylindrical] enclosure T, as illustrated in diagram b, such
that energy could not be transferred across it except through a channel or path O, and that, by
some means or other, in this enclosure a medium were maintained which would have little
energy, and that on the outer side of the same there would be the ordinary ambient medium with
much energy. Under these assumptions the energy would flow through the path O, as indicated
by the arrow, and might then be converted on its passage into some other form of energy. The
question was, Could such a condition be attained? Could we produce artificially such a "sink"
for the energy of the ambient medium to flow in? Suppose that an extremely low temperature
could be maintained by some process in a given space; the surrounding medium would then be
compelled to give off heat, which could be converted into mechanical or other form of energy,
and utilized. By realizing such a plan, we should be enabled to get at any point of the globe a
continuous supply of energy, day and night. More than this, reasoning in the abstract, it would
seem possible to cause a quick circulation of the medium, and thus draw the energy at a very
rapid rate.
Here, then, was an idea which, if realizable, afforded a happy solution of the problem of getting
energy from the medium. But was it realizable? I convinced myself that it was so in a number
of ways, of which one is the following. As regards heat, we are at a high level, which may be
represented by the surface of a mountain lake considerably above the sea, the level of which may
mark the absolute zero of temperature existing in the interstellar space. Heat, like water, flows
from high to low level, and, consequently, just as we can let the water of the lake run down to the
sea, so we are able to let heat from the earth's surface travel up into the cold region above. Heat,
like water, can perform work in flowing down, and if we had any doubt as to whether we could
derive energy from the medium by means of a thermopile, as before described, it would be
dispelled by this analogue. But can we produce cold in a given portion of the space and cause
the heat to flow in continually? To create such a "sink," or "cold hole," as we might say, in the
medium, would be equivalent to producing in the lake a space either empty or filled with
something much lighter than water. This we could do by placing in the lake a tank, and pumping
all the water out of the latter. We know, then, that the water, if allowed to flow back into the
tank, would, theoretically, be able to perform exactly the same amount of work which was used
in pumping it out, but not a bit more. Consequently nothing could be gained in this double
operation of first raising the water and then letting it fall down. This would mean that it is
impossible to create such a sink in the medium. But let us reflect a moment. Heat, though
following certain general laws of mechanics, like a fluid, is not such; it is energy which may be
converted into other forms of energy as it passes from a high to a low level. To make our
mechanical analogy complete and true, we must, therefore, assume that the water, in its passage
into the tank, is converted into something else, which may be taken out of it without using any,
or by using very little, power. For example, if heat be represented in this analogue by the water
of the lake, the oxygen and hydrogen composing the water may illustrate other forms of energy
into which the heat is transformed in passing from hot to cold. If the process of heat
transformation were absolutely perfect, no heat at all would arrive at the low level, since all of it
would be converted into other forms of energy. Corresponding to this ideal case, all the water
flowing into the tank would be decomposed into oxygen and hydrogen before reaching the
bottom, and the result would be that water would continually flow in, and yet the tank would
remain entirely empty, the gases formed escaping. We would thus produce, by expending
initially a certain amount of work to create a sink for the heat or, respectively, the water to flow
in, a condition enabling us to get any amount of energy without further effort. This would be an
ideal way of obtaining motive power. We do not know of any such absolutely perfect process of
heat-conversion, and consequently some heat will generally reach the low level, which means to
say, in our mechanical analogue, that some water will arrive at the bottom of the tank, and a
gradual and slow filling of the latter will take place, necessitating continuous pumping out. But
evidently there will be less to pump out than flows in, or, in other words, less energy will be
needed to maintain the initial condition than is developed by the fall, and this is to say that some
energy will be gained from the medium. What is not converted in flowing down can just be
raised up with its own energy, and what is converted is clear gain. Thus the virtue of the
principle I have discovered resides wholly in the conversion of the energy on the downward
flow.













Free Energy Research Basics


or


what every FE researcher need to know





























Revision 1

FE R&D group http://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/ferd041/info

2014



2



Chapter 1. Power measurements ................................................................................................................ 4
Hello, ...................................................................................................................................................... 4
Magic Box #1......................................................................................................................................... 6
Light bulbs.............................................................................................................................................. 8
Measuring power in AC circuits .......................................................................................................... 11
Magic Box #2....................................................................................................................................... 13
Chapter 2. Flyback ................................................................................................................................... 16
Flyback circuit...................................................................................................................................... 19
Looping flyback ................................................................................................................................... 20
Trying harder.................................................................................................................................... 23
Simulating flyback ............................................................................................................................... 25
Magic Box #3....................................................................................................................................... 27
Joule Thief and LED lights .................................................................................................................. 31
Observing core saturation..................................................................................................................... 36
Simulation with real core and real diode....................................................................................... 37
B-H curve model .................................................................................................................................. 39
Plotting BH curves yourself ................................................................................................................. 43
HV power source.................................................................................................................................. 46
Chapter 3. Resonance............................................................................................................................... 49
Parallel and series resonance circuits ................................................................................................... 49
Single switch driver.............................................................................................................................. 51
Push pull driver .................................................................................................................................... 53
Half bridge driver ................................................................................................................................. 56
Bridge drivers....................................................................................................................................... 57
Analogue approach............................................................................................................................... 62
Extracting power .................................................................................................................................. 64
More examples of power extracting circuits ........................................................................................ 67
Ferroresonance ..................................................................................................................................... 72
Properties of ferroresonance................................................................................................................. 77
Tesla switch and Co. ............................................................................................................................ 82
Switching coils and caps ...................................................................................................................... 83
Simulating switched capacitors............................................................................................................ 87
Switching coils and caps ...................................................................................................................... 90
Variable Inductor.................................................................................................................................. 93
Magnetic amplifiers.............................................................................................................................. 98
Parametric resonance.......................................................................................................................... 103
Building parametric resonator ............................................................................................................ 106
Standing waves or resonance in a media............................................................................................ 109
Waves in ferrite core .......................................................................................................................... 111
Chapter 4. Bifilar coils ........................................................................................................................... 113
Permanent magnets ............................................................................................................................ 113
Magnetic field of aregular coil ....................................................................................................... 117
Simple magnetic field probe............................................................................................................... 119
Magnetic field of bifilar coil .............................................................................................................. 120
Magnetic field of bifilar coil 2 ........................................................................................................... 124
Opposite coils on ferrite rod............................................................................................................... 128
Opposite coils on the ring core........................................................................................................... 131
Reversed Phi transformer ................................................................................................................... 135
Scalar coil ........................................................................................................................................... 137
Chapter 5. Displacement current ............................................................................................................ 145
3
How they do that? .............................................................................................................................. 145
Coaxial transformer with a pipe..................................................................................................... 150
Properties of coaxial transformer ....................................................................................................... 152
Displacement current in capacitor...................................................................................................... 155
Capacitor with a coil on ring core ...................................................................................................... 159
Capacitor with a coil of ferrite rod..................................................................................................... 162
Coil - capacitor ................................................................................................................................... 167
Aligned and anti-aligned connection.................................................................................................. 170
Coil-capacitor on the ring core........................................................................................................... 173
Chapter 6. Negative resistance ............................................................................................................... 175
Examples of NDR with transistors..................................................................................................... 179
Zener diode......................................................................................................................................... 181
Core saturation ................................................................................................................................... 182
LC circuit as negative resistance........................................................................................................ 184
Avalanche breakdown effect in transistor .......................................................................................... 187
Broomstick antenna............................................................................................................................ 189
Spark gap............................................................................................................................................ 190
Shorting .............................................................................................................................................. 192
Afterword ............................................................................................................................................... 194
Software ................................................................................................................................................. 195



























4
Chapter 1. Power measurements


Hello,

I am starting a series of posts about FE research basics.

As a start topic, lets consider some typical mistakes when power
measurements performed.

Here an example of message from overunity.com (it is from 2007 but you still
can occasionally re-posted by somebody).






5


Another similar device, looks like Bedinis Tesla switch.




Here a photo of working device


6


In other words, author said Hey, I have one bulb in series with power
supply and one on the output of my magic box. See, first lamp is just
glowing, and second one is shining bright. I got OU!

I am sure that everyone has seen such claims made by different people with
different devices many many times.


Magic Box #1

Let's take a look inside a "magic box" ;-)

To simplify simulation I am using alternative current and... just an regular
step-down transformer (1:10) as a "magic box" ;-)

I am also using resistors instead of light bulbs.



pic. Magic Box design

7


pic.1 You can see that both voltage and current are greater on R2 in
comparison to R1



pic.2 So also power on R2 greater than on R1 (about 10 times in this
example) and if there will be lamps one would glow and second one would be
bright...


However there is a bad news :-) Power on R1 is not the same as power
provided by power source V1. And original author's assumption that inserting
8
a light bulb in series with device could help comparing input vs. output
power is obviously wrong.
As it was expected in this setup all power comes from V1 and it is equal to
sum of power on R1 and R2 (not taking into account loses in the
transformer).

I let you as an "exercise" to design a "magic box" which works similar way
but with direct current :-)


Light bulbs


I used resistor in my previous post, now let's take a closer look on light
bulb as a load.

Many people use light bulbs as a load and often trying to estimate output
power based on bulb's brightness. You see it almost in every Youtube video
where somebody showing its FE device.

There are 3 things that one has to remember about light bulbs:

1. Bulbs have non-linear resistance; it depends on voltage applied to the
bulb

See this:


Tab.1 Bulb's resistance vs. voltage
9

pic. 1 Bulb's resistance vs. voltage

and this



pic.2a Bulb's current vs. voltage

10

pic2b. Power vs. voltage

(original document can be found here
http://site.devicecraft.com/ApplicationNotes/60_watt_Incandescent_Bulb_Chara
cteristics.pdf )

2. Bulb's brightness also non-linearly depends on voltage (and frequency)
and it also changing with the lamp's age.
See this <http://www.photometrictesting.co.uk/File/lamp_depreciation.php>

3. Bulbs have "inertia". This means that it takes milliseconds or seconds
until current thru the lamp became stable when constant voltage applied.

All these properties make accurate power estimation based on light bulb's
brightness very difficult.

Gustavo mentioned that bulb can be used as a current limiter. It's a quite
common application but one always has to remember about bulbs "inertia".
Many sensitive circuits can blow up completely while lamp is warming up :-)





P.S. Perhaps it would be interesting to make experiment and study bulb's
nonlinearities.

11


Measuring power in AC circuits


Another interesting topic is Measuring power in AC circuits.

Let's consider a practical example.
You have some circuit, it produce some power on the output. You put a load
resistor and observing voltage on it with oscilloscope.

Here example picture (from my TV research)


pic.1 Sample waveform


Let's assume that load is 10 ohm resistor and peak-to-peak voltage on it
5.28v (channel one on the picture)

What is an output power here?

Let's use Ohm's law and calculate ;-)

I = U / R

P = U * I = U
2
/ R = 5.28 * 5.28 / 10 = 2.78 W

Ok, did you get OU? Ha, ha, perhaps :-)

After thinking a while you remember that it was actually peak-to-peak
voltage... so to get number comparable with DC you have to divide result by
2.... Oh no! Actually by 4 (because there is U * U in the formula)
12

So it will be P = 2.78 / 4 = 0.69 W (is it still OU? ;-)

After thinking one more moment, you probably remember that you also have to
use RMS coefficient, so... again divide by two square root of 2, or

P = 0.69 / / = 0.34 W (what a disappointment! :-)

And if we collect everything in one formula we get P = Upk * Upk / R / 8.

This coefficient ( ) depends on signal shape.

Here some reading about RMS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Root_mean_square

and an example simulation to consider





pic. Comparison of power in DC and AC

13

Magic Box #2

And last thing I can't leave without our attention in this thread - yet
another "magic box" case :-)

a.k.a. Power consumption drop under load.

Have you ever met a person who claims: "Hey guys, I made amazing device.
When I put load on it actual power consumption is dropped. This is a
straight way to over unity!"

He, he... I have met many...

So let's consider another magic box (version 2)


pic.1 Magic Box #2 concept


In first case (top picture), power source is driving only the Magic Box.
When we attach some load (bottom picture), amazingly, power consumption
decreases even some power goes into load.


Ok, can we make such "magic box"? Sure, we can :-) Here my design. I am
again being lazy and do it for AC, you can build DC version yourself.


14




pic.2 Magic box design and simulation

15

pic.3 Power measurements






After all, do you think it was "wrong way"? ;-)

16

Chapter 2. Flyback

Hello,

I am continuing the "entertainment" and starting new thread about Flyback
circuit, its properties and applications.

A word before going into details...
After doing FE research for some time I realized that
- Mathematics don't care about reality
- Electronics don't care about anything, it just use ready available
components with known properties
- Modern Physics unfortunately forget almost at the beginning about reality
and goes deep into math and spend most of the time writing formulas :-)
And we have to bind all three together, fix when necessary and make serve
our needs. While doing electronics we need perfect understanding of physics
involved and we need math to do calculations. Sometimes it's a real
challenge.

Flyback usually consists of two coils. Lets start with one.


pic 1. Pulsing an inductor



pic 2. Current thru L1

When we turn switch on current begin grow until it reach maximum value which
depends on power supply voltage and coils internal resistance (Imax = U /
Rcoil)
17
This grow is exponential as it shown on pic.2, however in practice usually
we will be using only very beginning of the process so current grow will be
almost linear (see region t < 0.1ms).

It is often said that current thru coil cant change fast or momentary.
This is not exactly true as we will see soon. While current grows magnetic
field also building up and some energy being stored in magnetic field
across the coil (E = L * I * I / 2)

If we disconnect coil from power source, current thru coil stops abruptly,
so magnet field collapse and big voltage spike appears across the coil (if
no load connected).




pic.3 Switching off

This process can be seen on pic.3, size of voltage spike across the coil
depends on coils parameters (capacitance, internal resistance etc.)

18

pic.4 Same process observed in real schematic with oscilloscope


pic5. Here an example schematic which can be used for this experiment


And here some links with info to consider:
http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/electromagnetism/magnetism.html
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/indsol.html


19

Flyback circuit

As we saw in previous post, when we disconnect power supply energy stored in
magnetic fields "disappears" (from our circuit). This is not very good, so
let's add another coil and "capture" this energy back :-)




pic.1 This a typical Flyback setup.

Diode in the secondary needed to prevent current thru the load during first
working phase when energy stored into magnetic field. In the second phase,
collapsing magnetic field creates voltage on the secondary coil and if there
is a load connected; current begins to flow (almost immediately). This
current creates own magnetic field which oppose to original field. It is
interesting that the lower load resistance the higher current will be in
secondary and stronger field it creates, therefore the longer (wider) output
pulse will be. Another interesting feature is that fly back always draws
20
same power from power supply independently what load applied to secondary,
it also does not afraid of shorting output.

This kind of setup used in many different variations in nowadays power
supplies.

Here some interesting is reading about flyback:
http://www.dos4ever.com/flyback/flyback.html
http://www.ti.com/lit/ml/slup261/slup261.pdf



Looping flyback


As we discussed earlier, we put some energy into magnetic field with
primary coil and then collect it back with secondary coil. By some reason
people tend to think that we can get out here more than we put in.

Just imagine, you put some water in a cup and when you drink it appeared
that there is more water than you put in.
Wouldnt it be nice to have such magic cup

Ha, ha, anyway, people keep trying and I cant resist give it a try as well




21

pic.1 Simulation of looped flyback


Notice power supply and coils current values ;-)


pic.2 Experiments schematic


22

pic3. Switch control pulse (A) and voltage in point (B)



pic4. Switch control pulse (A) and voltage in point (C) = current thru coil
L1 (Spikes at the beginning of the pulse caused by MOSFET gate charging
process)



pic5. Switch control pulse (A) and voltage in point (D) = current thru coil
L2


23

pic6. Experimental setup (some components are not used in this experiment)

As simulation show, this setup consumes very small current 100uA 5mA
depends on pulse width and coils and can be used to measure loses in
ferrite.


Trying harder

Somebody probably say: "You not being serious and you not trying hard!"
Ha! ha! Being serious will not help us

Here similar Flyback looped setup I tried earlier



24

pic1. One of the earlier trials


The issue with flybacks is diode in secondary, voltage drop on it, internal
capacitance and limited turn-on time (delay). Adding small inductor in
series sometimes can help to handle current spikes.

Decreasing capacitor connected to power gives possibility observe how power
transferred from secondary.
25

Simulating flyback

Despite that currents in primary and secondary winding never exists at the
same time, if we start changing number of turns (and therefore inductance)
of primary and secondary, Flyback will behave in a similar way as "regular"
transformer. We can gain voltage or current but not both :-)


pic1. Flyback circuit model


pic2. L1 = 400uH

26

pic3. L1 = 200uH



pic4.L1 = 100uH


I made this simulation to illustrate how change off L1/L2 ratio affects
output voltage and current.

27

Magic Box #3

Lets consider another Magic Box.

From time to time you see a video or post where some smart guy telling that
he invented very advanced schematics which allow you to power some load from
battery and charge the battery at the same time. Wouldnt it be nice to have
such circuit?

pic.1 Magic Box #3 concept we attach something to the battery via current
meter and surprisingly it shows that current actually flowing into the
battery...Does it charging the battery ?

Well, this magic box creates much more controversy rather than two previous.

I would like to show two similar devices behaving like described magic
box, both devices are based on flyback circuit.


pic1. Magic LED light charging small NiMH battery

28

pic2. top MOSFETs drain, bottom current thru battery



pic3. top MOSFETs gate, bottom current thru battery


29

pic4. top(yellow) MOSFETs gate, bottom (blue) voltage on battery


As you can see, circuit creates current pulses into battery ;-)



pic5. Experimental setup


I let you decide yourself what is wrong with this magic box


30

pic6. Another similar device

Author claims that this circuit allows power some small load from
rechargeable battery for period about 2 years.
He also said that after that time battery's electrodes dissolved almost
completely and he had to throw it away

31

Joule Thief and LED lights

I think you agree that Joule Thief is one of most popular circuits on the
web.
It is not a flyback but I think it is kind of related circuit and it would
be interesting to mention it.






pic1. Joule Thief simulation



32




pic2. Some variation

33

pic3. MCU based flash light



pic4. Slightly modified MCU based flash light


34

35

pic5. Different JT-like circuits


pic6. My version of LED flash light, I think more practical


Suggested reading:
- SMPS http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Switched-mode_power_supply
- blocking oscillator http://mysite.du.edu/~etuttle/electron/elect37.htm

36



Observing core saturation


pic1. Core saturation

top MOSFET control pulse; bottom current in the primary coil (observed
across resistor in MOSFETs source)


* Notice that after some time current start growing very fast (and non-
linear)



pic2. Example circuit

This is same looped flyback circuit I posted before.
37
To observe saturation you just need gradually increase pulse width and
observe current thru resistor in MOSFETs source (point C). When
experimenting with saturation you should take care about MOSFET cooling
because current grows very fast and transistor can became very hot.
Transformer core saturation one of most common reasons of low efficiency in
power supply circuits.


Some related links
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturation_%28magnetic%29
(Surprisingly not much information on the topic on the web)



Simulation with real core and real diode

LTSpice gives some possibilities to simulate behaviour of real cores and
other components like diodes.
I dont think that it is very practical but interesting to try




38

pic.1 Flyback with real core (based on LTSpice built-in model)


* notice shape of current in primary and secondary




39

pic2. Adding real diode to the simulation

* notice oscillations on primary

So its looks quite similar to what real oscilloscope shows.


B-H curve model

As we saw "real" core in transformer brings non-linearity

Let's consider these effects in more details




pic.1 A page from LTSpice manual about built-in core model

40





pic.2 BH curves drawn with above formulas


41

pic3. Inductance (H) vs. current (A) based on above BH curve


This result opens quite interesting possibility to model non-linear
inductance ourselves.




42

pic4. Simple circuit with linear inductance




pic5. Simulation for above circuit made in SCI lab using model for non-
linear core

43
Graphs from top to bottom:
- voltage on power source,
- current thru inductor,
- voltage on inductor,
- inductance of inductor vs. time

* Notice current and inductance variations

This simulation made using Finite difference method to solve differential
equation

Us = IR + L dI / dt

It might be not very straight forward to perform (comparing to LTSpice
simulation) but it gives us full control on the model.


Some links:
https://www.dropbox.com/s/lx23vkvjpsgi0hc/John%20Chan%20Nonlinear_Transforme
r_Model_for_Circuit_Simulation.pdf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finite_difference_method



Plotting BH curves yourself

We saw quite a lot of theoretical staff about BH curve and core non-
linearity.
Perhaps it would be interesting to do something practical about it.



pic.1 Core tracer schematic

With this simple circuit and oscilloscope we can observe actual
magnetization curves for different cores.
It is also interesting how magnet affects these curves.


44

pic2. Effect of magnet attached to the core's side


Here some pictures of experimentally obtained BH curves for Ferroxcube N30
ring core.

45

pic3. Effect of magnet inserted into cores gap


46

pic4. BH curve for N87 ferrite from datasheet - looks similar to what we see
in experiment


Plotting Magnetization Curves
http://info.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Workshop/advice/coils/BHCkt/index.html
http://www.cliftonlaboratories.com/type_43_ferrite_b-h_curve.htm


HV power source

We saw a step-down flyback application in MB3,
another very important application of step-up flyback is a spark gap drivers
and HV DC power sources.

47

pic1. Schematic HV pulse generator and optional voltage multiplier



pic2. Pulse generator and multiplier assembled in plastic boxes

48

pic3. Side view




pic4. Testing before placing into boxes


This simple circuit produces short pulses up to 5KV (without multiplier)
and capable to supply about 1ma current at 5KV with 10 stage multiplier.
Output voltage can be adjusted in some range by changing pulse width (20k
pot.).


Please be careful when working with high voltage!


Some related links:
10KV power source http://www.sentex.ca/~mec1995/circ/hv/hvdcgen/hvdcgen.html


49
Chapter 3. Resonance

Resonance is next topic I would like to discuss.

Lets start with two most common setups

Parallel and series resonance circuits

In these two setups energy from capacitor (C * U * U / 2) flow to inductor
(L * I * I / 2) and back. Originally this energy comes from power supply
(V1). Resonance circuit accumulate energy until power of source became
equal to power of loses in the circuit. Or Pcirc = Psource * Q where Q is
quality factor



pic1. Parallel resonance circuit



pic2. Simulation of parallel resonance circuit

50
In parallel resonance circuit we have circulating current Q times more than
power source current

* notice current decreasing while oscillation settling down


pic3. Series resonance circuit



pic4. Simulation of series resonance circuit

In series resonance circuit voltage on capacitor (and inductor) Q times more
than voltage on power source.

* notice voltage grow while oscillations settling down

We can accumulate some energy in resonance circuit, we can extract this
energy back at any time and rate butno more than we put there from power
source.
By some reason people tend to believe that there is extra power in resonance
circuit and we just need to find a way how to get it from there ;-)
51


Some reading about resonance:
http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_2/chpt_6/1.html
http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/accircuits/series-resonance.html
http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/accircuits/parallel-resonance.html
http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/315/Waves/node12.html


Single switch driver

Let's review methods how we can power resonance circuit
and start with single switch driver


pic1. Model for single switch driver setup



pic2. Simulation (driver frequency equal to resonance frequency)

52

pic3. Simulation (driver frequency 10 times lower than resonance frequency)


pic4. Simple driver setup schematic

* notice diode in MOSFETs drain to prevent built-in zener diode to
interfere


53

pic5. top driver signal (point A), bottom voltage on inductor and
capacitor (point B)

This circuit quite simple and can be used for experiments on frequencies up
to 100kHz. Two transistors can be replaced with integral MOSFET driver like
TC40204029 (or similar) For higher frequencies cd4011 can be replaced with
74hc00 (requires 5v power supply and changes in MOSFET driver).



Push pull driver

more powerful option




pic.1 Push-Pull driver with TL494
54

It appeared that TL494 does not work well on low frequencies so I made a
simple substitution for it using CD4011 and CD4013. Other possibility is to
use KA7500 (pin-to-pin replacement for TL494 which works ok on low
frequencies) or some other PWM chip.



pic2. Push pull driver using CMOS logic

* 50k pots are mechanically connected so driver legs adjusted synchronously
** Additional 4011 elements after 4013 needed to avoid loading 4013 outputs
by RC chains (number of elements can be reduced by using 4001 elements and
rearranging the circuit)


55

pic3.top - one MOSFETs drain, bottom - secondary (w/o capacitor)



pic4. MOSFET drains



pic5. top one of MOSFETs drain, bottom - secondary (with capacitor
connected)


This circuit can also be used as an inverter to provide power to some
appliances like led lamps etc.




56

Links:
- Designing Switching Voltage Regulators With the TL494
http://www.ti.com/lit/an/slva001e/slva001e.pdf
- http://www.instructables.com/id/250-to-5000-watts-PWM-DCAC-220V-Power-
Inverter/



Half bridge driver




pic1. Simple half-bridge driver based on 74HC4046 VCO.


* Power supply voltage can be increased up to 35v
** Value of resistor in 2n7000 drain may be need to be changed (depends on
frequency and power supply voltage)



pic2. Voltage and current in inductor


This driver works quite ok up to 200-300kHz

57


Bridge drivers

Lets review one of possible MCU controlled HBridge setup


pic.1 Regulated DC-DC converter (output voltage can be adjusted 50-200v)

58

pic.2 One half of bridge driver



pic.3 LPF filter


59

pic.4 PWM signal created with MCU



pic.5 Bridge assembled on prototype board

60

pic.6 top - signal after LPF, bottom - before LPF





61

pic.7 Simulation of HBridge

This is example of much more complicated setup. MCUs allow modify operation
of the bridge without changing circuit. But it is also possible use
hardware PWM like TL494 to produce PWM signal to control the bridge
output.

Embedded software for MCUs created using Win AVR C compiler (see attached
archives).

Some links:
- see page 40 for more advanced version of the bridge driver
<https://04e8faec-a-62cb3a1a-s-
sites.googlegroups.com/site/vasik041/homebrewtools.pdf?attachauth=ANoY7cqaam
gaX-
JXJRbIvErNtp4oVDipTLpw8NCUaF6guZH622pxRZFsEKfUf7rxr6RRJziZ2sa5h1sKsMRELqgyBK
tBBHR4_hlT7884j9Mb9MEAX04mO1mauadYqHKhOUHz20_Gc0i1S0ABrvvWf6yZJEgyyCKNPGUOf7
9k6F3Ne7oiTyuFd6xwBFDyH8mYLfxfxfelQBj_Z741wnWr98H3bWy2nOJXpw%3D%3D&attredire
cts=0>
- http://www.tantratron.tk/index/tantratron.html
- http://winavr.sourceforge.net/
- http://www.wpi.edu/Pubs/E-project/Available/E-project-042711-
190851/unrestricted/PWM_Techniques_final.pdf
- http://uzzors2k.4hv.org/index.php?page=ihpll1
- http://webpages.charter.net/dawill/tmoranwms/Elec_IndHeat1.html
- https://www.fairchildsemi.com/an/AN/AN-9012.pdf


62

Analogue approach

We saw variety of digital drivers, but it is also possible to do it in a
"pure analogue" way. This is more (or less) conventional electronics, so I
will just list circuits which I tried.

pic.1 Sin wave generator



pic2. Simple sin wave generator which require with one power supply voltage

63
* Disadvantage of both generators is that FET transistor and precise
selection of components needed



pic3. Simple power amplifier


* Perhaps too simple, it has big crossover distortion



pic4. Simple driver (circuit found as a generator for tape recorder erase
head)

* Despite simplicity it works very nice, it tunes resonance automatically if
L or C changes



Links:
http://sound.westhost.com/articles.htm

64

Extracting power

We saw many different driver setups; all of them allow us put some power
into resonance circuit and create some oscillations. Now lets consider ways
how we can extract power back.


pic1. We can use small additional winding on inductor



pic2. Simulation for circuit with additional winding


65

pic3. We can take power from capacitor



pic4. Simulation for extracting from capacitor circuit


Some people are claiming that they just invented new and very advanced
concept of extracting power from resonance circuit. Well, for me it sounds
naive. It all was invented about 100 years ago, we just got better
components (e.g. diodes) but ideas are the same.


66
pic5. Crystal radio as an example of power extraction circuit




pic6. More powerful setup

We cam use different setups, with diodes or switches but at the end load (or
extracted power) always work as Q factor loss in resonant circuit. (This
claim easy to prove using electrical circuits theory by drawing equivalent
schematics).


Links:
High Power Crystal Set http://hibp.ecse.rpi.edu/~john/xtal.html
http://www.crystalradio.net/crystalplans/
http://www.makearadio.com/
http://www.radiosparks.com/schematics.asp?UID=Crystal+Radio
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mihajlo_Pupin
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loading_coil

67

More examples of power extracting circuits

These two circuits are my implementation of Hectors transverter (TV) which
is often discussed on EVGRAY group.
It could be a nice tool to learn about resonance, drivers and power
extracting circuits However, I see these circuits as an over complication
in a hunt for magic resonance or frequency. If there would be a real
extra power no such complex setup would be needed, just a regular diode
bridge work fine ;-)


First setup is MCU based, MCU control driver and diode plug switches.


pic1. MCU used to control the setup


68

pic2. Other parts of the setup (driver, transformer, diode plug, zero
crossing detector and discharge switches)


Below shown less complicated setup, without MCU.


69

pic3. Simple diode plug (two zero-crossing detectors and triac drivers)


Here some diagrams from important points in the circuit


pic4. top transformer output, bottom - voltage on positive leg capacitor


70

pic5. top transformer output, bottom - voltage on negative leg capacitor



pic6. top transformer output (more power injected), bottom - voltage on
the output (Rn)


I made this simulation to illustrate the idea of TV setup. Transformer core
is linear in this simulation.

71

pic7. Simple TV model


72

pic8. Simulation results


After all I still think that no mater what driver we use and how complicated
extracting circuit, energy stored in LC circuit comes from power source
unless some real magic happen ;-).


Ferroresonance

What would happen if we "put" too much power into LC resonance circuit?

If there is a core in inductor, occasionally it get saturated and
ferroresonance occurs.

As you remember saturation causes non-linear change of inductance. This non-
linearity in combination with oscillations produces many interesting
effects.


Let's take a closer look on ferroresonance.


73

pic1. Parallel ferroresonance model



pic2. Simulation of parallel ferroresonance

* notice frequency variations and current shape



74

pic3. Series ferroresonace model



pic4. Simulation of series frerroresonance

* notice voltage on the inductor


Here a simple setup to observe a ferroresonance


75
I used 4,7uF capacitor and 20 turns coil on 35mm N30 ferrite ring, signal
generator and audio amplifier as a signal source. Below waveforms I got
after tuning resonance:



pic5. Observing series ferroresonance


In simple words, when current increase core saturating and inductance
decrease, this cause current increase even more.

When studding non-linear inductance we managed to get a formula how
inductance depends on current, now we can use this to draw a resistance of
LC circuit witch take into account inductance variations.


76

pic6. Drawing reactance (reactive resistance) for LC circuit with saturating
inductor (voltage vs. current)

Formulas used to draw above graphs:







Does it look interesting?
(yes, it is negative differential resistance, I am going to discuss it later
in more details)


Some links:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_reactance
http://www05.abb.com/global/scot/scot235.nsf/veritydisplay/2e4528a2d55c5414c
12572dd00247313/$file/vt%20guard_presentation-ferrores_sales_version_eng.pdf
http://www.kau.edu.sa/Files/320/Researches/52676_22982.pdf

77

Properties of ferroresonance

To observe interesting properties of ferroresonance circuits I made a simple
sweep generator and loaded it with parallel LC circuit.


pic.1 VCO generator


pic.2 Driver


78

pic3. Triangle generator (I will use it as a modulator to control VCO
frequency)



pic4. Experimental setup assembled on bread board


In first experiment I didnt use modulation but slowly adjusted frequency
manually. I measured voltage and current on inductor, here results



and graphs drawn based on the data

79

pic5. Voltage on inductor vs. frequency


pic5a. Inductors current vs. frequency

You can see interesting effect - sometimes it called trigger effect. When
frequency slowly increased voltage and current also increasing until some
point and then amplitude drop sharply. Frequency need to be decreased
significantly first to repeat this effect.

Below pictures obtained with modulation generator, circuit tuned so that we
can continuously observe trigger effect.

80


pic6. yellow - voltage on inductor
U, blue inductor current I, red
- U * I





pic7. voltage on inductor pic8. inductor current


pic9. inductors current (bigger
scale)

In resonance energy is accumulated in LC tank, but after some point it
"does not fit" into the coil anymore because inductance decrease due to
saturation, this cause non-linear oscillations and trigger effect.

I also tried to adjust power supply voltage and see how it affects
oscillations.
Below pictures obtained for different power supply voltage

81

pic.10 Ups=20v



pic.11 Ups=25v



pic.12 Ups=30v

The higher the power supply voltage the greater frequency up to which the
ferroresonance occurs. So in this mode of operation to achieve more current
and voltage we have to apply more energy from power source (again).

82

Tesla switch and Co.

We saw a "natural" non-linearity caused by saturatiton, but what if we want
create non-linearity ourselves? One interesting approach is to change
inductance and capacitance in LC circuit on-the-fly.

Let's consider first switching capacitors.


pic1. Two capacitors in series and in parallel

Often people confused with capacitance, charge and stored energy when
rearranging capacitors. This confusion cause some interesting claims about
extra energy etc. Lets remember what we learned in school and calculate
capacitance, charge and stored energy for these two cases shown on pic1.

For series connection:

Cs = C/2
Qs = C/2 * U = C * U / 2
Es = C/2 * U * U / 2 = C * U * U / 4

For parallel connection:

Cp = 2*C
Qp = 2*C * U/2 = C * U
Ep = 2*C * U/2 * U/2 / 2 = C * U * U / 4

These are interesting results; we see that stored energy does not change if
we re-connect capacitors, but charge change.
Perhaps we can use this somehow


Some links:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capacitor


83

Switching coils and caps

Lets try switching something



pic1. My variant of switching capacitors



pic2. Simple MCU based generator to control the switch (see plsgen.rar for
source code)


84

pic3. Updated switch use MOSFETs



pic4. Experimental setup assembled on bread board

Below some oscilloscope traces for the switch connected to 12v power source
thru resistor 1 = C2 = 4.7uF

85

pic5. Switched capacitors and resistor; top on the switch, bottom one of
switch control signals


* notice that half of time current flowing back to battery (or power
source), however this does not mean that we got FE device here ;-)


86

pic6. Switching capacitors connected to power source thru transformer (as
shown on pic3)

In this setup 1 = C2 = 0.1uF


pic7. Switched capacitors and transformer; top-on the switch, bottom-on of
the load (third coil) Both are same picture, but the right is bigger scale.


Link:
http://web.archive.org/web/20120826225130/http://www.energenx.com/john34/tes
la.html

87

Simulating switched capacitors

I made also some simulations about switched capacitors


pic1. Charging and discharging thru resistor


pic2. Charging and discharging thru resistor


88

pic3. rotating capacitor with coil


pic4. rotating capacitor with coil simulation

* this setup somehow similar to synchronous rectifier


89

pic5. rotating capacitor with resistor


pic6. Simulation results for rotating capacitor with resistor



Links:
http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-
173510281975580/unrestricted/chapter2.pdf
http://www.irf.com/product-info/fact_sheet/farnell/10142.pdf
http://www.ti.com/lit/an/snva595/snva595.pdf


90
Switching coils and caps

We tried switching caps, coils (in flyback), now we can try switching both
caps and coils.

Here a model for L/4L 2C/0.5C switch. Such combination of switched L and C
keeps resonance frequency the same.
However frequency can also be adjusted as we will see soon.


pic1. Switching both L and C


pic2. Simulation results for switching both L and C

* notice that waveforms have offset ;-)
** coils can also be switched using diodes.

Real implementation of switches is difficult. I tried several different
setups before I got something working ok.
Here one of setups which works. I use optocouplers to avoid any interference
between control circuit and LC circuit.
91


pic3. Switch based on optocouplers



pic4. Trying switch with resistor (in series to power supply)
top switch control, bottom - current



pic5. Trying switch with inductor (in series to power supply)
top switch control, bottom - current


92

pic6. Inductor and 2C / 0.5C switching, timing adjusted for resonance
top voltage, bottom - current



pic7. Optocouplers switch assembled on bread board


This experiment shows quite well that energy stored in LC tank does not
change when we re-arranging capacitors or coils.

Follow my analogy with water I can say that the amount of water does not
change if you pour it in different size cup


Links:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opto-isolator

93

Variable Inductor

We already saw non-linearity and inductance variations due to saturation.
This effect can be used to create a variable inductor, electrically
controlled variable inductor.

Below shown one of the simplest setups which allow create variable inductor.
We need two identical ring cores with two identical coils on each inductor.
One pair of coils connected co-directional and second pair connected in
opposite direction. One pair will be used to control inductance and other
will be variable inductor.


pic.1 Two ring cores
Ferroxcube FE25 3E25 25/14/10

2x18 turns on each

L1 = 2080uH
L1 + L2 = 4186 uH



pic.2 experimental setup

current adjusted with
potentiometer

inductance measured with L
meter


I,ma 0 4 8 12 16 28 48 72 88 140 200
L,uH 4186 4228 4400 4255 4200 3980 3253 2424 1978 840 383
tab1. Inductance vs. control current

94

pic.3 inductance (L,uH) vs control current (I,ma)



pic4. Comparison of measured inductance with theoretically calculated based
on formula used for non-linear inductance. blue experimental; red -
theoretical



95

pic5. Same setup but bigger cores used



pic6. Even bigger cores

96

pic7. Inductance vs. current for big cores


97

pic8. This a page from old russian book with different variable inductors
setups shown



Some links:
http://translate.google.com/translate?sl=auto&tl=en&js=n&prev=_t&hl=en&ie=UT
F-8&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.hcrs.at%2FPARAMET.HTM
http://jnaudin.free.fr/html/paraconv.htm


98
Magnetic amplifiers

Lets consider one of traditional application of variable inductor
magnetic amplifier.
If we make primary coils in variable inductor with many turns and
secondary coils with small number of turns we can control our variable
inductor with small current and build an amplifier out of it.

Below measured inductance vs. current for coils shown on pic.2

I,ma 0 2,7 3,6 4 5,1 7 10 15,2 21 26,7 30,5 40 50,7
L,mH 35,1 39 37,2 28,4 26,9 21,8 17,2 9,1 5,7 3,4 2,47 1,26 0,75
tab1. Measuring Inductance vs. control current


pic1. Inductance vs. control current (ma)



pic2. coils
two ring cores Ferroxcube FE25-3F3
I 11m -> 250t 0.35
II 1.5m -> 25t 0.5



Now we can try building simple magnetic amplifier

99

pic3. top on one leg of output
transformer; bottom - control



pic4. top output; bottom
control


It would be interesting estimate efficiency of my amplifier

R,ohm 2000 1000 500 400 300 200 100 50
U,v 25,2 21 17,2 14,8 12,8 10 5,6 3,2
P,w 0,159 0,221 0,296 0,274 0,273 0,25 0,157 0,102
COP 14,6 20,2 27,1 25,1 25,1 22,9 14,4 9,4


Power consumption Up = 11,5V; Ip = 0,095A; Pp = 1,0925W



100


pic5. Trying measure COP of my magnetic amplifier (COP in percents vs R load
in ohms)




pic6. Experimental setup

* two secondary winding 24v from small power transformer used as output
transformer



101

pic7. Experiment schematic (hi frequency about 15 KHz, low frequency about 1
KHz)


Its probably not very useful model but it is interesting if we can simulate
magnetic amplifier.


pic8. Model for magnetic amplifier

102

pic9. Simulation of magnetic amplifier


It is interesting why some people tend to believe that magnetic amplifiers
have some magic properties e.g. can have COP more than 100%. What is
actually different from a regular amplifier which uses transistors?
(Power for output signal coming from power source in both cases)


Links:
http://sparkbangbuzz.com/mag-audio-amp/mag-audio-amp.htm
http://www.rfcafe.com/references/popular-electronics/magnetic-amplifiers-
jul-1960-popular-electronics.htm
http://www.themeasuringsystemofthegods.com/magnetic%20amplifiers.pdf
http://www.grimeton.info/long_wave_transmitter.html
http://earlyradiohistory.us/1920alt.htm


103

Parametric resonance

- other interesting type of resonance I would like to mention



pic1. Parametric resonator with variable inductor and a bit of theory


We can see that not only current variation but also inductance variation
affects voltage on the inductor (usually
inductance is constant, so second term is zero).




104

pic2. Simulation for sinusoidal control current



pic3. Simulation for sinusoidal control current with offset
105

Simulation made using finite difference method to solve differential
equation shown above.


Below two examples of parametric resonators from patents


pic4. Mechanical parametric resonator with variable capacitor (see patent
4522510)



pic5. Parametric resonator with electrically controlled inductor

Mechanically controlled inductance is also possible, inductance can be
changed e.g. by changing coils relative position or orientation.

106

pic6. One of setups which were used by L. Mandelstam.
Inductance controlled by changing distance between coil and aluminum plate.



Links:
http://www.tuks.nl/pdf/Reference_Material/Mandelstam_Papalexi/Concerning%20t
he%20Excitation%20of%20Electrical%20Waves%20Through%20Parameter%20Changes%20
English%20translation%201934.pdf
http://www.tuks.nl/pdf/Reference_Material/Mandelstam_Papalexi/
http://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/jw/AC.html
http://aa1tj.blogspot.fi/2012/02/dl3pbs-all-tunnel-diode-parametric.html



Building parametric resonator

Lets try building parametric resonator ourselves.
We can use variable inductor from our previous experiments.

pic1. Parametric resonator experiment

I use signal generator and audio amplifier to control variable inductor.
Below shown waveforms for different modes of oscillations in parametric
resonator.

107






pic2. top- I
x
, bottom- U
x,
f = 511hz


108
Same circuit but 2x control frequency











pic3. top- I
x,
bottom - U
x,
f = 911hz



This is very interesting setup, our variable inductor has inductive input
reactance, so theoretically we can have normal resonance in a control
circuit and parametric resonance on the output ;-)

109
Standing waves or resonance in a media

So far we observed resonance which was localized in components or circuit
but it is possible to have a dimensional resonance when oscillations occurs
e.g. due to limited propagation velocity and reflections.
As first example lets see a resonance in 10m long coaxial cable shorted at
one end (1/4 wave resonance, frequency near 8 MHz).


pic1. Generator I used for this experiment





pic2. Power amplifier


110

pic3. Experimental setup




pic4. Resonance in coaxial cable

top voltage on the amplifier
output, bottom on the end of the
line




pic5. Same but frequency adjusted
a little



Links:
http://physics.info/waves-standing/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflections_of_signals_on_conducting_lines
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Il_eju4D_TM


111
Waves in ferrite core

There can be different type of media where resonance occur, sound waves
inside some objects can produce very powerful resonance.

See this for example http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=17tqXgvCN0E

Similar effects can be created in ferrite cores. Conventional use of this
effect is ultrasonic sound sources
but perhaps, one day we can find some other interesting applications.



pic1. How oscillations occur in a rod



pic2. How oscillations occur in a ring core


I made a small Java program which simulate waves (based on wave equation)
Here a video with results captured
https://www.dropbox.com/s/annxxvnmh8chq9v/wave.flv
and here Java application itself
https://www.dropbox.com/s/4dmte1747d4lbe9/wave.jar (source code included)
It is easy to modify the program to simulate different setups.
112
In this particular simulation two sources (with same amplitude and phase)
connected to the left and to the right ends of the media.


pic3. Snapshot of simulation screen

panel 1 "snapshot of the wave"
panel 2 generator 1 (most left point, 0)
panel 3 oscilations in point L/4
panel 4 oscilations in point 3*L/4
panel 5 oscilations in point L/2
panel 6 = 3 + 4

Panels 2-6 are oscilloscope like views (amplitude vs time) and panel 1
show media state in different locations (amplitude vs position).


Links:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standing_wave
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetostriction
https://www.dropbox.com/s/sbeoh5y185xe9h1/How%20oscillations%20occur.pdf
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/WaveEquation.html
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/waves/

113
Chapter 4. Bifilar coils

Permanent magnets

and magnetic fields of different coils is a next topic I would like to
discuss.



pic1. Ring magnets



pic2. Magnetic flux density vs distance from magnet for ring magnet



114

pic3. Rectangular magnets



pic4. Magnetic flux density vs distance from magnet for rectangular magnet




115

pic5. Ring magnet with hole



pic6. Magnetic flux density vs distance from magnet for ring magnet with
hole


I was just drawing these graphs and result was quite unexpected for me,
according to this graph there is a point at some distance (about 4mm) where
flux is zero and changing sign.
So the hole in magnet behave as a magnet with opposite orientation



116

pic7. Magnetic flux density for different shape magnets
red ring 20x5, green ring 9x5, blue rectangular 10x10x5, black circ.
20x5 with hole 5mm




pic8. Properties of different magnets


Links:
http://3gcl.no-
ip.org/3GCL/Datasheets/Electronics/Magnetics/Magnetic%20Design.htm
http://www.magneticsolutions.com.au/magnet-formula.html
http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/general_physics/2_6/2_6_6.html
http://www.rare-earth-magnets.com/Permanent-Magnet-Selection-and-Design-
Handbook.pdf
http://ether.sciences.free.fr/electrets.htm
http://www.sae.edu/reference_material/audio/pages/Microphones.htm




117
Magnetic field of aregular coil

There is a lot of confusion about magnetic field and especially about anti-
aligned or opposed magnetic fields.
Some people tend to believe that field lines and poles are exist in reality,
also often said that fields adding or compensating each other.

When you use geographical map, are you expecting to see geodesic lines on
the field or mountain? ;-) No, of course not. We know that these are
imaginary lines showing places with equal height. Please remember about
this when dealing with fields in physics. Dont mix math which used for
calculations with reality.



pic1. Magnetic field of solenoid, see (1) for more details.




118

pic2. Magnetic field of solenoid calculated using formula above



pic3. Magnetic field lines, see (1) for more details.


Links:
http://web.mit.edu/8.02t/www/materials/StudyGuide/guide09.pdf (1)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helmholtz_coil
http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/8/8.02T/f04/visualizations/magnetostatics/24-
coilsopposed/24-coilsopposed320.html
http://homepages.ius.edu/kforinas/physlets/magnetism/magnetism.html
http://www.rakeshkapoor.us/ClassNotes/MagneticFieldduetoCurrent.html


119
Simple magnetic field probe


Before going into details, I would like to warn you.
Even mainstream medicine accepts that pulse magnetic fields have very
significant effect on human body and consciousness, not always positive
effects.
It is known that about 10% of animals can feel magnetic fields. Some people
also can feel and even see fields but due to current social conditions these
skills are not appreciated, so most people are not even aware that it is
possible.
To avoid any potential damage we can (must) build simple magnetic field
probe.


pic1. Probes schematic

* second LED is optional

Wind some coil on the ferrite rod and attach LED thru 1k resistor.
You can use this probe as indicator and as a safety tool.



pic2. Picture of my probe

* Assembled on a wood ruler
** One layer coil, 0.4mm wire on ferrite rod (mu = 400)

When you see LED glowing, it means that strength of magnetic field is high
enough, so you should never be near that place, do not expose your body to
magnetic fields until you want risk your health (and may be life).
Please note that that often results of exposure are cumulative, symptoms
appeared after some time and grows exponentially. It could be too late. Do
not neglect your health and safety!

Now you have been warned.
120
Magnetic field of bifilar coil

I will be using word bifilar for coils made of two sections with opposing
magnetic fields.
There are many possible variations and I will try to review them one by one.
First setup I would like to discuss made of two cylindrical coils with
different diameters, small coil placed inside bigger one. This setup was
inspired by magnet with a hole.



pic1. Bifilar coil type 1


pic2. Magnetic field of bifilar coil
121
top red magnetic field of outer(bigger) coil, green - magnetic field of
inner (smaller) coil,
bottom resulting magnetic field (sum)

Please note that this graph represent Bz, component of B which is directed
along central axe of the coils.
Dont be confused, there is a magnetic field at the point where Bz = 0, it
is just have vector B perpendicular to z.

It is similar to situation when two magnets face each other with same poles.
Field in the middle is not zero, only horizontal component (on pic2a) is
zero in the middle point.


pic2a. Magnetic field lines of two opposed magnets



pic3. Driver schematic

122

pic4. Experimental setup


Coils parameters:

Inner coil diameter 5cm,
outer coil diameter 10cm,
height (of winding) 5,5cm,
Approximately 140 turns, wire 0,4mm
Inductance of outer coil L
10
= 1415uH,
Inductance of inner coil L
5
= 450uH
Inductance when coil connected same direction L
+
= 2540 uH,
when connected in opposite L
--
= 1292 uH




pic5. top voltage on primary, bottom - voltage on small test coil


123

pic6. Two pickup coils (connected also in opposite) placed symmetrically
related to zero Bz point (see points A and B on pic2)



pic7. top - voltage on primary, bottom voltage on pickup coils (with
some small load resistor)

* It seems that my calculations give realistic shape of the magnetic field,
* Even symmetric bifilar pickup coils affects resonance in primary coil when
loaded.


Links:
http://homepages.ius.edu/kforinas/physlets/magnetism/magnetism.html (see
case B, anti parallel)

124

Magnetic field of bifilar coil 2


Next possible setup is - two cylindrical coils near each other (also known
as anti aligned Helmholtz coils)


pic1. Calculation of magnetic field of anti aligned Helmholtz coils



pic2. Bifilar coil type 2


125


pic3. top-voltage on the coil,
bottom voltage on one turn coil
used as magnet field sensor



pic4. When moving test coil
amplitude decrease and then
increase again, phase change when
we cross 0 point




pic5. Phase changed

126

pic6. Different coil used to see if there is a perpendicular magnet field
component



pic7. top-voltage on the coil, bottom voltage on test coil shown on pic.6

127

pic8. Two coils wound in opposite direction placed symmetrically relative to
0 point used as pick-up coils



pic9. top-voltage on the coil, bottom voltage on two coil shown on pic.8


* Loading pickup coils affects resonance in primary coil, again.

128
Opposite coils on ferrite rod

It is interesting to see how ferrite (core) affects behavior of our setup.
So I decided to try setup with two opposed coils on ferrite rod. Usually it
said that core absorbs magnetic field and there is very small part of
magnetic field exists outside transformer core. With opposed coils it is not
true, significant part of magnetic field is forced out.
(this can be confirmed easily with simple magnetic field probe)



pic1. Similar setup but with ferrite

Two section of primary coil, about 200 turns each, wire 0.33mm


pic2. Moving test coil along the rod




moving small coil from left to
right, minimum amplitude in the
middle and phase change

129





pic3. Moving test coil and observing amplitude and phase change


Often people tend to believe that bifilar coils does not create magnetic
field and therefore bifilar pickup coils will not load primary coil. It is
difficult to resist checking this again ;-)



pic4. Two pickup coils placed symmetrically



130

pic5. Setup for power extraction
test

top on the primary coil, bottom
on pickup coils, both pairs
connected in opposite

Circuit consumption
Ups = 11.6v, Ips = 8ma, P = 90mW



pic6. Under load

R load = 1k






R,k 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1
U,v 1,5 2,2 3,3 4,1 5 5,5 6,2 7 7,5 8,1
P,mW 22,5 24,2 36,3 42 50 50,4 54,9 61,3 62,5 65,6
Tab.1 Voltage on pickup coils vs load resistance


131

pic7. Voltage and power vs load resistance


Some how magic doesnt work and we can see that load affect primary coils


Opposite coils on the ring core

I am continuing fun with opposite coils on ferrite cores and now I decided
test ring core.



pic1. Two coils wound on ring ferrite core

Primary coils parameters:
Two coils about 40 turns each (4m of wire used for each), wire 0.44mm
L1,2 = 2540uH
L1+2 = 9420uH
L1-2 = 540uH
132



pic2. Test setup



pic2a. Test setup, coils arrangement.


Secondary coils same as primary (40 turns each)




pic3. Testing the setup, top voltage on the primary, bottom voltage on
pickup coils




133
R,ohm 1 2 3 4 5 10 20 30 40 50
U,v 0,7 0,8 1 1,2 1,3 1,7 2,2 2,5 2,8 3
P,mW 490,00 320,00 333,33 360,00 338,00 289,00 242,00 208,33 196,00 180,00
Tab1. Measuring voltage vs load resistance

R,ohm 100 200 300 400 500 1000 1500 2000
U,v 3,6 4,2 4,5 4,6 4,7 5 5 5
P,mW 129,60 88,20 67,50 52,90 44,18 25,00 16,67 12,50
Tab1. part 2




pic4. Voltage on the load vs load resistance

134

pic5. Power on the load vs load resistance


It is interesting that this setup shows quite good behavior under load
(but its still not OU, at least in my tests).

135

Reversed Phi transformer

- another interesting setup I would like to show.



pic. Phi transformer, picture from A Practical Guide to Free-Energy
Devices by Patrick Kelly

Instead of rotating magnet and attaching load to the coils, we can connect
coils in opposite and apply some power to them. Then significant part of
magnetic field will be forced out of the core on the points where coils
connects (points A and B). We can put a pickup coil between these two
points.


pic1a. Two variants of winding of pickup coils


pic1. Pickup coil wound on a tube assembled of 8 ring cores (variant 1)

136

pic2. Test setup schematic




pic3. top voltage on primary, bottom voltage on pickup coil, does not
work very well




pic4. Rewound pickup coil (variant 2)


137

pic5. top voltage on primary, bottom voltage on pickup coil for second
setup, works better.

Second attempt seems to be working ok; it has very small effect on primary
under load, but also does not provide much power.


Links:
http://frienergi.alternativkanalen.com/Chapt1.html
http://www.free-energy-info.co.uk/



Scalar coil

If you take two wires and wind two coils together, then connect coils to
have opposing magnetic fields you get non-inductive bifilar coil. Two
variants of connection presented on pic.4 and pic.5. Both variant will have
similar magnetic field configuration.



pic1. Picture and formula for magnetic field produced by one turn of wire
(from MIT 8.02 physics course chapter 9)
138


pic2. Magnetic field of one turn.




pic3. Magnetic field of two turns with opposite currents (top) and sum
(bottom).


139


pic4. Parallel connection



pic5. Serial connection



pic6. Drawing field of scalar coil
top field of separate turns, bottom resulting sum

Please note that this graph again represent only Bz, component of B which is
directed along central axe of the coil.
Dont be confused, there is a magnetic field at the point where Bz = 0, it
is just have vector B perpendicular to z.


140

pic7. Field of two opposed magnets, similar to field of two opposed turns


So lets try taking a closer look on the perpendicular (By) component of
magnetic field of scalar coil.




pic1. Picture from MIT 8.02 course (see 1)



pic2. Formulas for magnetic field (see 1)



141

Strength of By change significantly with distance from the coil (y)
I will draw By at tree fixed distance (3.5, 4, 4.5 cm from the coil central
axe)



pic3. Field of one turn By(z)
red y=4.5, green y=4, blue y=3.5





pic4a. By(z), y = 3.5
Field of two turns
142


pic4b. By(z), y = 4


pic4c. By(z), y = 4.5





143

pic5a. By(z), y = 3.5
Field of 10 turns



pic5b. By(z), y = 4

144

pic5c. By(z), y = 4.5


The simulation use very simple algorithm for integral calculation, it can
give some calculation errors.
However, main point here is that fields of scalar coil are far nonzero
and mainly located outside the coil and core (if it present).

I hope this help to avoid unexpected interference and exposure to magnetic
fields.



Links:
http://web.mit.edu/8.02t/www/materials/StudyGuide/guide09.pdf (1)
http://christopherbradshaw.net/The_Project_Bin/Schumann%20Frequency%20Oscill
ator%20with%20Scalar%20Coil.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bifilar_coil

145
Chapter 5. Displacement current

How they do that?

I am starting new thread to discuss not very common transformer
arrangements. And for beginning I would like to show some strange
pictures. When I saw these pictures first time, my reaction was How they do
that?


pic1. Voltage across screwdriver enough to light a bulb



pic2. One short wire inside lighting a 12v bulb

146

pic3. Voltage across tweezers leg enough to light a bulb.


pic4. Capacitor placed inside the coil lighting a bulb, primary coil also
capacitor



pic5. Again primary and secondary are capacitors



147

pic6. Transformer layout





pic7. If we take N transformers
with N:1 windings and connect them
like it shown on the picture we will
get 1:1 transformer.

Inductance is proportional to the
square of turns. Ring with 10 turns
has an inductance of 100. Ten rings
in parallel have inductance 10. This
is 10 times greater than a single
turn.
So after consideration it appeared to be just a different step down
transformer setup. After studding this subject more I found that such
transformers used in different equipment and not invention of some smart
guy on FE forum (as it usually claimed :-). See below some examples.




148

pic8. transformer from
modern welding machine



pic9. Picture from http://www.classeradio.com/driver.htm (MOSFET driver)


149

pic10. Picture from http://homepage.tinet.ie/~ei9gq/pa1.html (HF amplifier)


Thats fine, but what about capacitors instead of windings?
Well, it seems that transformer actually dont care whether winding is a
wire or capacitor (some combination of wires or plates). I will show more
of it in next posts ;-)


Links:
http://homepage.tinet.ie/~ei9gq/pa1.html
http://www.classeradio.com/driver.htm

150


Coaxial transformer with a pipe

Lets consider similar setup to what we seen in previous post but this time
we will take a copper pipe as a primary and use just one wire as a secondary
(and put this wire inside the pipe). Lets do a simple experiment and let
physicists explain why and how it works ;-)



pic. A transformer layout




pic1. Experiment with coaxial transformer (only one half used in this
experiment)

151

pic2. Schematic for the experiment



pic3. top voltage on primary
(pipe), bottom - on the secondary
(single wire inside pipe)
connected to a small light bulb.


pic4. top voltage on primary
(pipe), bottom current in
primary (measured on 0.03 ohm
resistor)

Circuit's power consumption:
Ups = 11.6v
Is = 245ma
Ps = 2.7W

Small light bulb from car side lights used as a load.



152

pic5. Similar setup, different driver and ferrite rings used

Amazingly it works! Do you see something unusual or strange in this setup?



Properties of coaxial transformer


So, whats wrong with coaxial transformer? Ok, lets try remember some
physics.


pic1. Magnetic field of wire (see 1 for more details)


153

pic2. Magnetic field of the wire


1) Based on above information we can conclude that magnetic field inside a
pipe (our primary) should be zero (because there is no current inside it).
However why then our transformer works? How voltage/current in secondary
induced? ;-)


pic3. More weird experiments to consider

2) Why phase of current in secondary same as in primary?
(remember oscilloscope sots from previous post ?)
154

3) Let say if use single wire as a secondary we get 10v output voltage.
Now if we take a longer wire and make a coil of it and insert it in side or
primary
Guess what voltage we get ok, same 10v.
So we have different inductance but same voltage, isnt it nice?

We can wound bifilar coil, other different types of coils but result will be
same, same voltage on the ends.
(Still nothing strange ?)

4) We can put capacitor inside pipe, we will get same voltage on it.
What ever we put inside e.g. screwdriver - same voltage will be on its ends



Links:
http://web.mit.edu/8.02t/www/materials/StudyGuide/guide09.pdf (1)

155


Displacement current in capacitor

Some people say that there is a magnetic field inside capacitor, some other
people say that this magnetic field created by displacement current and if
we put a coil inside capacitor we will get some voltage induced on the coil
and if put load on the coil there will be no reaction on the circuit where
capacitor connected.
Despite these claims sounds obscure philosophically lets try consider
them more deeply. (Obscure, because usually we dont see actions without
reactions in nature)

When talking about magnetic field usually picture like this presented


pic1. Calculating magnetic field


and formula like this appeared


pic2. Magnetic field inside thin capacitor according to (2)


We can even draw the magnetic field using above formula
156

pic3. Drawing magnetic field inside capacitor

However if you read explanations you see that there is definetly something
wrong. To illustrate how really bad situation is I would like to quote
explanations about displacement current from (2)




pic6. Quote from (2)


Sure, it is a challenge to understand what is virtual wire and virtual
magnetic field ;-)
(see 2 for more challenges)

I got impression that the only thing guys care about is to make their
equations look nice. And what I actually would like to know - is there
really displacement current and magnetic filed inside capacitor ?

After some search I found these measurements results (see 4)


157

pic4. Magnetic field measured inside capacitor (see 4 for more details)


So it seems that there is really a magnetic field inside capacitor.




158

pic5. Current in capacitors plates (picture from 6)


However this fields caused by currents inside capacitor plates and no
actual current exists inside capacitor. Lets try check other obscure
claims in practice ;-)


Links:
http://web.mit.edu/8.02t/www/materials/StudyGuide/guide13.pdf
http://www.physics.princeton.edu/~mcdonald/examples/displacement.pdf (2)
http://www.phy.duke.edu/~rgb/Class/Electrodynamics/Electrodynamics/node28.ht
ml
https://www.dropbox.com/s/ijvf7o6czndn893/dc_meas.pdf (4)
https://www.dropbox.com/s/8l8uyqwqwk5alsm/809.full.pdf
http://www.ivorcatt.org/icrwiworld78dec1.htm (6)
http://download.antennex.com/preview/Nov02/Nov0602/dca-1.pdf
http://www.antennex.com/shack/Apr07/dc_factfan.pdf
http://www.antennex.com/shack/Aug05/dc-final_piece.pdf
http://itee.uq.edu.au/~aupec/aupec04/papers/PaperID84.pdf
http://www.overunityresearch.com/index.php?topic=210.0


159
Capacitor with a coil on ring core


I took big ferrite ring core and put two aluminum disks (made from cooking
foil) on core sides.
I made about 1/4 length gap in the disks and wound a test coil there.
Here a picture (see layout on pic. 3)


pic1. Capacitor with coil



pic2. Experimental setup, half bridge driver connected to capacitor-with-
coil


160

pic3. Capacitor with coil layout

Parameters measured with LC meter:
C = 33pf
L = 1.1mH (30turns wire 0.7mm)

First I attached a signal generator and tried to see how my setup behaves,
here some pictures







pic4. top-on the output coil, bottom- on capacitor
161

Then I tried same with half bridge driver.


pic5. Rectangular pulses seems
produce better results



pic6. Load resistance 10

Perhaps capacitance is too small.

162

Capacitor with a coil of ferrite rod

After failure with ring capacitor I decided try slightly different
arrangement.
I made a capacitor like this




and wound it on ferrite rod, than I wound a pickup coil on top of it.
I used aluminum foil and got about 2000pf capacitance for my capacitor.




pic1. Half bridge driver, 390uH inductor and capacitor-with-coil wound on
ferrite rod

163
I decided try use resonance in primary; this could help see if load affects
driver circuit.


pic2. Capacitor-with-coil on ferrite rod layout (serial resonance)



R,ohm 50 100 200 300 400 500 1000 2000 3000
U,v 0,7 1,28 2,4 3,6 4,6 5,2 7,8 9,6 10,2
P,mW 9,8 16,38 28,8 43,2 52,9 54,08 60,84 46,08 34,68


It seems that load does not affect the much input! I can see even in some
cases that amplitude on capacitor increased under load, but Pin/Pout ratio
is far from 1. If we manage to optimize the geometry and the driver
perhapswe can get something interesting ;-)


pic3. Voltage vs load resistance


164

pic4. Power vs load resistance

I also tried longer pickup coil and parallel resonance in primary.





pic5. Experimental setup with longer pickup coil


165

pic6. Capacitor-with-coil on ferrite rod layout (parallel resonance)



R,ohm 50 130 250 500 1000 1500 2000 3000 4200 5200 6200
U,v 0,8 2 4 6,4 10 12,5 16 20,8 27,2 28,8 30
P,mW 12,8 30,77 64 81,92 100 104,2 128 144,2 176,2 159,5 145,2



pic7. top on the capacitor, bottom on the coil



166


pic8. Voltage vs load resistance


pic9. Power vs load resistance

I thought that this is interesting and I continued efforts in this
direction.

167
Coil - capacitor

I am continuing with weird transformers setups. After some experiments I
found out that we can make a capacitor and wind it on ferrite core. We will
have a capacitor and each its plate became an inductor.



Layout of coil/capacitor, two foil stripes isolated with scotch tape and
wound into RM ferrite core.



pic1. Coil-cap on RM10 core

Stripes length = 30cm, width = 10mm
Measured capacitance C
13
= 1000pf,
Inductance L
12
= 828uH (about 10 turns)



pic2. Experimental setup 1

168
We have a capacitor (points 1,4) and it is also a primary coil. At the same
time we can use one of plates as a secondary coil (points 3,4) to connect
some load.



pic3. top voltage in point 1, bottom voltage on resistor (point 3)




pic4. Resonance setup 1 (serial resonance inductor + our capacitor 14)

We can have resonance in this setup by adding extra inductor and using
corresponding frequency.


pic5. top voltage in point 1, bottom voltage on resistor (point 3)

169


pic6. Resonance setup 2 (parallel with extra inductor)



pic7. top voltage in point 1, bottom voltage on resistor (point 3),
frequency too small for resonance on this picture.


In all these setups we can also use extra normal winding as a secondary
and our capacitor as a primary winding.

170


Aligned and anti-aligned connection

Thinking more about different combinations and how coil-capacitor can be
used I found that there are two different connections possible.


pic1. Experimental setup with coil-capacitor


pic2. Two connections

When we use points 1,2 as a capacitor connection currents in plates will
flow in opposite directions and will have anti-aligned magnetic fields. But
if we use points 1,4 currents in plates will flow in same direction and
will have aligned magnetic fields. In both cases external circuit will see
our coil-capacitor as a capacitor.


171

pic3. aligned connection

top voltage on the driver
connected to our capacitor (point
1, 4 connected to the ground);
bottom voltage on free plate
end (point 3)

Found resonance and apparently it
depends on the length of the
plates.


pic4. Effect of load resistor (1
connected to 3,4)



pic5. Anti-aligned connection

top voltage on the driver
connected to our capacitor (point
1, 3 connected to the ground);
bottom voltage on free plate
end (point 4)

(same voltage scale on top and
bottom)


172

pic6. Same as pic.5, but bigger
scale on bottom


After all these exercises it seems that coil-capacitor behaves more like a
transmission line (line with distributed inductance and capacitance)


Links:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_line



173

Coil-capacitor on the ring core

First successful experiments with coil-capacitor were performed on RM cores;
it was interesting for me to see if it will work same way on core with
different shape, so I made a coil-capacitor on ferrite ring core.



pic. Coil-capacitor layout, prepared to be wound on the core

I used foil stripes with length 30cm and width 15mm.
I got capacitance 3400pf and inductance 270uH


pic1. Coil-capacitor on a ring core (Epcos N30 34x20,5x12,5)



pic2. Aligned and anti-aligned connection


I tried how aligned and anti-aligned connection works

174

pic3. Anti-aligned connection (1-3)

top voltage on the driver
connected to our capacitor (point 1,
3 connected to the ground);
bottom voltage on free plate end
(point 4)



pic4. Aligned connection (1-4)

top voltage on the driver
connected to our capacitor (point 1,
4 connected to the ground);
bottom voltage on free plate end
(point 3)




Behavior looks very similar to coil-capacitor made using RM-10 core.


Links:
http://www.ferroxcube.com/prod/assets/rm10ilp.pdf


175
Chapter 6. Negative resistance

- is next topic I would like to discuss.

Every one (probably) remember the Ohms law, it relies on linear behavior of
resistors. However we see in nature circuits with non-linear resistance,
also we can create such circuits ourselves. Here we will take a closer look
on negative resistance.



pic1. Normal resistance behavior

Negative resistance is a property of some electric circuits where an
increase in the current results in a decreased voltage. This is in contrast
to a simple ohmic resistor, which exhibits an increase in voltage under the
same conditions.

There are two types of negative resistance usually discussed, one with N-
shape and one with S-shape I-V characteristic.

pic2. N type negative resistance I-V characteristic

176

pic2a. Here a simulation which tries to create N type of negative resistance
top R(U), bottom I(U)

I think it is obvious that even resistance changes here overall behavior of
circuit will be similar to normal resistance, so all power in the circuit
comes from power source. Often people give this as an argument when they
saying that its negative differential resistance and no power comes from
it. Yes, it is true but only for this type of NDR.

Second type of negative resistance is S type.


pic3. S type negative resistance I-V characteristic

Here some more consideration required because we have to increase voltage
and decrease it in order to enter negative resistance region. I tried make a
simulation where voltage grows linearly and then decrease back to zero.


177

pic3a. Simulation of S type NDR, top-voltage, middle-R(U),bottom-I(U)

I think it is obvious that in some cases circuit with negative resistance
have to deliver extra power into circuit in order to implement S shaped I-
V curve. (Even Wikipedia admits it :-)

So theoretically, if we subject some circuit with S type NDR to short pulses
we could have some extra power (Short pulses needed because we have to enter
negative resistance region with a minimal energy loses).

I tried to illustrate this with the next simulation



pic4. Circuit for energy balance estimation


178

pic5. Simulation of circuit shown on pic.4



pic6.Energy consumed from power source pic7. Energy on load (R1)

I think this is very interesting theoretical conclusion which can help us in
a search for FE. There are many natural circuits with S shaped NDR
characteristic.

I will try list different NDR circuits in next posts.


Links:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohm%27s_law
http://users.tpg.com.au/ldbutler/NegativeResistance.htm
http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/S-Type+Negative-
Resistance+Semiconductor+Device
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Circuit_Idea/Revealing_the_Mystery_of_Negative_
Impedance
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Circuit_Idea/Negative_Resistance
http://www.sparkbangbuzz.com/els/zincosc-el.htm


179

Examples of NDR with transistors

Lets see two example circuits with artificially created N-shape negative
resistance type.



pic1. N-shape negative resistance circuit using transistors



pic2. I-V curve and R(I) characteristic


180

pic3. Basic Lambda diode implementation



pic4. I-V curve of Lambda diode

This lambda diode replacement circuit used very often in different RF
applications.


Links:
http://electronbunker.ca/NegativeResistance.html
http://www.zen22142.zen.co.uk/Theory/neg_resistance/negres.htm
http://users.tpg.com.au/ldbutler/NegResDipMeter.htm

181

Zener diode

- also can be seen as an negative resistance in some cases


pic1. Test circuit



pic2. U,I and R=U/I for zener diode


182

pic3. top-R(U),bottom - I(U)


Links:
http://www.fairchildsemi.com/ds/BZ/BZX84C6V8.pdf
http://www.onsemi.com/pub_link/Collateral/HBD854-D.PDF



Core saturation

We saw that inductance decreases due to saturation; this gives us
interesting natural non linear resistance behavior.


pic1. Looped flyback


183

pic2. V,I and R=V/I




pic3. I-V and R(V) graphs


184
LC circuit as negative resistance

Core saturation in inductor together with capacitor can behave as negative
resistance. This often causes unwanted oscillations in power lines and
serious efforts made to prevent it.


pic1. Parallel LC as NDR



pic2. Simulating parallel LC as NDR


185

pic3. Simulating parallel LC as NDR (top-R(U), bottom- I-V characteristic)



pic4. Serial LC as NDR


186

pic5. Simulating serial LC as NDR



pic6. Simulating serial LC as NDR (top-R(U), bottom- I-V characteristic)


187
Avalanche breakdown effect in transistor

Almost any bipolar transistor can be used as a negative resistance. Below
shown S type I-V curve for npn transistor. (Unfortunately cant find any
better quality picture)



pic1. I-V curve for reverse biased npn transistor



188

pic2. Test schematics with transistor in avalanche mode (see 1 for more
details)





pic3. Waveforms for above circuits





Links:
http://jlnlabs.online.fr/cnr/negosc.htm (1)
http://www.onsemi.com/pub_link/Collateral/AN1628-D.PDF
http://www.elektor.com/magazines/2012/september/electronics-for-starters-
%287%29.2235967.lynkx (3)

189
Broomstick antenna

Broomstick antenna is known for a very long time, since the 30s of the last
century, and is sometimes still used as radio receivers for the LW and MW
bands.



pic1. The antenna has S-type NDR characteristic



pic2. Construction of broomstick antenna



Links:
http://translate.google.com/translate?sl=ru&tl=en&js=n&prev=_t&hl=en&ie=UTF-
8&u=http%3A%2F%2Fqrp.ru%2Farticles%2F56-ra3aae-articles%2F474-
%D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%BB%D0%BA%D0%B0&act=url
http://www.km5kg.com/negative.htm

190
Spark gap

The spark gap is most common effect used by FE researchers since 19
th

century. However not many researchers recognize it as S type NDR and
therefore good candidate for energy source itself.


pic1. Test circuit with spark gap



pic2. Spark gap simulation

191

pic3. Same as pic.2 but larger time scale




pic4. Voltage versus current characteristics for neon gas (turn picture 90
degree to see S shape I-V NDR)


Voltage versus current characteristics for neon gas at 1 Torr pressure
between flat electrodes spaced 50 cm. A-D dark discharge, D-I glow
discharge, I-K arc. A-B represent non-self-sustaining discharge and
collection of spontaneously-generated ions. B-D is the Townsend region,
where the cascade multiplication of carriers takes place. D-E is the
transition to a glow discharge, breakdown of the gas. E-G represents
transition to a normal glow; in the regions around G, voltage is nearly
constant for varying current. The region G-I represents abnormal glow, as
current density rises. I-J represents transition to an arc discharge.

*picture and text from (1)


192

Links:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_discharge (1)
http://mysite.du.edu/~jcalvert/phys/dischg.htm




Shorting

The idea of shorting transformer secondary often discussed on EVGRAY group.
Shorting creates an artificial negative resistance and oscillations.


pic1. Model



pic2. Simulation without shorting switch

193


pic3. Simulation with switch active



In last posts I tried to show different types of NDR and theoretical
possibility to get some extra energy. This is just an idea. I hope it helps
somebody who wants research this subject deeper.



194

Afterword

I tried present some practical stuff and provide many theoretical links. I
hope that is was interesting and you found something new and useful. This
knowledge will be a common ground for further development. I think that we
cant build a FE device without a precise understanding how it supposed to
work, so next book will be about different FE device concepts.




195


Software

Simulation software used in this book can be found


- LTspice IV is a high performance SPICE simulator
http://www.linear.com/designtools/software/?gclid=CLbO1aT367kCFZN8cAodRQIAMQ
#LTspice


- Scilab is free and open source software for numerical computation
providing a powerful computing environment for engineering and scientific
applications. See www.scilab.org




196






Good luck!
















Free Energy Research





Experiments


Volume 2
























Revision 1

FE R&D group http://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/ferd041/info

2014

2



Chapter 3. Nonlinear inductance................................................................................................................ 4
Literature ................................................................................................................................................ 4
Nonlinear inductance concept ................................................................................................................ 4
D.I.s idea ........................................................................................................................................... 6
Some theory........................................................................................................................................ 7
Simulation for resistive load ............................................................................................................ 10
Simulation for setup with capacitor.................................................................................................. 12
Simulating xL in LTSpice.................................................................................................................... 13
Model with voltage source ............................................................................................................... 13
Model with current source................................................................................................................ 15
Nonlinear capacitor simulation ............................................................................................................ 16
Lets try simulate system with nonlinear capacitor.......................................................................... 16
Trying different nonlinearity............................................................................................................ 17
Double frequency setup........................................................................................................................ 19
Using coaxial transformer for pulse injection .............................................................................. 22
Diode mixer...................................................................................................................................... 23
Filter based mixer............................................................................................................................. 24
Separate driver.................................................................................................................................. 26
Dual frequency setup idea .................................................................................................................... 29
Anti-aligned flybacks ........................................................................................................................... 32
Dual frequency setup upside down ...................................................................................................... 37
xL with variable inductor ..................................................................................................................... 42
Experiments with magnetless MEG..................................................................................................... 45
About variable capacitor ...................................................................................................................... 49
Mechanical xL simulation.................................................................................................................... 50
Chapter 4. MEG ....................................................................................................................................... 54
MEG experiment .................................................................................................................................. 54
Magnetic circuits and simulations........................................................................................................ 59
Model with differentials ................................................................................................................... 60
Model with controlled current sources............................................................................................. 61
Model with controlled voltage sources ............................................................................................ 62
Adding nonlinearity.......................................................................................................................... 63
Adding air gap.................................................................................................................................. 64
xL model .......................................................................................................................................... 65
Magnetic circuit layouts ....................................................................................................................... 67
Permanent magnet ............................................................................................................................ 67
Parallel connection ........................................................................................................................... 67
Series connection.............................................................................................................................. 69
Some calculation examples .............................................................................................................. 70
Different layouts............................................................................................................................... 71
Simulating MEG with ring modulator ................................................................................................. 74
First model........................................................................................................................................ 75
How offset affect magnetic switch on the ring core?....................................................................... 75
BH curve model ............................................................................................................................... 77
More detailed MEG model............................................................................................................... 78
Same model calculated in scilab ...................................................................................................... 80
Drivers for magnetic switch modulator................................................................................................ 82
Ferro resonance control setup .......................................................................................................... 82
Driver with 2 Flyback ...................................................................................................................... 83
PWM current source......................................................................................................................... 88
3
Simplified MEG setup.......................................................................................................................... 90
Dual core simplified MEG setup.......................................................................................................... 94
Asymmetric magnetic switch............................................................................................................... 96
Loses in modulator ........................................................................................................................... 97
MEG model ...................................................................................................................................... 99
Energy in coil vs loses.................................................................................................................... 102
Experiments with magnetic switch .................................................................................................... 104
Experiment with magnetic switch.................................................................................................. 104
Estimating power balance .............................................................................................................. 107
Flyback based driver ...................................................................................................................... 110
Look for the step......................................................................................................................... 113
Ceramic magnets ............................................................................................................................ 118
Small neodymium magnets ............................................................................................................ 120
Experiments with magnetic switch (2)............................................................................................... 122
Longer pickup coil ......................................................................................................................... 122
New modulator coil ........................................................................................................................ 124
Another modulator ......................................................................................................................... 126
Version with two cores................................................................................................................... 131
Modulator on metglass core ............................................................................................................... 137
Magnetless MEG................................................................................................................................ 143
Petrs device ....................................................................................................................................... 149
Anti-aligned connection ................................................................................................................. 151
Aligned connection ........................................................................................................................ 153
Longer coils.................................................................................................................................... 155
Asymmetric setup........................................................................................................................... 159
Improving driver ............................................................................................................................ 161
Bigger cores.................................................................................................................................... 165
Non-symmetric modulator ................................................................................................................. 167
Chapter 5. Parametric resonance............................................................................................................ 172
Parametric resonator as reactive power converter.............................................................................. 172
First trial with Panasonic core........................................................................................................ 173
Same setup on low frequency......................................................................................................... 175
Variable inductor on iron core ........................................................................................................... 177
3 phase controlled inductance .......................................................................................................... 180
Experiment with parametric resonator ............................................................................................... 183





4

Chapter 3. Nonlinear inductance

Literature

So far I was exploring natural existing nonlinearity and magnetization
delays in cores in attempt to gain some energy form it. Now I will try to
take this approach to a "new level" and see if we can create nonlinearity
ourselves and used for our needs.


Here some is reading for beginning:

1. Patent 2648823, W.E. Kock, Thermoelectric translation device
https://www.dropbox.com/s/7m8i6pkj00jy6lc/ferro_ele_thermo.pdf

2. New Energy Technologies, Issue #5/6 (14/15) September/December 2003
A. Ries, A. Z. Simoes, M. A. Zaghete, J. A. Varela
A simple device for Heat to Electrical energy conversion by means of
ferroelectrics
https://www.dropbox.com/s/e5wdpvnk38m6se2/net14.pdf

3. A few selected posts on the topic from FE forums
https://www.dropbox.com/s/jgkmet69xeehe2n/xl_reading.pdf



Nonlinear inductance concept

Lets take two identical coils wound on ferrite cores of some type e.g. on
ferrite rods


ferrite rod 400
5mm diameter, 100mm length second coil with same parameters
70 turns 0.7mm
2

inductance L = 297uH (measured with
LC meter)
L = 314uH (slightly different due
to ferrite properties variation)

inductance of cylindrical coil


o
N
2
S
L = -----------------
l


i.e. L ~ N
2


5

Now connect the coils in series



inductance L = 665uH (measured with LC meter)

L = L
1
+ L
2



Now connect cores one to another




inductance L = 1310uH (measured with LC meter)

Now we have one core, so number of turns
increased by 2 times and inductance 4 times




Three coils



Number of turns increased 3 times and the inductance increased 9 times


6

D.I.s idea

Let's take a look at the shape of the current in the inductor. Let's say it
flayback returning energy to the load. Remember that the energy stored in
the inductor is L * I
2
/ 2.
When inductance is small current rises rapidly, but falls just as quickly
(green).
A large inductance requires more time and energy, but also gives it away
longer time, respectively (blue).
But we can change of inductance, so current rise is almost like in little
inductance, and gives as much energy as big one (red).
Important is to increase inductance as late as possible and decrease only
after it completely give up power.



pic1. Current shapes


It is interesting that the change of the inductance in the mechanical
version should be "easy", field will attract core parts itself.
7

Some theory



pic2. Possible
setups of the device

inductance L must
change synchronously
with the switch
opening
pic3. Setup with
capacitor




Let us consider the processes occurring in the system in more details



pic4. Magnetizing coil

dI dL
U = L --- + I --- + I R
L

dt dt


Lets write the same thing in the form convenient for simulation

8
L (I
1
I
0
) L
U = ---------- + I
1
--- + I
1
R
L

t t

Where
I
1
current in this cycle
I
0
current in previous cycle
L inductance variation
t cycle duration


U t + L I
0

i.e. I
1
= -------------
L + L + R
L
t



pic5. Coil is demagnetizing (with resistive load)


Similarly for the second stage



(I
1
I
0
) L
L -------- + I
1 ----
+ I
1
R
L
+ I
1
Rn = 0
t t


L I
0

i.e. I
1
= ----------------------
L + L + (R
L
+ Rn) T




9

pic6. Coil is demagnetizing (setup with capacitor)


To simplify the problem we assume that the diode is ideal


U
L
+ U
C
+ U
RL
= 0

or

dI dL q
L -- + I -- + -- + I R
L
= 0
dt dt C


Rewriting with I = dq / dt


d
2
q dL dq q
L ---- + ( --- + R
L
) -- + -- = 0
d
2
t dt dt C


Lets write the same thing in the form convenient for simulation


q
1
2q
0
+ q
-1
q
1
q
0
q
1

L -------------- + A ------- + -- = 0
t
2
t C


Where
q
1
charge in capacitor in the current cycle
q
0
charge in capacitor in previous cycle
q
-1
charge in capacitor in cycle before previous
t cycle duration


dL
and A = --- + R
L

dt


10
i.e.


A * q
0
/ t + L ( 2q
0
- q
-1
) / t
2

q
1
= -----------------------------------
A / t + L / t
2
+ 1 / Cn


I
1
= (q
1
q
0
) / t


Now you can try to simulate the system.

I made Java program which simulates system behavior using formulas above.
Perhaps it is not practical but anyway this was my first simulation of OU
system


Simulation for resistive load



pic7. Simulation results for system with resistive load




11

Traces top-to-bottom:
- pulse from power supply
- inductance vs time
- current in inductor
- voltage on inductor
- voltage on capacitor (not used in this simulation)
- power in/out vs time





pic8. System parameters


System parameters:
time simulation time
uTime01 pulse start time
uTime10 pulse end time
u power supply voltage

lTime01 inductance change start time
lTime10 inductance change stop time
lDelay01 time to decrease inductance
lDelay10 time to increase inductance
l0 initial inductance
l1 changed inductance
Rl inductance internal resistance

Type type of setup (use R for system with resistive load, C for
system with capacitor)
Cn capacitor value
Rn load resistor value

Kce system COP (1 = 100%)
Psys extra power delivered by system
12

Simulation for setup with capacitor


pic9. Simulation results for system with capacitor



pic10. System parameters
13

Links:
1. Inductance of a Solenoid
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/indsol.html

2. Energy in an Inductor
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/indeng.html

3. xL simulation in Java
https://www.dropbox.com/s/s0yz7sad0icuz7l/xl.jar



Simulating xL in LTSpice


Some people claim that it is not possible to get OU in conventional
simulator. I think it is funny and good illustration how ignorant they are.
Simulator just a tool and ready to perform any simulation we ask for.

Model with voltage source


pic1. xL setup with resistive load
14

pic2. Simulation results



pic3. Power balance (COP = 1.27)
15

Model with current source


pic4. Model



pic5. Simulation results

16

pic6. Power balance (COP = 1.75)



Nonlinear capacitor simulation

We have another component which is capable store energy capacitor. It
would be reasonable to try using it to create a system with nonlinear
element.

Lets try simulate system with nonlinear capacitor


pic1. Model with nonlinear capacitor


17

pic2. Simulation results



pic3. Power balance (COP = 1.8)

Trying different nonlinearity


pic4. Model with nonlinear capacitor

* Capacitance here a function of the voltage on capacitor, this somehow
represent a varicond (see 1)

18

pic5. Simulation results


pic6. Power balance (COP = 0.65)

* It seems that nonlinearity is simply not enough; the nonlinearity should
be different during charge and discharge time



Links:

1. Information about variconds materials from Sergey M.Godin
http://jnaudin.free.fr/html/polcurves.htm

2. Capacitance Change with Applied Voltage
http://www.cliftonlaboratories.com/capacitor_voltage_change.htm









19
Double frequency setup

It appeared that core saturation it is quite energy consuming. Here I
describe an attempt to use two different processes in one core to minimize
required energy. So the idea is that we have low frequency resonance circuit
which periodically put core into state which is near saturation. Because
it is resonance circuit it does not require much energy to maintain these
oscillations. Then we have a second process, e.g. we can use short high
frequency pulses on top of low frequency oscillations to enter into
saturation.


pic1. Core operation mode

* 2 is LF process, 1 is HF process

In basic words I will be mixing short pulses into sinusoidal signal source
and try to see what happened. Here simplified structure of my MCU controlled
setup:


pic2. Structure schematic of possible setup



20

pic3a. Power amplifier


pic3b. MCU and display


21

pic3c. DAC and negative power supply




pic4. Experimental setup view

22

Using coaxial transformer for pulse injection


pic5. Experimental setup and two transformers under test



pic6. First trial




pic7. there is an issue with
coaxial transformer, problem is
that the ring cores are saturated
very quickly

so on the output very short
pulses, ring cores with gaps
needed
23



pic8. Short pulses


Diode mixer


pic9. Experimental setup 2



pic10. Second trial


24



pic11. top-amplifier output,
bottom-transformer output
pic12. Larger scale

pic13. We need that HF and LF sum
but not subtract.

Diodes introduce quite big losses.

I increased resonance frequency up
to 430hz, C = 0.57uF

with 260hz C = 1.5uF



Filter based mixer


pic14. Third variant

25

pic15. Experimental setup 3


pic16. top-LF amplifier output,
bottom-transformer output


pic17. top-HF output, bottom-
transformer output
pic18.
26

pic19.top-mixed LF and HF, bottom-
transformer output


Separate driver


pic20. LF amplifier




may be it worth to put 0.01uF to
outp to avoid parasite oscillations
pic21. HF driver
27

pic22. Setup with two drivers


pic23. top-LF driver output,
bottom-transformer output
pic24. top-HF driver output,
bottom-transformer output

pic25.Moving HF pulse across LF
signal
pic26.

28
It appeared that it is not easy to saturate iron transformer (schematic was
not very good)



pic27. Better setup, parallel resonance in primary helps



pic28. Improved schematic


29
Dual frequency setup idea

I continue playing with different dual frequency driver setups. Here next
idea:


pic1. Experiment idea



pic2. Schematic of LF + HF driver


30

pic3. Driver assembled on bread board



pic3. Different combinations of 2
frequency drivers


pic4.

31

pic5.


pic6.


pic7.

32

pic8. Extraction thru diode



It is difficult to obtain resonance on high frequency


Anti-aligned flybacks


Without resonance we can try combine two flybacks working on different
frequencies.



pic1. Dual anti-aligned flyback at different frequencies


33

pic2. Driver schematic


pic2. Experimental setup



pic3. L1 and L2 aligned


34

pic4. anti-aligned


* There will be no gain until we get different nonlinearity in inductance
during magnetization and demagnetization


pic5. Experimental setup




pic6. top-L2 drain, bottom -
output


35

pic7.top-L1 drain, bottom -
output






pic8. Model

36

pic9. Simulation results



37


Dual frequency setup upside down


Now I will try change purpose of LF and HF processes2. HF will be used to
change inductance and LF will be used like xL setup. HF process reduces
the inductance and filtered out from LF process.


pic1. With such a schematic is not very convenient to observe



pic2. Experimental setup

38

pic3. Updated schematic




pic4. Model

39

pic5. Simulation results



pic7. Power balance (COP = 1.74, not counting HF)



pic8. Without capacitor, Rn = 100 ohm

40


pic9.top-on the load,
bottom-HF signal
pic10. Adjusting HF frequency


pic11. Larger scale pic12. Without HF


Changing polarity of main coil


pic13. top-on the load,
bottom-HF signal

41

pic14. Adjusting HF frequency
.

Again we change the polarity and add capacitor 1000pf


pic15. LF without HF pic15. HF increase LF amplitude

That seems to work


42
xL with variable inductor

It took some time to realize how to proper setup system which use variable
inductor. Here one of my earlier trials. I used MCU controlled switches with
two ring cores.



pic1. MCU controlled switches



pic2. Experiment schematic 1


This setup was not working very well. So I made another trial using P-
channel MOSFET as switches. It makes much easier to observe processes in
inductor.
43



pic6. Experiment schematic 2



pic7. Experimental setup

44

pic8. top voltage on controlled
inductor, bottom voltage on
control winding




pic9. Longer control pulse


pic10. Even longer control pulse


45
Experiments with magnetless MEG


pic1. 6 coils 13turns each 0.6mm
on small E core

L of side legs coils 250uH,
center legs coil L = 330uH



pic2. magnetless MEG experiment layout


* we can also try to reverse one of the output windings
46

pic3. Experimental setup



pic4. The main conclusion - biasing affects the output, power balance not
very clear

47

pic5. adjustable current source
for biasing



pic6. Experimental setup with current source


48

pic7. Setup with two ring core



pic8. Layout of with ring cores setup

* no effect was detected, the ring core might be not very suitable for this
setup



49
About variable capacitor

Lets consider one school-like problem. But I havent seen such problem in
any books. Perhaps there is something wrong with it? Or may be science
ethic prevent people even from thinking about such problem ? ha ha

If we take a simple capacitor


pic1. Parallel plate capacitor


It has capacitance


0
A
C = -------
d

Where
- Relative permittivity of the dielectric material between the plates

0
-

Permittivity of space

A - Plates of area
d Distance between plates

and if it charged to voltage U it contains charge Q = C U.

Lets assume that capacitor charged with voltage U
0
and energy
W
0
= C U
2
/ 2 stored in it.

Now if we somehow we decrease plates area capacitance also decrease. Since
electric field directed 90 degrees to plates we do not perform work against
electric field.

If plates area decreased k times, so capacitance decreases k times.
But charge stay the same, so C
0
U
0
= Q = C
1
U
1
= C
0
U
1
/ k or U
1
= kU
0


Lets calculate now energy stored in new capacitor

W
1
= C
1
U
1

2
/ 2 = C
0
/k (kU
0
)
2
/ 2 = k C
0
U
2
/2 = kW
0


Perhaps now you see what I mean science ethics prevents

P.S. If you see such problem discussed and solved somewhere please let me
know ;-)
50


Links:

1. Capacitor
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capacitor

2. Parallel Plate Capacitor
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/pplate.html


Mechanical xL simulation

I do not consider mechanical OU systems as practical, however it is still
interesting from theoretical point of view to consider such system. Here an
attempt to simulate mechanical setup for nonlinear inductance. It consists
of two C cores. One is fixed (on the right) and one can move (on the left).
There is a coil on left core part. There are springs or elastic material
between core parts.



pic1. Mechanical xL

When short pulse applied to coil, left core part starts moving toward right
part due to magnetic force. This cause core gap (x) decrease and inductance
variation.

Attraction force will be

N
2
I
2

Fmag = -----------------
2
0
A Rm
2



Where magnetic resistance Rm is

1
Rm = -------- ( lc /
r
+ 2x)

0
A

A cores section area
51
lc length of core

r
relative permeability

Coils inductance is

N
2

L(x) = -------
Rm

Left core part (having mass m) will be moving with acceleration a

ma = Fmag D

where is D = kx (spring force)

Combining all these mechanical and electrical equations we can get set of
differential equations and make a model.

Here some simulation results:


pic2. Voltage from power supply (magnetization pulse)


pic3. Voltage on the coil


pic4. Current
52



pic5. Inductance



pic6. Core part acceleration



pic7. Velocity


pic8. Distance (0 at initial core position)
53

pic9. red Fmag, green - D



pic10. red energy used from power supply, green energy in coil


It appeared that after core parts come together they need to be hold in this
position until core demagnetized. This can be done mechanically or with
second coil.

54
Chapter 4. MEG

I am starting new thread about MEG. I will be calling "MEG" all devices
which use permanent magnets as a source of magnetic field and different
approaches to modulate this field to produce electricity.

Here some interesting reading for beginning:

Bombars magnetic switch
https://www.dropbox.com/s/grozfywopzmwrfc/bombar.pdf
https://www.dropbox.com/s/l4ugkunv3h5vbtz/bombar2.pdf

Inkomp-delta MEG
https://www.dropbox.com/s/jkug1ehty3brtew/Inkomp.pdf

Related patents:
https://www.dropbox.com/s/xbgvml2fpmjh7l2/2802170_U_LECTRO_MAGNETIC_SWITCHES
.pdf
https://www.dropbox.com/s/a76j8z96fdrgnjt/3087108_FLUX_SWITCHING_TRANSFORMER
.pdf
https://www.dropbox.com/s/xnqnifbepk2ofib/3368141_SUBIETA_GARRON.pdf
https://www.dropbox.com/s/8vmq90lzw15kayt/4006401_Electromagnetic_generator.
pdf
https://www.dropbox.com/s/j5t4limckm2gdz3/5926083_Static_magnet_dynamo_for_g
enerat.pdf

Pictures of Tom Beardens MEG
https://www.dropbox.com/s/dz22udbn6qn4afg/tb.pdf


MEG experiment

Here described my first experiment with MEG.


pic1. Simple pulse generator for switching


55

pic2. E core parts and 2 magnets

Middle leg: 2 1.5m wire 0.33mm, about 40 turns
Side legs: 2x 1.5m wire 0.33mm, about 40 turns



pic3. the setup

Pickup coils are opposite to
control coil i.e. only PM flux
induce EMF in pickup coils


pic4. top - control voltage,
bottom - output


56

pic5. I added 2 more pickup coils each about 3m of wire (80t)



pic6. top - control voltage,
bottom - output


pic7. Rload =1

57

pic8. Rload =100



pic9. Rload =15





pic10. Overall setup view


58

pic11. possible improvement

make inductors L1,2 as long as
possible to pickup more energy and
step-down transformer to match
with load



59

Magnetic circuits and simulations

The concept of a "magnetic circuit" exploits a one-to-one correspondence
between the equations of the magnetic field in an unsaturated ferromagnetic
material to that of an electrical circuit. Using this concept the magnetic
fields of complex devices such as transformers can be quickly solved using
the methods and techniques developed for electrical circuits. Saturation
cause nonlinearity we still use numeric methods to solve equations and build
models. (1)



* See (2) for more details
60
Model with differentials


pic1. Model (electric circuit on the left, magnetic circuit on the right)



pic2. Simulation results

61

Model with controlled current sources


pic3. Model (electric circuit on the left, magnetic circuit on the right)



pic4. Simulation results

62
Model with controlled voltage sources


pic5. Model



pic6. Simulation results

* Model would work well if you use E (0) as the current sensors

63
Adding nonlinearity


pic7. Model



pic8. Simulation results

64
Adding air gap


pic9. Model



pic10. Simulation results

65
xL model


pic11. Why not try to simulate the XL like setup?



pic12. Simulation results

It turns out that the reduction of the gap reduces the current (increases
inductance :-)
66



pic13. Model


pic14
. Simulation results


However, it is not clear what happens to the B(H) and hence is there extra
energy or not.

(we must break the current during gap variation to get extra energy)


Links:
1. Magnetic circuit
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetic_circuit

2. Lumped Equivalent Circuits of Magnetic Components: The Gyrator-Capacitor
Approach https://www.dropbox.com/s/af8oftt51vnz3yr/lecomctg.pdf
67
Magnetic circuit layouts

I am trying compare different magnetic circuits and select proper setup for
MEG which uses core part saturation for permanent magnet field modulation.
Permanent magnet





Parallel connection

68

pic1. Device setup


Lm Lca Lca
HcLm -
3
----------- =
2
------------ +
1
-----------

m
A
0

cr
A


0

var
A







pic2. B2 variation about 22%



69
Series connection



pic3. Device setup


0
A Hc Lm
= --------------------------------------------------
Lca /

cr
+ Lca /

var
+ Lm /
m
( + Lg )




pic4. Variation of B2 < 1%
70
Some calculation examples


pic5. Core with permanent magnet


Hc Lm
= ---------------------------------------------------
Lc Lm Lg
----------- + ---------- + ---------

0

cr
Ac
0
Am
0
Ag


Consider the case when the core loss is small,
-
cr
>> 1,
- L
c
/

Ac is about

1
- areas are equal (Ac = Am = Ag)


Hc
0
A
= ------------------
1 + Lg/Lm
cr


If we take Lg = Lm then



Hc
0
A
= ------------------
1 + 1 /
cr


If
cr
change from 100 to 1
changes about 2 times

If
cr
change from 4000 to 400
(which is more likely) change
only about 2%!



Hc
0
A
= ---------------------
1 + Lc / (Lm
cr
)



Now if you try to remove the gap,
and magnetize the entire core


71


Hc
0
A
= ----------------
1 + 10 /
cr



if you take the length of the core
is 10 times larger than the length
of the magnet we get

If
cr
change from 1000 to 100 than
change about 10%!



N30 = 4300
Lcore = 100mm Lm = 5mm
If
cr
change from 4300 to 400 then
change only about 2%!

* in general, the main problem - the correct choice of materials and sizes

Different layouts


good design




bad (series connection)




72


bad (serial connection)




bad (serial connection)




bad (open circuit)



73


Suspicious / bad (open circuit
for control coils)

(tiger2007s MEG from
www.realstrannik.ru)



bad (filed from magnets and
coils in different planes)

(from www.skif.biz)



74

Simulating MEG with ring modulator

I think before doing something it would be interesting try simulate device
and see if it going to work theoretically. We have magnetic circuits
theory, it would be reasonable try use it.



pic1. Setup


pic2. Magnetic circuit

Here equations for this setup

1 + 2 = 3
Rl = 2 R2 + Rv
Rr = 2 R1 + Rh + Rg
1 R1 = 2 R2
HmLm = 3(Rm + Rh-m + Rl || Rr)


Where

R = l /
0

cr
A

We can estimate energy using energy density

B
2

W = --------------
75
2
0

cr


E = W * V

First model


pic3. Magnetic circuit in LTSpice



pic4. Simulation results
How offset affect magnetic switch on the ring core?

Permanent magnet flux adds to control flux in one half of modulator and
subtracts in the other part. It is interesting to check how significantly
this affects magnetic switch work.

76

pic5. Based on measured B(H)


pic6. Based on theoretical B(H) approximation

77
BH curve model


pic7. Model



pic8. Simulation results
78
More detailed MEG model


pic9. Model



pic10. Simulation results
79

pic11. Simulation results



pic12. Power output


80
Same model calculated in scilab

pic13. Sin excitation

pic14. Sin with offset excitation

81

pic15. Triangle with offset excitation


pic16. Triangle excitation
82




Drivers for magnetic switch modulator

I will try review different ideas how to drive MEG control coil.

Ferro resonance control setup


pic1. Standard signal source and audio amplifier used as a driver



pic2. top - current thru control
coil, bottom - output


83

pic3. top - voltage on control
coil, bottom - output



Driver with 2 Flyback


pic4. Test coil

2 x 3 x 11turns



pic5. Dual flyback driver setup
84

pic6. Dual FB setup



pic7. top drain, bottom - middle
point


pic8. top drain, bottom - FB1
recycler

85

pic9. top drain, bottom - FB2
recycler




pic10. Experimental setup



pic11. top drain, bottom -
output


86

pic12. top drain, bottom -
output

Smaller max. control current





pic13. Model for 3 FB driver


pic14. Saturating core model
87

pic15. Simulation results



pic16. Wrong setup from what was
at hand


pic17. Driver setup


88

pic18. top drain, bottom - 2FB
recycler


pic19. top drain, bottom - 2FB
recycler

Maximum what I got from setup - output power 50mW approximately 10% of
control (0.5W)

PWM current source


pic20. Model

89

pic21. Simulation results



pic22. Experimental setup


* wasnt very successful attempt
90

pic23. Driver and current sense



Simplified MEG setup



pic1. Magnetic circuit


We can try use same core as a variable magnetic resistance and for pickup
coils.




pic2. control coils flux pic3. magnet flux


This kind of flux distribution allow us arrange coils in a way that control
coils not drive pickup coils directly
91



pic4. Coils arrangement




pic5. With flyback control





pic6. ring core N30 41,8 X 26,2 X
12,5 part from laminate core used
as a flux bridge
pic7. 3 wires 11 turns on each
side of ring core all pairs in
series, two in sync one in
opposite

92

pic8. top - MOSFET drain,
bottom - MOSFET gate


pic9. larger scale


pic10. top-MOSFET drain, bottom-
recycling coil



pic11. top - MOSFET drain, bottom
- output with small magnets
93


pic12. top - MOSFET drain
bottom - with bigger magnets

changing magnet orientation change
polarity of output pulse


pic13. Small magnets


pic14. Setup (only one of 3 channels used)
94
Dual core simplified MEG setup



pic1. Experimental setup



pic2. Cores layout

95

pic3. top drain of MOSFET,
bottom - output



pic4. longer pulse duration


pic5. even longer



96
Asymmetric magnetic switch

I tried different setups with ring cores. Now I want review asymmetric setup
where modulator made on iron core and saturate a part of ferrite core with
magnet and pickup coil.



pic1. Asymmetric magnetic switch




pic2. One of experimental setups

97

Loses in modulator


pic3. Modulator model



pic4. Checking model

98

pic5. Model for power loss estimation

t,us 50 75 100 110 115 120 125
Ein,mW 70,8 187 482 787 1100 2049 4400
Eout,mW 65,8 173 443 714 1000 1618 2450
dE,mW 5 14 39 73 100 431 1950




pic6. Drawing Ein/Eout vs pulse time

99

pic7. losses in the modulator vs pulse time

MEG model


pic8. Magnetic circuit (modulator shown on pic5)

100

pic9. Simulation



pic10. Power output
101


Hm 1 10 20 40 80 160 245 320
Eout,mW -1129 -870 -694 -452 -233 -68 3,7 38
Tab. Output power vs magnet strength




pic11. Output power vs magnet strength

102

Energy in coil vs loses

It is interesting to see how energy stored in modulator coil relates with
loses in coils internal resistance. Understanding this could help
optimizing overall MEG setup.




pic12. top - inductance vs. current,
middle red loses, blue energy in coil,
bottom red derivative of loses, blue - derivative of energy in coil

* these all waves seems to be side effect of interpolation

103

pic13. Same but based on theoretical BH curve, inductance decrease slower


104
Experiments with magnetic switch

Here described my first experiments with magnetic switch. There is not much
practical use in these experiments but anyway I would like to share this
information.

Experiment with magnetic switch


pic1. Asymmetric magnetic switch setup


pic2. interesting idea
was found on www.matri-
x.ru forum


we can use iron core for
control winding
(modulator) because it
saturated much later than
ferrite

105

pic3. top current in
control winding,
bottom voltage on
control winding


pic4. top current in
control winding,
bottom voltage on the
output (loaded with small
light bulb)




pic5. top voltage on
control winding,
bottom voltage on the
output

(Control current is
bigger than on pic4.)



106

pic6. Trying different modulator cores


pic7. top voltage on the load,
bottom modulator current

Unexpected I found that the
"polarity" is important.

These images correspond to the
situation when the opening of the
magnetic switch (saturation) is at
maximum current through the
control coil.



pic8. Bigger control current

107

pic9. Here peak current through
the load corresponds to zero
current in the control winding



Estimating power balance


pic10. lets estimate power
balance



pic11. Overall setup




108
Pin about 10W

R,ohm 4000 3000 2000 1000 500 250 120 50 20 10
U,v 15 15 14,8 14,2 13,8 12,8 11 7,2 3,8 2,2
P,W 0,0563 0,075 0,1095 0,2016 0,3809 0,6554 1,0083 1,0368 0,722 0,484



pic12. Voltage on the load vs
load resistance


pic13. power on the load vs load
resistance

109

pic14. Large scale (near max.
power)




pic15 voltage on control winding
(resonance driver)


110
Flyback based driver

pic1. Driver schematic


pic2. Ferrite core (wound in red tape), modulator on the left, magnets wound
in black tape


pic3. Driver and core

111

pic4. top control current,
bottom voltage on the output
(68ohm resistor as a load)

as said Bombard there is no
saturation, look for a step


pic5. bigger current


pic6. larger scale

112

pic7. larger scale



pic8. Bombars device
oscilloscope traces


pic9. as said Bombard there
is no saturation, look for a
step

113

pic10. A ferrite not
saturated,
B ferrite saturated,
C you can say that there is no
ferrite - very strong
saturation

Look for the step


pic11. Experimental setup

I decided use smaller ferrite core.



pic12. half of ferrite core and
modulator core
pic13.
114

pic14. the step, here it is


pic15. larger scale


pic16. larger scale





115

pic17. experimental setup


pic18. without magnet - cant
understand anything



116




pic19. trying with biasing coil
instead of magnets

500 turns, changing current from
20 to 100


pic20. biasing coil switched off


pic21. slowly increasing current
thru biasing coil
117


pic22. Increasing


pic23. Increasing


pic24. biasing current about 150ma

can see that the current shape in
the modulator changing (step
disappearing)


118

Ceramic magnets


pic25. trying ceramic magnets


pic26. corresponds 80 biasing
current (very rough estimation)




pic27. core and magnets


119

Pickup coil 200 turns wire 0.35mm diameter
Pin = 1.6W


U,v 5,6 5,4 5,1 4,4 4 3,5 2,9 2,4 2,1 1,5 1,3 1,08 0,86 0,53
Rn,ohm 4000 3000 2000 1000 700 450 250 150 100 50 41 31 21 11
P,W 0,008 0,010 0,013 0,019 0,023 0,027 0,034 0,038 0,044 0,045 0,041 0,038 0,035 0,026




pic28. Output power vs load resistance

120
Small neodymium magnets




pic29. neodymium magnets 10x10x5mm


pic30. setup with neodymium
magnets


with 6 (23) magnets does not
work, probably core saturate



121


U,v 7 6,9 6,7 6,4 5,9 5,3 4,6 3,8 2,8 2,3 1,4
Rn,ohm 4000 3000 2000 1000 500 250 120 60 31 21 11
P,W 0,012 0,016 0,022 0,041 0,070 0,112 0,176 0,241 0,253 0,252 0,178


pic31. Output power vs load resistance

pic32. Output power vs load resistance (larger scale)
122


Experiments with magnetic switch (2)

I continue my experiments with asymmetric magnetic switch hoping to improve
device performance.

Longer pickup coil


pic1. Driver schematic
123

Two windings 200 turns each

U,v 15,7 15,3 14,6 13,2 11,8 10,1 7,83 5,4 3 2,1 1,2
Rn,ohm 4000 3000 2000 1000 500 250 120 60 31 21 11
P,W 0,062 0,078 0,107 0,174 0,278 0,408 0,511 0,486 0,290 0,210 0,131


pic2. Output power vs load resistance

pic3. Output power vs load resistance (larger scale)
124



pic4. Experimental setup

New modulator coil

Pin = 3,6W

U,v 38,7 36,4 33,1 26 21,3 18,6 15,2 8,4 4,3 2 1,5 0,8
Rn,ohm 4000 3000 2000 1000 500 351 250 120 60 31 21 11
P,W 0,374 0,442 0,548 0,676 0,907 0,986 0,924 0,588 0,308 0,129 0,107 0,058

New modulator 2 80 turns 0.7 mm diameter
Pickup coil 500 turns (one coil)


pic5. Output power vs load resistance
125
COP vs driver frequency

Freq 1500 1000 780 560 440 410
I,a 0,15 0,23 0,28 0,38 0,47 0,51
U,v 10 14 15,4 16,6 17,7 17,7
Rn,ohm 351 351 351 351 351 351
P,W 0,285 0,558 0,676 0,785 0,893 0,893
Pin,W 1,53 2,346 2,856 3,876 4,794 5,202
COP 0,186209 0,238024 0,236579 0,202547 0,186184 0,171581



pic6. COP vs driver frequency





Freq,hz 1500 1000 750 560 440
Ip,a 0,15 0,23 0,28 0,38 0,47
Ip-noload,a 0,11 0,15 0,2 0,28 0,4

Tab. Current consumption vs frequency under load and without load


126


pic7. Current consumption vs frequency under load and without load

Another modulator

Version of the modulator made of russian TP-1208 transformer


pic8. Modulator coil about 60turns wire 0.5mm diameter


* Also using finer ferrite core.

127

pic9. top modulator current,
bottom - load 1k resistor


pic10. top modulator current,
bottom - large scale


pic11. no load

128


Pin = 0,5W, 150hz, 200turns

U,v 4,16 3,9 3,2 2,4 1,6 1 0,5
Rn,ohm 4000 3000 2000 1000 500 250 120
P,W 0,004 0,005 0,005 0,006 0,005 0,004 0,002

Tab. Output power vs load resistance for 60 turn modulator




pic12. Output power vs load resistance



pic13. Another modulator version, about 80 turns wire 0.35mm diameter


129


pic14. I tried large magnets,
and adding 3 small magnets - in
both cases ferrite get saturated
and the output is almost zero


Pin = 1W, 150hz, 200turns

U,v 5,4 5 4,5 3,6 2,8 1,9 1,2 0,6
Rn,ohm 4000 3000 2000 1000 500 250 125 63
P,W 0,007 0,008 0,010 0,013 0,016 0,014 0,012 0,006

Tab. Output power vs load resistance



pic15. Output power vs load resistance
130


Pin = 0,5W 800hz 400turns

U,v 7,48 7,2 6,9 6,1 5,2 4 2,7 1,8
Rn,ohm 4000 3000 2000 1000 500 250 120 61
P,W 0,014 0,017 0,024 0,037 0,054 0,064 0,061 0,053

Tab. Output power vs load resistance





pic16. Output power vs load resistance
131
Version with two cores

pic17. Experimental setup



pic18. Testing modulator
132


pic19. pickup coil pic20.

pic21. top modulator current,
bottom - output


pic22. shorter control pulses


pic23. even more shorter
133


Pin = 0,7W, 1khz, 80t

U,v 5,4 5,1 5,1 5 5,2 4,8 4,2 3,7 2,8 2,1
Rn,ohm 4000 3000 2000 1000 500 250 120 61 31 11
P,W 0,007 0,009 0,013 0,025 0,054 0,092 0,147 0,224 0,253 0,401

Tab. Output power vs load resistance



pic24. Output power vs load resistance

134


With two pickup coils

Pin = 0,7W, 1khz, 200t

U,v 12 11,8 11,5 10,6 9,4 8 6 3,8 2,12 0,8
Rn,ohm 4000 3000 2000 1000 500 250 120 61 31 11
P,W 0,036 0,046 0,066 0,112 0,177 0,256 0,300 0,237 0,145 0,058

Tab. Output power vs load resistance



pic25. Output power vs load resistance

135

pic26. Two core setup


pic27. Two core setup
136

U,v 13,6 13,4 13 12,4 11,4 10,5 9,2 9 8,8 8,6 8,3 8 7,4 6,8 6 5 2,17
Rn,
ohm 4000 3000 2000 1000 500 250 120 110 100 91 81 71 61 51 41 31 11
P,W 0,046 0,060 0,085 0,154 0,260 0,441 0,705 0,736 0,774 0,813 0,850 0,901 0,898 0,907 0,878 0,806 0,428

Tab. Output power vs load resistance


pic28. Output power vs load resistance


* Still a maximum COP of about 45%

137
Modulator on metglass core

I had an idea that increasing operation frequency could improve system
efficiency. So I tried use metglass C core as a modulator core.



pic1. modulator on metglass core
wire 0.7mm diameter, about 2m
long, about 10 turns

L = 25uH (one C core)
L = 405uH (two C core together)





pic2. open modulator pic3.


pic4. Driver - added regulator of current limit = pulse length
138





pic5. Experimental setup
139



pic6. without load pic7. R load = 1k, modulator works
against PM field



pic8. proper orientation pic9.


140



Rn,ohm 4000 3000 2000 1000 500 250 120 60 30 10
U,v 11,7 9,95 7,6 4,4 2,56 1,4 0,6 0,3 0,16 0,06
P,mW 34,2 33,0 28,9 19,4 13,1 7,8 3,0 1,5 0,9 0,4




pic10. Output power vs load resistance

141

Pin = 0,5W

Rn,ohm 4000 3000 2000 1000 500 250 60
U,v 19,8 18,8 16 11 6,8 3,6 0,8
P,mW 98,0 117,8 128,0 121,0 92,5 51,8 10,7

Tab. Output power vs load resistance



pic11. Output power vs load resistance

142

f,khz 1,5 2,6 4 6,4 10,2 15,5
U,v 5,6 8,6 10,6 14,2 16,2 17,6
Pout,mW 15,7 37,0 56,2 100,8 131,2 154,9
Pin,W 0,42 0,72 1 1,6 2,4 3
COP(%) 3,7 5,1 5,6 6,3 5,5 5,2

Tab. power vs frequency

pic12.Input power vs frequency

pic13.Output power vs frequency

* It appeared that input and the output are proportional to the frequency

143

Links:

1. www.metglas.com

2. Amorphous cut cores
http://www.ammet.com.cn/product/?type=detail&id=17


Magnetless MEG

After failure with metglass I decided that probably need to go back and try
without magnets and search for better working point.


pic1. Experimental setup


pic2. pic3. without biasing
144

pic4. top modulator current,
bottom - output

biasing current about 100m


pic5. biasing current about 400m


145

f = 366hz
Ubias = 12,8v
Ibias = 180ma
Pps = 1,5W


Rn,ohm 2000 1000 500 250 120 60 30 10
U,v 2,92 2,58 2,2 1,77 1,28 0,9 0,56 0,25
P,mW 4,3 6,7 9,7 12,5 13,7 13,5 10,5 6,3

Tab. Power output vs load resistance



pic6. Power output vs load resistance

146
f = 366hz
Ppot = 1,5W
Rn = 120ohm

Up 12,8 15 18,2 21,4 25,2 30 34,8
Ip 0,18 0,22 0,26 0,31 0,35 0,47 0,54
U,v 1,29 1,8 2,6 3,25 3,9 4,47 4,9
Ppodm,W 2,3 3,3 4,7 6,6 8,8 14,1 18,8
Pout,W 0,014 0,027 0,056 0,088 0,127 0,167 0,200

Tab. The output power vs bias power


pic7. the output power vs bias power
147


f = 366 hz
Upodm = 34v Ipodm = 1a
Ppot = 1,5W

Rn,ohm 250 120 60 30 20 10
U,v 6,9 5,9 5,1 4 3,4 2,4
P,mW 190,4 290,1 433,5 533,3 578,0 576,0

Tab. power output vs load resistance





pic8. Power output vs load resistance

148




pic9. first attempt (which I
measured)
pic10.



pic11. second attempt with one
core
pic12.


149

Petrs device

After experimenting with magnetless MEG it became clear how Petrs device
supposed to work, so I decided try it. It is a kind of variation of non-
linear inductance setup.



pic1. First I tried large E shaped core, its too big, dont want saturate



150
pic2. Setup layout



pic3. I use same driver as for MEG

very convenient that there is a
current limitation

side winding included so that
fields are aligned


pic4. bigger scale


pic5. Longer pulse


151

pic6. small E core

2x13 turns on each leg
wire diam. 0.7 mm

L1 = 250uH (left leg)
L1+2 = 652uH (left + right)
L1-2 = 329uH (left - right)

Anti-aligned connection



pic7. Accidentally I connected side winding wrongly (anti-aligned)


pic8. top side coils current,
bottom - output

slowly decaying voltage -
saturation

152

pic9. more saturation


pic10. biasing in one direction
tightens output pulse


pic11.increasing biasing current


pic12. increasing
153



pic13. magnetization in other
direction makes output pulse
wider and higher


pic14. increasing biasing
current


pic15. increasing

Aligned connection

154

pic16. now connecting correctly side coils (aligned fields)



pic17. without biasing
slightly different side coils


pic18. with biasing

R load = 1k


155

pic19. bigger biasing current

R load = 1k


pic20. R load = 50 ohm


pic21. R load = 10 ohm

due to the fact that the side
cores are saturated field "being
pushed" into the central coil is
why we have such a powerful
output pulse



Longer coils

156

pic22. Experimental setup with longer coils


pic23. Driver schematic


pic24. longer coils

2 x 25 turns on side legs
central: 10 turns output, 50 turns
biasing

L25 = 350uH
L10 = 170uH
L50 = 2.3mH




157

pic25. top side coils current,
bottom - output



pic26. top side coils current,
bottom rectified output





Rn,ohm 1000 500 250 120 60 30 10
U,v 2,06 1,99 1,89 1,76 1,6 1,4 0,8
P,mW 4,2 7,9 14,3 25,8 42,7 65,3 64,0

Tab. Output power vs load resistance

158


pic28. Output power vs load resistance

Ubias = 35v Ibias = 0,25a 10turns

Rn,ohm 2000 1000 500 250 120 60 30 10
U,v 7,73 7,04 6,3 5,6 4,7 3,91 3 1,47
P,mW 0,030 0,050 0,079 0,125 0,184 0,255 0,300 0,216


pic29. Output power vs load resistance
159


pic30. Output power vs load resistance



Asymmetric setup



pic31. Asymmetric setup

160

pic32. without biasing



pic33. with biasing


pic34. larger biasing current

Pin about 2W

Rn,ohm 2000 1000 500 250 120 60 30 10
U,v 12,4 11,6 10,1 7,7 4,9 2,8 1,6 0,7
P,mW 0,077 0,135 0,204 0,237 0,200 0,131 0,085 0,049


161

pic35. Output power vs load resistance


Improving driver

How to increase the output power? We need a more "square" signal
for this it is necessary to improve driver.



pic36. Driver with current limiting

162

pic37. Driver schematic

* Traces without biasing resistor


pic38. without limiter


pic39. current limit about 1.5

163

pic40. There is current
limiting, but during this time
flux is constant, so the output
is 0:-/


to "speed up" the saturation process we can add a current bias e.g. using
resistor from MOSFET drain to the ground


pic41. Experimental setup


pic42. 68ohm from drain to
ground


164

pic43. Longer pulses


pic44. current limiting starts
working


pic45. bigger biasing


pic46. lower frequency
165
Bigger cores


E55/21 N27 ETD49 N87

pic47. Two bigger cores



pic48. middle size E core

2x14 turns on side legs
2x20turns on center leg

Lside = 187uH
Lcenter = 588uH



166

pic49. big E core

2x16 turns on all legs

Lside = 400uH
Lcenter = 69 uH (there is gap)




I dont see much difference with bigger cores, due to saturation a lot of
energy is lost.
Also I not sure if it is good configuration because field of center leg
always demagnetize one of side legs

167
Non-symmetric modulator

I decided try one more time asymmetric setup with big core with air gap in
center leg.


pic1. Experimental setup


pic2. Driver schematic

168

pic3. top modulator current,
bottom output (coil on central
leg)




pic4. Longer pulse



pic5. reversed biasing current

169

pic6. top current thru
modulator,
bottom voltage on recycling
coil,
frequency about 150



pic7. biasing on


pic8. increasing biasing current
makes pulses shorter


170

pic9. even bigger biasing





pic10. new pickup coil 100 turns wire 0.35 mm diam.



pic11. without biasing

top current thru modulator,
bottom pickup coil (center leg)

171

pic12. bigger biasing


pic13. even bigger biasing

not enough for looping yet



172
Chapter 5. Parametric resonance

I would like to point several interesting properties of parametric
oscillator which I probably forgot mention.


pic1. Two resonances

1. There is no direct connection between control circuit and parametric
resonator, so load will not affect control circuit
2. Control circuit have inductive reactance, so we can have e.g. parallel
resonance in it and load will not affect it (due to point 1), perhaps we can
save Q times power on control ?
3. As you remember U = I * dL/dt for variable inductor, does it really mean
that when we load parametric resonator voltage will grow?

I am not saying that its guarantied OU but obviously worth very detailed
studding ;-)


Parametric resonator as reactive power converter



pic1. Dual resonance with extra coil setup


173
(L1+L2) I
2
Ev = -----------------

2

Ea = Ev / Q

Lets assume L2 = L1/10 then E
L2
= Ev/10 > Ea if Q > 10

First trial with Panasonic core


pic2. Experiment schematic

* I am using Panasonic core from transverter experiments as L1

pic3. Experimental setup



174

pic4. top current in LC circuit,
bottom on the load (small light
bulb)


pic5. same as pic4

polarity of output signal randomly
changing from one power-up to
another


pic6. higher current

My first impression it works

At a higher frequency and current some interesting fluctuations occur

175


pic7. pic8.


pic9. pic10.

pic11. seems like some interference
between control and load circuits


Same setup on low frequency

176


pic12. Experimental setup


Issue is that a large transformer (Trafox PCL 120 400) get saturated even if
you use only the 40v output winding.



pic13. on main coil pic14.
177


pic15. on parametric resonator pic16.


Variable inductor on iron core



pic1. Two small transformers




pic2. Windings

178

110v -> 24v

I,ma 0 8 16 20 24 28 32 36 44
L,mH 552 460 414 377 353 296 288 273 237

pic3. Inductance vs control current

24v -> 24v

I,ma 0 25 50 108 200 300
L,mH 552 470 410 266 181 156


pic4. Inductance vs control current
179



pic5. Step-up transformer for control



pic6. Setup schematic



pic7. control via step-up
transformer (1:4)

C = 0.1uF
Fres = 100hz


180
3 phase controlled inductance

Picture and schematic from www.skif.biz


pic1. NEG device




pic2. 3 phase driver for NEG

I was thinking how this device could work and I got an idea about 3 phase
controlled variable inductor.
181

pic3. Black La + Lb + Lc

pic4. Current amplitude 2 times lower

182



pic5. Modulation

pic6. Modulation with offset
183

Experiment with parametric resonator


pic1. Two identical cores with
magnets for working point offset

2 x 60 turns, wire 0.4mm diameter
Lair = 44uH without core
Lcore = 2844uH with core, without
magnet
Loffset = 1168uH with magnet


pic2.





pic3. Experimental setup

184

pic4. Experiment schematic


pic5. top voltage on control
coil,bottom rectified output



power consumption



There is a connection between the modulator and the resonator when the
voltage grows on resonator Q factor of modulator falls. Strange



Rn,ohm 4000 3000 2000 1000 500 250 120
U,v 22,8 18,6 13,4 6,4 3,05 1,6 0,76
P,mW 129,96 115,32 89,78 40,96 18,61 10,24 4,81


185

pic6. Output voltage vs load resistance


pic7. Output power vs load resistance


186

to be continued












Free Energy Research





Experiments


Volume 3
























Revision 1

FE R&D group http://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/ferd041/info

2014

2



Chapter 6. Bifilar coil................................................................................................................................. 4
Literature ................................................................................................................................................ 4
Bifilar coil inside coaxial transformer.................................................................................................... 5
Different version of coaxial transformer ............................................................................................ 8
Two frequencies setup.......................................................................................................................... 10
Two bifilar coils ................................................................................................................................... 16
Sin Cos generator .......................................................................................................................... 18
3 phase setup with bifilar coils......................................................................................................... 21
Compensator......................................................................................................................................... 23
Trying with regular transformer ................................................................................................... 30
Trying with coaxial transformer....................................................................................................... 33
Anti-aligned flybacks ........................................................................................................................... 37
Idea about bifilar coils.......................................................................................................................... 41
Can load power itself?.......................................................................................................................... 42
Composite core ............................................................................................................................. 43
Iron core transformer........................................................................................................................ 43
Model ............................................................................................................................................... 48
Transformer on ferrite core .............................................................................................................. 51
Transformer on Panasonic MWO core............................................................................................. 55
Experiment with UDT.......................................................................................................................... 58
Resonance and bifilar coils .................................................................................................................. 60
Shorting 3rd coil................................................................................................................................... 70
First trial ........................................................................................................................................... 70
Model ............................................................................................................................................... 72
Improving driver with IR2113 ......................................................................................................... 74
Driver with two CD4011.................................................................................................................. 83
Isolated driver................................................................................................................................... 88
Chapter 7. Charge pump........................................................................................................................... 92
Second universal principle of achieving OU........................................................................................ 92
Lets consider this idea in numbers.................................................................................................. 93
Capacitor driver.................................................................................................................................... 97
Driver with synchronization............................................................................................................. 98
Now lets try extract power .............................................................................................................. 99
Pulse extractor ................................................................................................................................ 100
Regular driver (for comparison)..................................................................................................... 102
Experiment with capacitor driver ....................................................................................................... 103
About long line ............................................................................................................................... 109
Experiment with long line .............................................................................................................. 117
Storage element using magnetic field ................................................................................................ 119
Looking for charge source.................................................................................................................. 123
Fluorescent lamp ............................................................................................................................ 123
Tiger2007s experiment ................................................................................................................. 125
Vacuum tube .................................................................................................................................. 126
DC mode ........................................................................................................................................ 126
Pulse mode ..................................................................................................................................... 127
Electrostatic spraying ..................................................................................................................... 129
Chapter 8. Displacement currents .......................................................................................................... 132
Bifilar extraction with capacitor......................................................................................................... 132
Negative inductance ........................................................................................................................... 135
One directional displacement current................................................................................................. 138
3
Current from the ground ................................................................................................................. 140
Chapter 9. Spark gap .............................................................................................................................. 143
Driver for spark gap ........................................................................................................................... 143
Driver version 2.............................................................................................................................. 146





4

Chapter 6. Bifilar coil

Literature

I am starting new thread about anti-aligned bifilar coils and attempts get
something from nothing (a dream of every FE researcher). Most of my
experiments on this topic made long before I learned about magnetic field
configuration of anti-aligned coils.
This information contains many obvious and not so obvious flaws. It is more
about how "not to do" rather then "to do". I hope that providing this could
save some time and efforts for new comers.

Here some reading for beginning

Bi-toroid transformer
https://www.dropbox.com/s/x87mdgjsj39orjc/CA2594905A1.pdf

Power generator based on nonlinear inductance
https://www.dropbox.com/s/6pemrzcowusgyii/gnli.pdf

Power generator based on nonlinear inductance schematic
https://www.dropbox.com/s/09u33yuu7m6no1z/gnli_v3.jpg

The UDT - A Free-Energy Device by Paul Raymond Jensen
https://www.dropbox.com/s/1hmg8qkxbw9mp8h/udt.pdf

5

Bifilar coil inside coaxial transformer



pic1. Experimental schematic (first version)


Voltage difference was small about 10v with more than 300v on primary
so it is better measure on bifilar coil directly
Udc = 360 v / 5 cm = 70 v/cm



pic2. Improved schematic


6

pic3. Experimental setup


pic4. Experimental setup



7

pic5. Rx = 1k with ferrite beards



pic6. Rx = 180 ohm with ferrite
beards (looks similar to spark
gap?)



pic7. Rx = 180 ohm twister pair



8

pic8. Twisted pair inside coaxial transformer


Different version of coaxial transformer



pic9. Different version of coaxial transformer

9

pic10. Experimental setup

All primary windings connected in parallel, all the secondary in series and
resonance (0.01uF). Problem is that the rings are saturated very quickly, it
is necessary to have gaps to avoid saturation.


pic11. top on MOSFET drain, bottom - secondary

Current through the bifilar coil does not affect the resonance.

10
Two frequencies setup


pic1. Dual frequency

Some people think that if we mix two frequency and extract power on low
frequency (beating) load will not affect high frequency sources
Here I am trying to test this idea.


pic2. Simple amplifier


pic3. Generator
11

* Frequency 3..5 Khz


pic4. Setup with two frequencies (5khz)



pic5. Beating

12

pic6. Experimental setup, 3rd coil not used


* Inductance of the primary on the ring 2,4mH (2x10 turns)
* Secondary 2mH (20 turns)
* Secondary coil resonance 5KHz C = 0,47uF



pic7. Crystal radio like setup


13

pic8. setup schematic


pic9. top output, bottom - beating

14

pic10. Added second secondary coil, resonance frequency decreased to 3.4 khz





pic11. Experiment schematic


15

pic12. Full wave "detector"


* So far I cant confirm the idea, load affects high frequency sources.

16

Two bifilar coils

The idea is to asymmetrically load two (or three for 3ph system) bifilar
coils. Since bifilar coil cancels it magnetic field such setup should not
load primary coil in transformer. Here I am trying test 2 and 3 phase
setups.


pic1. Schematic of one section




pic2. Two sections connected in series

17



pic3. output





pic4. 5 sections in series

18



pic5. output



Sin Cos generator


pic6. Generator with output voltage stabilization


19

pic7. analog delay for one channel



pic8. Delay for 3 phase generator (f+delta,f+180+delta)

20

pic9. Experimental setup


pic10. Analog delay


21

3 phase setup with bifilar coils


pic11. top one phase, bottom -
output



pic12. larger scale

1 + 2 + 3 = 0



pic13. coils



22

pic14. with all 3 phases f1,2,3
on sum always zero

U = 0



pic15. loading bifilar coil

* Unfortunately I cant confirm the idea. Perhaps I am doing something
wrong.
23
Compensator

I continue attempts to neutralize load effect on transformer primary by
cancelling magnetic field. I will try build special circuit which will work
as compensator and cancel secondary magnetic field.


pic1. Compensator model


pic2. Simulation results



24

pic3. Compensator model 2


pic4. Simulation results


pic5. compensator power
consumption

pic6. output

pic7. primary source


25

It is convenient to limit load current (than it is easier to compensate it).


pic8. Limiting current



pic9. Simulation results


26

pic10. Trying improving


pic11. Current source loaded with capacitor
27

pic12. Limiting asymmetric K=1/10


pic13. Simulation results


28

pic14. Trying make active compensator



pic15. Its difficult to control current in inductance
29


pic16. Compensator model


pic17. Simulation results


30


Trying with regular transformer


pic18. without compensator

top-B, bottom-A




pic19. with compensator
and bulb is brighter




31

pic20. Experimental setup


pic21. generator 10
kHz


32

pic22. experiment
schematic


pic23.
compensators
amplifier




33


Trying with coaxial transformer


pic24. without compensator

Ips = 88ma

without load Ips = 80ma
frequency 200Khz


pic25. with compensator

it is impossible to compensate
even with phase shift chain,
current consumption increases
by 3 times





34

pic26. Experimental setup

35


pic27. Model 3


pic28. Simulation results
36


pic29. Model 4


pic30. Simulation results, COP ~ 1

* cant compensate completely, need higher voltage on compensation windings


37
Anti-aligned flybacks






pic1. possible
configurations on
different cores



pic2. Experiment schematic

38

pic3. Two anti-aligned flybacks


pic4. primary coils


pic5. Pickup coil

39



pic6. top - MOSFET drain, bottom
on recycling coil



pic7. top - Extra coil under load,
bottom MOSFET drain




pic8. Checking with probe



pic9. extra coil without load


40



pic10. Pictures from overunity.com
(?)

Why magnet field outside ferrite
core ?


pic11.


41
Idea about bifilar coils

The idea is if we get currents flow in opposite directions in bifilar coils
magnetic fields cancel each other. If we use such coils as a transformer
secondary load will not affect primary coil.
It is difficult to get opposite currents on same frequency as in primary but
we can switch secondary with high frequency. With iron core this potentially
also give advantage because iron core does not work on high frequencies (so
load pulses will not go thru core to primary). Below a simulation which
illustrate the idea.






42
Can load power itself?

This was one of my first ideas regarding bifilar coils but it took quite
some time to find appropriate schematic to implement it.


pic1. Picture from Thane Heins Bi-toroid transformer patent


pic2. Earlier drawing from overunity.com (?)


43
Composite core

pic3. It seems to be possible make a setup where load have no effect on
primary windings


* We can make core from different materials, place primary on iron part and
secondary windings on ferrite



pic4. Experimental core setup,
central leg made from part of iron
core transformer


* The main issue appeared to be a gap between core parts

Iron core transformer

44

pic5. Experimental setup with regular transformer




pic6. 24v input
2 x 100v output (to switches)






pic7.two outputs pic8. without switching
45

pic9. pic10.



pic11. SSR (solid state relay)


pic12. Isolated switch
46

pic13. Experimental setup with improved drivers


pic14. Improved isolated driver


pic15. pic16.
47


pic17. pic18.


pic19. strange resonance pic20.

48
Model


pic21. Model


pic22. Simulation results

49

pic23. Model


pic24. Simulation


50

pic27. if disconnect resistors and switch synchronously them



pic28. if resistors are connected

51
Transformer on ferrite core


pic31. trying another transformer
3 40 turns



pic32. Experimental setup



pic33.switches off pic34.switches active
52

pic35. switches in 180 degrees


pic36. switches in sync



pic37. if we connect load
resistors currents subtract
pic38.



53


pic39. Switches without isolation



pic40. Setup idea


pic41. top primary wining,
bottom one of secondary windings
(switches off)

54

pic44. top primary wining,
bottom one of secondary windings
(switches on)
pic45. Larger scale

pic46. top-switch control, bottom
- on the output





pic47. With 1uf capacitor in parallel to primary


55


pic48. with capacitor in parallel
primary
pic49. Larger scale


Transformer on Panasonic MWO core



pic50. Transformer on Panasonic core


pic51. Experimental setup

56

pic52. idling

resonance in primary f ~ 290hz
L ~ 128mH
C = 7,8uF



pic53. no increase in power
consumption
pic54.



pic55. core almost saturated pic56.


57


pic57. pic58.

pic59. very small increase in power
consumption even with R load = 0

power consumption observed at
lowest switching frequency (~10khz)


58
Experiment with UDT


pic1. Test transformer on E-core


10 turns on each leg
Lleft,right = 254uH
Lcenter = 35uH

Lleft + Lright = 957uH
Lleft - Lright = 51uH


f = 10kHz
U in = 10v


U1,v 10 10 10 10 10 10 10
I1,a 1,7 2 2,2 2,36 2,52 2,7 2,9
P1 17 20 22 23,6 25,2 27 29

Rn,ohm 50 10 5 4 3 2 1
Un,v 8,8 7,9 6,2 5,7 4,8 4,2 2,8
P2 1,55 6,24 7,69 8,12 7,68 8,82 7,84

COP 0,09 0,31 0,35 0,34 0,30 0,33 0,27


With compensation coil
59

U1,v 10 10 10 10 10 10
I1,a 1,76 1,96 2 2,12 2,2 2,36
P1 17,6 19,6 20 21,2 22 23,6

Rn,ohm 10 5 4 3 2 1
Un,v 6 5 4,8 4,1 3,5 2,4
P2 3,60 5,00 5,76 5,60 6,13 5,76

COP 0,20 0,26 0,29 0,26 0,28 0,24



Perhaps I have to make longer windings


60
Resonance and bifilar coils



pic1. Resonance driver with AFC

Similar driver I used for experiments with transformer secondary winding
shorting.



pic2. freq/2 pic3. freq/4
61


pic4. adjusting duty factor 0-25% pic5.


pic6. pic7.


pic8. on MOSFET drain pic9. on limiting resistor


62

pic10. Experimental setup



power consumption

pic11. top VCO, bottom test
coil



pic12. the output of the phase
comparator
pic13. VCO control


63

pic14. Added current transformer and a phase shift control



pic15. top driver, bottom test
coil on central leg


pic16. top - test coil on central
leg, bottom voltage on outer
legs, R load = 2k

64

pic17. top- test coil on central
leg, bottom - voltage on outer
legs, R load = 50ohm


phase shift appears and load
starts accelerate resonance in
primary






pic18. Setup, side coils anti-aligned



Rn,ohm 3000 2000 1000 500 200 100 50 20 10
Ua,v 10,2 9,8 8,2 7,4 7,2 8,6 10,4 12,2 14
Ub,v 4 3,6 2,8 2,2 1,7 1 0,7 0,3 0,2

Pb 0,005333 0,00648 0,00784 0,00968 0,01445 0,01 0,0098 0,0045 0,004


* this was most successful setup
65

pic19. Power vs load resistance


pic20. Power vs load resistance

66

pic21. Driver schematic version 2


67

I tried different connections of coils



pic22. Load kills resonance




pic23. Load kills resonance (side coils aligned)



pic24. Load first decrease Q factor but then increase
68


c,uf u,v t,us P,W
0,1 50 100 1,25

It seems that such a configuration is allow extract approximately 15% of the
reactive power



pic25. Load kills resonance (very sharp change)




pic26. Load kills resonance (more gradually)

69

pic27. Experimental setup


70

Shorting 3rd coil

This is a variation of non-linear inductance device. Inductance change
achieved by shorting one of three coils.

First trial

pic1. Driver schematic

Rn = 120 ohm, additional 1uF capacitor in parallel to Rn



pic2. Coils on RM10 core

3 11t wire 0.25mm diam.

inductance of one coil 1.1mH


71


without shorting with shorting



pic3. top - point A, bottom -
point B
pic4. top - point A, bottom -
point B



pic5. top - point A, bottom -
point
pic6. top - point A, bottom -
point

* Frequency about 30khz

v ma mW
output w/o
driver, mW COP
11,5 2,4 27,6 without shorting 5,18 0,40
0,5 2,08


11,5 11 126,5 with shorting 104,08 0,23
1,7 24,08


11,5 1,95 22,425 driver

Seems that shorting increase output but also increases power consumption.




72
Model


pic7. Model



pic8. Simulation results


73

pic9. Model with shorting


pic10. Simulation results
74


Improving driver with IR2113


pic11. New driver based on ir2113



SD = 0, LIN = HIN to get driver with inversion




works quite good but still there
is a thru current

pic12. top trigger pulse, bottom
wire shorting a coil


75

pic13. Testing with one coil


pic14. one coil

top driver pulse,
bottom MOSFET drain



pic15. Connecting shorting switch

76

pic16. 2 -1 = 1 (without shorting)



pic17. shorting on (out of screen)

shorting anti-aligned coil


pic18. smaller scale

77

pic19. Shoring one of aligned coils


pic20. 2-1 =1
shorting off


pic21. shorting on

shorting one of two aligned coils
effect two times smaller



78

pic22. Setup

pic23. Without shorting


pic24. top driver pulse,
bottom point 1

79

pic25. top -driver pulse, bottom
point 2



pic26. top -driver pulse, bottom
point 3



With shorting


pic27. top -driver pulse, bottom
point 1


80

pic28. top -driver pulse, bottom
point 2


pic29. top -driver pulse, bottom
point 3


pic30. top -driver pulse, bottom
current thru L3




81

pic31. added diode in series with
shorting switch


pic32. current thru L3



pic33. Larger scale
Rs = 1 ohm
current about 7


82
I tried also these coils, all works more or less same way


pic34. RM-10 core wound with
copper foil

30cm x 8mm about 12 turns

C = 650 pf
L = 370uH


pic35
14 turns wire 0.7 mm diam.

C = 247pf
L = 857 uH



83

Driver with two CD4011

It appeared that diode inside MOSFET shorting upper coil so I have to add
diode in series with MOSFET.


pic44. Driver schematic


pic45. Experiment 1

84

pic46. top - point e, bottom
point d


pic47. top - point e, bottom
point c


pic48. top - point e, bottom
point b

85

pic49. top - point e, bottom
point a

(different scale, AC input on
bottom channel)




pic50. Experiment 2


pic51. top - point e, bottom
point f

86

pic52. top - point e, bottom
point d


pic53. top - point e, bottom
point b


pic54. top - point e, bottom
point a

(AC input on bottom channel)

87

pic55. top - point e, bottom
point g

(slightly different time scale, AC
input on bottom channel)


88
Isolated driver


pic56. Experimental with isolated driver


pic57. Driver schematic

89

pic58. with isolated switch

no difference which coil we
shorting, top or middle


pic59. longer shorting pulse

Coils on P30x19 core

pic60. 3 x 12 turns, L = 650uH



pic61. 3 4 turns with copper
foil, L = 35uH

90


pic62. New driver allows change phase of shorting pulse





pic63. moving shorting pulse and
see how changing output

91

pic64. similar waveforms can be
obtained with RM core also


pic65. moving shorting pulse


pic66.


92
Chapter 7. Charge pump

Some reading to start

Capacitor driver
https://www.dropbox.com/s/gky57sbwwpe80ms/valerainov.pdf

Second universal principle of achieving OU

First principle as we know was described by Tesla in 1900. It took quite
some time for me to fully understand it. History repeats itself, as well as
the idea of Tesla was available and nobody uunderstand it ... Suddenly I
realized that we can use the quadratic energy function to get OU.


Since a nonlinear system does not exhibit linear superposition, a
combination of inputs often produces surprising synergetic effects the
whole becomes greater than sum of its parts.




pic1. Picture and quote from (1)

Reading this book helped me build next chain of reasoning.



93
pic2. Conceptual diagram of the system


The system thus needs to consist of

1. Some "temporary" energy source that provides energy to start system
2. Pump, circuit which will submit something, e.g. electric charge in
small portions to storage, where it will be stored. The accumulation of
something will cause quadratic grow stored energy.
3. Feedback loop to compensate for the initial source of energy and power
the load.

To produce energy such system needs to be "spin up" to a state where energy
gain in the storage in one cycle will be more than energy required to submit
one portion of something (charge) and losses in the system.

Theoretically we can build different systems - use any parameters which
cause quadratic grow of energy (speed, current, voltage)


Lets consider this idea in numbers

I will use charge as a working body and capacitor as a storage. Here a
simplified idea of the setup


pic3. System with capacitors

94


First step charge a capacitor from current source


pic3. Charging capacitor


pic4. Simulation


pic5. Energy

i.e. to charge 1000pf capacitor up to 660V requires 180uJ
95

Second step discharge C1 in C2.


pic6. Model


pic7. Simulation


pic8. Energy

out of 180uJ only 54 hits in the capacitor C2, the efficiency of the
operation turned out 30%. Nevertheless it does not matter because we pumping
charge and not energy, as a result we added about 0.3mC to C2.

96
(We can do this operation synchronously with oscillations every time when
voltage on C2 is zero)


Now lets calculate


Q C U,v E,J dE,J Pre
3,00E-07 1,00E-09 300 4,50E-05 0,000045 1,6
6,00E-07 1,00E-09 600 1,80E-04 0,000135 6,3
9,00E-07 1,00E-09 900 4,05E-04 0,000225 14,2
1,20E-06 1,00E-09 1200 7,20E-04 0,000315 25,2
1,50E-06 1,00E-09 1500 1,13E-03 0,000405 39,4
1,80E-06 1,00E-09 1800 1,62E-03 0,000495 56,7
2,10E-06 1,00E-09 2100 2,21E-03 0,000585 77,2
2,40E-06 1,00E-09 2400 2,88E-03 0,000675 100,8
2,70E-06 1,00E-09 2700 3,65E-03 0,000765 127,6
3,00E-06 1,00E-09 3000 4,50E-03 0,000855 157,5
3,30E-06 1,00E-09 3300 5,45E-03 0,000945 190,6
3,60E-06 1,00E-09 3600 6,48E-03 0,001035 226,8

It turns out that starting with the fourth pulse energy increase in the C2
is more than we spent on the charge transfer ;-)


* The assumption that coil returns as much charge as it was before the pump
pulse was too optimistic, I need to look for a better way to charge
transfer. Anyway the overall idea is still valid




Links:

1. Tapping the Zero Point Energy by Moray King
97
Capacitor driver

Lets try simulate the capacitor driver


pic1. First trial


pic2. without special synchronization it does not work properly

* in each cycle need more energy, same as in a conventional driver circuit
98
Driver with synchronization


pic3. Driver with synchronization


pic4. Model


pic5. Power consumption
99


pic6. At the beginning


Now lets try extract power


pic7. Such extraction does not work because load is killing the quality
factor

* we can try to reduce coupling or make pulse extraction

100

pic8. Simulation results


pic9. Power balance


Pulse extractor


pic10. Model

101

pic11. Simulation results



pic12. Simulation results


This seems to work better; as usual the problem is how to make such a
resonant circuit.
102
Regular driver (for comparison)


pic13. in a conventional driver energy consumption from the source depends
on the amplitude of oscillations in the circuit, but in capacitor driver
power consumption always the same


pic14. Simulation results


103
Experiment with capacitor driver


pic1. Capacitor driver



pic2. Driver schematic


104

pic3. I am using Panasonic core and
secondary coil



pic4. top driver pulses, bottom
point sen
pic5. top driver, bottom zero
crossing circuit output


pic6. pic7. top driver, bottom -
capacitor

pic8. top driver pulses, bottom
point sen (LC)

105




pic9. Model


pic10. Simulation results

* all is not well, voltage is growing not 2 times but 1.1 times (charge not
summing)






106



pic11. More variants of the charge transfer circuit 1


pic12. Simulation results
107



pic13. Variant 2


pic14. Simulation results

108

pic15. Trying improve driver efficiency



pic16. Simulation results



109
About long line

We know that long lines can be used to produce high voltage pulses, so we
can try use long line to sum charge.


pic1. Simulating reflections



pic2. Reflections in transmission line
110


pic3. Line without load



pic4. Simulation



111



pic5. Pulsing line with two capacitors



pic6. Simulation
112


pic7. Pulsing with one capacitor


pic8. Simulation


pic9. Longer simulation, looks different
113


pic10. Simplified setup



pic11. Simulation
114


pic12. Adding extraction circuit



pic13. Simulation
115


pic14. Can we switch second wire ?



pic15. Simulation

116


pic16. Adding extraction


pic17. Simulation



Links:

1. Fitch-Govel generator
https://www.dropbox.com/s/sujf06qh6c0me1y/Fitch-Govel.jpg
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cOUtbngpILc

117
Experiment with long line


pic1. Experimental setup


pic2. Driver schematic




pic3. Charging capacitor thru
current source
pic4. more pulses
118


pic5. even more pic6. Larger scale

Long line made of two stripes of aluminium foil wound on N30 ferrite ring
core
L = 1291uH
C = 6250pf
Z = sqrt(L/C) = 454 ohm
= 1 / Z = 352000m/c or 1m in 2.8us



pic7. charging line
top driver pulse,
bottom voltage on the line
10k in parallel


pic8. top driver pulse,
bottom - on the ground wire on the
end of line

119

pic8. Larger scale

It seems this line has very high
loses




Storage element using magnetic field

I am continuing exploration of my crazy idea about synergetic systems. So
far I was trying use charge and store it in capacitor. Here I am considering
possibility store energy in a coil.

Energy stored in magnetic field W = L I
2
/ 2


pic1. Model


120

pic2. no "accumulation"


pic3. L1/L2 ratio should be greater than the duty cycle


121

pic4. There is "accumulation"




pic5. Experimental setup


pic6. Experiment schematic

122

pic7. top input pulses,
bottom on diode

no accumulation occurs


pic7. no accumulation

should try to wind more turns





123
Looking for charge source

After realizing that simple LC circuit cant be used for synergetic system
directly I am still searching for good charge source or pump. Long line is
an interesting possibility but it is very technological challenging. Here I
am trying use a fluorescent lamp and vacuum tube (in unusual configuration)
as a charge source.

Fluorescent lamp


pic1. +300v DC source



pic2. Experimental setup with fluorescent lamp

124


pic3. I had to burn filament on one side to get two electrodes

* I got 30-100uA current and up to 30v voltage on capacitor





pic4. Optimistic device concept


Using several bulbs in parallel (or some other construction) could increase
output current

100uA * 10KV = 1W
1mA * 10KV = 10W
10mA * 10KV = 100W



125

Tiger2007s experiment


pic5. tiger2007s experiment (see 1)




pic6. Later experiment with different tube
126

Vacuum tube

Vacuum tube is a ready available device which potentially can be used as
charge source. I am trying it in different modes to find one which works
better.

DC mode


pic7. Experimental schematic











pic8. heater transformer pic9. Experimental setup

EL84 (614) gives about 2ua regardless of the voltage on the second grid.
127

Pulse mode



pic10. Experiment schematic


pic11. grids

frequency about 12kHz


pic12. anode

128

pic13. anode (larger scale)




pic14. with heater off seems that
the lamp behaves like a capacitor


pic15. larger scale


129



pic16. Tried this setup also


* But setup on pic10 works better
* Tried EL84 (614) and EL83 (615) with almost same results




Electrostatic spraying



pic17. in theory can be used for charge transfer (picture from 2)



130

pic18. As it turned out the whole thing in the selection of the proper fluid



pic19. Experiment

* I use 10 KV source
* There is current but quite small 0.2-0.5ua
* Placing of "receiving" electrode closer increases current to 1.1ua
* It seems that current is determined by ionization and not by liquid


131

Links:
1. Tiger2007 experiment
http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=4KG3USFCkEA

2. Israstatic web site
https://sites.google.com/site/israstatic/israstaticeng


132
Chapter 8. Displacement currents

Some reading to start

Micro's idea
https://www.dropbox.com/s/z0ggy7lmijd7gqd/micro.pdf

Tiger2007's device
https://www.dropbox.com/s/7xee8fg4dq6xzmj/tiger2007_1.pdf

Another Tiger2007's device
https://www.dropbox.com/s/c6hmfck0099slxp/tiger2007_2.pdf


Bifilar extraction with capacitor


pic1. Idea from FE LT video


Here a variation of anti-aligned bifilar coils which I am trying to use to
extract reactive power without affecting resonance circuit.

pic2. Experiment schematic

133

pic3. Experimental setup


pic4. capacitor plates aligned
in transformer


pic5. capacitor plates anti-
aligned in transformer

134

pic6. aligned connection voltage
significantly lower


pic7. increasing frequency, get
resonance



pic8. Possible variants of reactive power extraction


135


pic9. One more variant



Negative inductance


While experimenting with coil-capacitors I noticed that it is quite easy to
observe negative inductance. Here results for two N30 ring cores (35 and
55mm diameter).



pic1. Experimental setup



pic2. top - voltage
bottom current
(sense resistor 50ohm)
136

137



pic3. Experiment with smaller core



pic4. top - voltage
bottom current
(sense resistor 1k)


pic5. top - voltage
bottom current
(sense resistor 1ohm)






138
One directional displacement current

Some people think that if we manage to get one directional current in
transformer secondary there will be no reaction on primary from load. Here I
am trying to get one directional pulses with coil-capacitor.


pic1. Charging with one end, discharging with another


pic2. Experimental setup

139

pic3. top driver,
bottom output

still there is some negative
offset

May be 3-phase version will work?



pic4. 3 phase variant. Will give DC on the output?


140
Current from the ground

Here I am trying to build a circuit which will pump charges from the ground.


pic1. Black charge, red - discharge




pic2. Experimental setup
141

pic3. Experiment schematic



pic5. top driver pulse,
bottom FB output
pic6. smaller scale

pic7. top driver pulse,
bottom on capacitor

142

pic8. top - driver pulse,
bottom output of second FB

(diode on capacitor ground shorted)



pic9. diode on capacitor ground not
shorted
pic10. diode on capacitor ground
not shorted and massive metal piece
attached (real grounding
replacement)

143
Chapter 9. Spark gap

Some reading for beginning

D.I. about sparks
https://www.dropbox.com/s/wh2x1hp9yqfd46n/di.pdf

Driver for spark gap




pic1. Pulse generator, variant 1

* it turned out that it is necessary to use 7555 timer, it is much faster




pic2. Improved pulse generator

144

pic3. Experimental setup

* Pulse generator and two irf840 in parallel
* Coaxial transformer 10 ring cores
* Secondary 10 turns




pic4. Spark plug

* There is 5 resistor inside


145

pic5. top driver pulse,
bottom - output


pic6. no spark


pic7. spark (larger scale)









146

pic8. Improved schematic


Driver version 2

This driver was described in FE basics (chapter 2 HV power source)



pic9. Experimental setup



pic10. positive pulse

discharge starts easily and
gives good voltage on capacitor,
also easily stops

C = 0.1uF / 6
R = 66k

147

pic11. on the load resistor


pic12. in a sense it is also a
negative resistance - with each
spark potential difference
decreases and discharge starts
easier


Surprisingly that the pulse of negative polarity behaves differently



pic13. need higher voltage
breakdown and seems give less
voltage on capacitor

148

pic14. also discharge dont
want to stop






149


Good luck and have fun






MEG with saturating core


Revision 2








Measuring B-H Curve .....................................................................................................................2
Calculation of magnets coercive force...........................................................................................5
Estimation of maximum power which can be obtained from magnet .............................................6
Driver...............................................................................................................................................8
Trying MEG core ............................................................................................................................9
Simulation based on experimental BH curve ................................................................................12
Links ..............................................................................................................................................13


























FE R&D group http://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/ferd041/info

2014






Measuring B-H Curve

I use two cores with two coils on each, similar arrangement to variable inductor.
Each coil has 60 turns, wire diam. 0.4mm


pic1. Test setup for measuring BH curve


pic2. Test setup schematic

On one pair of coils I applied 12v from DC power thru variable resistor to adjust current.
On the other pair of coils I measured inductance with L meter.

Then I use below formula to calculate cores relative permeability


0
N
2
A
L = ------------------ therefore
l
L l
= ------------------

0
N
2
A



L,uH 9759 9674 9703 9680 9718 9603 9450 8930 7757 5574 3924 1761 903 476
Ic,mA 0 12 24 44 84 180 212 260 356 516 648 948 1500 2100
mu 648,2 642,6 644,5 643 645,5 637,9 627,7 593,2 515,3 370,3 260,7 117 59,98 31,62
Tab1. Without magnets


pic3. Inductance (uH) vs control current (mA)


pic4. Relative core permeability vs control current (mA)


L,uH 1202 1319 1530 1942 2237 2772 3165 3347 3431 4330 4460
Ic,mA -2100 -1500 -948 -516 -356 -176 -80 -40 -20 -8 0
mu 79,84 87,62 101,6 129 148,6 184,1 210,2 222,3 227,9 287,6 296,3
Tab. 2.1 With magnets

L,uH
4460 4449 4594 4653 5020 5984 6735 5215 3640 1806 723
Ic,mA
0 12 20 40 80 176 356 516 648 944 1500
mu
296,3 295,5 305,2 309,1 333,5 397,5 447,4 346,4 241,8 120 48,03
Tab. 2.2



pic5. Inductance (uH) vs control current (mA) with magnets

pic6. Relative core permeability vs control current (mA) with magnets

Calculation of magnets coercive force



pic7. Test setup pic8. Equivalent magnetic circuit

HmLm + m Rm =
1
Rc
1
+NI =
2
Rc
2
(1)

1
+
2
= m

where

Lm
Rm = ------------- ,

0
Am
Lc / 2 Lc / 2
Rc
1
= ------------- and Rc
2
= -------------

0
c
1
Ac
0
c
2
Ac

for left and right halves of core correspondingly.

At the point where coils flux equal magnets flux in left core leg
1
= 0 therefore

NI =
2
Rc
2


Substituting it to (1) get formula for Hm

N I (Rm - Rc
2
)
Hm = ------------------------
Lm Rc
2


Substituting all values

Lm 1,50E-02 m
magnets length
Rm 1,19E+08
Am 1,00E-04 m2
magnets cross section
area
0 1,26E-06 Rc2 3,17E+06
c2 147 found from pic.6
Ac 1,54E-04 m2 cores cross section area
Lc 0,18 m cores length
N 60 turns number of turns
I 0,360 A current Hm 5,29E+04 A/m

* I was expecting quite different value

Estimation of maximum power which can be obtained from
magnet



pic9. Setup



pic10. Equivalent magnetic circuit from the point of view of output circuit

HmLm = m ( Rm + Rc
1
||Rc
2
)

HmLm
so m = -----------------------
Rm + Rc
1
||Rc
2

1
+
2
= m

and
1
Rc
1 =

2
Rc
2


m
so 2 = --------------------
1 + Rc2 / Rc1

Rc
2
m
and 1 = ---------------------------
Rc
1
(1 + Rc2 / Rc1)




using = BA we can obtain

HmLm
B1 = ----------------------------------------------
(Rm + Rc
1
||Rc
2
) (1 + Rc2 / Rc1) Ac


So energy stored in core will be

B
2
Vc
W = ------------- where Vc is volume of the core
2
0
c

and maximum work performed by PMs field

P = W f = f (W
0
W
1
)
where W
0
and W
1
energy in core corresponding to minimal and maximal
c

and f control frequency


Substituting all values and calculating

off on
Hm 5,29E+04 a/m c 275 c1 87
Lm 1,50E-02 m Rm 1,19E+08 c2 120
Am 1,00E-04 m2 Rc 1,69E+06 Rc1 5,35E+06
0 1,26E-06 Fm 6,60E-06 Rc2 3,88E+06
Ac 1,54E-04 m2 F 3,30E-06 Fm 6,52E-06
Lc 0,18 m B 0,021 F1 2,74E-06
Vc 2,77E-05 m3 W 1,84E-05 F2 3,78E-06
Freq 300 hz B1 1,78E-02
B2 2,45E-02
W1 4,02E-05
W2 5,54E-05

dW 5,88E-05
P 0,018 W

Maximum output power P = 18mW at 300Hz which is looks like values I got in experiment




Driver


pic11. I rewound my coils

2x2x36 turns

L1= 1339uH
L2 = 1250uH

L1+L2 = 5263uH / 2630uH
L1-L2 = 202uH / 191uH

(without magnet / with magnet)



pic12. Driver schematic



pic13. Driver on prototype board


pic14. Trying with test coil 390uH

voltage on 0.25 ohm resistor



pic15. power consumption





Trying MEG core



pic16. top-current thru control coils, bottom
voltage on output coils Rload = 15
pic17. Same as pic.16 but control coil polarity



pic18. Experimental setup


pic19. top-current thru control coils, bottom
voltage on output coils Rload = 15


pic20. Power consumption


Rs = 0.2
Imin = 0.4A
Imax = 1.2A

Rload = 15ohm

Average Pout = 1.14 * 1.14 / 15 = 86mW


Pin = 3W

R,ohm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
U,v 0,39 0,63 0,77 0,88 0,97 1,04 1,07 1,09 1,14 1,14 1,17 1,19 1,21 1,23 1,26
P,w 0,16 0,2 0,2 0,19 0,19 0,18 0,16 0,15 0,14 0,13 0,12 0,12 0,11 0,11 0,11

maximum COP < 10%




pic21. Voltage on load vs load resistance



pic22. Power on load vs load resistance



Simulation based on experimental BH curve



pic.23 top core vs control current; middle magnetic field in core vs control current (red left
cores leg, green right leg); bottom energy in core vs control current




So far my conclusion magnet is too weak.

Links

1. FE R&D group
https://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/ferd041/info

2. Homebrew electronic lab tools
https://sites.google.com/site/vasik041



Experiment with ferroresonance in MEG modulator coils

Ferroresonance can be used as alternative method to drive core in saturation. I decided to try my
PWM driver with MEG setup and see how it works.


pic1. PWM driver


pic2. MCU based sin generator (60...500hz)




pic3. Test setup


pic4. Test setup on prototype board


pic5. top driver coil current (Rs=0.2ohm),
bottom voltage on load resistor 15 ohm



pic6. Power consumption

Ipk-pk = 3.3A
f = 440hz

C = 6 x 6.8uF (L = 2.6mH)


pic7. same but higher modulation current

Ipk-pk = 7A




Pin=2W f=440hz

Rn,ohms 1 2 3 4 5 10 15 20
U,v 0,485 0,658 0,73 0,815 0,84 0,913 0,974 1
P,W 0,235 0,216 0,178 0,166 0,141 0,083 0,063 0,050


pic8. Power on the load vs load resistance


* It is interesting that energy balance stays similar to pulse driver






pic9. I rewound coils with thick wire to
see how loses decrease

here 4 coils 41 turns 1.0

I got maximum current Ipk-pk = 11A
but power consumption also increased
to 8W with output power 2W

so its same about 25% efficiency




Same experiment with my old core



pic10. Test with old core setup




pic11. top driver coil current (Rs=0.2ohm),
bottom voltage on load resistor

modulator coil inductance 5.5mH

Ipk-pk = 5.5A



pic12. top driver coil current (Rs=0.2ohm),
bottom voltage on load resistor

Ipk-pk = 4.4A



Rn,ohms 500 400 300 200 150 100 75 50 40 30 20 10
Un,v 14,4 14,2 13,8 12,6 12 11 9,2 7,7 6,9 5,2 4,1 2,6
Pout,W 0,41 0,50 0,63 0,79 0,96 1,21 1,13 1,19 1,19 0,90 0,84 0,68
Pin,W 4,7 4,5 4,2 3,5 3,2 3 2,3 2,3 2,3 2,3 2,3 2,3
COP 0,10 0,13 0,17 0,27 0,36 0,50 0,65 0,68 0,68 0,52 0,48 0,39
* Input power measured roughly



pic13. Power on the load vs load resistance


This setup seems to be more efficient in this modehmmm



Translated document from http://cxem.net/tesla/tesla36.php
Magnetic resonance power source
The principle of the device with efficiency above 100%, you will say that this is a fake and not
really, but it is not true. Built device from available parts (manufactured in Russia). The
construction of the transformer is a special one, the transformer E-shaped with a gap in the
middle leg, but the gap has a neodymium magnet that sets the initial pulse to feedback coil. You
can wound pickup coil in any direction, but you need a jeweler's precision in their turns, they
must have the same inductance. If this requirement is not met, resonance will not occur, you will
see it with voltmeter connected in parallel to the battery. I havent found any special use for this
design but you can connect a source of light as incandescent bulbs.
Technical characteristics at resonance:
COP above 100%
Reverse current 163-167ma (don't know how it happens, but the battery is charging)
The supply current 141 milliamps (it turns out that the 20 milliamps is free energy and goes on
battery charging)
Device schematic:
Red wire coil L1
Green wire coil L2
The black wire is the pickup coil


= Magnet, transistor 2n3055 or similar, = uF
Tuning
With my own experience I found that the coil L1 wound with the same wire is easier to tune in
resonance with the L2, creating more current than is consumed. As I understand, a ferromagnetic
resonance occurs, which feeds the load and charges the battery fast. To tune the resonance two
identical coils needed (or one). With device powered, load coils with lamps (in my case a lamp
12 Volt 5 Watt). For tuning connect voltmeter in parallel the batteries and start moving coil(s).
At resonance, the voltage at the battery should begin to rise. When you reach a certain threshold,
the battery will not charge and discharge. The transistor needs to be installed large heat sink. In
case of the two coils tuning is more complex as you have to make them identical. If inductance is
different, with different loads inductance of coils located on right and left leg will change. If you
do not comply with these rules, the resonance might not happen and we get a simple step-up
converter with high efficiency. Coils ratio I have 1:3, i.e. L1 8 turns, L2 24 turns, both with the
same cross-section. L1 wound on top of L2. Pickup coils no difference by which wire, but I have
1.5 mm
2
.


Photo
The finished device in non-resonant mode (coils are connected in sequence)

Transformer in non-resonant mode

Non-resonant mode, launched a simple step-up converter with high efficiency

Looping attempt from the pickup coil through the diode. (Result: failed, works 14 seconds and
fade away)


The resonance condition of a coil without looping through the diode. Successful experiment with
connected battery converter worked 37 hours 40 minutes without any loss of voltage at the
battery in early experience voltage on batteries was 7.15 Volt, by the end of the 7.60 volts. This
experience has proved that the converter can give efficiency higher 100%. For the loading used
12 Volt 5 Watt bulb. I refused idea to use other devices as a load, because the magnetic field
around the unit very strong and create interference in a radius of 1.5 meters, the radios stops
working within a radius of 10 meters.



Device demo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=17QMaJ8GRm0

Transcript:
Let me present an interesting transformer
It pump energy from neo magnet
I connected lamp 12v 5W and it is 70% of full brightness
Generator implemented on transistor kt805bm (in plastic case)
Here a small (green) capacitor across output
Without capacitor we will get high voltage pulses and all metallic parts of device will collect
static electricity
Capacitor is optional but it will help you avoid electric shocks
Device powered from two batteries 7.5v 2.4ah
Device does not consume any power
There are no hidden wires or battery
Device is very sensitive; any coil movement can detune resonance
In resonance condition device do not consume power but vise verse supply power itself
Lamp is slightly blinking, this means that it is in resonance condition
Voltage is steady growing
You can see yourself, it was 7.25
I do not touch anything
You can see voltmeter connected across battery and nothing else
This device under test running second day
Voltage grow to some level and battery not charging anymore
Now lets talk about transformer
Transformer consists of
Primary winding
Secondary winding and pickup coil
I am currently using one pickup coil
You can see second coil not used, coils have slightly different number of turns
Primary windings provide powerful pulse
Secondary coilwell how to say itonce primary coil worked secondary coil react on it
and give signal to transistor and cycle repeats
neo magnet in the gap, you can see it slightly white
It define this pulse
(pause)
I posted schematic, no secrets
but I will specify my own transformer parameters
because I know that these parameters work for sure
Thanks for watching
We will meet again





* Translator warning: Please be careful and avoid long exposure to powerful pulse magnetic fields


Tesla Coil Impedance
Dr. Gary L. Johnson
Professor Emeritus
Electrical and Computer Engineering Department
Kansas State University
gjohnson@ksu.edu
Abstract
The input impedance of a Tesla coil operated as an ex-
tra coil, or as a quarter-wave antenna above a ground
plane, is given here. Eects of coil form, wire size, wire
insulation, and humidity are discussed.
1. Introduction
A classical Tesla coil contains two stages of voltage
increase. The rst is a conventional iron core trans-
former that steps up the available line voltage to a
voltage in the range of 12 to 50 kV, 60 Hz. The second
is a resonant air core transformer (the Tesla coil itself)
which steps up the voltage to the range of 200 kV to
1 MV. The high voltage output is at a frequency much
higher than 60 Hz, perhaps 500 kHz for the small units
and 80 kHz (or less) for the very large units.
The lumped circuit model for the classical Tesla coil
is shown in Fig. 1. The primary capacitor C
1
is a low
loss ac capacitor, rated at perhaps 20 kV, and often
made from mica or polyethylene. The primary coil L
1
is usually made of 4 to 15 turns for the small coils and
1 to 5 turns for the large coils. The secondary coil
L
2
consists of perhaps 50 to 400 turns for the large
coils and as many as 400 to 1000 turns for the small
coils. The secondary capacitance C
2
is not a discrete
commercial capacitor but rather is the distributed ca-
pacitance between the windings of L
2
and the voltage
grading structure at the top of the coil (a toroid or
sphere) and ground. This capacitance changes with the
volume charge density around the secondary, increas-
ing somewhat when the sparks start. It also changes
with the surroundings of the coil, increasing as the coil
is moved closer to a metal wall.
The symbol G represents a spark gap, a device which
will arc over at a suciently high voltage. The simplest
version is just two metal spheres in air, separated by a
small air gap. It acts as a voltage controlled switch in
this circuit. The open circuit impedance of the gap is

iron core air core


v
a
v
b G
C
1
L
1
L
2
C
2
Figure 1: The Classical Tesla Coil
very high. The impedance during conduction depends
on the geometry of the gap and the type of gas (usually
air), and is a nonlinear function of the current density.
This impedance is not negligible. A considerable frac-
tion of the total input power goes into the production
of light, heat, and chemical products at the spark gap.
The arc in the spark gap is similar to that of an elec-
tric arc welder in visual intensity. That is, one should
not stare at the arc because of possible damage to the
eyes. At most displays of classical Tesla coils, the spark
gap makes more noise and produces more light than the
electrical display at the top of the coil.
When the gap is not conducting, the capacitor C
1
is being charged in the circuit shown in Fig. 2, where
just the central part of Fig. 1 is shown. The inductive
reactance is much smaller than the capacitive reactance
at 60 Hz, so L
1
appears as a short at 60 Hz and the
capacitor is being charged by the iron core transformer
secondary.
A common type of iron core transformer used for
small Tesla coils is the neon sign transformer (NST).
Secondary ratings are typically 9, 12, or 15 kV and
30 or 60 mA. An NST has a large number of turns
on the secondary and a very high inductance. This
inductance will limit the current into a short circuit at
about the rated value. An operating neon sign has a
low impedance, so current limiting is important to long
1
_

@
@
_

C
1
C
1
v
b
v
b L
1
Figure 2: C
1
Being Charged With The Gap Open
transformer life. However, in Tesla coil use, the NST
inductance will resonate with C
1
. The NST may supply
two or three times its rated current in this application.
Overloading the NST produces longer sparks, but may
also cause premature failure.
When the voltage across the capacitor and gap
reaches a given value, the gap arcs over, resulting in
the circuit in Fig. 3. We are not interested in eciency
in this introduction so we will model the arc as a short
circuit. The shorted gap splits the circuit into two
halves, with the iron core transformer operating at 60
Hz and the circuit to the right of the gap operating at
a frequency (or frequencies) determined by C
1
, L
1
, L
2
,
and C
2
. It should be noted that the output voltage of
the iron core transformer drops to (approximately) zero
while the input voltage remains the same, as long as
the arc exists. The current through the transformer is
limited by the transformer equivalent series impedance
shown as R
s
+jX
s
in Fig. 3. As mentioned, this oper-
ating mode is not a problem for the NST. However, the
large Tesla coils use conventional transformers with per
unit impedances in the range of 0.05 to 0.1. A trans-
former with a per unit impedance of 0.1 will experience
a current of ten times rated while the output is shorted.
Most transformers do not survive very long under such
conditions. The solution is to include additional reac-
tance in the input circuit.

_ _ _


gap
shorted
X
s
C
1
C
2
L
2
R
s
L
1
Figure 3: Tesla Circuit With Gap Shorted.
The equivalent lumped circuit model of the Tesla coil
while the gap is shorted is shown in Fig. 4. R
1
and R
2
are the eective resistances of the air cored transformer
primary and secondary, respectively. The mutual in-
ductance between the primary and secondary is shown
by the symbol M. The coecient of coupling is well
under unity for an air cored transformer, so the ideal
transformer model used for an iron cored transformer
that electrical engineering students study in the rst
course on energy conversion does not apply here.



v
1 L
1
L
2
C
2
C
1
v
2
R
1 M R
2
- -
i
1
i
2
Figure 4: Lumped Circuit Model Of A Tesla Coil, arc
on.
At the time the gap arcs over, all the energy is stored
in C
1
. As time increases, energy is shared among C
1
,
L
1
, C
2
, L
2
, and M. The total energy in the circuit
decreases with time because of losses in the resistances
R
1
and R
2
. There are four energy storage devices so a
fourth order dierential equation must be solved. The
initial conditions are some initial voltage v
1
, and i
1
=
i
2
= v
2
= 0. If the arc starts again before all the
energy from the previous arc has been dissipated, then
the initial conditions must be changed appropriately.
With proper design (proper values of C
1
, L
1
, C
2
,
L
2
, and M) it is possible to have all the energy in C
1
transferred to the secondary at some time t
1
. That
is, at t
1
there is no voltage across C
1
and no current
through L
1
. If the gap can be opened at t
1
, then there
is no way for energy to get back into the primary. No
current can ow, so no energy can be stored in L
1
, and
without current the capacitor cannot be charged. The
secondary then becomes a separate RLC circuit with
nonzero initial conditions for both C
2
and L
2
, as shown
in Fig. 5. This circuit will then oscillate or ring at
a resonant frequency determined by C
2
and L
2
. With
the gap open, the Tesla coil secondary is simply an
RLC circuit, described in any text on circuit theory.
The output voltage is a damped sinusoid.
_



L
2
C
2
v
2
R
2
-
i
2
Figure 5: Lumped Circuit Model Of A Tesla Coil, arc
o.
2
Finding a peak value for v
2
given some initial value
for v
1
thus requires a two step solution process. We
rst solve a fourth order dierential equation to nd
i
2
and v
2
as a function of time. At some time t
1
the
circuit changes to the one shown in Fig. 5, which is
described by a second order dierential equation. The
initial conditions are the values of i
2
and v
2
determined
from the previous solution at time t
1
. The resulting
solution then gives the desired peak values for voltage
and current. The process is tedious, but can readily
be done on a computer. It yields some good insights
as to the eects of parameter variation. It helps estab-
lish a benchmark for optimum performance and also
helps identify parameter values that are at least of the
correct order of magnitude. However, there are several
limitations to the process which must be kept in mind.
First, the arc is very dicult to characterize accu-
rately in this model. The equivalent R
1
will change,
perhaps by an order of magnitude, with factors like i
1
,
ambient humidity, and the condition, geometry, and
temperature of the electrode materials. This intro-
duces a very signicant error into the results.
Second, the arc is not readily turned o at a precise
instant of time. The space between electrodes must be
cleared of the hot conducting plasma (the current car-
rying ions and electrons) before the spark gap can re-
turn to its open circuit mode. Otherwise, when energy
starts to bounce back from the secondary, a voltage will
appear across the spark gap, and current will start to
ow again, after the optimum time t
1
has passed. With
xed electrodes, the plasma is dissipated by thermal
and chemical processes that require tens of microsec-
onds to function. When we consider that the optimum
t
1
may be 2 s, a problem is obvious. This dissipation
time can be decreased signicantly by putting a fan on
the electrodes to blow the plasma away. This also has
the benet of cooling the electrodes. For more powerful
systems, however, the most common method is a rotat-
ing spark gap. A circular disc with several electrodes
mounted on it is driven by a motor. An arc is estab-
lished when a moving electrode passes by a stationary
electrode, but the arc is immediately stretched out by
the movement of the disc. During the time around a
current zero, the resistance of the arc can increase to
where the arc cannot be reestablished by the following
increase in voltage.
The rotary spark gap still has limitations on the min-
imum arc time. Suppose we consider a disc with a ra-
dius of 0.2 m and a rotational speed of 400 rad/sec
(slightly above 3600 RPM). The edge of the disc is
moving at a linear velocity of r = 80 m/s. Suppose
also that an arc cannot be sustained with arc lengths
above 2 cm. It requires 0.02/80 = 25 s for the disc
to turn this distance. This time can be shortened by
making the disc larger or by turning it at a higher rate
of speed, but in both cases we worry about the stress
limits of the disc. Nobody wants fragments of a failed
disc ying around the room. The practical lower limit
of arc length seems to be about 10 s. With larger coils
this may be reasonably close to the optimum value.
The third reason for concern about the above calcu-
lations is that the Tesla coil secondary has features that
cannot be precisely modeled by a lumped circuit. One
such feature is ringing at harmonic frequencies. Nei-
ther distributed nor lumped models do a particularly
good job of predicting these frequencies. For example,
a medium sized secondary might usually ring down at
160 kHz. Sometimes, however, it will ring down at
3.5(160) = 560 kHz. A third harmonic appears in many
electrical circuits and has plausible explanations. A 3.5
harmonic is another story entirely.
2. The Extra Coil
As mentioned above, the classical Tesla coil uses two
stages of voltage increase. Some coilers get a third
stage of voltage increase by adding a magnier coil,
also called an extra coil, to their classical Tesla coil.
This is illustrated in Fig. 6.

iron core air core


v
a
v
b G
C
1
L
1
L
2
C
2

@
@
@
@
@
magnier
Figure 6: The Classical Tesla Coil With Extra Coil
The extra coil and the air core transformer are not
magnetically coupled. The output (top) of the classi-
cal coil is electrically connected to the input (bottom)
of the extra coil with a section of copper water pipe
of large enough diameter that corona is not a major
problem. A separation of 2 or 3 meters is typical.
Voltage increase on the extra coil is by transmission
line action (eld theory), or by RLC resonance (cir-
cuit theory), rather than the transformer action of the
iron core transformer. Voltage increase on the air core
transformer is partly by transformer action and partly
by transmission line action. When optimized for ex-
tra coil operation, the air core transformer looks more
like a transformer (greater coupling, shorter secondary)
3
than when optimized for classical Tesla coil operation.
Although not shown in Fig. 6 the extra coil depends
on ground for the return path of current ow. The
capacitance from each turn of the extra coil and from
the top terminal to ground is necessary for operation.
Impedance matching from the Tesla coil secondary to
the extra coil is necessary for proper operation. If the
extra coil were fabricated with the same size coil form
and wire size as the secondary, the secondary and extra
coil tend to operate as a long secondary, probably with
inferior performance to that of the secondary alone.
There are guidelines for making the coil diameters and
wire sizes dierent for the two coils, but optimization
seems to require a signicant amount of trial and error.
In my quest for a better description of Tesla coil
operation, I decided that the extra coil was the appro-
priate place to start. It looks like a vertical antenna
above a ground plane, so there is some prior art to draw
from. While the classical Tesla coil makes an excellent
driver to produce long sparks, it is not very good for in-
strumentation and measurement purposes. There are
just too many variables. The spark gap may be the
best high voltage switch available today, but inability
to start and stop on command, plus heating eects,
make it dicult to use when collecting data.
I therefore decided to build a solid state driver.
Vacuum tube drivers have been used for many years
and several researchers have developed drivers us-
ing power MOSFETs, so this was not entirely new
territory. I used this driver to measure the input
impedance of several coils under various operating con-
ditions, and compared these results with what the-
ory I could nd. This paper describes my results.
Some data on my driver can be found on my web site,
www.eece.ksu.edu/gjohnson.
3. The Lumped RLC Model
There are two ways of modeling the Extra Coil: dis-
tributed (elds) and lumped (circuits). I spent con-
siderable time with the distributed model, but was un-
able to predict all the interesting features. The lumped
model is not perfect either, but may be easier to visual-
ize. The system we are attempting to describe is shown
in the next gure.
The voltage input v
i
at the base of the Tesla coil may
be either a sine wave or a square wave. The square wave
is composed of an innite series of cosinusoids, the fun-
damental and all odd harmonics. The harmonics of the
exciting wave will drive higher order resonances of the
Tesla coil, if these resonances are harmonically related.
It appears, at least for the coils I have built, that any
Driver
_ _
_

v
i
i
-
Figure 7: Drive for Tesla Coil
higher order resonances are not exact multiples of the
fundamental frequency. That is, I apply a square wave
of voltage to the feed point, and observe a current that
looks sinusoidal at the fundamental frequency. The
lumped RLC model automatically excludes higher or-
der resonances, so if they are of signicance, we must
use a distributed model to describe them. I believe that
higher order resonances are not a problem, at least not
enough of a problem to exclude the use of the lumped
model. The input impedance of the Tesla coil is the
(fundamental) input voltage divided by the current i.
The lumped model used here is the series resonant
RLC circuit shown in Fig. 8.
_ _ _


L
tc
C
tc
R
tc
V
L
V
C
V
base
-
i
v
i
Figure 8: Tesla Coil with Series Resonant LC Circuit
The resonant frequency is given by

o
=
1

L
tc
C
tc
(1)
At resonance, the inductive reactance
o
L
w
is can-
celed by the capacitive reactance 1/
o
C
tc
so the cur-
rent is
i =
v
i
R
tc
(2)
The magnitude of the voltage across either the in-
ductance or the capacitance is
V
C
= iX
C
=
v
i
R
tc
1

o
C
tc
=
v
i

o
C
tc
R
tc
(3)
4
Books on circuit theory dene the quality factor Q
as
Q =

o
L
tc
R
tc
=
1

o
C
tc
R
tc
=
1
R
tc

L
tc
C
tc
(4)
so we can write
V
C
= Qv
i
(5)
We see that to get a large voltage on the toroid of
a Tesla coil that it needs to be high Q. We need R
tc
small, L
tc
large, and C
tc
small. Let us look at ways of
calculating or estimating these quantities.
4. Inductance
An empirical expression for the low-frequency induc-
tance of a single-layer solenoid is [14, p. 55].
L
tc
=
r
2
N
2
9r + 10
H (6)
where r is the radius of the coil and is its length in
inches. This formula is accurate to within one percent
for > 0.8r, that is, if the coil is not too short. It is
known in the Tesla coil community as the Wheeler for-
mula. The structure of a single-layer solenoid is almost
universally used for the extra coil, so this formula is
very important. In normal conditions (no other coils
and no signicant amounts of ferromagnetic materials
nearby) it is quite adequate for calculating resonant
frequency.
The classical Tesla coil has a short primary that is
magnetically coupled into a taller secondary. The pa-
per by Fawzi [5] contains the analytic expressions for
the self and mutual inductances necessary for this case.
A relatively simple numerical integration is required to
get the nal values. We can get the same results as
the Wheeler formula by this numerical integration, but
with somewhat less insight as to how inductance varies
with the number of turns, and the length and radius of
the coil.
5. Capacitance
C
tc
is much more dicult to calculate or to estimate
with any accuracy. The capacitance value used to de-
termine the resonant frequency of the Tesla coil is a
combination of the capacitance of the coil and the ca-
pacitance of the top load, usually a sphere or a toroid,
with respect to ground. As a practical matter, ground
will be dierent in every Tesla coil installation. Easiest
to model would be an outdoor installation (no walls or
ceiling) with the coil setting on a large copper sheet.
However, most coils are operated indoors without any
copper sheet. Ground then consists of some combi-
nation of a concrete oor, electrical wiring, grounded
light xtures, and soil moisture. That is, the geometry
necessary even for a numerical solution of capacitance
is dicult to describe precisely.
To obtain the capacitance of a sphere to ground, we
start with the capacitance of a spherical capacitor, two
concentric spheres with radii a and b (b > a) as shown
in Fig. 9.
`
_
'
_
6
?
6
?
2b 2a
Figure 9: Spherical Capacitor
It is not practical to actually build capacitors this
way, but the symmetry allows an exact formula for ca-
pacitance to be calculated easily. This is done in most
introductory courses of electromagnetic theory. The
capacitance is given by [12, Page 165]
C =
4
1/a 1/b
(7)
If the outer sphere is made larger, the capacitance
decreases, but does not go to zero. In the limit as
b , the isolated or isotropic capacitance of a sphere
of radius a becomes
C

= 4a (8)
Assuming a mean radius of 6371 km, the isotropic
capacitance of the planet earth is 709 F. A sphere of
radius 0.1 m (a nice size for a small Tesla coil) would
have an isotropic capacitance of 11.1 pF.
The other type of top load used for Tesla coils is
the toroid. The dimensions of a toroid are shown in
Fig. 10.
`
_
`
_
-
6
?
d
D
side
view
Figure 10: Toroid Dimensions
The analytic expression for the isotropic capacitance
of a toroid involves Legendre functions of the rst and
5
second order. It is much more dicult than the ca-
pacitance of a sphere. I discuss this expression at my
web site, and give two corrections to formulas found
in the Moon and Spencer textbook. For our purposes,
empirical formulas for the capacitance of a toroid are
more than adequate. The following are given by [13]
C
S
=
1.8(D d)
ln(8(D d)/d)
(d/D < 0.25) (9)
C
S
= 0.37D+ 0.23d (d/D > 0.25) (10)
where D is the toroid major diameter, outside to out-
side, in cm, d is the toroid minor diameter in cm, and
the capacitance is given in pF.
Empirical equations for the isotropic capacitance of
a coil were developed many years ago by Medhurst.
These can be expressed in several dierent versions, to
meet dierent needs. The simplest expression for the
isotropic capacitance of a cylindrical coil of wire, with
diameter D and coil length , is
C
M
= HD pF (11)
where D is in cm, and H is a multiplying factor that
equals 0.51 for /D = 2, 0.81 for /D = 5, and varies
linearly between 0.51 and 0.81 for /D between 2 and
5. Most coilers prefer values for /D between 3.5 and
4.5, so this linear range is adequate for most purposes.
An expression for H that works for /D between 2
and 8 is
H = 0.100976

D
+ 0.30963 (12)
Another expression for H that works for /D be-
tween 1 and 8 is
H = 0.0005(

D
)
4
0.0097(

D
)
3
+ 0.0648(

D
)
2
0.0757(

D
) + 0.4723 (13)
We now have expressions for the isotropic capaci-
tance C
S
of a toroid (or sphere) and the isotropic ca-
pacitance C
M
of a coil. We want to somehow use these
expressions to nd the eective capacitance C
tc
for the
Tesla coil with the toroid (or sphere) on top the coil.
Unfortunately, life is not that simple. As we bring the
coil near a ground plane, the capacitance increases. As
we add walls and a ceiling, the capacitance increases
some more. The same is true for the toroid. The ca-
pacitance increases as it is brought to the vicinity of a
ground plane.
But if we want the isotropic capacitance of the com-
bination of the coil and the toroid (the two items as-
sembled at a remote location), shielding occurs such
that the eective capacitance is less than the sum of
the two isotropic capacitances. We have two oppos-
ing trends. The actual isotropic Tesla coil capacitance
is smaller than the sum C
M
+ C
S
but when the coil
and toroid are brought near grounded surfaces, the ef-
fective capacitance to be used in calculating resonant
frequency will increase. The opposing trends suggests
that C
tc
might be within 20% of C
M
+ C
S
for most
Tesla coils. The resonant frequency is related to the
square root of C
tc
so a 20% error in capacitance results
in only a 10% error in resonant frequency.
The main benet of the expressions for C
M
and C
S
is that they allow us to do what if analyses relatively
quickly. Questions about the eect of changing coil di-
ameter, coil length, or toroid diameter can be answered
with adequate accuracy.
It is possible to calculate C
tc
numerically using
Gausss Law. If one is careful about measuring and en-
tering all the dimensions and the locations of grounded
surfaces, one should get a value for C
tc
well within 5%
of the correct value. There are programs available in
the Tesla coil community that do this.
6. Copper Resistance
R
tc
includes all the dierent types of losses observed
in an actual Tesla coil, including radiation losses (the
coil putting some of the input power into Hertzian
waves being radiated into space) and dielectric losses
(heat produced in the coil form and the wire insula-
tion). The largest component of R
tc
in a well-built coil
is the copper resistance R
cu
. (Most Tesla coils are
wound with copper wire, but other conductors could be
used as well. The copper resistance is the eective re-
sistance of the conducting metal, excluding other types
of losses.) This is found in three steps: First we nd
the dc resistance R
dc
given the length and diameter of
the wire, and the temperature. We can either look up
the resistance per unit length in a table and multiply
by the length, or we can simply use a ohmmeter.
Second, we nd the ac resistance of the same wire in
one single straight length (not in a coil). R
ac
is greater
than R
dc
because of the skin eect that causes less of
the total current to ow in the center of the wire. We
6
can write
R
ac
= K
skin
R
dc
(14)
where the multiplying factor due to skin eect is
greater than unity and less than perhaps three. The
general procedure for nding this multiplying factor is
found in many electromagnetic theory books.
Third, we nd the ac resistance of the wire when
formed into a coil. The resistance is increased be-
cause of the proximity eect. I have not found a treat-
ment of the proximity eect for a solenoid in a text-
book. I found two papers that deal with this eect,
by Medhurst [10] (of Medhurst capacitance fame), and
Fraga [6]. Neither paper deals with the typical values
of skin depth versus wire diameter found in Tesla
coils. Medhurst looked at the high frequency case
where b while Fraga looked at the low frequency
case (b ). Tesla coils are usually operated at fre-
quencies where the wire radius will be between one and
ve skin depths.
We might dene a Medhurst copper resistance R
cu,M
and a Fraga copper resistance R
cu,F
from these two
papers where
R
cu,M
= K
M
R
ac
(15)
R
cu,F
= K
F
R
ac
(16)
where K
M
and K
F
are looked up in Table 1.
Table 1: Experimental values of K
M
and K
F
(last col-
umn), the ratio of high-frequency coil resistance to the
resistance at the same frequency of the same length of
straight wire.

w
/D
d/z
1
1 2 4 6 8 K
F
1 5.55 4.10 3.54 3.31 3.20 3.41 3.19
0.9 4.10 3.36 3.05 2.92 2.90 3.11 3.03
0.8 3.17 2.74 2.60 2.60 2.62 2.81 2.86
0.7 2.47 2.32 2.27 2.29 2.34 2.51 2.67
0.6 1.94 1.98 2.01 2.03 2.08 2.22 2.48
0.5 1.67 1.74 1.78 1.80 1.81 1.93 2.26
0.4 1.45 1.50 1.54 1.56 1.57 1.65 2.03
0.3 1.24 1.28 1.32 1.34 1.34 1.40 1.75
In this table,
w
is the coil winding length, D is the
coil diameter, d is the diameter of the copper wire,
and z
1
is the center-to-center spacing between adja-
cent turns, all in consistent units. This table indicates
that the proximity eect can easily double or triple the
measured input resistance over that predicted by R
ac
for a straight wire of the same length.
We now need to return to a discussion of the skin
eect. An expression for skin depth can be derived as
=
1

f
(17)
where f is the frequency in Hz, is the permeabil-
ity of the conductor (4 10
7
for nonferromagnetic
materials), and is the conductivity.
The skin depth for copper at 20
o
C is
=
0.066

f
m (18)
Most introductory electromagnetic theory books de-
rive the expression for ac resistance as
R
ac
= R
dc
b
2
(19)
where b is the radius of the wire and is the skin depth,
in consistent units. This equation is only valid for
b. As might be expected, this excludes most Tesla coils,
so we must nd other expressions.
A typical analytic approach is to start with
Maxwells Equations and write a dierential equation
for the current density inside the wire. The solution of
this dierential equation is a Bessel function. Things
start to get tedious as one tries to keep track of the
real and imaginary parts of the Bessel function (the
ber and bei functions). I show some of the details at
my web site.
The approximations developed by Terman [14], who
has a detailed discussion of this topic, will be quite
sucient for our purposes. He denes R
ac
in terms of
a parameter x, where
x = d

2f
(10
7
)
(20)
for nonmagnetic materials. Here, d is the conductor
diameter in meters, f is the frequency in Hz, and is
the resistivity in ohm meters. As x gets very small,
due to either low frequency or small wire, the ac re-
sistance approaches the dc resistance. Above about
x = 3, R
ac
/R
dc
varies essentially linearly with x ac-
cording to the expression
7
R
ac
R
dc
= 0.3535x + 0.264 (x > 3) (21)
Terman gives the following tabular values of R
ac
/R
dc
for x between 0 and 3.
Table 2: R
ac
/R
dc
for various values of x.
x R
ac
/R
dc
x R
ac
/R
dc
0 1.0000 1.5 1.026
0.5 1.0003 1.6 1.033
0.6 1.0007 1.7 1.042
0.7 1.0012 1.8 1.052
0.8 1.0021 1.9 1.064
0.9 1.0034 2.0 1.078
1.0 1.005 2.2 1.111
1.1 1.008 2.4 1.152
1.2 1.011 2.6 1.201
1.3 1.015 2.8 1.256
1.5 1.020 3.0 1.318
For copper, = 1.724 10
8
ohm meters. For those
of us still using wire tables in English units, where wire
diameters are given in mils (1 mil = 0.001 inch), Ter-
man [14] has reduced the expression for x to
x = 0.271d
m

f
MHz
(22)
where d
m
is the wire diameter in mils and f
MHz
is the
frequency in MHz.
For example, I used 482 meters of 14 ga copper wire
to wind a coil. The dc resistance is 3.99 at 20
o
C. The
nominal diameter of 14 ga wire is 64.08 mils. Assume
the resonant frequency to be 160 kHz. We calculate x
as
x = 0.271(64.08)

0.16 = 6.946
The ac resistance of the wire in the coil (assuming
the wire is uncoiled and is supported in one straight
line) is then
R
ac
= 3.99(0.3535(6.964) + 0.264) = 10.85
We see that skin eect makes a signicant dier-
ence in resistance, especially where larger wire sizes or
higher frequencies are used.
The diameter D of this coil was 0.396 m, the wind-
ing length
w
was 1.166 m, the wire diameter d was
64.08 mils or 1.628 mm, and the number of turns
was 387. The center-to-center spacing between ad-
jacent turns z
1
was z
1
=
w
/(N 1) = 3.02 mm.
The quantity d/z
1
= 1.628/3.02 = 0.54. The quan-
tity
w
/D = 1.166/0.396 = 2.94. By interpolation
in Table 1, K
M
is found to be 1.85. Therefore, the
predicted ohmic resistance R
cu,M
of the coil would
be (1.85)(10.85) = 20 (at suciently high frequen-
cies). Interpolation in the last column of Table 1 gives
K
F
= 2.348 and R
cu,F
= (2.348)(10.85) = 25.5. The
measured input resistance is about 23 at resonance.
This measured resistance includes dielectric losses, ra-
diation losses, etc. in addition to ohmic losses. The
Medhurst estimate R
cu,M
allows 3 for these losses,
which is probably not far from reality. The Fraga esti-
mate R
cu,F
is at least 10% too high, and perhaps 20%
too high for this particular coil.
The Medhurst estimate appears to be better for some
coils, while the Fraga estimate seems better for other
coils. I tested nine dierent coils, eight with three dif-
ferent top loads to get three dierent frequencies, so I
had a total of 25 cases where I could compare the calcu-
lated R
cu,M
and R
cu,F
with the measured R
tc
. R
cu,M
was less than R
tc
by a reasonable amount 15 times,
while R
cu,F
was less than R
tc
by a reasonable amount
11 times. When both calculated values were greater
than the measured, R
cu,F
was closer to the measured
case twice, while R
cu,M
was closer three times. There
were six cases (all three frequencies for two short, fat
coils) where R
F
was less than R
tc
by an unreasonable
amount. One example was a coil wound with 16 gauge
wire on a barrel where I measured R
tc
= 93.1, and
calculated R
cu,M
= 80.9 and R
cu,F
= 51.1. The
conclusion seems to be that as long as we stay away
from short, fat coils, either Medhurst or Fraga esti-
mates will be in the right ball park.
Table 3 illustrates a common but non-intuitive ob-
servation in the Tesla coil community, that coils with
a smaller wire size (higher resistance per unit length)
may work as well as coils wound with larger wire. We
see this as we compare coils 18T and 22T. Coil 18T is
tight wound with 18 gauge Essex copper magnet wire,
coated with what they call Heavy Soderon. Coil 22T is
tight wound with 22 gauge tinned copper hook-up wire,
with what I assume to be PVC insulation. The thicker
insulation means the copper of each turn has a greater
spacing, which reduces the proximity eect. The Med-
hurst factor K
M
drops from 3.15 to 1.62 between the
two coils, due mostly to this greater spacing.
The dc resistance of coil 22T is twice that of coil 18T,
so the natural assumption would be that R
tc
would be
larger for coil 22T. However, the thinner wire is more
8
Table 3: Predicted and Measured Coil Resistance for
Several Coils
14S 18T 22T
d, mm 1.628 1.024 .6439
D, meters .396 .214 .214

w
, meters 1.166 .881 .945
wire, meters 482 534 424
turns N 387 794 631
L
tc
, mH 17.2 29.1 17.2
C
M
, pF 23.95 15.45 16.08
K
M
1.85 3.15 1.62
R
dc
3.99 11.2 22.4
f
0
, kHz 247.6 236.9 301.5
R
cu,F
29.99 67.55 65.94
R
cu,M
24.7 76.50 58.38
R
tc
24.5 70.5 47.0
f 217.3 176.1 227.9
R
cu,F
28.10 58.23 56.76
R
cu,M
23.13 66.52 51.57
R
tc
25.6 65.9 46.7
f 158.8 122.5 158.1
R
cu,F
24.02 48.57 45.76
R
cu,M
20.06 57.03 44.56
R
tc
24.5 58.1 42.4
eective in its use of available cross section. R
ac
= 24
for coil 18T at 236.9 kHz, and 35.8 for coil 22T at
301.5 kHz, a dierence of 49% rather than 100%. Then
when we multiply by K
M
, we get R
cu,M
= 76.50 for
coil 18T, and 58.38 for coil 22T. Coil 22T has 200%
of the dc resistance of coil 18T, but only 76% of the
eective resistance during operation at frequency f
0
.
The proximity eect increases the resistance of both
coils above the ac resistance value, but far more for
the tighter eective spacing of coil 18T, so coil 22T is
actually the superior coil for Tesla coil activity. The
same observation holds as larger top loads are used,
driving the resonant frequency down.
The measured values for R
tc
are even less than the
Medhurst predicted values, 11 less for coil 22T and 6
less for 18T at frequency f
0
. It is always possible that
my experimental technique was lacking on these two
tests. I prefer to think, however, that the assumptions
made by Medhurst do not match reality for these two
coils, so that the correct proximity factors would be
a little less than shown in Table 1 for these particular
coil parameters.
7. Other Losses
We are now ready to discuss (at least qualitatively)
other losses besides those due to copper resistance.
These are illustrated in the next gure.







C
tc
R
cu
R
eddy
R
spark R
rad




R
wi
R
cf
-
i
1
v
i
L
tc
Figure 11: Detailed Lumped Model of Tesla Coil
R
rad
refers to the power radiated away into space
as an electromagnetic wave. In all my tests, R
rad
was
very close to zero, probably not larger than 0.01 . I
was unable to detect a signal from the coil more than
perhaps 100 m away, using a high quality short wave
receiver that functioned down to 150 kHz. A Tesla coil
is a really bad antenna.
R
eddy
refers to eddy current losses in the toroid (or
sphere) on top the coil, and in any other conducting
surfaces nearby. Eddy current losses can be substantial
in some engineering applications. A power frequency
transformer built of solid steel rather than thin steel
laminations would melt quickly! A spun aluminum
toroid exposed to the magnetic eld of the Tesla coil
current will certainly have eddy currents. There has
been more than one serious Tesla coiler who has been
tempted to cut radial slots into the toroid to reduce
these eddy currents.
I built a toroid of 0.25 inch copper tubing pieces on
insulating disks, connected together at one point by a
conducting disk. The ends were placed into heat shrink
tubing, which was then shrunk to hold the ends a xed
small distance apart. This toroid was then compared
with a spun aluminum toroid of similar capacitance,
and also with a smaller toroid made of one inch cop-
per tubing with diameter slightly greater than that of
the coil form. The smaller toroid was an attempt to
get a shorted turn as near to the coil as possible. It
lacked the capacitance to be an eective toroid for long
sparks, of course. I could not nd any signicant dier-
ence in input impedance between the insulated toroid
and the spun aluminum toroid. The shorted copper
ring, however, had about 10% higher input impedance
than the toroid that was not a shorted turn. This sug-
gests that you would not notice any improvement if you
cut your beautiful spun aluminum toroid into pieces to
eliminate eddy currents. The eect is there, and can
be measured if one really works at it, but is not that
signicant in most situations.
9
Overall, my tests indicated that R
eddy
is no more
than a few percent of R
TC
. If a little thought is given to
separation of conducting materials from the immediate
vicinity of the coil, eddy current losses can be ignored.
The model indicates that when a spark occurs, the
equivalent resistance R
spark
increases from zero to
some nite value, so the input resistance increases dur-
ing a spark. This is exactly what happens experimen-
tally. The input current drops when the spark starts,
for a constant supply voltage.
The copper, eddy current, and radiation losses are
all proportional to the square of the current in the coil.
The losses in the hot plasma of the spark are such that
the spark losses may not be proportional precisely to
the square of the current, but are denitely related to
some function of the current. On the other hand, the
dielectric losses are proportional to the square of the
voltage across the coil. I try to show that with resis-
tors across the capacitance C
M
. There are two distinct
dielectrics, the coil form and the wire insulation, rep-
resented by R
cf
and R
wi
. Air forms a third dielectric,
but dry air is basically lossless. Humidity in the air
does add losses, but this humidity soaks into the coil
form and wire insulation, increasing the losses there. I
did not try to distinguish between losses in humid air
and losses of the coil and coil form.
For single-frequency, steady-state operation, the par-
allel combination of a capacitor and two resistors can
be modeled as a series capacitor and resistor, call it
R
die
. This is straightforward Circuit Theory I, but a
bit tedious. We write an expression for the parallel
impedance of R
cf
, R
wi
, and the capacitance, rational-
ize it, and simplify the real term. We assume that the
parallel resistances are much larger than the capacitive
reactance, as they will be for any coil with acceptable
losses. Calculation details can be found at my web site.
One line of analysis shows that R
die
varies as 1/f
2
.
Generally speaking, R
ac
increases as

f, and R
eddy
in-
creases as f
2
. R
rad
will increase at a rate somewhere
between f and f
2
. R
spark
can be ignored below the
spark inception voltage. Depending on which terms
are dominant loss terms, we may not see a pronounced
change in input impedance with frequency. That has
been my experience. Input impedance will drift from
day to day, (mostly with humidity), but there is no
obvious frequency dependence. Of course, other things
are happening. We know that R
ac
increases with tem-
perature, while R
die
increases with humidity. If these
were the only factors, we would expect a cold, dry win-
ter day to have the lowest impedance, and a hot, muggy
day to have the highest impedance and the worst per-
formance. In cases where moisture is a factor, perfor-
mance might improve after a period of operation which
caused the coil form to heat up and dry out.
Eects of humidity are shown in two sets of input
impedance data in Table 4 for 3/17/01 and 4/6/01.
The coils were located in the bay of a large Morton
building (a metal skin building, not heated or air con-
ditioned, that might be used for storage of tractors and
other agricultural equipment). The Tesla coil driver
and other test equipment were located in a climate-
controlled room built into a corner of the Morton build-
ing. The 3/17/01 data were collected when the bay
temperature was about 9
o
C and the relative humidity
was about 28%. On 4/6/01 the temperature was about
17
o
C and the relative humidity was 100%. It had been
damp all week with heavy fog the day before. It would
be rare for a Tesla coil to be operated with signicantly
lower relative humidity or total moisture in or on the
dielectrics than the conditions of 3/17/01, and likewise
for more moisture than 4/6/01.
Table 4: R
tc
Measured on Two Dierent Days
Coil f R
tc
R
tc
3/17/01 4/6/01
14S 249.1 24.5 27.6
14T 266.1 43.5 45.5
16B 145.5 93.1 175.8
18T 242.6 70.5 75.7
20T 183.6 94.2 100.0
22T 307.0 47.0 53.4
22B 148.3 73.0 126.7
We see that two of the coils experienced large
changes in R
tc
, coils 16B and 22B. Both coils used
a plastic barrel as a coil form that I thought was
polyethylene. I got the barrels at the local recycling
plant. Coil 22B used the same type of wire as coil 22T
which was wound on a piece of PVC, so the dierence
in R
tc
between these two coils had to be the coil form.
These results indicate that some coil forms are worse
than others. These barrels evidently soak up water in
amounts sucient to raise the input impedance by a
factor of two.
Coils 14T, 18T, 20T, and 22T were wound on PVC
while coils 14S and 18B were wound on polyethylene.
Only coil 20T had any type of coating put on top the
winding (polyurethane). Both PVC and polyethylene
appear to have about the same increase in R
tc
with
humidity, so it is hard to argue that one should spend
more money on the more expensive polyethylene.
10
Figure 12: Square wave of voltage, sine wave of current at base of coil 12T below breakout.
As long as one stays with good quality coil forms,
it appears that high humidity will raise R
tc
by 510%
from the low humidity case. This variation of R
tc
with
humidity makes it pointless to do more analytical or
computational work to get better estimates of R
cu,M
or R
cu,F
, since we appear to be within the 510% range
of accuracy for most cases already.
In my opinion, a complete distributed model will not
be any better in dealing with skin eect, proximity ef-
fect, and dielectric losses, and would certainly be more
of a programming problem. The one thing that this
lumped model cannot deal with directly is the displace-
ment current eect. In a lumped model, the current
must be the same at all points of the circuit. Actu-
ally the current varies from one point in the coil to
another point, due to capacitive and inductive eects.
It is counter-intuitive, but the current may actually in-
crease from the base feed point to about a third of the
way up the coil before starting a monotonic decrease to
a minimum at the top of the coil. A distributed model
can determine the actual current distribution, which
can then be used to nd a predicted eective resistance
of the coil. The computational eort is much greater
than the table look-up techniques used to get R
cu,M
and R
cu,F
for the lumped case. Whether the accuracy
of the predicted resistance is suciently improved to
justify the extra eort is open to question.
8. Impedance During Sparking
I calculated the input impedance of the Tesla coil
from measured values of v
i
and i
1
, at or very near res-
onance. I would apply a square wave voltage from my
driver and measure it and the resulting current with a
HP54645D oscilloscope. If the voltage was below that
necessary for a spark to occur, current would rise to
a steady-state value. Steady-state waveforms are illus-
trated in Figure 12.
Voltage is actually the voltage output of a 10:1 volt-
age divider. The vertical scale for channel A1 is thus
500 V/div rather than 50. At the lower left of the
screen image we see Vrms(A1)=44.34 V. The rms value
would actually be 443.4 V. The rms of a perfect square
wave is the same as the peak value, so I am applying a
voltage of approximately 443.4 V to the coil.
The current waveform is the voltage across a 20 m
resistor. The current corresponding to a voltage of
293.3 mV is
i
1
=
V
R
=
293.3mV
20m
= 14.67 A (23)
The combination of a square wave voltage and a si-
nusoidal current is dierent from what we are used to,
so we need to go back to circuit theory to make sure
we have all the correct multiplying factors.
11
Suppose that we apply a sinusoidal voltage V
p
sint
to a non-inductive resistor. The resulting current is
I
p
sin t. The average power is
P
ave
=
1


0
V
p
I
p
sin
2
d =
V
p

2
I
p

2
=
V
p
I
p
2
= V
ac
I
ac
(24)
When the square wave voltage produces a sinusoidal
current, the integral for average power becomes
P
ave
=
1


0
V
p
I
p
sin d =
2

V
p
I
p
=
2

V
p
(

2I
ac
) = 0.9V
ac
I
ac
(25)
For this case, the average power is no longer the sim-
ple product of rms voltage and rms current (as for dc
and single frequency sinusoids), but has a 0.9 multiply-
ing factor. The dierence is due to the fact that the
square wave voltage is composed of an innite series of
harmonics (fundamental, third, fth, etc.). Each har-
monic contributes to the rms value of the square wave.
The current has no harmonics, so the higher voltage
harmonics do not produce any contribution to the ap-
parent power.
Actually the product 0.9V
ac
I
ac
is the apparent power
S for these two waveforms, which happens to be equal
to the average power when the waves are in phase. If
there is a phase shift, P
ave
will be less than S by a
factor cos , where is the phase angle between the
two waves. I can readily determine S from the product
of rms voltage and rms current (and a 0.9 multiplying
constant). I always try to operate with voltage and
current in phase, so S can be used as an approximation
for P
ave
.
The average power being applied to the coil in Fig. 12
is approximately
P
ave
= 0.9V
ac
I
ac
= (0.9)(443.4)(14.67) = 5854 W
(26)
Fig. 13 shows the voltage applied to another Tesla
coil and the resulting current for about 4.5 ms. The
voltage is A1 at the top of the gure and the current is
A2 at the bottom. Operation is well below breakout.
The driver is supplying voltage from storage capacitors
for about 2.1 ms. Current builds up as predicted by ei-
ther transmission line theory or lumped RLC analysis.
Current builds nearly linearly at rst, then the rate of
increase slows as losses increase. Current will hit its
limit when the input power is equal to the losses, in
this case between 2 and 3 ms after start.
As current increases, the voltage drop across the
MOSFETs/IGBTs and the droop in the electrolytic
capacitors becomes greater. The decrease in voltage
applied to the Tesla coil is not great, but is most eas-
ily noticed when the gate drives are turned o at the
2.1 ms point. Energy stored in the Tesla coil has to
be dissipated somehow. Instead of power owing from
inverter to coil, it now ows in the opposite direction.
Voltage is constrained by the built-in diodes of the IG-
BTs. Power supply capacitors are now being charged
instead of discharged. All the voltage drops in wiring
and the IGBTs reverse in sign. We therefore see a small
step increase in voltage when the gate drive signals are
removed.
About 0.6 ms after gate drive turn-o, the stored
energy is no longer able to force the IGBT diodes into
forward conduction. Without a power supply aect-
ing the circuit, we now have a classic RLC ring down.
Both voltage and current are decreasing exponentially.
During this portion of the cycle, the IGBTs are acting
as capacitors.
When the supply voltage is increased, a spark oc-
curs when the toroid reaches a sucient voltage. Fig-
ure 14 shows the current building up slowly until spark
initiation at about 1.4 ms and then a more rapid de-
cline. The jagged appearance of the wave envelope is
due to the scopes algorithm to select representative
points from the long waveform data set and does not
imply that the current is experiencing rapid excursions.
When one spreads out the waveform, it can be seen
that the current looks as well behaved as the current
in Figure 12 except that it grows by a small amount
each cycle until breakout.
One cycle at 176.7 kHz lasts for about 5.66 s. If the
spark starts at 1400 s, then it took 1400/5.66 = 247
cycles to get to breakout. Just before breakout, the
voltage was about 604 V and the current was 17.1 A. I
had to expand the waveforms near the 1400 s point to
get these values. The instantaneous power (the average
power at that instant) was about 9.3 kW. The current
during the spark was about 4 A.
I increased the voltage about 50% and got the cur-
rent waveform in Figure 15. The spark now starts at
about 0.93 ms. Just before breakout, the voltage was
about 914 V, the current was 21.5 A, and the instan-
taneous power was about 17.7 kW. The current during
the spark remained at about 4 A.
12
Figure 13: Tesla Coil Voltage and Current Waveforms
The coil appears to operate as a constant-current
device in breakout. Both the input dc current and the
ac current into the coil stay about constant, perhaps
even decreasing a little, as the supply voltage is in-
creased. The input impedance increases proportional
to the input voltage, in order for the current to remain
constant. This is somehow caused by the dynamics
of the hot plasma in the discharge. I do not have a
detailed explanation.
The inertia of the electrons and ions on and around
the toroid play an important part in the length of the
streamer. Increasing the supply voltage causes the cur-
rent and the energy stored in the coil to build up more
rapidly. This more rapid growth allows less time for
the breakdown of air to occur, with the result of more
energy stored in the coil when breakdown does occur.
This greater energy translates to a longer streamer.
The nature of the discharge process causes variabil-
ity in the exact amount of current necessary to produce
a streamer for any given shot. At lower levels of volt-
age, a streamer might be produced one time out of ten
applied pulse trains. The time lag between start and
discharge might vary by a factor of two, probably de-
pending on the chance arrival of a gamma ray or a beta
particle from a radioactive decay. At higher levels of
voltage, one gets a streamer each pulse train, but the
time from start to discharge, and the resultant power
input just before discharge, can still easily vary by 10%.
If power continues to be supplied to the discharge
after the onset, the discharge does not get longer, but
instead gets fatter. Figure 16 shows two streamers
where the driving voltage was removed soon after the
streamers started. The streamers have a thin, vio-
let, anemic appearance. Figure 17 shows two dier-
ent streamers where the driving voltage was left in
place for perhaps 2 ms after the onset. The stream-
ers now appear richer, fuller, and whiter. The trend
continues with even longer applied voltage as shown in
Fig. g:fat.
The camera is able to show details that the eye
cannot follow. The streamer does not get uniformly
thicker, but rather shows charge leaving the main dis-
charge path at all the corners of the original discharge
path and then curving back toward the main path. It
is almost as though the charge carriers in the discharge
have inertia, such that they want to continue traveling
in a straight line when a corner is encountered. If the
only forces involved were the Coulombic forces, the es-
13
Figure 14: Current Waveform with Voltage = 604 V
caping charges would not be drawn back to the main
path. But there are also Amperian forces. Two par-
allel currents experience an attractive force. Evidently
these Amperian forces are stronger than the Coulom-
bic forces in this case. I have not made any attempt to
quantify these forces.
A casual examination of these (and many other) pho-
tos suggests that the escaping charges travel in a spi-
ral around the main path before returning to it. This
might be an optical illusion. It would require two or
more cameras orthogonal to the streamer and each
other to prove or disprove this appearance. This would
be something to check in any further research.
I put a bump on the toroid so all sparks started from
the same point, and placed a sheet of plastic with con-
centric circles behind the bump. I then set the driver
to produce a few sparks per second and observed the
length of the discharges to air. I would also determine
the average power input just before discharge. Then I
would increase the voltage and repeat the process. I
found the spark length to be related to the square root
of power according to the formula

s
= 0.17

P inches (27)
where P is measured in watts. For the current wave-
forms of Figure 14 and Figure 15 the corresponding
spark lengths were 16.4 and 22.6 inches. If the formula
remains valid at higher powers, an input power of 1
MW would produce a spark length of 14 feet. If we
use IGBTs that can safely deliver 50 A at Tesla coil
frequencies, this requires a supply voltage of 20, 000
V. If the individual IGBTs have a working voltage of
1000 V, then a chain of 20 IGBTs would be necessary
for each side of the power supply. I will not predict that
such a driver cannot or will not be built. I will just say
that getting long sparks from a solid state driver is not
easy!
References
[1] Corum, J. F. and K. L. Corum, A Technical
Analysis of the Extra Coil as a Slow Wave He-
lical Resonator, Proceedings of the 1986 Interna-
tional Tesla Symposium, Colorado Springs, Col-
orado, July 1986, published by the International
Tesla Society, pp. 2-1 to 2-24.
[2] Corum, James, F., Daniel J. Edwards, and Ken-
neth L. Corum, TCTUTOR - A Personal Com-
puter Analysis of Spark Gap Tesla Coils, Pub-
lished by Corum and Associates, Inc., 8551 State
Route 534, Windsor, Ohio, 44099, 1988.
[3] Couture, J. H., JHC Tesla Handbook, JHC Engi-
neering Co., 19823 New Salem Point, San Diego,
CA, 92126, (1988).
14
Figure 15: Current Waveform with Voltage = 914 V
Figure 16: Onset plus 0.5 ms
[4] Cox, D. C., Modern Resonance Transformer De-
sign Theory, Tesla Book Company, P. O. Box
1649, Greenville, TX 75401, (1984).
[5] Fawzi, Tharwat H. and P. E. Burke, The Ac-
curate Computation of Self and Mutual Induc-
tances of Circular Coils, IEEE Transactions on
Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS-97, No.
Figure 17: Onset plus 2 ms
2, March/April 1978, pp. 464-468.
[6] Fraga, E., C. Prados, and D.-X. Chen, Practical
Model and Calculation of AC Resistance of Long
Solenoids, IEEE Transactions on Magnetics, Vol.
34, No. 1, January, 1998, pp. 205212.
[7] Hull, Richard L., The Tesla Coil Builders Guide
to The Colorado Springs Notes of Nikola Tesla,
15
Figure 18: Onset plus 4 ms
Tesla Coil Builders of Richmond, 1993.
[8] Johnson, Gary L., Using Power MOSFETs To
Drive Resonant Transformers, Tesla 88, Inter-
national Tesla Society, Inc., 330-A West Uintah,
Suite 215, Colorado Springs, CO 80905, Vol. 4,
No. 6, November/December 1988, pp. 7-13.
[9] Johnson, Gary L., The Search For A New Energy
Source, Johnson Energy Corporation, P.O. Box
1032, Manhattan, KS 66505, 1997.
[10] Medhurst, R. G., H.F. Resistance and Self-
Capacitance of Single-Layer Solenoids, Wireless
Engineer, February, 1947, pp. 35-43, and March,
1947, pp. 80-92.
[11] Peterson, Gary L., Project Tesla Evaluated,
Power and Resonance, The International Tesla
Societys Journal, Volume 6, No. 1, Jan-
uary/February/ March 1990, pp. 25-34.
[12] Plonus, Martin A., Applied Electromagnetics,
McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978.
[13] Schoessow, Michael, TCBA News, Vol. 6, No. 2,
April/May/June 1987, pp. 12-15.
[14] Terman, Frederick Emmons, Radio Engineers
Handbook, McGraw-Hill, 1943.
[15] Tesla, Nikola, Colorado Springs Notes, A. Marin-
cic, Editor, Nolit, Beograd, Yugoslavia, 1978, 478
pages.
16



Academician Anatoly E. Akimov

Lecture: Experimental manifestations of torsion fields and torsion technologies

Sofia 08.11.2006

Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j4-6OZeDRQI

2
Table of Contents


Part 1. The properties of torsion fields. ...........................................................................................3
Axial symmetry. Left and right fields. ........................................................................................3
Field intensity ..............................................................................................................................4
Holographic property...................................................................................................................5
Non-locality.................................................................................................................................7
Potential and energy of the torsion field......................................................................................8
No dependence on the distance .................................................................................................10
Previously found in astrophysics...............................................................................................11
Polarization and shielding .........................................................................................................12
Left / right field and the free / forced rotation...........................................................................16
Part 2. Shape effect ........................................................................................................................17
Field of pyramid ........................................................................................................................18
Field of magnet ..........................................................................................................................18
Field of cylinder ........................................................................................................................20
Torsion filed generators.............................................................................................................21
French patent .............................................................................................................................24
Ziang Canchens generator........................................................................................................25
New generation of torsion generators........................................................................................27
Changes in the structure and properties of metals.........................................................................29
Tin and copper ...........................................................................................................................29
Silumin ......................................................................................................................................34
Steel ...........................................................................................................................................37
Memory effect or re-radiation ...................................................................................................39
Impact on crystals......................................................................................................................39
Part 3. Energy (Lecture 10.11.2006) .............................................................................................42
Vortex heat generators...............................................................................................................42
The vacuum energy ...................................................................................................................48
Inercoid......................................................................................................................................50
Technologies in Russia..............................................................................................................54
Part 4. Torsion communications....................................................................................................56
Cold cracking of oil ...................................................................................................................59
Purification technologies ...........................................................................................................62
Final words ................................................................................................................................63
Addendum A. Torsion generators pictures....................................................................................66
References .....................................................................................................................................71

3
Part 1. The properties of torsion fields.

Axial symmetry. Left and right fields.

We can talk about the fact that in contrast to the electromagnetic field that is generated by the
charge and the gravitational field, which is generated by a mass, torsion fields are fields that are
generated by spin, if the source is a quantum, or by rotation, if the source is a macroscopic body.
Today we begin our conversation with talk about the properties of torsion fields because many
practical applications just automatically follow then when you look at the list of properties of
torsion fields.
You now see a diagram that shows how the torsion field generated from the source of spin or
rotation. I would like to just pay attention to the fact that at this point, there are significant
differences between the torsion field from properties of our usual electromagnetic and
gravitation fields.
If we have an object that has a mass or charge, fields which are generated are electromagnetic
and gravitational, possess the property of central symmetry as it known in physics.
I.e. relative to the center of the object we have these fields go in all directions in the space of 4 pi
radians but if we're talking about object with rotation here we see that the field is not formed in
all directions.
Due to the fact that any rotation has an axial symmetry, symmetry with respect to the rotation
axis, we see that formed two cones, here you can see them very well, right and left, so-called left
and right torsion fields.



They form cones with a diagram of the aperture somewhere around 90 degrees. And in addition
to the center, perpendicular to the axis of rotation formed another disk-like field that can be
clearly seen here in the middle, green disc with a very small aperture of the order of 2-3 degrees.
There is also formed a torsion field.

4
And all the space between the cones and that disk is neutral and does not contain anything that
would indicate the presence of this torsion field. It's a situation perhaps the most important.

Field intensity

Second, if we consider the change of the torsion field relative to the axis of rotation of its
intensity is distributed as follows with respect to the axis of rotation rate varies slightly, but from
a distance +r0 and -r0 field looks as it disappears. Those who are professional scientists-
physicists can say that it resembles the Dirichlet function (1).



This interruption happens very rapidly. For each object, which has a characteristic of the
radiation here this value r0 it is different.
It can have very small values if an object such as an electron; it may be a value that for
macroscopic object can reach hundreds of meters or even kilometers.
But in most cases, the technical solutions which we will discuss today create torsion fields which
have a range of a few tens of meters. This naturally raises two questions.
First question. Here is just shown how this relates, that here intensity within these cones, i.e.
these cones do not produce a field extending to infinity, they just have this limit transition to zero
at the boundary.
So the first question that arises in this situation is and if this limit is strictly limited then maybe
there are restrictions that say that the use of torsion fields is possible only on the limited and
small distances, may be it is a limitation?
But in reality it is not true. In reality the situation is that, that all which concerns the field in the
interval r0 corresponds to a situation where we can found (measure) this field as a wave torsion
radiation.
If we look at an object which has some changing parameter, for example, changing pH (acidity)
of water. In this case, if we take the vial and place it either in one cone (left), or in that (right),

5


then we have in this case during the rotation of the object will be a change in the nature of pH
and can see that when we move the vial along the x-axis is the pH change will occur in the
region r0 and change will occur according to the intensity. Then when we get to this point and
then cross the border r0, outside we will not see any of the field.

Holographic property

Second point. If we change some rotational characteristics - angular velocity or create rotation
with precession, or change precession frequency we will see that, depending on the frequency of
changes in the parameters of the object it effect on to other object will also change.
I.e. in this situation there is really some wave process, some torsional wave which gives the
variation of these influence characteristics.
But then there is the following. It is also fundamentally unusual property of the torsion field, is
that the entire medium that is beyond r0 with respect to the object behaves as a kind of hologram.
The result is the following. I would like just remind for those who not professional physicist. Just
imagine that we have an object, and it has a complex shape like this


6

Complex terrain. With the help of two laser
sources, or one with the splitting of the beam,
we can obtain a hologram. The hologram of
the object looks as follows


In the hologram the object itself is not seen as
an object, but only the waves of interference
which result from the superposition of the
reference and reflected laser beam and now
this picture fills the entire space.




7

And so each point of the object, it is not presented on the hologram as a single point as in the
photo but it figuratively speaking, as it is spread over the entire space, and each point of the
object is presented on the entire area of the plate on which is recorded a torsion field.
As a result, we get that it is as if the make overlay. Now, if we were doing a hologram image of a
man is to conventional photography, we can say here is the nose, that's eyes, ears here, but when
we do holography beam reflected from each point of it is smeared over the whole area and to say
where any part of the face are impossible, they are presented on the entire area.
So in fact this kind of environment as a hologram present when we consider space around the
spinning body.
The result is that the signal is, to put it precisely, which behaves like a wave radiation, a certain
field, it is considered that the signal beyond the point r0 is possible and there is this signal is
presented but in terms of a strict physics this is not a field in the strict sense and is a physical
factor that works as physicists say as long-range action and has other properties.
Physics knows no other example of a physical object to possess a certain combination of
properties like wave radiation and the properties of a long-range action. This unusual
combination is characteristic only of torsion fields.


Non-locality

The third point which is also from my point of view is important as a property of torsion fields.
So if we say that if a torsion field beyond this distance r0 exists but it seems smeared on all
elements of the holographic space.
When you consider that this space is a volume of the universe is not difficult to calculate using
the concept of the Planck length that these items in bulk radio observable universe cannot be less
than 10
155
elements. No matter what was the value of the intensity of torsion radiation but as
soon as we say that we have distributed this intensity to 10
155
elements it becomes clear that the
emission intensity of one element or one quantum unit of volume is vanishingly small.
It is not possible to observe the signal and even determine the fact that it is present.
But then starts the next factor, here to take a weak radio signal for that you must use the
oscillating circuit of the receiver with high Q and then we have possibility amplify weak signals
and to provide it as a useful signal.
Such frequency selection for torsion fields is not working and if we try to identify these signals
here smeared over the whole space using the frequency principle of how it was shown in an
experiment conducted in the beginning of this work at the beginning of 1980 it is in fact no
effective result can be achieved.
But there nevertheless the concept idea of the resonance still works but only works in a different
way. It turns out so that we could discover the radiation beyond the value of r0 distributed in this
volume, for this we should ensure the conditions of structural spin resonance.
I.e. firstly we have to say that the object that will capture these signals outside the r0, we must be
able to do figuratively filter that would represent an exact copy of the spin structure of the object
which is to receive the signal, and then in this case, if we emit a signal modulating its spin matrix
then it will spin coherent structure to the object itself and the object will work as a kind of
resonance system which receives the signal and play it with a sufficiently high intensity.
That was understood although early but not immediately, and so the first experiments had to be
made only when we were working inside the range r0 only then we learned how to work with
objects which are outside area of r0. Well, I want to tell you that when conditions provided for
the structural spin resonance the concept of distance makes no sense for any non-local system.


8
Potential and energy of the torsion field

The next point which need to be mentioned. It has been found that torsion fields as fields which
have the property of non-locality, there is no such thing as the direction of emission
I.e. if we're talking about what we consider the situation with r0 there we can say ... we can
orient the axis of rotation so the radiation point in this direction ... in this direction i.e. how we
define it will be so that these cone about which we spoke to were quite definitely oriented with in
space and then there is the concept of radiation but as soon as we went outside this boundary r0
we have here the same concept direction is lost because the signal is distributed over the entire
volume of space.
And this property of non-locality it determines ultimately what ... work with a situation which is
highly unusual, it is that if we have ... for the sake of simplicity will examine the two-
dimensional and three-dimensional image ... Lets suppose there this plate which has this
property's non-locality.



So if I bring a radio signal that I would have from the point of transmitting radiation direct to the
receiver, if I do not do that light cannot get to the receiver and the receiver will not receive
anything.
And if I have here a medium which is nonlocal and it is all covered by a single structural
constraints then if I start at an arbitrary point excitation of the medium in a zero time excitation
covers all the space.
This is a very simple example. Imagine that I have a rod that is created from a material that is
perfectly solid. It has no elasticity. One end is on the ground and the other end rests on the star
Sirius. I give the signal at the end which is here (on the Earth) in which time the signal gets here
(Sirius)? During zero time for the simple reason that rod does not have the elasticity and it will
move as a whole.
And so the shift here and there will occur simultaneously. That kind of reasoning, they are
typical for two-dimensional and three-dimensional case, they say that if the space is not local,
9
has this kind of properties then for this type of space-time concept of pass-through time is simply
not available or has no meaning.
It is no coincidence that the first studies were conducted before us without any connection to
torsion fields as an abstract problem from the point of view of physics, the behavior of the space
which has the property of non-locality.
Then it was said clearly and unambiguously, and this time no one was arguing and beyond any
debate was not that for this kind of spaces have property that excitation covers the whole space at
once, and from this point of view, it is extremely unusual physical factor.
But if we are talking about is that this space is a kind of three-dimensional hologram then need to
say more and the next - the physical meaning hologram is phase portrait.
It is known from textbooks that energy can only transfer parameters such as amplitude and
frequency and the phase is not an energy parameter, so as soon as we say that the environment
for the proliferation of torsion fields is here this holographic environment, this phase portrait, we
immediately have to say that in such a medium it cannot transfer energy.
And incidentally, that's why in the work of academician Shipov has been shown analytically
exactly that torsion fields have zero potential. This suggests that torsion fields do not have the
energy and energy cannot be transferred by torsion fields. They are purely informational.
From the point of view of the conceptual apparatus it is so unusual; physics has never faced this
kind of things. It is also psychologically extremely hard get used to this.
Nevertheless, this is an experimental fact. First there were some theoretical conclusions but in
second half of the 80s, experiments were conducted at the Physics Department of the
Chernovitski State University, then in a republic Ukraine, it was still the time when there was a
Soviet Union, and the essence of the experiment was to take the next crystal cadmium - mercury
- tellurium and along the optical axis torsion field was applied. And when the temperature
variations from -50 to -200 degrees observed a change in the magnetic susceptibility of this
crystal.
At the same time I would like to note that the experimental work has shown that in this mode,
the magnetic susceptibility varies by almost an order and at the same cyclic changes temperature
within -50 to -200 degrees they are accompanied by the appearance of the hysteresis loop. Not
from some electrodynamics, not from any properties crystals were not expected even the
potential possibility for the presence of hysteresis for this type materials cadmium-mercury-
tellurium, selenium, tellurium, and a number of other crystals, but it was registered... as a kind of
opening a new physical effect.
So in this experiment, it was possible to carry out the following calculations. Since crystals of
this class have been well studied and have been known to the binding energy between the ions in
the crystal that was not difficult calculate for a given volume of crystal and how much it would
be necessary to spend electromagnetic energy from external source to this procedure to change
the almost magnetic susceptibility. Then took, this is not entirely correct, I'm just saying this, but
nevertheless, that there is nothing to compare (I told you that there is no energy in torsion fields)
taken as the cost side took the amount of energy that must be spent to initiate the process of
torsion radiation.
And when these two figures shared one to another proved that the action of the torsion radiation
on the crystal those values change in the magnetic susceptibility of the crystal have been
obtained by means of torsion fields a million times fainter than what follows from the
equivalence of action electrically, a million times.
That is actually the results of this experiment, we could use as evidence that torsion fields do not
have the energy, and it cannot transfer it. At the same time I would like to draw the attention,
very often as I speak and give presentation that torsion fields have wave properties in this area,
r0, and say that there is a sign of the frequency works I ask a question please tell me what you
electromagnetic frequencies you are using.
I was forced to answer the following at the very beginning, I said that the torsion field generated
by the spin as the quantum analog of the angular momentum. There's nothing of
10
electromagnetism. This is a separate class of the field. Now, if I saw a magnetic moment which
may occur in the object that is in addition to the rotation still has a charge and then indeed there
is an electromagnetic field in addition to that there is a torsion field.
Torsion field is due to the mechanical rotation and the electromagnetic field is due to the fact that
the object receives the electromagnetic properties as a consequence of the presence of a rotating
charge. And so cant be no question of any electromagnetic frequencies.
It's like watching and discussing gravitational waves and ask what sort of electromagnetic
frequencies of these gravitational waves. Gravitational waves have gravitational frequency.
Similarly here as well.
Another thing is that no matter what kind of power source and I am considering what kind of
radiation appears if I figuratively say what the object undergoes rotation of one revolution per
second then in that case, I will 1 hertz by purely mechanical rotation frequency it will be a
torsion wave radiation, I'll get one hertz electromagnetic radiation due to the fact that the rotating
charge and finally I can get this 1 Hz gravitational radiation. Hertz is Hertz everywhere.
But the physical nature of the wave which arises here is quite different. So this is an unusual
situation here was to torsion fields.

No dependence on the distance

The next moment. If we consider the electromagnetic source and is considered the signal path
through space which represents the physical vacuum and there is obvious that the charge
characteristics of the source of the electromagnetic field leads to that the electromagnetic field
passes through the medium and generates the phase shifts in these elements, phytons, which we
discussed yesterday that leads to the excitation of each of the following phytone need to spend an
appropriate proportion of the energy of the wave and therefore the signal is attenuated with
distance.
Here we talking about that we have no energy and phase portrait appears here once a automatic
conclusion that if the phase portrait where there is no energy transfer then the resulting radiation
does not waste energy on a consistent excitation of each successive element in passing and in
this case, in principle, why should it depending on the distance? no quadratic either in the first
degree, no other dependence on distance.
Over 20 years of a wide variety of experiments, we never saw any dependencies on distance. I
would say that perhaps the most interesting in this respect the results have been producing and
purely technical and medical biological level.
Well, on the results of medical biological level I will tell after tomorrow and today I will cover a
purely physical level. So team of our colleagues from the commercial organization Ecology in
Kiev headed by someone called Krasnobryzhev in the process of their work to study the action
of torsion fields on different objects came across a very interesting effect.
Means taking a piece of brown coal and sawn it in two pieces. One half is burned in a laboratory
in the calorimeter and the process is repeated many times for a set of statistics. It shows how it
follows from the calorific value of brown coal which amount of heat is produced and this
number is fixed.
Second piece of coal is subjected to torsion field and at the same calorimeter these samples
burned. And found that if the coal has objected to torsion field that hass more complete
combustion and as result amount of heat which is produced from such irradiated coal somewhere
in the 15-20% percent higher than the simple coal combusted without any preprocessing.
Result appeared to be statistically significant, and thus has attracted the attention. Then, in
agreement with the Physics Department of the University of Krakow in Poland following
experiment was performed. Took some volume of coal and split it into two parts.
One part remained in Kiev and the second part was taken to Krakow. These two pieces in Kiev
and Krakow were also sawn in half. And then do the following. Therefore one quarter of the coal
11
burned in the calorimeters and made sure that within the error of about the same amount of heat.
Then the second piece that was not burned in Kiev it gave effect torsion generator.
And on that second piece of coil in Krakow was not applied any processsing. And at the same
time in Krakow and Kiev and the pieces burned. The fact that Kiev has increased by 15% the
amount of heat it was clear because it as in the previous file experimentally operated torsion
generator.
But the fact that the 15% increase in the number of heat from a piece of which was burned in
Krakow. That is about 2,000 kilometers away. It was the world's first experiment which showed
that the problem is related to the quantum non-locality, it is not a purely quantum effect and is
observed at the macroscopic level. Two volumes of coal having a common origin and have been
linked so gave such results. So I would like to draw your attention.
Question from the audience: Can there be such were the conditions that have affected the result
If this experiment was carried out once then I would be willing to bring you along with huge
amount of considerations that could influence within the most incredible fiction. However, these
experiments have been reproduced in the interval of long period of time and many times.
Plus, the need to pay tribute to the partners of the organization in Krakow. They identified even
those that coal which passed the test of the second half of the secondary, they determined relative
to a reference piece of coil which burned before this determined that such parameters like spin
lattice and spin nuclear relaxation also proved to be displaced relative to the control sample. That
in any way could not be associated with any random factors you are talking about.

Previously found in astrophysics

Conducted research has a number of features that proved to be extremely important. It has been
found that as we talked about the speed is equal to infinity is analytically accurate conclusion of
the theory, it is proved that in fact such kind of property it is for a long time before our work it
has been found experimentally in astrophysical research.


So in the USSR there was a very interesting
person professor Kozyrev who became famous
astrophysicist at the international level after he
was the first person who discovered the
presence of volcanism on the Moon, and he
made a number of experiments and we shall
refer to it and one of experiment was as
follows.

12

Here on earth is the telescope (see Figure) It is aimed in that direction and saw the star. But using
redshift was not difficult determine that there elapsed light years ... thousands of light years takes
for light to reach the ground. If this star was fixed on the sky with long intervals of time ... it was
chosen positions of several stars whose position has been known since ancient times in the
interval where the last 2,000 years and was determined to do this with the provisions of this star
that the angular velocity with which it moves through the stellar sky and knowing the time in
which the light is relation to the Earth was not difficult to find that during this time the star had
to be moved to here (2) those situation is that we are looking at the sky seems to us that we see
the star here and she reality for millions of years it is not located here.
Discussing this problem astrophysicists with a Moscow astrophysicists has rightly said that the
whole of modern astronomy is a paleoastronomy, we see something that has long been not in the
sky (due to limited speed of light).
And then we have the following situation, using reflecting telescope, conventional optical
telescopes with lenses did not show that effect, and the telescope was directed to the area where
on the calculation would have is the star. Scanning in this area was found yes indeed, this signal
comes from here.
At the same time, as an indicator in the focus of the focusing mirror was placed a device that
recorded something, so astronomer Kozyrev know that fixed some flow. Knowing nothing about
the spin torsion fields, he called it the flow of time. Although it turned out that it has nothing to
do with time. So the experiment was made as follows.We could block the aperture of the
telescope not just black paper but also with metal foil. And the signal from this point is still
observed. Those it was clearly not an electromagnetic signal in nature. By studying the
properties of such signals is a professor Kozyrev in one of last work for a year before his death,
wrote that the main feature of this signal is the presence of the left and right.
Properties of the torsion field. So this experiment could give such results only if the fixed stars in
the true position if the signal from the star fell on the earth for a time period equal to zero or
close to it. In these experiments were some moments which has not yet been able to find an
explanation even now when we understand the nature of the torsional signals. That means the
star that the apparent position here the true state is (2) proved that it was found by professor
Kozyrev that if we approximate the trajectory Star and will look forward signal from the position
where a future date should locate this star (3) over the same period of time that separates the
visible and the true state then from this point we also obtain the torsion signal. Nature as though
arranged so that it gives you the opportunity to receive signals not only from the past and present
but also from the future. While I do not expect that someone would be made that would work
from a physical point of view this is the observed experimental results convincingly interpret at
least at the level of physical models rather than complex theory. Nevertheless, the experiment
showed that it is so.


Polarization and shielding

The next point on which I would like to draw your attention.
So it was suggested that judging by the numerous experiments is confirmed that the quanta of
torsion fields is a special type of low-energy neutrinos or so called cold neutrino which have
energy order 3-5Ev unlike known neutrino physics which typically have more energy and high
penetrating power.
There is a team of scientists including academician of Russian Academy of science, doctor of
sciences etc. that explore precisely this theoretical direction, and we very much respect and are
grateful to the results of this group because there are some common physical factors that have a
common methodological significance well, in particular the problem of the particle - wave-
13
particle duality, it is not a purely electromagnetic concept. We have reason to believe that this is
some general physical factor here is the theory that was developed by Shipov it may be
associated with the wave theory of torsion fields and then this group doing what can be called
corpuscular theory of torsion fields.
And I must say that on the basis of two seemingly different points of view, these two theories
lead to the same properties required of these fields. So if we're talking about that torsion fields is
one of interpretation of a low energy neutrino fluxes of these then it is necessary to say that the
work special kind of light, one would think it is practically impossible because of its high
penetrating power as some subtle physical objects but it was not so. From the point of view of
neutrino physics is a unique object has no mass, no charge, the only that they are characterized is
by the presence of a spin.
And in this case came idea, and as further practice showed idea worked out, if we can say that
nature is so that there is no media in the nature of which could change the behavior of neutrinos
escape neutrino fluxes or reflect neutrino fluxes and so it turned out that all this is true only in
the event that we are talking about a matter that is in the real nature and it usually is not oriented
spins. But if we take arbitrary materials and subject them to the spin polarization it is then that
they can create some combination of fields such spin-oriented structure that can interact with the
spin characteristics of the neutrino to control their behavior.
So discussing these issues, I remembered what all of us teach in physics course in school, not to
mention the universities, that we can take a beam of light, and if you take the two plates of
feldspar and their optical axis parallel to the light that passes through the system freely. If we
begin to change the angle of the reciprocal of the plates, we can control the intensity of light to
reduce it to the fact that under the orthogonal arrangement of plates no light will pass. Now in a
connection with this I got next idea.
If our assumption is that torsion fields are generated as a consequence of the transverse spin
polarization of the physical vacuum is the presence of this kind of procedure would be to work
with. The second that I could remember. I once caught my eye in a magazine a brief note on the
results of a laboratory which was engaged in synthetic polyethylene films which was proved that
if we take the film in which the polymers are randomly oriented and pull it mechanically its start
rotating them the polymers are arranged in one line with the result that the back of these
polymers would have to line up in one direction and in this article said that is not surprising then
that the polymers are arranged in such a mechanical stretch and what is surprising is that when
they stop to stretch films, this orientation is preserved.
As a result, a short consultation with specialists from the chemical industry in the USSR, we
found out that is has been found that such films are well absorb slow neutrons, and so they are
almost mandatory factor in the biological protection of reactors more they are used throughout
the spacecraft as element of biological protection. And due to the fact that they are used in these
industrial systems so almost every plant that produces polymer films has production areas that
produce these longitudinally or transversely stretched films. And you can buy them easily. This
is what was done.
Continue to do the following. There is a source of torsion radiation that emits in a certain
direction we are taking ... now I'll just show it on the screen ... we take two films ... and as
indicated on the top of the first experiment ... torsion radiation acts on the object 4 which also
change some characteristics indicating the presence of torsion radiation.

14


Then we take these two films with parallel spin orientation, and put in the way of this radiation.
By the reaction of the object on which the radiation is given, we see that the presence of these
films in such a parallel spin orientation does not change those beam passes as if these films not
present there. Now we take and rotate the tapes so that they are orthogonal to the back and the
effect disappears completely. Please note that the film and light and electromagnetic waves are
transparent no matter how we are going to turn this orientation of the spins.
In feldspar it all happened because the game was at the level of orientation of the valence
electrons and we have here was the orientation of the macroscopic collective spins of these long
polymers that are irrelevant to the light, it could not have action on. If we could twist these films
in terms of light, this did not change anything. But for the torsion radiation turned out that it
works. Moreover, further experiments showed that if we do not take the orthogonal films and by
changing the relative orientation of what we can control the intensity and have a stronger effect
on the object or a less stronger effect.
But here was some situation that produced on us a stressful experience. Another unusual
behavior of torsion fields. Here is what is happening then screening the films are orthogonal it
could be like to experience and understand but then there was that's what the situation is a source
of torsion radiation was chosen such that the emits in both directions.


15


So it turned out that if we are not on the one hand as per above experiment put two orthogonal
films and put one on one side of the source and orthogonal to put on the other side of the source
then the effect of the action on both sides stopped. One gets the impression that as if with this
arrangement of orthogonal films we froze that's all the space and it turned out to disconnect from
the action of the radiation left and right. That was quite usual for electromagnetism nobody saw
anything like it and could not observe.
16

Left / right field and the free / forced rotation

Another extremely important factor. It turned out that if we have the rotation and it occurs in a
natural way without any input of energy, e.g. there is no mains powered motor that rotates the
electrons around it axis, no electric motor that rotates Earth around its axis, they rotate in a
natural way by themselves how nature is designed and in this case the standard school rule
works.





On one hand there is the emission of one sign, left, on the other side, of another sign, right, as
everyone told in school that if there is a glass table and you spun spinning you with opposite side
will see the rotation in one direction and the other side you will see the same rotation as would
be the other way and say that everything is relative. So it turned out that, if rotation is forced at
e.g. the electric motor rotates the rotor then in this case we have very different picture


17


During rotation of the rotor in the same direction in both directions will occur right torsion fields
and turning in the opposite direction will occur left torsion field. Also unusual fact about torsion
fields.

Part 2. Shape effect

Finally, it was found that there are a few situations that were extremely interesting. For a long
time walked and continue to walk all sorts of legends about the effect on the people of the
pyramids of Egypt as large and small which sometimes sold in kiosks.
So it turned out that if we consider the holographic space it from the point of view of a rigorous
approach, it could be attributed to the class of the line bundle spaces. Then when these packing
phytons in this space is realized by some layers and their axes of rotation are aligned.
And this environment behaves as a kind of neutral but it is linearly stratified. Unless we take this
line bundle and distort there is some sort of curvature or deviation from the linear state then these
here parallel axis of phytons they begin to diverge on the spatial diversity resulting in lost of
compensation on their backs and this mismatch on the backs of us begins to be perceived as the
appearance of the angular torque are shown in this volume of space as the appearance of some
kind of torsion field.
That is until this space is free and there are no physical reasons why it must distort its line bundle
there is a situation where in this volume of space there is not only the electromagnetic,
gravitational, no torsion field. But unless we put in this amount of space which is a figure then in
this case, its shape is already leading to a distortion of the linear fiber space is now the most
vivid example of how it works it can be illustrated by the following, imagine that there is a huge
amount of layers of rubber sheets rubber and you split them in the middle and insert a ball.
18
Those rubber sheets that are close to the object grip this ball hard and follow curvature greater
than the next layer or the next even smaller curvature and finally there comes a time when the
rubber does not feel this ball.

Field of pyramid

(torsion field may be produced) not only as a consequence of the spin or mechanical rotation but
there is another class of torsion fields whose existence as one of the manifestations - biological
fields was known to people for publications for a long time and they were called in the esoteric
literature of the effect of a form field, or as a shaped field. And it turned out that from the point
of view of physics, this is an understandable situation when the spin structure of the space due to
the shape of objects is distorted and there is a field that's having such a source.




So if we have a cone (or pyramid) it does not matter, then there is a point of symmetry is the
pinnacle of the pyramid, over a cone, in the same solid angle as the angle at the top there is a
right torsion field and inside the pyramid and for its outside there is a left torsion field. Moreover
although it is to this day it has not been investigated carefully but experimentally that within this
cone, there are two points from the top one-third of the height and one-third from the bottom. So
it turns out that the maximum of the torsion field fall on these two points. This will be discussed
on Friday in more details and now ...

Field of magnet

Next situation. We talked about what each object that has a rotation creates a torsion field. There
was a kind of mystery, known results when the action of magnets on water occurred as it was
called in the literature and patent information magnetization process of water which is expressed
in the fact that if you use water that has been exposed to the north pole of magnet it stepped
biological processes such as 10-15% increased seed germination and if exposed to south pole in
19
contrary it slows down the process and the growth and germination of seeds slowed to same 12-
15%.
Immediately there is a certain situation is completely automatic. From the point of view of
physics it has no meaning magnetize the water because the water is diamagnetic, and from the
point of view of physics, it is not affected by magnetic field. We can drip water on the glass
surface and waving a magnet near this drop of water until we lost consciousness and drop will
not shift and magnetic field is not affecting it. Why it is changing the biological activity?
Large number of patent applications in different countries were rejected for the reason that the
nominated counterargument that the magnet has no effect on the water so any changes to water
impossible. And it turns out that everything is solved extremely simple. In a magnetic material,
there are the so-called molecular currents which go along the contours of the metal grains, the
contours of the domains, and this is the movement of electrons along this circuit is regarded as
one coil electric current buyout results in that there is a magnetic field.
If still another magnet to act on what that stuff all these ring currents due to the fact that the
material has magnetic properties are oriented randomly, they all lined up in one direction and
appear collective total magnetic field which is characteristic for a given material. Now I say that
there is no reason that would prevent me consider motion of the electrons in these circular paths
as not charge motion but as circular motion of mass, it is like spin a stone over your head. Then
here follows automatically that such a rotation of the masses will cause torsion field. And the
difference will consist in the fact that there will be no closed field lines will be open and heres
such a radiation pattern.



And then it turns out that in addition to any magnet ordered orientation of charges creates a
collective magnetic field which is structurally in the space looks like this, the same ordering at
the level of the mass movement along a closed path leads to the fact that there is also a torsion
field in this magnet, out of the north pole comes right torsion field and from the south pole
comes left torsion field.
And no one did know when, nor do those people who operated a magnet on water, nor those
people who used magnets on magnetic belts, which are used for medicinal purposes in various
diseases that in reality they have in these situations affect not magnets but torsion fields that
20
inherent in all magnets. And in fact, magnetization of water did not happen, as if to say exactly
torsionisation of water happen, although it does not sound very favorable.

Nevertheless, it is true. And this torsion field is influenced on water, arranged the spin
orientation in the hydrogen and oxygen atoms in water molecules and thereby changing their
physicochemical properties. So it was one more very important situation associated with the
properties of torsion fields.

Field of cylinder

If you go back to the problem of shape it was found that if the cone has now these two fields so
that cylinders also have fields.




But it has been experimentally observed although it is not fully explained theoretically until
today that if we used a cylinder whose diameter is more than half of the side, then in this case out
of the ends of the cylinder comes right field and left field, respectively, forms symmetrically as a
ring structure around this cylinder. If the cylinder is long and it has a diameter of less than half of
the side, it all turns on the contrary, such a cylinder out of the sides of it left and right sides come
left field and right field as would surround it volume.
BTW when we just talking about magnets and about this kind of structure fields, it must be said
that, in principle, if I want to get such an effect similar to a magnet but only that there is no
magnetic field, well, for example, may be what that experiment when the magnetic field can I
interfere or create effects that will hide the action of the torsion field, it appeared that there is
another solution.
So there are nuclear targets which are crystals with ordered spin structures, which are used in
nuclear physics research that do not have magnetic fields, which are diamagnetic, but the
ordering of the spin orientation which causes that there are fields that are similar to the fields of
the magnets on both sides, one left and one right field.
Here are the main results are those that I would like tell you about to properties. But perhaps it
makes sense to tell about another property that is extremely important.

21



So if we have here is a holographic space that is some spin structure, it is possible that if in
this kind volume acts torsion field, which itself is in contrast to the linear structure of this
environment is a complex structural spin system then in this case, in the course of action the
source of the field on this space that the polarization of the medium is externally than it
resembles the process of magnetization in magnetic materials and in this case, then when we turn
off the source of the torsion field here this spin structure in the space preserved it for a long time,
it is a memory effect, we will double come back tomorrow and the day after to this effect.

Torsion filed generators

But now that we know about the torsion fields have some initial ideas can talk about the
experiments as the technologies that were already in the interval of first years of work, then
when it was created by what is called the torsion generators. We try not to discuss the issue of
how to construct torsion generators, just want to say that there is a single point which is of
fundamental importance and that we believe is possible to say and write what we are doing. He
is what it is.
Let's get back to the issues that we talked about yesterday, and then when we talked about the
charge polarization of the physical vacuum, we have said that the presence of charge in a
vacuum occurs spatial splitting phytons is known from quantum electrodynamics as screening
charges of elementary particles and that in this case there is something unique


22


But then when we talked about gravity, we have said that there are symmetrical oscillations of
the vortex pairs that form these phytons and in this case we have an average of the total spin over
time still proves to be zero.



But it turned out that this rule there is an exception then when it comes to electromagnetic field.
As soon as the charge thanks to which it happened split it on interval of time until this charge is
present split saved and then we have uncompensated spins and non compensated spin moment.
And for this medium in addition to the fact that we have a system of electric dipoles is perceived
by us as the electromagnetic field, and such theories have been on the way to our own work, but
apart from that volume manifests itself as a kind of torsion field, because spins are equal to
magnitude but opposite their axes, so they do not coincide, they form a spin dipole.
As a result, it turned out, and it's always been experimentally confirmed, and we have effectively
used it, it turned out that in this type of approach, any source of electromagnetism whether static
23
charge source or wave electromagnetic radiation, but always when in a certain volume of space
is an electrostatic effect or electromagnetic field it is always due precisely to this split
automatically arises torsion component.
So it was predicted in the mid 80s here at the level of the physical model of phyton vacuum, and
in the early 90s, academician Shipov constructed analytically exact model that was simple
enough to describe such situations and he called from my point of view is valid here, this effect
which was predicted by me back in the mid 80s, he called it electrotorsion field. So besides that
there is torsion fields are generated by spin, the classical ideal case, except for fields that are
generated by the effect of the form, which is distortion of the physical vacuum, there is a third
case where the torsion fields generated by electromagnetic processes.
It is an issue we will return later. So if I wanted to create a source of torsion fields which would
work on the classical scheme, which would create a torsion field by changing the orientation of
the spins of a spinning object to the right or to the left field



That is that in this case the perfect technical realization of such a source of torsion field would
consist of the following. I would have to be able to gather in a certain volume of space some
number of neutrino, a neutrino ensemble, then using some accessory, I would have oriented all
the spins in the ensemble in the same direction, i.e. spin-polarized isotropic this volume.
Also by some third device I would have to be able to control the precession of the spins of these
neutrinos because just steady rotation creates a static torsion field and wave radiation occurs only
when there is some sort of non-linearity occurs, including here the process of precession as the
simplest situation.
And then at the precession frequency, I have a wave torsion radiation. Then, in accordance with
the analogy that takes place in a radio communication, I would have to be somewhere else other
assembly of neutrinos, also spin ordered, but that spin precession induced in the first volume
would create a forced precession in this volume should be a device that would be needed to read
the precession frequency.
On the situation to date, no one knows, not only engineers, but even physicists, can not imagine
how one would collect neutrinos in the ensemble and to keep them in one place, especially since
no one knows how to spin-polarize them, even more, nobody knows how to manage their
24
precession, and then there is a situation that if we stood on this orthodox view, then we would
have to say that Shipov created the theory of physical vacuum, Akimov created a theory which is
related to the physical vacuum through phytons, well, now let's wait until their colleagues
physicists and engineers learn how to manage ensembles neutrinos.
Well and since judging by the publications to date, no one has no good ideas from which one
could conclude that scientists are ready to understand how to even approach the solution of these
problems, all up in the air for many decades. And unfortunately no one idea is born. It could wait
another 20 - 30 - 50 years, it is a complex problem.
For us it was the rescue that nature has designed so that there is electro torsion field. By the fact
that how to work with electromagnetic processes and how to implement a huge number of
different electromagnetic devices is fairly well known, in this regard the 20th century made fine
work, so it was not difficult to figure out how to implement on the basis of the electromagnetic
instrument procedure of creating wave torsion radiation in a controlled manner when we can
create torsion wave radiation with the amplitude, frequency characteristics that are needed for a
particular experiment.
Therefore, in reality, from the very beginning to be aware that generally speaking those devices
that we by analogy with the practice of electromagnetism called torsion generators are actually
not torsion generators and converters are when I take the standard signal generators (GSS) as
they are called in Russian, standard device available for any frequency range, create a system
that causes the spin polarization in electromagnetic systems, that's what we have just looked at
with you, here it is and I impose this wave process here on this method of polarized space, which
is beginning to implement the wave oscillation here these dipoles and at the same frequencies
that electromagnetic waves generated torsion oscillation process.
And then we can these signals add, subtract, amplify to some extent, not very big, attenuate and
use in those experiments which we need. Nevertheless, I still show you a picture that is at least to
some extent may be of interest to imagine what would look like devices of this kind that we
used, the devices of different generations.

French patent

Here is shown a device that could be attributed to the class of torsion generators, it was then
when we were just starting to develop generators methodologically was acquitted and the other
was hard to imagine, but you had before you put the task to develop a torsion oscillator and find
out in our patents and on the basis of the work of inventors, and whether such devices are already
exists and take advantage of them and do not reinvent the wheel. Was performed large
information search, made contact with a large number of scientific research teams and eventually
it turned out that on the basis of the patent, there are devices where the authors have created the
physical nature of radiation emitters which they did not understand, though the appliances
worked, but there was no wave emitters almost no one abroad and in Russia there were some
devices, but they had a very low reliability


25


and poor frequency characteristics. Well, in particular the most ubiquitous generator, which
showed relatively good results, had a life of which does not exceed 45 minutes. After that, it had
to be either repaired or thrown out. It was clear that such devices difficult to considered as
devices and we should not relay on them. And one of the instruments that create a static field, it
was known to one of French patents of when they took is such a multi-faceted structure at a
certain distance of the number of faces on the cone strengthened and that outside of the system's
effects have been observed which were unusual in particular, reduces the consumption of
gasoline in engines, observed the change of gravity and a variety of other effects.

Ziang Canchens generator

The most famous generator which was made before us was it was Ziang Canchens generator,
generator of Chinese guy who fled during the Cultural Revolution out of China and who to this
day lives in Khabarovsk. The last time I met with him a month ago on one of conference
(inaudible) in Moscow. Generator looks as a polyhedron whose sides were made in view of the
pentagon and externally when you look at this generator it is similar to foot ball in which the
individual elements are metal polygons means also made the cone and thus considered a
situation where there were certain waveguides which were collected from the tops of these cones
radiations and could transfer it to somewhere.


26


Ziang Canchen himself believed that this bio microwave communications but it turned out that
he had used as waveguides water pipes and when he and I talked for the first time back in the
early 80's, I told him to use ... to have a waveguide inside the waveguide walls shall be very high
accuracy, should be covered with silver to reduce loss, and even in this case, such a waveguide
has a significant loss. I told him, you are as a person who has a radio technical education, you
should understand that if you are use water pipe to conduct microwave signal, this signal will not
travel more than one and a half inches, it will all be absorbed into the walls of the pipe.
I said Did you take measurements of the microwave signal here?
He said Yes, he even said how he was measuring and with what instrument.
Well, what a microwave signal measurements you got ?
He said There was no microwave signal found.
I said And it couldnt be found.




27

The man did not realize that for the
transmission of spin effects can be used not
only pipes but generally anything, because
there's a completely different mechanism of
transmission. How does it look natural, that's a
look at this device. The diameter of this
system is somewhere 2.5 meters, it occupies a
large volume. And here it is, these water pipes,
which are all connected, and they go to
another similar system. One is considered as
the emitting and the other as receiving. They
generally form a closed system. Nothing goes
outside, because the vertices of these cones are
connected to each other directly. So he spent a
purely medical biological experiments, we'll
talk about it on Friday.


New generation of torsion generators

Here is a simple generator that we used as a generator that created the torsion fields, static
torsion fields, it was a pocket size generator.



for which it has been used I will show on Friday and it had a very small size. It was paneled box
which had a width of 4 cm and the length 6cm thickness 1cm.

Generators have worked already with wave torsion radiation but relatively small frequency here
is an example of such a generator is shown here



28

One toggle switch used to turn on/off, the
second toggle switch used to be able to
change operating mode for left or right field,
one connector for a power supply and second
connector to which a sinusoidal control signal
from the GSS can be applied. A emission
came from this cone that served as a resonant
antenna radiating system


At a later period of time were created
oscillators that operate at frequencies up to 60
GHz. In this situation, you see a generator that
has dimensions of 40 x 40 x 40 cm and it
operates in 4-channel mode, working in
different frequency bands that may be needed
for the task.



The internal structure of the generator is
highly unusual.
So that if the generator in such a way to put
the expert then watching as it the expert rather
go mad than give you a reasonable explanation
for what it is made and how it works. There
were no such systems in the world before.




29



There were many modifications of such
generators. But these generators as a series of
modification are shown in order here


* Note from translator these pictures are snapshots from the video presentation. Please see bigger and better quality pictures (found from the
internet) in the end of the file


Changes in the structure and properties of metals

The first experimental results which quite fast gave the answers to many questions and the
results of which lead to commercialization, where the results of which have been associated with
changes in the characteristics of metals.
The original idea was that every metal has a well-defined grid, well-defined grain structure, it is
first, second, metallurgists have always proceeded from the fact that for the understanding of
their work them enough understanding of the structure of the crystal lattice that is knowledge of
geometry how are distributed in space the potential wells where the ions in the crystal lattice
sites.
So I would like to draw attention to the fact that it has been suggested that in the future was
confirmed, which was associated with the idea that the stability of any crystal is determined not
only by the chemical composition of some elements that are included in the crystalline lattice,
but also determined by how aligned ion spins along the edges of the crystal lattice.
Physics come across this only when it was necessary to divide materials into ferromagnetic,
paramagnetic and diamagnetic. Here it was fundamentally important and there it was handled,
and the fact that it is some general law, it unfortunately remains as that in the background, and
besides, nobody would believe that such an option as the spin orientation along the edges of the
crystal lattice can have at least some practical value.

Tin and copper

So here are the first experiments that were conducted, they were associated with the need to
establish the very fact that the physiochemical properties of the metal can change under the
influence of the torsion field, then when we change the spin structure of the crystalline metal
which is formed during the cooling of the melt.
The first experiments in this area have been carried out in a very well-known in the world of
materials science organization, the Institute for Materials Science of Ukraine, which was then
30
headed by the vice president of the Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, academician of the
Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Viktor Trefilov.
These experiments were constructed as follows. Was taken so-called Tamman furnace which is
an oven that consists of a metal cylinder of heat resistant material with a diameter of about 80
cm, with a wall thickness of about 1.5cm and sealed with a screw cap.



Title: changes in structure of metals
Time of exposition 15 minutes
Torsion generator
P = 15 mW (milliwatts)
Tamman furnace
Melted metal
Alundum Al
2
O
3
distance 1m

Here, while the crucible was located inside it and a heating element is used to melt the metal.
Temperatures that this oven can withstand does not exceed 2,050 degrees. The crucible is made
of the so-called Alundum Al
2
O
3
material which can withstand such high temperatures.
This Tamman furnace is a multi-purpose device used in many laboratories around the world. It
is a single piece of metal which is grounded, so it is also an ideal Faraday cage which
electromagnetic radiation can not penetrate.
Secondly, because the furnace is sealed, several different modes of operation may be
implemented. It can work as an oven where there is a fusion of metal and in normal air, it can
work in a vacuum where all air is pumped out or work with some other medium such as nitrogen,
or other gases. Of course usually the whole procedure is to ensure that the tests are done whilst
melting, where a metal is brought to the melting temperature and for a time is kept without any
external influences, then allowed to cool into an ingot. From this ingot were prepared thin
sections, which were sent to the laboratory where their structure was studied, including lattice
structure, the grain structure and also their physiochemical properties.
Then melting of the same metal was repeated, but at a distance of about 1m a torsion field was
exerted by a torsion generator, which consumed a power of 10mW, and everyone knows that if
there would be even more than 10mW even if it would be 10 KW is still in the presence of the
ground plane of the oven, nothing would get inside.
And if the furnace would not be integrally metal all power except effect on the metal surface
layer is an electromagnetic field could do nothing, for the simple reason that the layer of ions at
the surface would screen themselves by the volume of the metal.
Nevertheless, this torsion generator has passed metrology inspection and has been shown not to
create any electromagnetic radiation, it does not create any gamma radiation and does not create
sound emissions and for 15 minutes it gave effect to create a field in a corner of the radiation
31
pattern, and metal structure was investigated and compared with control (without effect of
torsion generator).
Hence, would like say that in these experiments, which were repeated many times, it was
decided to start experimenting with chemically pure tin, purity 999 and it was necessary to use a
simple system primarily for use at the outset alloys with large number of chemical elements
would create difficulties in the interpretation of experimental results.
Whether result was obtained by the action of the torsion radiation, whether it is a combination of
the elements themselves gave such a result.
Therefore were selected chemically pure tin and copper. The first results you see now. So here is
shown a control slice (right) you can see that a very large variation in grain size, not very
uniform on section ... strength and ductility (right)



Whereas when it was carried out the same
melting tin but under the action of torsion
radiation we observed an orderly grain
structure, the grains were all almost the same
in size and which were approximately 6 times
higher than in the photograph (left).
This bar has a much better properties and
strength and ductility. These experiments were
reproduced many times and it was eventually
shown that we get the stable and very
interesting results.


Question from the audience: What year were made by these experiments?
They took place in the period of 1989-1990. If we talk about the action of copper, there were
observed also quite interesting results. Well firstly I would like to draw attention to the fact that
there are a metals which possess the property during the cooling of the twin structures
appearance when there is some sort of metal inside the plane with respect to which the two
crystals are formed on this side of t on this side here are paired structure is called a double. There
are metals which are characterized by the appearance of the twin structures, and there are metals
for which they are not observed, that for copper twin structures were observed never and
nowhere, but in those experiments that were done, then when operated torsion field, there arose
the twin structure and here and now you'll find it. According to specialists in solid state physics
there arose a double-reflection.


32

So this is the plane that is visible on this
picture of electron diffraction (top) and a
crystal here, and here symmetrically second
crystal, and it was then when doing electron
diffraction, it was shown in the fact that there
were double resonances, which were visible
(bottom) at all here these lines. It was quite
unique. Nobody expected this. And while I
would like to mention that there was one other
rather curious effect.


When working with copper it was found that, depending on the frequency on which we are
working on the melt




Cavities can occur, the size of which directly depend on the frequency on which we are working.
Here you can see what are the large shell (left) and here these small shells (right) here as we
increase the frequency of the wave length is reduced and accordingly the size of these shells.
Question from audience: ... program? (inaudible)
This they did not check in the list of required characteristics. And situation is that the shell does
not occur only at the surface but also in volume. At the same time striking was that this metal
almost half had more flexibility and more must be said that almost 100 times increased corrosive
resistance. Also noted extremely interesting results were obtained at the end of the work, which
was obtained when working with poor quality types of steel, which is in the nomenclature called
CT3 is the low-quality steel. Here please see the next item


33



Whereas when the metal begins to cool the
process goes from the cooling wall to the
centre while since the crystalline structure is
formed from periphery to centre it pushes most
of the foreign chemical elements here the mid
to the place where there is a so-called piping
(black spot on the left) and the empty space
beside her always, these elements are formed.
They make this part of the ingot metal is
unsuitable for use i.e. about a third of the
metal in the manufacture of castings is
unusable that should be thrown out, here you
can see that the action of the torsion radiation
we have this kind of structure is not at all what
we would not have taken the direction of edge
to it, or from that to this region, we see that the
metal is isotropic, it is absolutely
homogeneous, no that's the rejected material
that accompanies zone shrinkage cavity. Here
it was also extremely seriously.

Since these results were obtained in the territory of Ukraine, which was then included as a
republic of the Soviet Union, it was decided to use the results to try on large factories on the
territory of Ukraine. And besides academic Trefilov, who led that part of the work to which I
now told that performed these experiments as experiments on a fundamental level, which had to
prove the very existence of the result that such a result can be obtained by means other than that,
there was another very famous metallurgist, is rector in Dnepropetrovsk metallurgical Institute,
Academician Dovgan-taran, who's the institution headed by Academician this he performed
some intermediate function between Dnepropetrovsk metallurgical plants which there are many
and very well-known plants, well, for example, a plant that produces large diameter pipes for
pipeline that meets the needs of the Soviet Union in the amount of one-third of the total volume
third of the pipes of the Soviet Union was made on this Dnepropetrovsk plant. It was a giant
plant. So the rector of the university was intermediate between basic science and industry, and
with it agreed on a program which has been agreed with the head of the plant as to how one
would use these results to increase the strength, corrosive ductility and durability of these tubes
to increase the life of the tubes, in order not to have accidents in the oil and gas pipelines. This
draft program was agreed upon, it was determined what the department with some shops which
job should have been done, how it should be implemented, what the generators in terms of what
we need to deliver. At this time, the Soviet Union collapsed, followed by a unspoken order of the
Government of the Russian Federation to stop funding all works are carried out in the former
republics and now independent countries, and these studies have not been realized. And work on
the metallurgy stopped for almost 4 years at all, nothing was done. In factories orders dropped
and they were not taken for any promotional work.


34
Silumin

Eventually, in the early 90s, in the mid-90s we were able to negotiate with the materials
science with the oldest organization in the Soviet Union, which was the first materials science
laboratory 200 years ago, and which at the time period were organization of which was the
leading organization in general and not only for metals within the Ministry of Defense Industry
is CRI of material which was located in Leningrad, and that in addition to completely unique
scientific base as an institution of scientific research has tremendous opportunities for the
production.
Almost except for blast furnaces which they did not have, then all the other types of melting
equipment they were present in the same form as they were usually in the steel mills. Moreover
such as 100% needs of the Defense ministry industry in powder metallurgy materials is satisfied
by that institution as production. I.e. laboratory of powder materials it has worked as a
production facility also. So one of the commercial structures shown next interest that there is a
material as silumin, a mixture of aluminum and silicon, which is widely used, has third place
after iron and steel is the material from which made most of the car parts, is widely used in river
and marine ships, planes, missiles, submarines and so on.
And they said that now the situation is that in itself is very fragile silumin what is known by all
in the world very well, and therefore, that this metal can be used in industrial applications, for
this has to do two kinds of additives. The first is an additive that would transfer silicon into
metallic state with the result that the metal becomes more durable.
And besides supplements that bound to hydrogen which occurred inside the metal due to the fact
that was captured from the air, water vapor which is always present in the air due to the high
temperature of the water molecule were falling apart, the oxygen was gone on the oxidation of
the metal and the hydrogen bubbles and remained, occurred during the cooling sink inside the
metal, which also degrade the performance of a metal material. Because of this doing special
chemical additives which bound hydrogen.
So even if you do all this is still not a small fraction of the production is rejected due to poor
quality. They said that's if you can improve the strength and ductility and fight with sinks then it
may be of interest to us. Contract was signed and commercial organization representing these
interests paid the cost of performing this work for us and in this CRI organization of materials in
St. Petersburg to continue a series of heats in which it was necessary in the absence of a
developed theory, it was necessary to choose the best combination of 3-4 frequencies that lie in
the range of from about 1hz to 30Gigahertz and that it was possible to solve these problems. So
in total it took somewhere around six months to ensure that such a combination of frequencies
were found and it turned out that the use of such a 3 frequency affects a whole series of effects.
So, the first thing more effectively the process of transition to the metallic state of silicon, the
second, the size of grains of silicon decreases with almost 5 times, and then there is a process,
which unfortunately was not studied, but nevertheless proved to be very useful when at ordering
of the spin structure in the melted metal we have these bubbles are drawn first to the centre and
then pushed and formed shrink sink this kind for these types of metals nobody in the world has
ever seen.
The result was that even if you do not use any additives to convert silicon in the metallic state,
do not use chemicals to get hydrogen bonding, we still get completely isotropic structure with a
highly dispersed structure of grains. In what results without ligature additives also the control
strength of the metal increases 1.35 times, ductility increases by 2.5 times and the bubbles are
simply absent.
I'll show you what it looks like in practice.


35


Here shown the metal ingot obtained without the action of torsion radiation (left) is seen here
that this is part of the whole rejected material (above) instead of the shrinkage cavity just a
failure meniscus has a large number of big type formations such crystallites here a lot of them
and these black dots are shells are on the cut a lot of them here.
Now cut of the metal which is obtained by the action of the torsion radiation (right) here there is
no this gray zone at all, all white (top) of these points but there was no shrinkage sink and finally
no big crystalline entities at all, metal dispersed. Hence, these results were duly completed.



We received a patent for this metal, for this
technology, in addition, results were obtained
that went into patent and which is regarded as
a kind of an integral part of the patent, which
could be seen all the characteristics that we
have received in particular since this image
instead of text turns slowly now wait minute
and it will turn over here clearly shows that
if the initial characteristics capsized okay,
will not spend time on this (slow computer)


36





It was evident that there strength characteristics risen from 156 to 173 in this patent can be read
more in detail. In the next period of time here, this table tensile strength from 156 to 177 and the
ductility increased from 2 to 5. In these experiments, I asked the researcher politely to spend the
maximum possible number of measurements which will allow the amount of funding and it
turned out that there is another option that the institution was also interesting.
Although it was not set any tasks with regard to electrical properties of the metal we found that
metal which is obtained by using a torsion technology has conductivity which was 11% higher
than the starting materials. If we consider that copper is quite expensive, but instead use copper
as a conductor or what that electrical products aluminum is not good because there is a much
greater loss than that of copper, it offers the potential to produce aluminum with better electrical
parameters which could replace the copper in electrical industry products. So the technology has
repeatedly demonstrated in various countries in 1999 and in 2000 it was exhibited in Korea, but
in particular, you can see the pictures




37
Here stands our torsion generator, generators of standard signals that serve the original signals
for each of the 3 frequencies, here are cone emitters on 3 diapasons. Frequency induction furnace
has a frequency of 2400Hz and here visible slightly red already melted silumin (right) Korean
worker pours this silumin in chill moulds and it was shown that the results obtained are same that
we have received in Russia. Including the results that relate to the structure of the metal.


Here in particular seen that by using the
torsion effects of crystal structure refinement
was much larger (bottom right) than in the
metal which was the original (bottom left) are
going strong dispersion of the material.
Finally, I would like to note that the
experiments on metals were further
demonstrate this more in the works which
were carried out in April of this year, which
were carried out in the laboratory materials
science Pennsylvania University in the United
States on the basis of their hardware.


Steel

One of the tasks that I set the time when the work was just beginning to organize themselves to
create the conditions for the emergence of an increasing number of independent groups of
researchers and experimenters who firstly be extended front research that would develop new
versions of its torsion generators, which would work with other types of metals and would
buyout would have a good base to eventually produce such number working on torsion
technology collaborators to this work was a guarantee of its continuation even when Akimov
will not exists. So these teams work to this day and some of them are quite successfully. Now I
want to show you the head of the laboratory of a large plant in city Perm in the Urals, he is
Kurabov.



38

Here is shown the torsion generator of
completely different construction from a type
such as those which we use and this generator
is used in order to give effect to melt the metal
or steel or iron and have improved
characteristics. These results have been really
extremely useful and important in particular in
the manufacture of large parts made of cast
iron with the aid of which clog the pile then
when they build houses.


Possible to create a metal whose original cast
has just such an internal structure (bottom left)
and then when it acts as a torsion radiation
dispersing see extremely strong (right) is
dominated by fine structure so therefore
dramatically increases strength and of course
that there is an increase in the work resource.
A when acting on steel then in this case too,
ordering arises ...

(fragment missing). and very often the case that when someone we offer this kind of technology
is usually technology experts say that this can not be. Then we say let's not discuss it may or may
not be a let's go to the furnace and see it turns out or not. Steels eventually yielded results when
the mass production of this plant is made of stainless steel cylinders for rolling mills where sheet
metal get so, we know what time can work this cylindrical structure to the point where it surface
broken and it can not have work in the rolling mill. That they have done several of these wolves
for one of the smelters and he worked three more in resources than standard wolves and while he
has no change in the surface layer has not happened. He is now completing work for the fourth
resource over time. And this technology is adopted in this plant as implemented. This is the first
case in the world where the torsion field technology used in mass production at a metallurgical
plant.
39

Memory effect or re-radiation

It should be noted that there is one situation that is extremely important.
We talked about that time when there is a volume of space that acts torsion field there for a long
time, this structure can be maintained. Here it turned out that this effect works in a substance
that's when working with metals in particular has been found and it is extremely important that a
large number of metal then when acted torsion field for the metal as a result changed its spin
structure, change the characteristics of the grain and sometimes lattice, so that's interesting is that
this metal can be melted and then during this process its improved performance is maintained.
Memory effect is working. Moreover, we accidentally stumbled into one of our work on the
curious effect. From Leningrad to Moscow brought a series of photographs for me, here is the
structure of ingots of silumin this shrink sink and say that's what the results were. I am beginning
to see and speak to the head of this company who perform works, tell me where is the action of
the torsion field and where you have control sample, because you see that all pictures I do not
look anywhere there is shrinkage sink. In the process, then when we were given the impact on
the stove polarization subjected not only liquid metal but the whole design of the furnace and the
furnace itself became a source of torsion field and found that only if you do not carry out the
process of depolarization before another fuse then when I do not control the melting including
torsion generator, I get the same material changes due to the fact that the walls of the furnace
will be acting on it.
Here is one property I have not mentioned and that we will finish today the situation is such that
in physics over the past few decades, we introduced the concept of generalized charge meaning
not the electric charge and the fact that it gives rise to a field. Here the role of the charge for the
gravitational field is the mass which generates a gravitational field. Charge role in
electromagnetism is the electric charge. A role of the charge causing torsion field playing spin.
We are all accustomed from the time the school of the same name that electric charges repel and
unlike charges attract. It turned out that the torsion fields opposite. Like spins are attracted and
unlike spins repelled.
The result was that if I give to the impact melt in the form of an isotropic unidirectional torsion
field which builds up back in the same direction they attracted, they form a stable system that
does not allow these spins form along the edges as it should be. This resulted in higher
polarization in isotropic torsion field that material did not form during the cooling of the lattice
at all. We have prepared amorphous metal. Without superfast cooling. So it was recorded in the
works institute problems material science of Ukraine.

Impact on crystals

And finally, I will just give a very simple example if I find it now quickly. The first experiments
were carried out with the solid as the experiments were not conducted with the metals and
crystals. The easiest option. Supersaturated solution of potassium chloride.


40

If we place supersaturated potassium chlorine
spill thin layer on a petri dish in the process of
crystallization as the water evaporates we have
a loop on petri dish of very fine crystals of
snow and then begin to form within the larger
crystals. Some of which are transparent, they
are seen as little black and white portion
appears as crystals which is covered on top
and another micro crystals. As some film and
these crystals are now usually rectangular or
cubic form they are fairly evenly fill the space
that's all.


Then it was done so under the cup bottom was
placed torsion generator which provide torsion
field so to capture only the central part of the
square petri dish as a result we obtain the
following picture



We have in the central part where distorted torsion field in the cross section of the cone crystals
appeared only clear and only cubic and everything else was the same as control sample.




41

I can show you, once we got to this section of
info, then it came to cadmium-mercury-
telluride crystals. Then when we changed the
temperature here in these limits


If there is no torsion field when we moving in this direction (to the right) we have changed the
magnetic susceptibility here on this line (with crosses), and it went back to the same line and if
there is a torsion field in the same direction it was standard and in the back it was walking on the
hysteresis loop (with squares) and looked just energy to drop this hysteresis loop.
That was the first technology that has come before the introduction of industrial production in
Perm. In principle, the situation is such that the range of the subsequent years, I think that will
increase the number of plants that will produce parts using this technology in particular is now a
row of plants we are negotiating in Russia and Ukraine, and in some countries of the world so
this technology will come out more and more on forefront. Thank you for your attention. Today
we will finish this.
42

Part 3. Energy (Lecture 10.11.2006)

(determining) ... of the development of our civilization is the complex of the issues that define
our vitality according to futurist experts whose publication at the end of the 20th century were
designed to understand and what are the chances of our civilization to survive at all, so that's
pointed to several factors that make up threat to the health of our civilization.
These factors are the environmental and energy crisis. Then, when talking about the energy crisis
that usually paid attention to a number of circumstances, the first is the increasing scale of
energy consumption are inexorably linked to the expansion of production scale, and even
attempts of world leading countries to carry out the implementation of energy-saving
technologies while weakening impact on the environment yet fail to address the problem in
principle. Although this process slows down the deterioration of the energy infrastructure but at
the same time it does not solve problem radically.
With this background, there are two problems that need to be addressed, first is the problem all
the same, what is radical ... what are radical measures that would allow not in particular but in
general cases to reduce the energy consumption, and the second, it is as always and everywhere
written about this, but can not be found a suitable solution, it is the problem of finding alternative
sources of energy. Here I will try to tell you about that what works on the background of new
scientific concepts allow us to find a solution for the first and second problems simultaneously.

Vortex heat generators

For a long time, well, approximately over the last 15 - 20 years, began to appear in an increasing
number messages and the development of small-scale production facilities which the author
claims to have the COP of these devices as they wrote of 150-200%.
In this situation there is a contradiction, first contradictory situation was the fact that my
colleagues as someone who told them what this group of engineers has done installation which
has COP of 150% -200 they began to wave his hands and say that it's all nonsense, these people
ignorant, they do not know what they are doing, that they did not learn in school, shouldnt they
know that the COP can not be greater than 100% and if they say so they are charlatans and we do
not want to even talk to them.
But the most curious thing is that on the one hand, yes indeed among the engineering teams that
developed such devices as these devices are designed and manufactured in Russia by more than
30 organizations. Yes indeed among these groups there were many teams that made the device,
and so it turned out that the ideas of how to make a device born engineers who were not experts
on experience heat engineers but they are extremely developed conceit believed that general
knowledge that they have enough to do all the work somehow and do not doubt something right
or wrong they are doing.
As a result, it was found out that quite often these people are not being professionals in the field
of heat they spent measuring the ratio between the amount of electricity consumed and the heat
given out to the flagrant violations of the adopted methodology similar types of measurements.
They believed that the COP measured by them was 200%, and when they came to the specialists
who know how to properly measure and measured it very often find that the plants do not have
the COP of even 80%.
But along with this there was a certain amount of that number of organizations that are headed
professionally competent people who have been independently metrological examination
confirms that they did COP more than 100%. There was a situation here as well so everyone
knows that more than 100% can not be, but here it is device and it shows these results.
43
So when I had to deal with this kind of discussions frankly I've always been ashamed of my
fellow physicists.
The fact that the student believes that there is always COP can not be greater than 100% it can be
forgiven because it was taught so in schools, but usually because not to overload the mind of the
schoolboy school books did not specify that the COP is greater than 100% can not be only if the
system which is closed if it does not have a channel of energy exchange with the environment.
It did not give this excess energy and can not get it. And if the system is open and assume it is
organized so that it is able to use this energy from the environment that is the addition of energy
from the environment to the energy that is taken figuratively example from the wall outlet, it can,
it can lead to the fact that the additional energy can by 2, 3, 10, 1000 times greater than what we
spend from the mains.
It is an open system. Heaters which are now in big numbers can be found in your houses all
heaters are open systems in which an efficiency greater than 1 what is specified in patents on
these components and confirmed by exploitation.
For professional physics reaction to the existence of such devices should not be hysterical. The
fact that there can not be COP more than 100% and the normal scientific conclusions if there is a
device that is made and in which the energy that it can generate the output exceeds the energy
input that is not base to fall into a state of shock and condemn the engineer and it is an occasion
to say so once again this is confirmed by the independent examination it means that it is an open
system and one just need find some channel where additional energy leads to what is actually
observed.
Second, this physicist would have explained this engineer or inventor that from the point of view
of physics for open systems concept of COP does not exist and can not exist. He was just a
misunderstanding and use term COP and thereby incur the wrath of the "greats" of science. And
you just need him to use the equivalent term and not talk about the COP but about efficiency
coefficient that indicates how much of the energy consumed in the total energy which is given by
the system. When the inventor of what that says that I have COP 150%, it must be said that you
have 150% efficiency and the conversion factor 1.5.
A curious detail virtually all systems that have now such figures they give the opportunity to get
these results only as the basis of certain processes that occur in such a system which use vortex
processes are then when we are connected to systems that generate a torsion field.
Most often have to deal with as they are called vortex thermal generators (VTG). Here is one
example of such a vortex heat generator, you now see in this picture is a generator that is thermal
systems that provide the opportunity to implement home heating and hot water. These are
produced at the plant near Moscow, which is slightly more 100 miles is the city of Tver and the
company called Angstrom has developed a series of such devices. The head of this company is
candidate of Technical Sciences, former head of one of the departments of the Tver Polytechnic
Institute Mustafayev Rafael Izmailovich




44

An essence of the work of this setup is that


Here shows the device and which illustrates
the operation of the facility. So there is an
electric motor 2 which receives electricity
from the mains, it controls the hydraulic pump
1, water which goes to the pump outlet, enters
the tube, the tube labeled with the number 3,
and that's somewhere in this pipe would have
to be a heater, if it was a standard system,
natural gas, fuel oil, electric, or other water
heater, this then gets to the point (a) on the left
and distributed to a radiators. Then again, this
water gets into the pump and thus way is
circulated. But as you can see in this diagram
on the tube 3 is not comprised by any device
which could heat the water. Electricity spent
only for pumping water.

But the device is designed so that the pipe that brings water to the installation is a larger pipe
denoted by numeral 4 on diagram so that the water getting inside of the tube swirls is done with
the aid of a very simple device which was called the cochlea and that if to satisfy some of the
requirements that are associated with the ratio between the diameter and length of the pipe the
viscosity of water and the water pressure that interval where water spirals but if a certain way
connected these values then it turns out that under these conditions the water begins when
passing through the section of pipe where there is this process of vortex spontaneous heating of
the water occurs.
45
That's was 25 years ago when I first encountered this type of systems. It was shown to me in one
of the firms in the Soviet missile plant and production space was approximately two times more
than this room it was then December in Moscow, it was cold, the room was not heated well,
outside was about -25 degrees, I and my colleagues were in coats, we could not undress
anywhere there it was only about +12-13 degrees in the room.
At one of the tables was such the experimental setup. When we approached it I was allowed to
go up and touch with my hand and make sure that the pipes are cold but of course at that
temperature when you touch it just seems that the pipe is made out of ice. Installation was
powered up and began pumping water. On the clock we saw it has been working for 20 minutes
and now I feel around this pipe when touched the pipe again it was hot. After another 20 minutes
device ran in steady mode and work manager who showed it to me told me, that you know, I'm
not suggesting that you now touch this pipe, so you do not have burnt you hand, just look at the
thermometer in the tube. It was 95 degrees; at the same time it is considered by the international
rules that water for heating enough to be 85 degrees.
So the first systems that were designed and manufactured by this company, they do not contain 3
vertical pipes where there was a vortex process and contained only one tube and then there were
3-channel systems and even 8-channel systems. The best results shown that the efficiency was
about 1.7 but other devices have been developed which allowed a much greater efficiency.
Well, I'll show you the system which made by different Moscow company, it is a company
called Heating of the 21st century and their units have efficiency up to 2. I would like to say
that of the Russian plants here this plant has a conversion factor equal to 2 is the best indicator
for standard (mass produced) equipment.
For equipment that is produced experimentally known 3 figures, one of our laboratories has
made laboratory plant which had a conversion factor 8.5, there are some devices that have a
conversion factor of 8-10, and finally near Moscow is a mechanical system which has a
conversion factor which is close to 500, but these devices are made on the a completely different
principle.


Here you can see the combination of variants of this setup with radiators of pipes that heating at
one of the shops premises.
At the same time I would like to note that the installation of the first class that I have shown you
they have been produced for over 15 years and have a fairly good statistics on the performance.
46
At the same time the devices of organization Heating of the 21st century, they are available
only for the past 4-5 years, but they too, over the years have proven themselves very well. Beside
the fact that such units if they have a conversion factor 2, this means that they have a 2 times
decrease the production costs of heat and hot water, and so from this standpoint, they exhibit a
very high efficiency and is not the limit but at the same time it would be desirable say that these
installations are still have number of advantages.
Specifically these settings so varied by vortex processes water in terms of its physicochemical
characteristics.



Here is a demonstration for the South Korean delegation which includes the installation as you
see here...a 4 channel system and at the rear you can see an even more powerful system with 10
channels and a leading developer of the device Mustafa from Tver (in the center).
Here it turned out that liquid that circulates in such a system greatly changes its physicochemical
properties.
The first such water while circulating through the pipes does not allow the accumulation of salts
and by orders reduces corrosion. Practically if taken what that house where there was a standard
heating system and and since then the moment of the house from a standard heating system to
connect and disconnect a local installation of heating then is that the water begins to clean the
system removed precipitate crystals, reduced corrosion and service life of the system increases
sharply.
This water there the direction of rotation is chosen so that when it gets the right torsion field is
beneficial to human health, doctors noticed that if you take and to enable a person to live in such
a room and even better to put him on a chair next to this device it has an overall healing effect
people.
Thirdly benefit becomes so high in biological activity that it is very advantageous to use for
irrigation in greenhouses because the germination of plants and productivities soar. Obtained the
double benefit is saving on heat for greenhouses and plus increase in the yield of agricultural
products. But the most important thing is also that this type of machine is fundamentally
different from the standard type of heating systems. The standard system is a centralized heating
47
system. When there is a district station, where heating by oil or gas heated water through pipes
which there is distributed in areas of the city and distributes the water over a fairly large area.
As a result, the efficiency of the heat power plants rarely exceed 60-70%, or the 30% are losses,
the loss in heating mains reach 70% as a result it turns out and the total amount of heat that is
generated from the burning a gas or fuel oil, actually how many of energy of this heat in the
apartment then? If 30% percent is lost to the CHP and 70% is lost in the heating duct that is that
we are all with you almost 80% of what we pay we pay for the losses and not for the fact that we
delivered heat in our apartments. And here there is a situation where such a facility is placed in
the basement and if the house is small then heated entire house and if it's large then the heated
section of the house. And then heat not lost anywhere but appears in the rooms where it is
needed.
Second important thing. The most difficult problem is the problem of energy costs on the same
gas or oil here favorably solved in that it appears that it require two times less. Another situation
is a situation related to the fact that an enormous amount of money spent by municipal
authorities to maintain the heating mains. Pipes constantly fail, they have to spend big money on
excavation work to be rolling out to put new pipes and if this happens in the winter when it is
cold people remain without any heat and if central heating fails heat is lost not one house and the
whole area here do not have any heating.They are simply not needed with the installation locally.
At the present time completed works that will modernize devices which have efficiency 2 and
the efficiency will be raised to 3 and may be somewhat larger. It is planned that the installation
of this type with a higher efficiency will be released in all regions of Russia and now intensive
negotiations on the organization of production in different countries. Well, in particular, has
already set up a company in the United States that will produce such high-efficiency heating
already have an agreement with South Korea, Poland and several other countries. Here is one of
objectives pursued when I came here in Bulgaria was to familiarize with the experts in your
country in order to understand what are the possibilities of organizing such production here.
But yesterday, your inventors have made gift for me. I want demonstrate to you. Here is a
advertising of thermal plants that I just showed you earlier this Heat of the 21st century
Moscow organization of and that's what gave me yesterday it Bulgarians production plant called
torsion hydro power.




48
Produced by Dimetra deo corporation headed by Cristo Stoyanov. No need to invent anything.
Is already in Bulgaria. Efficiency as I found out 1.5 and there is every opportunity to raise this
ratio and make the work of the Bulgarian version of the installation even more efficiently. But in
this whole saga associated with the generators of this type, extremely fortunate circumstances
when such a high efficiency can be combined with extremely simple technical solutions. And
what's more it is safe. This is not hydrogen energy which can lead to an explosion of the
installation at any time, despite all the assurances that it is very reliable. When mentioning
something about nuclear power plants earlier it was said that thise plants are 100% reliable until
Chernobyl occured.

The vacuum energy

So from the very beginning of this development, if they wanted to work with me, I supported
inventors and manufacturers, nevertheless I had a non-standard point of view on all of these
systems. I have said that from a theoretical point of view the situation is such that we can talk
about comparing different variants of energy sources for some single methodological basis.
We can say that when we burn oil we convert dense matter by the combustion to gasified mater
as a product of combustion and receive some amount of heat. We can say that amount of heat
which is produced is equivalent to the density of the substance that was used initially.
The top line on the graph is oil. If we burn it then its average density of oil is 1g/cm
3
It is the
potential which can not be exceed in the obtaining of the energy from the heat carrier.
Now we are talking and we will let destroy not the structure of the polymers in the oil in the
combustion process but as a result of the destruction of the structure of atomic nuclei


oil 1 g/cm
3

thermo nuclear sources 10
14
g/cm
3

physical vacuum 10
95
g/cm
3


Fusion energy while energy efficiency is an indicator of the density of an atomic nucleus and as
is known from textbooks 10
14
g/cm
3
.
And then there is a situation I talked about that in the first lecture, that the result of the work that
had been held by theorists John Wheeler,it has been shown that the equivalent density of matter
which is equivalent to the density of the physical vacuum is a quantity of 10
95
g/cm
3

Here if today would really existed thermonuclear energy sources, that would be very sad
primarily due to biomedical factors, then in cases if divide such thermonuclear energy sources by
physical vacuum energy source it becomes obvious that receive energy from the physical
vacuum profitable in proportion to the extent of 10
81
.
49
Everyone says where to get energy and it appears that it is here, this medium, physical vacuum
which has all the space filled with. In addition, it was estimated that if at any point of space to
take one cubic centimeter and if this energy fluctuations were able to be converted into
electricity that could be obtained of electricity which would be enough for all consumers of
energy in the Earth territory for 10 years.
So when some inventor comes to me and says, you know, I build a device with an efficiency of
500%. I say, dear, honor and praise you that you were able to make such a highly efficient device
but compare with the 10
95
it is such a drop and it is nothing to seriously talk about here,here you
an example of what we should strive. What did it mean, imagine that there is this device that is
effective is that I can say 3.
And then I would say that you know that's the situation is that what you are doing generally
speaking in perspective I nor as an engineer neither as an ordinary citizen, consumer of heat and
hot water,it does absolutely not interested me. Well, it solves the problem of an important
economic household task but from the point of view of science, well here is something minor
and most importantly is this I say that if it gives COP 3.
Let me take something that I have at the output of the system is 3 times more than the
consumption of electricity. I'll take the output and divide into two parts, one part is 2 of 3 that's
what I'll give to the consumer and that's the 1 I'll convert the 220V 50Hz and put back in this
device. So first time we connect device to wall outlet, allow device to enter steady operation
state and then this circuit is closed and one-third of the energy it produces I spend on maintaining
the operation of the device and 2/3 delivered to customer. What is imposible her - nothing. This
setup should work by itself.
Voice from the audience: it is a Perpetum Mobile
Perpetum Mobile is the setup that works without energy and here I know where does this extra
energy comes from. It is the engine that runs indefinitely but it cant be classified as Perpetum
Mobile. So really attempts to take a thermal heating device and it turned out that unfortunately it
almost impossible to loop it. The best mass produced and experimental laboratory setups which
convert heat into electricity have the conversion ratio is not above 17%, so no COP 2, or 3, or
even 5 and 10 can not allow me to loop the setup.
So I often said to inventors that you know, that's for me as a physicist would be enough if you
would bring the device which can be put on the table and let it work. And no energy delivered to
consumer, it spends all just to maintain its own work, it would be enough for me to say that
from this point begins a new era in the history of mankind.
It appeared that, in principle, nobody makes us build device which produce energy by the
rotation of the water, why not try to rotate the plasma and why not try to rotate the fields.
e.g. electromagnetic fields and immediately receive electricity.
Over the last 40 years, a worldwide about 100 teams who have managed to get over this time
period, a total of well, probably about 500 patents on devices that belong to the class of motor-
engine as its conventionally called when it is proposed to put a large number of magnets on the
rotor and stator and the magnets that would looked forward and try to have a geometry so that's
all of these magnets is their location so that they would carry out the reaction of the attraction
that would offer continuous rotation.
It is not the only way how to organize electromagnetically rotation and autorotation and the
original idea was really simple because no one did not spend energy on magnet itself has
magnetic properties there naturally arranged everything so naturally rolling electrons around its
axis that is both firmly believe my colleagues physics so that the electron interacts with the
physical vacuum, so there is the energy that makes billions of years indefinitely rotate particles
around its axis without reducing the speed of rotation.
This is simply an attempt to simulate this process and so I would like to note that there are a lot
of patents but as yet none of these patents have yet been achieved in the form of commercially
manufactured equipment. Simply because quite often almost 100% of cases the idea seems to be
50
correct and simple and it ran across the technical realization of the difficulties which did not
allow to use it in full-scale production.
Nevertheless there are precedents in this field. There is a group in Switzerland, led by a former
watchmaker Paul Bauman, who reportedly has invented a Testika electrostatic unit that
produces electrical energy to 750KW. There were deviced that have been developed by the
English scientist John Searle who also gave a sufficiently large number of kilowatts of electricity
but they are significantly different in structure and operation to the case of Paul Baumann's
machine.
One of the groups that work in Moscow has created a system that for more than 3 years is in
continuous autorotation and provides 500 watts of power. Now they are doing the installation by
scaling up which will give the opportunity to produce somewhere 40 to 50 KW of electricity.
As a result, there is a very interesting situation.
So that just as today, anyone can go to the store and buy an electric generagot which run on oil or
gas, or on what ever you want and use it. Apparently soon enough judging by how things are
going for each of you to come to the electrical shop to buy a generator there 20 or 30 kilowatts,
depending on how much power you need for your apartment that will be size as a little less than
a small shoe box and you can put in the hallway and wires that is now going to the electricity
counter for which you pay for electricity you can connect these wires to the box and no system
of electricity supply needed for you anymore and no need to pay anyone.
There is also another situation need to be taken into account. Somebody say, well, what we are
going to do with industry plants that require megawatts of power? There is of course, if the all
consuming installations at the factory to feed from one wire is needed there megawatts but such
30-50KW generators can be used on each machine separately and no centralized megawatts
needed. I repeat that we are not discussing some abstract abstract problems that are associated
with a forecast of what may be generally known we're talking about that already established
precedents of the work of such devices. And this means that the situation is inevitable. when
there tomorrow or the day after tomorrow it will be all available for you.
All this in addition to the extremely good results is fraught with not a few difficulties. Please tell
me what power monopoly will be glad that their electricity will not be needed anymore? It's
more likely that they shot all the inventors rather tolerate such a situation number. I do not know
how it is in Bulgarian and in Russian it sounds so good intentions can pave the road to hell.
It is good that we can have almost free energy, so we remove the load from people but the
question if centralized energy sources will not need, this means that it will be necessary to close
all power station, to close all companies which serve the power lines and all those involved in
the utility industry needs, to close all institutions are engaged in designing electric stations, close
all metallurgical plants which produce metal to make electrical wires, we will get huge
unemploimrnt raise.
The question which is better? This is just one example that I gave you Is illustatee that if me
and my colegues another scientists 10 or 15 years ago could do science and say that with regard
to applications is not our business, it is the Council of Ministers is the management's let them
deal with this. Now this is no longer possible, and a responsible attitude to what we do, we had
in our organization to ignore the fact that we are engaged in fundameta science research, in
addition to what, we have to deal with issues related to the creation of new technologies, we still
have to deal with issues of economic and social consequences of the introduction of these new
technologies. In order to pre-empt the situation and their good intentions do not create negative
processes of tension in society and in people's lives.

Inercoid

Today our meeting will be a little shorter, but I still want to spend 10 minutes discussing another
problem. Very often there are situations that are generally characteristic of scientific and
51
technological progress when the operation is performed is research that will make any
conclusions about what can be observed or what can not be oserved. Then made some
experimental work which will either confirm or deny that if it turns out you can establish
experimentally the possibility of observing that even from these experimental results can be
made preliminary conclusions and where and how you can use these results and then take the
case of engineers and designers who develop the equipment that allows you to implement a
particular practical solution on the basis of an approach it's a standard way. But sometimes there
are situations that from the point of view of philosophy called insights, when a person who may
not have any education or engagement in a problem and he has an idea which concerns
absolutely different direction where he is not an expert starts to do something and it turns out that
the device actually works.
School children learn Newton's three laws. Of cause well known three laws of Newton's, law of
inertia, body moves uniformly in a straight line until it will not be affect by some force, the law
states that the force equal mass multiplied by acceleration, and so on And so when it is
characterized by the first law states that the students here are shown standing on the trolley with
wheels and the teacher said that this truck will stand until I do not shove it. That until some
external force appear there is no reason why trolley start moving.
Only a few of the teachers said that this conclusion made based on first newtons law is true only
if trird Newtons law, law of conservation, is true.
It turned out that if we organize the rotation processes that in real laboratory coordinate system
law of conservation does not work. One of the teachers of Tver University held 30 years ago
experiments which were the following.
Truck and a gyro on it, second ttack an second gyro on it. These two gyro proved that if hit is
central conservation law is work, but as long as they hit something under any angle sum of
angular momentum before and after impact are not equal.
Just experimental result as well be since it did not fit into Newton's theory is as usual in such
cases, it is said, well, you know, there where experimental error,it is not correct interpretation or
something like this. But it turned out that in these experiments conducted in the 60s and long
before that in 1934, process engineer Tolchin of machine factory in Perm created a device that
moved due to internal forces.
So how it is possible? Newton's laws are checked and they claim that due to the internal forces
can not move anywhere, need external power, and suddenly there is this kind of device.
I'm going to show you how it looked, it is extremely simple device, it turned out in the
implementationplease. Simple truck here has a simple small electric motor on it


52


which transmits rotation to a vertical axis that allows two masses rotate. Here one mass and here
another mass. The second mass located in relation to first one a little bit higher, they are
separated by a small height so they can rotate in opposite directions.
So it turned out unless this rotation is steady as expected this truck in the absence of an external
force stands at place. No one knows what way have Tolchin got absolutely right idea if done so
that when these masses on the left side intersect in the small angle of the order of 3 degrees, they
are accelerated and then uniformly moving back and when they cross the back they have the
same spatial angle but slowdown and now this truck moves, why it is so?
Here psychologically any scientists has some sort of a system of scientific knowledge and that
the predecessors and himself observed as really existing, and as confirmed in practice and
therefore no reason to doubt it, and so when there is a situation when there is an experiment that
falls outside the system of ideas arises a psychological stres and what to do in this situation,
how to live on? So it turns out that for many it is simpler to say that this is a false science, that
this can not be, and so on, but in reality the situation is very easy to find out at the beginning of
the 20th century that if the velocity approaching the speed of light in this case, the kinematics
and dynamics of movement beyond the domain of Newtonian mechanics and mechanics of
Newtons does not fit to describe such a motion.
You need to use the theory of relativity proved that when it comes to moving the microscopic
object flight electron, proton or gamma ray that is that and in this case the Newtonian mechanics
not to supposed operate with such objects, it only works with macroscopic objects,so we had to
create another mehancs, so called quantum mechancs.
So here's another important point is that as any theory of some global approach mechanics of
Newton it based on the three original factors. First, what is the geometry of the space of events,
what is a carrier of the impact and what is a medium which carry this interactions, what the
principle of relativity. So mechanics within the framework of the Newton ... Newton's mechanics
based on the principle of Galilean relativity, on Euclidean space coordinates as event space and
the concept of the ether as interaction media. All the mechanics of Newton being built with
respect to the Euclidean geometry with its rectangular Cartesian coordinates talked about that as
this event space is not taken into account the angles of rotation it is not designed for the
description of such systems.
53
So academician Shipov had to create a new mechanic, mechanics that takes into account not only
liner movements, but also rotation and it turned out that in this case, yes, when there is non-
uniformity of the uncompensated force of inertia. Moreover in the framework of this theory
turned out for the first time in the history of physics from the physical point of view turned out
that it is possible understand what is reality of Inertia is a manifestation of torsion interactions at
the level of macroscopic bodies.
During the last period of time has already been constructed by Shipov better versions of
inrcoidsHere these same weights that rotates towards each other in a circle but that allow you
to have a system of mechanical moving at such a control algorithm when the system moves
uniformly in a straight line, not with jerking as it is have a place with Tolchins inercoid. So I has
to draw attention to this new mechanic at the first experimental study began to show a
completely unique properties.




here you can see that there is a front spring, so that's made a loop of metal and a little farther here
was set wall which makes it impossible to continue to move this unit. This device moved back, is
turned on, it accelerates and then the system shuts down before reaching the the wall.
You probably saw car crash test, when the car tested on safety. It looks like there are huge
concrete blocks and a radio controled car accelerates and hits the concrete block and bounces so
far as the friction force and the force of the impact it can, and roll back a meter or 5 meters and
stops. It happens always.
At the first exsperments with this system it appeared that this system hitting it bounces once
again moving forward again strikes and so on upto 6 times. Pardon, who of you saw the ball that
you threw against the wall and that is before you get in your hands 6 times would be fought on
the wall? It is not possible to imagine this in a dream but it's happen in reality. Technology
needs new type of propeller. This propeller can be universal, it can be put in the bus, in the car,
in a submarine on the airplane, aircraft with the presence of such a system does not need any jet
steam nether physical propeller. It will move forward due to the internal inertia forces. Moreover
we can orient force of controlled inertia horizontally and vertically.
Here today best result that is obtained in the year before the following figures show the
installation overall weight of 45 kg showed a thrust of 10 kg then when such a facility will have
traction oft 45 kg to 45 kg such a facility, regardless of its weight will hang as hanging and
54
flying saucers off hundreds of tons. Everyone is wondering how they hang there and that's
why because of this!
Well, again, I will allow myself a certain skepticism in regard to this kind of approach.
Inventors come and say, you know that I invented such a setup that's working some box I say
to them sarcastically that's fine that you have done it very well but it all is that energy source that
we just talked give this energy due to the rotation and your installation is moving due to the
rotation go home, sit and think how to organize the rotation so that your device provides energy
of physical vacuum and this energy is, in turn, be used for movement.
What prevents this? Nothing except the need to understan how to implement it. The result is a
possibility to solve the following contentious issue. Usually when my colleagues, scientists say
about the impossibility of the existence of flying saucers that arrive from other star systems.
How they will fly ? to reach the nearest star needed fuel that exceeds the size of our planet Earth.
The question arises why do they require fuel at all when the fuel is everywhere. This problem is
easy to solve.

Technologies in Russia

Finally today I would like to draw your attention to the fact that in the world there is some
gradation of technologies. It's just a technologies, they provide an opportunity to improve the
process parameter by 2-3%, there are new technologies, that make it possible to improve
parameter by 8-10%, technologies that fall into the category of high technologies,they are
technologies that implement the best possible technological efficiency in terms of the scientific
concepts that today's known. Those figuratively when technically squeezed everything to do with
the current theory is possible and finally the well-known theory is the so-called breakthrough
technologies are technologies that are based on new physical principles, and when their
performance is superior to the level of high-tech by times and sometime by orders of times. So I
want to say firstly that today is all that is connected with torsion technologies are all
breakthrough technologies.
For a long time that was called earlier countries Council for Mutual Economic Assistance it all
was the same region which unfortunately always in the context where it was necessary to catch
up with the West. Was a curious episode almost anecdotic in times when Khrushchev became
leader of the Soviet Union. He had the idea that it is necessary as it is certainly something to
normalize relations between the USSR and Japan after the second World War, but it was kind of
awkward as a great power to begin the dialogue on the idea it was to begin with the initiative of
Japan but nevertheless it was decided that form decided to try to start this dialogue processes
referring to the business in Japan and not to the official government circles.
And by the Chamber of Commerce of the USSR sent a letter to the Chamber of Commerce of
Japan, headed by one of the biggest Japanese businessmen with a proposal to send a delegation
to develop relationships. It has been a period when Japan was stormed by automation when
entire shop works automatically, without the participation of people in general, and so when the
visit program was prepared they thought what to show to Japanese to impress them.
Well, one of the few automatic production lines which are then worked in Moscow there was a
line for the production of balls in the factory where they make bearings. I often had to be in the
shop where there was an automatic line which produced extremely depressing feeling. All
automatic lines just as in any manufacture consist of areas and that's with transporters using
some sort of a production moves from one area to another. Here there was about the same
difference to the normal production was the fact that this automated line in each section stood 2-
3 people that had to adjust something all the time.
It was an incredible parody to automatically line, line seems to be automatic but without the
people it did not want to work. Therefore, as was customary in all countries of the socialist
economy, plant director was invited to the party headquarters and was told that on this date at
55
this time about 20 minutes you will have a foreign delegation and unless you have an automatic
line will not work automatically without people while delegation present then you have to
resign and we do not need your services as a director of the plant.
Well, they worked for a long time and really when accompanied by the Chairman of the
Ministerial Council, the delegation came to Moscow headed by the chairman of this industrial
chamber passed through the shop during those 15 minutes, fortunately this automatic line
worked without people. When they were leaving the factory's a situation was that passed from
mouth to mouth as anecdote but it really took place in real life. Acompaning this delegation
Deputy Chairman of Council of Ministers refers to the chairman of Japanese delegation with a
question - what is your impression of the plant we just visited?
That's Japanese billionaire said that when we were flying to you I thought that you behind us for
8-10 years on advanced automation problems but after what I saw, I realized that you are behind
us forever. (Laught in the audience) And I want to say that this phrase was not a sarcastic sense
of humor. In the postwar period somewhere from 60-70 years there was an understanding that if
at some country some industry lag exceeds some certain period of time, it is usually for different
branches of somewhere between 8-12 years, then any efforts to eliminate this gap can not give
any significant results, such a country would be doomed all the time to catch up. The question
arises if we, Russia and Bulgaria, and the rest are doomed never to enter the club owners of high-
tech ?
No it is not. Also Japan has shown that if you focus on breakthrough technologies that country or
countries that are lagging behind this level of high-tech for it by the fact that the transition to
breakthrough technologies it jump ahead and immediately goes ahead.
United States do not have the industry that I told to you yesterday that allows you to increase the
resources for many of the cast parts at times in 3,4,5 times. There is no work in United States on
the propellers of which we have just mentioned, and the list could continue for a long time
So the question is this, we have passed the stage of scientific papers, we made research works,
we passed the stage of experimental design work and is in the process of implementation But
US as they are in this work, even in scientific terms, did not start.
So I want to say that in fact the fate give us the opportunity to dispose of this knowledge so
effectively make a technological jump. Let them catch up with us.


56

Part 4. Torsion communications

I would like to state the fact that unfortunately from my subjective point of view, the current
leadership of Russia holds pro-American policy which leads to that for quite often correctly said
words do not results in any specific high performance actions.
Here are all the things that I told to you for 3 days it all works that were carried out on private
investment in the absence of public funding, and I want to say that even when there was the
potential to get public investment, I had to give them up by the fact that I realized that people
who are now in power in our country they are not carry policy regarding the development of the
country itself but they have legal leverage even if the equity investment of the state in this work
was to 0.001% is from a legal point of view to the completion of this work, it might be a reason
to to say that these works do not belong to us because they were public investment and rob us as
developers of all that we created.
And ultimately it could lead to as it has often happened that this kind of thing then it sold to the
United States or any other country and in Russia itself are not implemented. Therefore, we as
developers have been forced to go the way of the experience of very great difficulties in terms of
investment that naturally stretches several large-scale implementation of these projects, but at the
same time control the appearance of this implementation and have a 100% guarantee that this not
go anywhere outside of Russia than those places that we define ourselves. Life forced into not
only science and technology but also in politics.
We all know that it is hard to imagine the modern world in the absence of the communication
networks that have entangled our civilization, both physically and intellectually. Including
internet, satellite connection and so on. And we understand that, although in the process, there
are many negative aspects, along with the fact that it is possible to use this network as a source
of information as a means of sharing information, but at the same time it can be used for and as a
means of mental and physical effects on humans, you can use it as a situation which could lead
to degradation of the individuality of people and especially children from these computer games,
pornography, drug advertising etc. But nethertheless than the fact that there are positive factors
are obvious, and no one does argue about it.
Well, the current radio communication and the current means of communications and computer
technology is not yet considered near exhaustion of resources for its development and, therefore,
can not be practically but may not be as common as it was earlier but now everything is starting
to appear less frequently posts about some incredible updates in this area and it must be said that
at the same time the existing means of comunications contain many complex problems related to
the fact that radio signals are attenuated in proportion to the square of the distance, of many
types of radio does not work at over horisont distances why there need in satellite transponders
and satellite transponders is quite expensive Well, I'm not talking about that for decades
stating that mankind will develop the resources of the world ocean, including deposits in the
deep part of the question and when those machines that have to work under water how to keep
them highly effective communication by the that the radio through the salt water does not pass,
and so on And it turns out that there are some types of radio waves there are certain kinds of
physical radiations which are not shielded by the natural environment and they do not care that
their way of concrete barrier salt water of the sea or the mountains

57


they pass thru them quite freely and they are not attenuated with distance, it is not necessary to
have megawatt transmitter, signal which is radiated out of this room, it can be received without
weakening with same intensity received in Los Angeles, on the Moon or some other
constellation. Nature has some kinds of radiation, fields with which point of view of the
transmission of information is quite simply aan perfect, these are torsion fields.
Therefore, the first job we did in experimental terms, this was not the metals, with metals it was
step number two and the first were evident are the considerations which I am referring to this
plus I still had his own experience as a physicist for various communication systems including
far space communications.
That it was therefore decided to carry out experiments in spite of the fact that if and transmitters
and recording systems were extremely primitive as radio used during Popov and Marconi times
if it possible to compare them with modern radio transmitting devices. We want show that yes
indeed there is no dependence from distances, so there really no absorption of natural
environments was therefore chosen the following signal trace, on the right side you see the
building it was in the center of Moscow and then where it was passed on the building on the
outskirts of Moscow, and the distance between them was about 22km taking into account hilly
terrain the signal came from 1st floor where there was a transmitter on the second floor of a
building that has stood in the heart of Moscow, this signal should have been able to cope with a
large number of iron-concrete buildings metal armature which is always grounded.
Here I calculated the density of buildings that is consistent with reinforced concrete multylayer
screen width 55 meters. Well, plus the aware of a school course that skyline is 3-5km i.e. if we
distance 22km then do most of the time the signal must pass through a moist saline soils.
A voice from the audience: A ring road
Yes, the building was really about 100 meters from the ring road which runs around Moscow and
so we know that if you do not use repeaters that when the density of buildings like in Sofia and
Moscow you realize the connection of more than 3-4 km can not be achieved bt any megawatt
range power transmitter. Transmitter which stands to the left side, the torsion generator
consumed electricity less than 30mW beam from in order to avoid confusion with the 50 hertz of
mains power supply that creates interference was chosen aperiodic signal rectangular here it
58
presented. For the transmission 5 element telegraph code was used and it was absolutely amazing
that this signal as shown on the second line managed to make almost with no errors.
Here I am as a specialist in long-distance radio communication despite the fact that I saw with
my own eyes it seemed a kind of science fiction and fantasy that I have in my head is
psychologically to today's habit that the signal should be attenuated taken with dosing errors is so
deeply rooted in that, although I see that it is so but I can not get used to it. We made
transmission and took transmitter to the receiving point and again made transmissions and we
saw same signal strength, those signal is not attenuated by the long distance.
I have to say that as a specialist in communication systems and communication it was clear that
what was done is a kind of demonstration of potential but that for the technical solutions that
were known at that time that is no reason to talk about the creation of what that specific systems
that can be implemented, I understand that one needs just a long way and despite the fact that the
work in this area ... here this experiment held in April 1986 here for periods from april 1986 to
the current 2006 for 20 years for this period of time on this work has not been any sort of
investment nevertheless based on a certain enthusiasm and small money which arrived from
other projects we managed to carry out work that all this was not on hold.
I want to say that only in the spring of this year, the situation is came to point when we can
return to these experiments, and to mention the technical solutions that can be implemented as a
generation torsion communications equipment in the first stage at the same time with this it
should be noted that in principle many times discussed are related to the fact that at least repeat
such experiments may well be even more stringent conditions. Well incidentally in the later
period in one of the series of experiments used a very efficient method for receiving signals
torsion binary sending the modulated high frequency reception



but the color characteristic frequency as a function of time and now we expect that probably
already in November and December of this year will be new sessions transmitting information
but on a more modern equipment I would like to note that in this situation is probably the most
difficult problem that occurs there was a problem about which we spoke to you yesterday when
59
you said that the frequency allocation of sign signal does not work that signals are distributed
throughout the common space as a non-local surroundings and behold the only option that will
give the opportunity to realize a distant effect is the use of spin matrices frequency spin
resonance that's the problem it found its resolution only in the last year and a half and it also
opens up new possibilities for experiments.
In one of a series of works was supposed to install the transmitter on one of the spacecrafts
which was supposed to travel to Mars in order to compare all over the rocket apath from Earth
to Mars time of arrival of the radio signal from the telemetry and the torsion signal to record the
fact that the possibility of superluminal information transfer. But unfortunately in 1996 it was
supposed to send two spacecrafts to Mars, on schedule, we were unable to deliver device for the
first launch. An agreement was signed with the organization that was responsible for the building
and launch of these device spacecrafts it was expected that we will put our equipment on a
second spacecraft that was supposed to start half a year later. The situation has developed in such
a way that because of defects in automation has occurred error in Earth rocket trajectory and in
fact the experiment was failed. And due to the fact what hapened failure with the launch of the
first spacecraft in 1996 second launcj for an indefinite period was delayed and it did not take
place until today. So this is why this experiment has not been performed.
But I want to reiterate that this is also the technology that does not have analogues in the world
and I believe that it will be another very important component. The situation is such that the so I
said that this signal is spread over the entire volume of the space of the universe as a result if you
do not have the spin structure of the matrix subscriber you this signal not possble to intercept but
you can not even define the very fact that a signal is transmitted to somebody or not.
And so from this point of view is provided by almost 100% confindential communication is also
a very important factor in the fact that for competition of commercial information are associated
with the related income, associated with the promotion of finance,it is very important for private
firms and they spent a lot of money on data protection. When you need it operational, when it
required information to pass through some channels, and then there is always the threat that
potentially have these messages will be intercepted and decoded the firm may suffer losses,
which then here such interception it is in principle impossible.

Cold cracking of oil

One problem that has been solved by one of our organizations for several last years was a very
interesting problem here now when carried refining what is called the cracking of crude oil when
the oil is separated into light and heavy fractions are obtained by a whole series of different
gasolines obtained oil and heavier residues and here there is the following situation here is
shown a relatively small area refinery here I'll show you now this one here a piece of this site


60


This is the pipe through which oil flows into cracking tower



where there is a separation and there in the gap of the tube inserted a very simple technical
device which allows for a pre-process specially pre-calculated turbulence. This device as you can
see, it does not contain a power supply, it is passive but there is a very interesting detail if the oil
before you get to cracking on distillation passes through this device is amount of light fractions
depending on the quality of primary oil may increase from 30 to 90%, more than that, you can
pass black oil through such system ang get gasoline.
Here this process is called cold cracking to date several groups in Russia and Ukraine developed
about ten different options of cold cracking but if that's not counting all the others require energy
costs sufficiently high to 50-100KW electricity and this without spending anything so I would
like to draw attention to the fact that this is also a very important factor which suggests that
potentially can on the one hand use the technology that we talked about at the beginning and
reduce the consumption of combustible materials such as heating and hot water on the other hand
increase the outcome of light fractions such as gasoline from oil.
61
Another interesting point. The first device on the oil refining somewhat different method was
proposed by the inventor of the city of Sverdlovsk in the Urals now this city is named as
Ekaterinburg as it was called before the revolution, was a pensioner who has worked during the
early 90s when the economic situation was most heavy for pensioners sometimes many months
up to year they did not get a pension and he invents a very simple device that allows you to break
down here these long polymers of oil and getting lighter fractions. One day the phone rings in his
apartment and the person who called himself a representative of American company that
operates in San Francisco.
As it turns out is a former Soviet citizen who graduated from Hartkovsky Aviation Institute and
worked as an engineer technologist in the aviation enterprise Antonov in Ukraine but who in the
first wave of emigration decided to go to Israel, but to the Israel not drehal, he got to Italy and
then to the United States, and he as engineer eventually managed to get work... he was used as a
specialist broker who knows the Soviet Union and that as it may conduct a mediation work.
As a result of its conversation with the inventor, he said, you know this is our company is
interested in new technologies we buy but you know that the need for the development of the
high cost that's why we understanding of your position are willing to pay 50 thousand dollars for
you to sell us a patent and all rights on your invention.
Poor pensioner who even small pension could not get at the time he convert dollars for rubles
how much it is, and it seemed to him that a fantastically large sum, he agreed to sign all
documents and since that period of time it was difficult take out any hardware, they just took his
drawings of stuffed briefcase and left to US. As it turned out they had built this device and for
over half a year they carried out tests.
They rented something like an indoor garage space that's like this room is quite large standing in
the middle of the hall, this device which was no larger than this podium if put it on its side and
then stood next to it I was shown two metal barrels, means from the nearest refinery they brought
a barrel of oil and lowered the hose from this device into it, oil sucks and pumped through this
device and the second hose they lowered into the empty barrel of oil fell back comes through this
device.
And this second barrel transported to the plant, and there carried out distillation, and there looked
out of it as possible to get more petrol than can be obtained from the primary oil and is valid for
six months, they have been doing this procedure almost every day that is stable at 60% of this
increase occurs. It is 60% not 6%!
One day, they found that there is instead of 60 they got 30, the next day 20 and during the week,
it fell to 0 and so they turned to the people which search Russia for them such inventors who
could be selling something....
How to be in this situation, like six months worked normally impossible to doubt it, and
suddenly it was gone, and that's how it is to understand the people to whom they are addressed
they were representatives of one of the ministries that are very well aware of our work, they
come to me and say you know that's because process is based on the rotation and torsion fields
you do then maybe you can help to understand why it is have stopped working.
How can I not having any drawings of the device without knowing its device how I can make
any firm conclusions. They propose to pay me, so I to go there. Well it turned out that in other
cases, according to our torsion technologies, I had to be there in a month and a half, so we then
decided to combine my visit. They took me to a room where there was this device, they are in
my presence completely disassembled the device and laid it out in front of me. Well I managed
to understand what was there reason these falls on these results, I explained the situation to them,
this was very easy to fix.
And after some time I again met with them, I say, well, how things going? and they say we have
this device resold. They resold the device. It's interesting to note that the item they bought for
$50 thousnad and they sold the technology to the corporation which is the bigest gasoline
producer in US for $100 million and the most interesting that it has been over 15 years since that
time the corporation judging around and is not going to implement this technology at despite the
62
fact that it is a very highly effective and profitable business. Start produce more gasoline on this
technology it means to enter into conflict with the market.
Hide the fact that they say here to the number of produce here how much gasoline per day, and
suddenly it has increased in two times, it is impossible to statistics immediately reveals,
competitors will not allow this. Therefore, from this point of view, the situation is such that in 25
years of our work has been many times cases when I was approached by representatives and
medium and large businesses of West of the United States in the 100% from 100% of the interest
is then when saud that we are ready for the very big money to acquire and technology and the
right for technology with the result that I tell them that we do not sell the technology not at any
price, it is not profitable. License yes, please, but not technology and even more rights for
technology.

Purification technologies

Another area of application is very erudite and highly educated specialist which name is
Vershinin Nikolai Petrovich, who was a professor of the Institute of Alloys in Moscow is a very
serious and solid ograniztion acquainted with our work, he invented a device that from the point
of view of the principles of work proved versatile solutions for variety of applications
purification of various media so I'll show you one of these units on the experimental stand here
actually contaminated comes into this blue volume




and then fed to a separator that's what happens inside that part of the plant, there is outside the
coil through which an electric current goes, which creates a rotating magneticfield, inside it
63
made quite a lot of that's some metal rods with a pointed it as if the cloves are small diameter 2-3
cm long, but made from good steel and it was then when the fluid flows with precipitation is as a
result of work rotation in the magnetic field of the liquid with these rods are separated solids and
water, as a result there has on the one side the method of withdrawal of pollution and an other
output is almost pure spring water.
So today it has developed more than 50 variants of this type of separator that ... treatment
facilities, some of which are already tested in a production environment, and which proved to be
very effective particularly well here this option set, they were on our initiative, presented at the
last exhibition Expo which was held in Yokohama in Japan and which was evidenced by a lot of
attention, they are economical and very effective and they decide not only the problem of
wastewater treatment of industrial and domestic but also at the same time they have been very
effective for solving agricultural problems.
Wwhen there is a farm where cows held, very often manure it is carried out in to environment as
a result of what it all goes into rivers or streams and lakes due to nitrogen compounds poisoning
occurs in these reservoirs. As a result of such treatment facilities at the output appears a clean
water and dry briquettes that can be used for fertilizers or means for burning. Those such
incredible and unexpected approaches there are a large number industries where the
effectiveness of such treatment plants is very high, well in this particular plant for the production
of paper where there is a large amount of contaminated water that interfere with the ecology...

Final words

I would like to finish today by some general remark here concerning which there are some
scientific knowledge which is considered among scientists as self-evident and usually not
discussed in the textbooks or lectures for students well, that's one of those truths is the following
proposition that if an external electromagnetic field generated by a charge then the
electromagnetic field acting on the various substances that only what it can do is change their
charge state and all that we are seeing is a consequence of these changes the charge states here,
this approach and the principle is methodologically shared spin field and if we are talking about
what a torsion field is field generated by spin it means that the torsion field acting on any objects
the only thing that can make it change their spin states.
And then the question is already what the consequences can be observed as a result of this
change in the spin state. In one case, it may change what that physical properties, like magnetic
susceptibility, Curie temperature, in the other case it can lead to mechanical effects like in this
Tolchins inercoid or Shipovs inercoid etc. So I have said that, unfortunately, the class of
torsion fields which proved in practice from a technical point of view, in this or that equipment
at a given time is electrotorsion field constant of these interactions, it was not much but still
smaller than the electromagnetic coupling constant so if the system is in terms of
electromagnetic connections in the steady state then in this case expect any changes in state of
this object under the action of an external torsion field can be difficult or even impossible.
So you have to keep in mind the theory of non-equilibrium systems of Prigogine and others and
to take any additional measures to translate the system into a nonequilibrium state and make it
mobile and susceptible to the action of an external torsion field you can pay attention to the
example of working with metal is when I'll told about them and even the example that inecoid
even here without this dis-equilibrium associated with acceleration and deceleration during
rotation of the weights also shows no torsional effects but at the same time I would like to say
that this does not negate the other different approach when we talk about what but that's due to
the fact that the system is stable with an electromagnetic point of view, it torsion field may not
act but we can fairly high degree of confidence to say that if we take and make torsion radiation
is intense enough then just purely due to increased exposure to this object, we can figuratively
overcome this slight difference in coupling constants.
64
One such case accidentally was discovered in US by our colleagues when they tried to look at
the situation that has been known to say well very widely used so-called microwave hardening.
When taken some sort of solid molded part and subjected to powerful microwave radiation.
Radiation is absorbed by surface layer inside it screening of microwave radiation hapen by
charges of crystal lattice of the metal all heat stands on the surface, and then the result of the
rapid cooling occurs consolidation surface of the part. For some reason, no one had not tried
following extremtaly simple idea that microwave radiation is composed of two types of
superposition of the fields E and H, so they decided to see if a effect of the microwave radiation
separately only electric component E and it effect or magnetic component H and it effect.These
works were conducted under guidence of director of the University of Pennsylvania laboratory of
materials in the United States, and he showed me the results when I beed there as a guest.
So if for example when dealing with a purely electric component they did not observe no
difference if it acted normal microwave radiation, but when they have separated the magnetic
component of the field they found out... they were using standard laboratory microwave
generator which runs at 2.45GHz is the standard frequency for the microwave oven to heat up
food but they worked with intensities up to 6 KW, conventional oven usually does not exceed 1
KW in the general part of this is usually at the level of 700800W and they were out of the
waveguide of the microwave oscillator ended ended with the horn and here they took a titanium
alloy which had that's almost the size of 8cm diameter and 10cm height of cut a small discs made
of thin section and take a look what is the structure of the lattice and grain structure in order to
make sure that it corresponds to



observed usual for this type of alloy and then they put it under this horn and kept for 30min and
then they were taken out to cut a large number of thin discs and carried the research and found
that 100% of the 100% solid metal moved to the amorphous form, all connection of the crystal
lattice were destroyed.
65
So head of these works, Rustum Roy, told to me that I as an expert in solid-state physics
considered as you understand all the possible options and so to say the emergence and
occurrence of acoustic fields, ultrasonic and magnetic and electric fields, but none of these
options, it is clear that such an effect can not give it even though a lot of power, and the more it
was not clear how it got into the inside and not limited to the outer surface of me just as physics
had nothing to do as to suggest that spins is played role here. He did not know anything about
torsion fields but the guess was correct. Only that he could write it have reason to suspect that
this is due to the effects of the spin. So I want to say that if he came out of a deep understanding
of the theory of spin systems, it would then have taken another step not only that he would be
singled out of the microwave signal to the magnetic component of it would be allocated to the
magnetic component of the torsion field, I also showed you that anyone even has a permanent
magnet and torsion component then likely the result he could get not with 6KW but with 6W.
This is another example of what results can be obtained by chance and what results can be
obtained based on the strictly scientific knowledge. Today we will finish with this.
Tomorrow we will talk about medical and biological problems associated with torsion effects.
Thanks for your attention.


66
Addendum A. Torsion generators pictures



= electro torsion generator
= generators of standard signals
= induction heater
= metal samples


67


construction of generator according to patent
a) cavity where created torsion signal
) mixer
) modulator with informational matrix in the center
) intensity regulator with polarization inside
) emitting antenna (not shown)

68


= cavity where created torsion signal
= outputs of electro torsion signal
= mixers of electro torsion signal
= polarisators




69


= electro torsion generator
= generators of standard signals
= emitting antenna


70


Schematic of torsion generator
1 grounded metallic cone
2 generator
3 output LC tank
4 ferromagnetic
5 cone which determine field shape

71


References

1. Dirichlet function
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nowhere_continuous_function

2. Tolchin presents his inercoid
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pcEdpb-rIX4
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wVHg4BVGUhM

3. Shipovs inercoid
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3lpPrniPtxs
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6vmP11Umow0


Gravity assisted battery

Theory of operation

Under gravity influence concentration of salt in water depends on height same as air pressure
depends on height. If we insert two electrodes in the tube, one near top and one near bottom, due
to difference in ions concentration some EMF appear between electrodes and if we close circuit
there will be some electric current flow. In such buttery plus will be on top terminal and minus
on bottom terminal. If you turn it upside-down polarity will change. I think if we periodically
turn such battery upside-down, polarity will change periodically and we can control (reverse)
processes on electrodes and avoid chemical destruction. So, theoretically, such battery can have
quite long life time.


Construction:

1 plastic tube filled with salt water
2,3 plates e.g. copper

I use plastic tube 1m and electrodes
made from copper foil.

Fill battery with tap water and table salt
(one big spoon per 0,25l)
Seal carefuly with silicon sealant.
Place vertically and wait at least several
hours.






pic. my battery under construction



References:
1. The Barometric Formula
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/kinetic/barfor.html

2. First (classical) principle of OU
http://vasik041.files.wordpress.com/2014/02/fe_principles.pdf (page 4)

3. FE R&D group
http://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/ferd041/info






Short illustrated list of FE links



Preface .............................................................................................................................................2
Nikola Tesla.....................................................................................................................................3
Hermann Plauson.............................................................................................................................5
Alfred M. Hubbard ..........................................................................................................................6
Lester Hendershot............................................................................................................................7
Thomas Henry Moray......................................................................................................................8
Hans Coler .......................................................................................................................................9
John Searl ......................................................................................................................................10
Edvin Vincent Gray.......................................................................................................................11
John W. Ecklin ..............................................................................................................................12
Bruce DePalma..............................................................................................................................13
Paul Baumann................................................................................................................................14
Stefan Marinov ..............................................................................................................................15
Floyd Sweet ...................................................................................................................................17
Eugeni Mallove .............................................................................................................................18
Robert Adams pulsed motor-generator ......................................................................................19
Bill Muller .....................................................................................................................................20
Stiven Mark ...................................................................................................................................21
Howard Johnson ............................................................................................................................22
Viktor Schauberger........................................................................................................................24
Richard Clem.................................................................................................................................26
Stanley Meyer................................................................................................................................27
Veljko Milkovic.............................................................................................................................28





Preface

Each generation imagines itself to be more
intelligent than the one that went before it,
and wiser than the one that comes after it.



He who controls the past controls the future.
He who controls the present controls the past.

George Orwell, 1984



This document by no means supposed to provide complete list of free energy related resources.
However it could be a starting point for beginner and perhaps can help navigate in a sea of
informational junk.



Nikola Tesla
10 July 1856 7 January 1943

Todays scientists have substituted mathematics for experiments, and they wander off through
equation after equation, and eventually build a structure which has no relation to reality.


All people everywhere should have free energy sources. Electric Power is everywhere present
in unlimited quantities and can drive the worlds machinery without the need for coal, oil, or
gas.





Links:
AC power system, motors http://www.teslasociety.com/ac.htm
Magnifying Transmitter http://www.rexresearch.com/teslamt/tmagxmtr.htm
Tesla Tower in Shoreham Long Island http://www.teslasociety.com/teslatower.htm
Disc Turbine/Pump http://www.rexresearch.com/teslatur/teslatur.htm
Notes on unipolar dynamo http://www.andrijar.com/teslahom/
The first hydro-electric power plant http://www.teslasociety.com/exhibition.htm
The Tesla Space Drive http://fuel-efficient-vehicles.org/energy-news/?page_id=1284
Electric car http://www.teslasociety.ch/info/doc/Teslacar.pdf
Wireless power transfer http://www.tfcbooks.com/tesla/1891-05-20.htm
Radio http://www.teslasociety.com/radio.htm

Healing with electricity http://teslapress.com/electrotherapy.html
(see also Multi Wave Oscillator, Lakhovski http://educate-yourself.org/be/lakhovskyindex.shtml)
Remote control http://www.pbs.org/tesla/ins/lab_remotec.html
Death Ray http://www.reformation.org/tesla-and-tunguska.html
Philadelphia Experiment www.phils.com.au/philadelphia.htm
Time travel http://uforeview.tripod.com/teslatime/teslatimetravel.html
Tesla rejected Nobel prize http://www.teslasociety.com/biography.htm
Was Tesla murdered? http://loveforlife.com.au/content/10/03/01/nikola-tesla-deathbed-
confessions-photos-support-claims-george-h-scherff-jr-was-41s



Just an example how they treat Nicola
In 1921, Albert Einstein, the worlds greatest scientist, while traveling in the US, was invited
to visit the RCA Transoceanic Station in New Brunswick, NJ. There, he met and was
photographed with two great scientist/inventors; the brilliant hunchbacked dwarf, Charles
Steinmetz, and the controversial Transylvanian, Nicola Tesla. Steinmetz was General Electric
Companys chief scientist. Tesla, inventor and early proponent of AC electrical power, was a
lifelong rival of Marconi and RCA, and of Thomas Edison, founder of GE.
Subsequent photos of this meeting, located in the GE Archives and made available by UPI,
curiously (and with poor retouching) show only Einstein and Steinmetz. The original photo of all
three personalities (accompanied by another unidentified individual) is rare and difficult to find.

Hermann Plauson
Hermann Plauson was an Estonian engineer and inventor. Plauson investigated the production of
energy and power via atmospheric electricity.
Plauson was the director of the Fischer-Tropsch "Otto Traun Research Laboratories" in
Hamburg, Germany during the Weimar Republic of the 1920s. He built on Nikola Tesla's idea
for connecting machinery to the "wheelwork of nature". Plauson's US Patent # 1,540,998
describes methods to convert alternating radiant static electricity into rectified continuous current
pulses. He developed the Plauson's converter, an electrostatic generator. In 1920, Plauson
published a book titled "Production and Utilization of the Atmospheric Electricity" (Gr.,
Gewinnung und Verwertung der Atmospharischen Elektrizitat). A copy of this book is in the
British Library.


Links:
http://www.rexresearch.com/plauson/plauson.htm
http://www.nuenergy.org/power-from-the-air/

Alfred M. Hubbard

1901-1982


The Post-Intelligencer (Seattle WA), Thursday, July 29, 1920
Hubbard Coil Runs Boat On Portage Bay Ten Knots An Hour; Auto Test Next


Links:
http://www.rexresearch.com/hubbard/hubbard.htm

Lester Hendershot




Lester was an inventor and in his many attempts at producing practical items, he had a moderate
success a few times with electronic toys, and had sold some of his ideas to small manufacturers.
His biggest idea, however, was so revolutionary that it embarrassed the nation's top scientists be-
cause they couldn't explain it, and if it could be perfected, it would possibly eliminate the need
for public electric utilities in many instances, and it would completely change most of our
present concepts of motivation.



Links:
http://www.rexresearch.com/hendershot2/hendershot.htm

Thomas Henry Moray





Henry Moray developed over a thirty year period an energy device he called Radiant Energy,
R.E., which delivered up to fifty thousand watts of power or enough to light a dozen homes at
one time, in a unit not weighing fifty pounds.

Links:
http://www.rexresearch.com/moray/moray.htm
http://www.thmoray.org/

Hans Coler



Coler was questioned first about the history of his invnetions, when the details above were given.
He was then questioned about the theory of the devices, but he was unable to give any coherent
suggestions as to the mechanism. He sated that his researches (apparently conducted with crude
apparatus) into the nature of magnetism had lead him to conclude that ferro-magnetism was an
oscillating phenomenon, of frequency about 180 kilohertz. This oscillation took place in the
magnetic circuit of the apparatus, and induced in the electrical circuit oscillations the frequency
which of course depended on the values of the components used. These two phenomena
interacted, and gradually built up the tension. As the mechanism was not understood the proper
arrangement could not be worked out, but had to be arrived at by experiment, and the apparatus
had to be brought into adjustment by similar trial and error methods. Coler stated that the
strength of the magnets did not decrease during the use of the apparatus; and suggested that he
was tapping a new sort of energy hitherto unknown "Raumenergie" (Space-energy). Coler gave a
resume of the work done by Dr. Frohlich for the O.K.W., and produced a copy of Frohlichs
report, written jointly with himself (translation reproduced in Appendix IV) and a report of his
own (part of which is given in Appendix V).
Coler was asked if he would consent to build models of these devices if material was made
available. He agreed that he could do this, and stated that it would take one week to construct a
"Magnetstromapparat", and a month to construct a "Stromzeuger". Accordingly we supplied the
magnets, condensers and copper wire needed for the former, and Coler proceeded to build an
apparatus as discussed in Section 3. A list of materials required for the "Stromzeuger" was drawn
up by Coler.



Links:
http://www.rexresearch.com/coler/colerb.htm

John Searl



The Searl Effect Generator (SEG) is a self-contained, electrical power generator, able to produce
clean and sustainable energy. It is a magnetic prime mover that operates without friction and can
supply electrical power to suit both home and industry.

The core technology behind the SEG is referred to as the "Searl Effect" which enables natural
ambient sources of energy to be converted into useful electrical power.

The SEG is based on magnetic fields that generates a continual motion of magnetized rollers
around magnetized rings that in turn produces electrical currents and under certain conditions, a
unique gravitomagnetic force is also generated.

Links:
http://searlsolution.com/media.html
http://www.rexresearch.com/roschin/roschin.htm

Edvin Vincent Gray

1925 1989



The National Tattler (1 July, 1973, page 5)

"Man Creates Engine That Consumes No Fuel; Invention Could Change History By 1984"
A California inventor has found a way to create limitless electric power without using up fuel ---
potentially the greatest discovery in the history of mankind. Edwin Gray Sr., 48, has fashioned
working devices that could: Power every auto, train, truck, boat and plane that moves in this
land --- perpetually.



Links:
http://www.rexresearch.com/evgray/1gray.htm


John W. Ecklin




The Brown-Ecklin Generator

Brown [1] modified the design of the mechanical perpetuum mobile proposal from Ecklin (5) see
fig. 1, to make it useful for electric power generation. Inspired by Kromrey's patent [6] he used a
closed magnetic circuit. Contrary to Kromrey(see part 3 this article, fig.13) he used a stationary
coil as energy output source. The test result of this generator build showed overunity efficiency.
Because the literature source is not easy available we reproduce here the contents of his report as
exact as possible and necessary.


Links:
http://www.rexresearch.com/ecklin/ecklin.htm
http://www.overunity-theory.de/ecklin/ecklin1.htm


Bruce DePalma

1935-1997



Bruce Eldridge De Palma, son of noted orthopedic surgeon Anthony DePalma and elder brother
of film director Brian De Palma, was a well known figure in the Free energy suppression
community. He claimed that his N-machine Homopolar generator, a device based on the Faraday
disc, could produce five times the energy required to run it. According to mainstream physics, no
such device is physically possible.

De Palma studied electrical engineering at Harvard (1958) and taught physics at MIT for 15
years, working under Harold Eugene Edgerton. He was also employed by Edwin H. Land of
Polaroid fame.

Bruce De Palma's development of the N-machine concept in 1977, among his other anomalous
devices (at least one of which, De Palma claimed, displayed anti-gravity characteristics) and the
claims surrounding them, set him on a collision course with his more mainstream peers. His
claims of 'free energy' were vigorously refuted over the course of twenty years, by conventional
scientists and some members of the alternative energy community alike.


Links:
http://www.rexresearch.com/depalma3/depalma3.htm

Paul Baumann



pic. 3 KW / 220 V DC Testatika Generator



Links:
http://www.rexresearch.com/testatik/testart.htm


Stefan Marinov




Motionless-converters are ZPE-systems without mechanical parts in motion. The only items in
motion within such converters are the fields of interaction (electric and/or magnetic fields) which
propagate with a finite speed (perhaps the speed of light). Such systems should be
understandable, with the Theory of the finite speed of propagation of the interacting fields
most easily, because we do not have to follow any trajectories of any mechanical parts, but we
only have to follow the trajectories of the interacting fields. This makes computations most easy.
Furthermore, motionless-converters have many practical advantages, such as very low abrasion
and very low deterioration, very good durability and very low noise (in the ideal case no noise at
all) and no mechanical vibrations, disturbing other technical engines being supplied with power.
Examples for such devices (reported in literature) can for instance be some very special
transformers, driven by electrical signals of very short pulses (low pulse-pause-relation), which
can produce more electrical power at the secondary coil, in comparison with the power being
supplied at the primary coil for their operation. An example therefore is the Marinov-converter,
invented by Prof. Dr. Stefan Marinov at the University of Sofia (Bulgaria). The input-power can
be taken from an accumulator, being modulated by an electronic circuit and then fed into the
primary coil in such a way, that the secondary coil gives more power-output then the
accumulator has to deliver. Under good adjustment of the system parameters, the converter can
run as a self-running transformer, giving some additional power to any consumer.
Unfortunately, Prof. Marinov did not write a good documentation, but he committed suicide, so
that we do not have a serious amount of useful information in literature today. Prof. Marinov
presented his work to a colleague at the University of Vienna. From there we have a very small
hand sketch, from which a copy is printed in figure 7 [Hor 10].
The primary coil is supported with bipolar short-pulsed signals, producing bipolar short-pulses of
a magnetic field, magnetizing a Bariumferrit magnet within the yoke back and forth. A very thin
air-gap within the yoke is not yet completely understood. The fact, that Bariumferrit can display
an over-unity effect when being magnetized back and forth, is known from the patent
DE3501076A1 from 17.07.1986 (Title: Energiewandler mit Magnetkernzwischenspeicher) by
Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Volkrodt, where the magnetic pulses, driving the magnetization back and
forth, have to be extremely short (few Nanoseconds).
In meantime, the engineer Herbert Schnelzer was reported to have a successful reproduction of
the setup, and several oral reports have been given, confirming that his ZPE-device was
converting ZPE energy, even under control of the official TV in Munich but there is no
documentation available any further, because Mr. Schnelzer commited sucide, and his widow
says, she does not have any documents any further. So the statements are not confirmed today
anymore.
Clear it, that the pulses driving the Marinov-converter must be extremely short, in order to get a
self-running transformer. And also clear is, that the permanent magnet inside the middle of the
yoke must have a very small hysteresis loop in order to make the losses of as small as possible.


Links:
http://www.ostfalia.de/export/sites/default/de/pws/turtur/NeuesVerzeichnis/Forschungplan_-
_englisch.pdf

Floyd Sweet



Floyd Sweet's VTA Unit
by Walt Rosenthal (Excerpted from: Space Energy Newsletter IV (1) March 13, 1993 ~ PO Box
11422, Clearwater, FL 34616)
The Vacuum Triode Amplifier (VTA) invented by Floyd Sweet consists of two ferrite magnets
and two to four coreless wire coils. It is self-powered in the preferred configuration and produces
in excess of one KW of 120 VRMS 60 HZ power in the form of energy that resembles
electricity. This energy is referred to as negative energy. The VTA development history, its anti-
gravity characteristics, negative energy properties, and some of the personalities involved are
discussed.


Links:
http://www.rexresearch.com/sweet/1nothing.htm

Eugeni Mallove

June 9, 1947 - May 14, 2004





Infinite Energy and New Energy Foundation founder Dr. Eugene Mallove was murdered on May
14, 2004 (just a day before presentation of FE device). His death has left a tremendous void in
not only the daily lives of those who loved him, but also within the new energy field. Gene was a
long-time advocate for new energy science and technology and perhaps the most well-known
spokesperson for the field

Links:
http://www.infinite-energy.com/whoarewe/gene.html
http://infinite-energy.com/

Robert Adams pulsed motor-generator

1920-2006



Invented in the period 1967-1969 by Mr Robert Adams of New Zealand, for a variety of reasons
the technology did not win immediate acceptance, not least of which was that the New Zealand
government and the Lucas corporation, for various reasons, allegedly directly suppressed it,
followed by a typically botched and incompetent CIA assassination attempt. That this direct
suppression could happen during a period of global economic crisis triggered by the 1970s oil
shock, is simply astonishing, and with hindsight, outright scandalous. As for the academics, they
ignored it, and simply told Mr Adams free energy was impossible and 'against all the laws of
physics'. Academics like to put theory before experiment - it is their way. Frustrated in 1992 Mr
Adams published his technology in Nexus Magazine, putting for the very first time, a working
free energy device into the public domain. However, sadly, the continued lack of interest in free
energy solutions from the general public, government, big business, scientific community, and
environmental organizations alike, means the motor has still not been commercialized.


Links:
http://www.rexresearch.com/adamotor/adamotor.htm
Bill Muller

1931-2004


Advantages Of The Muller Motor/Generator

The Muller Dynamo offers levels of performance
unattainable with conventional generators through greater
energy efficiency, improved operational flexibility,
reduced size and weight, and lower life-cycle cost. To
summarize, the Muller Motor/Generator offers the
following advantages over conventional generators:

SIMPLE, LOSSLESS CONSTRUCTION
The Muller Motor/Generator utilizes rare earth type
permanent magnets on the rotor.
No coils are used on the rotor.


NO BRUSHES
Unlike conventional generators there are no brushes to wear out. Using permanent magnets on
the rotor, there is no need to input energy to the rotor coils. Brushes that input the power to the
rotor and heat losses of core material are totally eliminated.

MUCH LESS COPPER
Fewer windings in the coils. The super magnets create the current, not the wire windings, which
eliminates some resistance losses.

MUCH LIGHTER WEIGHT
The overall size of the 10 hp prototype generator is approximately 100 cm X 100 cm with a
width of approximately 18 cm and a weight of 70 kg.

OPERATES COLD
This makes possible a much greater electrical output, inch by inch, pound per pound.

INEXPENSIVE TO MANUFACTURE
By using Mullers Patented Amorphous Polycrystalline Ferrite compound, expensive
components made from metglass or specially laminated steels can be eliminated. The entire
structure of the motor can be made of extruded components of plastic/ferrite.

Links:
http://www.mullerpower.com/index.php

Stiven Mark



Toroidal Power Unit


Links:
http://www.thewaterengine.com/pdf/stevenmarktpu.pdf
Howard Johnson
1919-2008

"We don't grant patents on perpetual motion machines," said the examiners at the U.S. Patent
Office. "It won't work because it violates the law of Conservation of Energy," said one physicist
after another. But because, inventor Howard Johnson is not the sort of man to be intimidated by
such seemingly authoritative pronouncements, he now owns U.S. Patent No. 4,151,431 which
describes how it is possible to generate motive power, as in a motor, using only the energy
contained in the atoms of permanent magnets. That's right. Johnson has discovered how to build
motors that run without an input of electricity or any other kind of external energy!
The monumental nature of the invention is obvious, especially in a world facing an alarming,
escalating energy shortage. Yet inventor Johnson is not rushing to peddle his creation as the end-
all solution to world- wide energy problems. He has more important work to do. First, there's the
need to refine his laboratory prototypes into workable practical devices -in particular a 5,000-
watt electric power generator already in the building. His second and perhaps more difficult
major challenge: persuade a host of skeptics that his ideas are indeed practical.

Links:
http://www.rexresearch.com/johnson/1johnson.htm
Viktor Schauberger

1885-1958



Viktor Schauberger (1885-1958) made an extraordinary contribution to knowledge of the natural
world.

He intuited what we now recognise as the quantum or subtle energy effects of water. His
understanding was built up from shamanic and experiential observation of Nature in the untamed
Alpine wilderness. His motto: "Observe and Copy Nature".

He was critical of textbook theory and the arrogance and lack of imagination of 'experts' and
refused to go to college, believing that he would lose his intuitive gifts.

Schauberger was also gifted with engineering skills which are apparent in his environment-
friendly technology and implosive energy devices designed to release people from enslavement
to destructive sources of energy.

He is celebrated for his discoveries in the water sciences, in agricultural techniques and in the
energy domain which energies enhance and which harm life.

Schauberger provides us with a comprehensive and holistic approach to understanding Nature.
His insights form the foundations of what might be called a 'science of Nature'.

He found two forms of motion in Nature: outward, expanding flow that is used to break down,
and inward-spiralling which Nature uses to build up and energise. We use the first to generate
energy, which is why it is destructive to the environment.

Minute changes in temperature affect the outcome of an energetic process. The balance between
the attraction and repulsion of polarised atoms is the engine of creation.

Viktor Schauberger vividly described how our disdain for Nature's ways will bring only
environmental catastrophe.

His vision - humanity working within Nature's laws - is the path we must rediscover, if we are to
survive.


Links:
http://www.schauberger.co.uk/home.html
http://www.rexresearch.com/schaub2/schaub2.htm

Richard Clem



The Richard Clem Engine

A few months back, we got a call from a friend who had heard of this incredible motor that was
said to run itself and generate excess useable power.


Links:
http://www.rexresearch.com/clemengn/clemengn.htm
Stanley Meyer

1941-1998



Electronics World & Wireless World (January 1991)

Eye-witness accounts suggest that US inventor Stanley Meyer has developed an electric cell
which will split ordinary tap water into hydrogen and oxygen with far less energy than that
required by a normal electrolytic cell.



Links:
http://www.rexresearch.com/meyerhy/meyerhy.htm

Veljko Milkovic





A simple mechanical system that produces 9:1 over-unity and antigravity

Links:
http://www.veljkomilkovic.com
http://www.rexresearch.com/milkovic/milkovic.htm





Be careful with your inventions








Free Energy Research Basics




Chapter 1. Power measurements ................................................................................................................ 2
Hello, ...................................................................................................................................................... 2
Magic Box #1......................................................................................................................................... 4
Light bulbs.............................................................................................................................................. 6
Measuring power in AC circuits ............................................................................................................ 9
Magic Box #2....................................................................................................................................... 11
Chapter 2. Flyback ................................................................................................................................... 14































Revision 1

FE R&D group http://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/ferd041/info

2014

2
Chapter 1. Power measurements


Hello,

I am starting a series of posts about FE research basics.

As a start topic, lets consider some typical mistakes when power
measurements performed.

Here an example of message from overunity.com (it is from 2007 but you still
can occasionally re-posted by somebody).






3


Another similar device, looks like Bedinis Tesla switch.




Here a photo of working device


4


In other words, author said Hey, I have one bulb in series with power
supply and one on the output of my magic box. See, first lamp is just
glowing, and second one is shining bright. I got OU!

I am sure that everyone has seen such claims made by different people with
different devices many many times.


Magic Box #1

Let's take a look inside a "magic box" ;-)

To simplify simulation I am using alternative current and... just an regular
step-down transformer (1:10) as a "magic box" ;-)

I am also using resistors instead of light bulbs.



pic. Magic Box design

5


pic.1 You can see that both voltage and current are greater on R2 in
comparison to R1



pic.2 So also power on R2 greater than on R1 (about 10 times in this
example) and if there will be lamps one would glow and second one would be
bright...


However there is a bad news :-) Power on R1 is not the same as power
provided by power source V1. And original author's assumption that inserting
6
a light bulb in series with device could help comparing input vs. output
power is obviously wrong.
As it was expected in this setup all power comes from V1 and it is equal to
sum of power on R1 and R2 (not taking into account loses in the
transformer).

I let you as an "exercise" to design a "magic box" which works similar way
but with direct current :-)


Light bulbs


I used resistor in my previous post, now let's take a closer look on light
bulb as a load.

Many people use light bulbs as a load and often trying to estimate output
power based on bulb's brightness. You see it almost in every Youtube video
where somebody showing its FE device.

There are 3 things that one has to remember about light bulbs:

1. Bulbs have non-linear resistance; it depends on voltage applied to the
bulb

See this:


Tab.1 Bulb's resistance vs. voltage
7

pic. 1 Bulb's resistance vs. voltage

and this



pic.2a Bulb's current vs. voltage

8

pic2b. Power vs. voltage

(original document can be found here
http://site.devicecraft.com/ApplicationNotes/60_watt_Incandescent_Bulb_Chara
cteristics.pdf )

2. Bulb's brightness also non-linearly depends on voltage (and frequency)
and it also changing with the lamp's age.
See this <http://www.photometrictesting.co.uk/File/lamp_depreciation.php>

3. Bulbs have "inertia". This means that it takes milliseconds or seconds
until current thru the lamp became stable when constant voltage applied.

All these properties make accurate power estimation based on light bulb's
brightness very difficult.

Gustavo mentioned that bulb can be used as a current limiter. It's a quite
common application but one always has to remember about bulbs "inertia".
Many sensitive circuits can blow up completely while lamp is warming up :-)





P.S. Perhaps it would be interesting to make experiment and study bulb's
nonlinearities.

9


Measuring power in AC circuits


Another interesting topic is Measuring power in AC circuits.

Let's consider a practical example.
You have some circuit, it produce some power on the output. You put a load
resistor and observing voltage on it with oscilloscope.

Here example picture (from my TV research)


pic.1 Sample waveform


Let's assume that load is 10 ohm resistor and peak-to-peak voltage on it
5.28v (channel one on the picture)

What is an output power here?

Let's use Ohm's law and calculate ;-)

I = U / R

P = U * I = U
2
/ R = 5.28 * 5.28 / 10 = 2.78 W

Ok, did you get OU? Ha, ha, perhaps :-)

After thinking a while you remember that it was actually peak-to-peak
voltage... so to get number comparable with DC you have to divide result by
2.... Oh no! Actually by 4 (because there is U * U in the formula)
10

So it will be P = 2.78 / 4 = 0.69 W (is it still OU? ;-)

After thinking one more moment, you probably remember that you also have to
use RMS coefficient, so... again divide by two square root of 2, or

P = 0.69 / / = 0.34 W (what a disappointment! :-)

And if we collect everything in one formula we get P = Upk * Upk / R / 8.

This coefficient ( ) depends on signal shape.

Here some reading about RMS
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Root_mean_square

and an example simulation to consider





pic. Comparison of power in DC and AC

11

Magic Box #2

And last thing I can't leave without our attention in this thread - yet
another "magic box" case :-)

a.k.a. Power consumption drop under load.

Have you ever met a person who claims: "Hey guys, I made amazing device.
When I put load on it actual power consumption is dropped. This is a
straight way to over unity!"

He, he... I have met many...

So let's consider another magic box (version 2)


pic.1 Magic Box #2 concept


In first case (top picture), power source is driving only the Magic Box.
When we attach some load (bottom picture), amazingly, power consumption
decreases even some power goes into load.


Ok, can we make such "magic box"? Sure, we can :-) Here my design. I am
again being lazy and do it for AC, you can build DC version yourself.


12



pic.2 Magic box design and simulation

13

pic.3 Power measurements





After all, do you think it was "wrong way"? ;-)








Free Energy Research Basics




Chapter 2. Flyback ..................................................................................................................................... 2
Flyback circuit........................................................................................................................................ 5
Looping flyback ..................................................................................................................................... 6
Trying harder...................................................................................................................................... 9
Simulating flyback ............................................................................................................................... 11
Magic Box #3....................................................................................................................................... 13
Joule Thief and LED lights .................................................................................................................. 17
Observing core saturation..................................................................................................................... 22
Simulation with real core and real diode....................................................................................... 23
B-H curve model .................................................................................................................................. 25
Plotting BH curves yourself ................................................................................................................. 29
HV power source.................................................................................................................................. 32
Chapter 3. Resonance............................................................................................................................... 35

























Revision 1

FE R&D group http://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/ferd041/info

2014

2

Chapter 2. Flyback

Hello,

I am continuing the "entertainment" and starting new thread about Flyback
circuit, its properties and applications.

A word before going into details...
After doing FE research for some time I realized that
- Mathematics don't care about reality
- Electronics don't care about anything, it just use ready available
components with known properties
- Modern Physics unfortunately forget almost at the beginning about reality
and goes deep into math and spend most of the time writing formulas :-)
And we have to bind all three together, fix when necessary and make serve
our needs. While doing electronics we need perfect understanding of physics
involved and we need math to do calculations. Sometimes it's a real
challenge.

Flyback usually consists of two coils. Lets start with one.


pic 1. Pulsing an inductor



pic 2. Current thru L1

When we turn switch on current begin grow until it reach maximum value which
depends on power supply voltage and coils internal resistance (Imax = U /
Rcoil)
3
This grow is exponential as it shown on pic.2, however in practice usually
we will be using only very beginning of the process so current grow will be
almost linear (see region t < 0.1ms).

It is often said that current thru coil cant change fast or momentary.
This is not exactly true as we will see soon. While current grows magnetic
field also building up and some energy being stored in magnetic field
across the coil (E = L * I * I / 2)

If we disconnect coil from power source, current thru coil stops abruptly,
so magnet field collapse and big voltage spike appears across the coil (if
no load connected).




pic.3 Switching off

This process can be seen on pic.3, size of voltage spike across the coil
depends on coils parameters (capacitance, internal resistance etc.)

4

pic.4 Same process observed in real schematic with oscilloscope


pic5. Here an example schematic which can be used for this experiment


And here some links with info to consider:
http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/electromagnetism/magnetism.html
http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/electric/indsol.html


5

Flyback circuit

As we saw in previous post, when we disconnect power supply energy stored in
magnetic fields "disappears" (from our circuit). This is not very good, so
let's add another coil and "capture" this energy back :-)




pic.1 This a typical Flyback setup.

Diode in the secondary needed to prevent current thru the load during first
working phase when energy stored into magnetic field. In the second phase,
collapsing magnetic field creates voltage on the secondary coil and if there
is a load connected; current begins to flow (almost immediately). This
current creates own magnetic field which oppose to original field. It is
interesting that the lower load resistance the higher current will be in
secondary and stronger field it creates, therefore the longer (wider) output
pulse will be. Another interesting feature is that fly back always draws
6
same power from power supply independently what load applied to secondary,
it also does not afraid of shorting output.

This kind of setup used in many different variations in nowadays power
supplies.

Here some interesting is reading about flyback:
http://www.dos4ever.com/flyback/flyback.html
http://www.ti.com/lit/ml/slup261/slup261.pdf



Looping flyback


As we discussed earlier, we put some energy into magnetic field with
primary coil and then collect it back with secondary coil. By some reason
people tend to think that we can get out here more than we put in.

Just imagine, you put some water in a cup and when you drink it appeared
that there is more water than you put in.
Wouldnt it be nice to have such magic cup

Ha, ha, anyway, people keep trying and I cant resist give it a try as well




7

pic.1 Simulation of looped flyback


Notice power supply and coils current values ;-)


pic.2 Experiments schematic


8

pic3. Switch control pulse (A) and voltage in point (B)



pic4. Switch control pulse (A) and voltage in point (C) = current thru coil
L1 (Spikes at the beginning of the pulse caused by MOSFET gate charging
process)



pic5. Switch control pulse (A) and voltage in point (D) = current thru coil
L2


9

pic6. Experimental setup (some components are not used in this experiment)

As simulation show, this setup consumes very small current 100uA 5mA
depends on pulse width and coils and can be used to measure loses in
ferrite.


Trying harder

Somebody probably say: "You not being serious and you not trying hard!"
Ha! ha! Being serious will not help us

Here similar Flyback looped setup I tried earlier




10

pic1. One of the earlier trials


The issue with flybacks is diode in secondary, voltage drop on it, internal
capacitance and limited turn-on time (delay). Adding small inductor in
series sometimes can help to handle current spikes.

Decreasing capacitor connected to power gives possibility observe how power
transferred from secondary.
11

Simulating flyback

Despite that currents in primary and secondary winding never exists at the
same time, if we start changing number of turns (and therefore inductance)
of primary and secondary, Flyback will behave in a similar way as "regular"
transformer. We can gain voltage or current but not both :-)


pic1. Flyback circuit model


pic2. L1 = 400uH

12

pic3. L1 = 200uH



pic4.L1 = 100uH


I made this simulation to illustrate how change off L1/L2 ratio affects
output voltage and current.

13

Magic Box #3

Lets consider another Magic Box.

From time to time you see a video or post where some smart guy telling that
he invented very advanced schematics which allow you to power some load from
battery and charge the battery at the same time. Wouldnt it be nice to have
such circuit?

pic.1 Magic Box #3 concept we attach something to the battery via current
meter and surprisingly it shows that current actually flowing into the
battery...Does it charging the battery ?

Well, this magic box creates much more controversy rather than two previous.

I would like to show two similar devices behaving like described magic
box, both devices are based on flyback circuit.


pic1. Magic LED light charging small NiMH battery

14

pic2. top MOSFETs drain, bottom current thru battery



pic3. top MOSFETs gate, bottom current thru battery


15

pic4. top(yellow) MOSFETs gate, bottom (blue) voltage on battery


As you can see, circuit creates current pulses into battery ;-)



pic5. Experimental setup


I let you decide yourself what is wrong with this magic box


16

pic6. Another similar device

Author claims that this circuit allows power some small load from
rechargeable battery for period about 2 years.
He also said that after that time battery's electrodes dissolved almost
completely and he had to throw it away

17

Joule Thief and LED lights

I think you agree that Joule Thief is one of most popular circuits on the
web.
It is not a flyback but I think it is kind of related circuit and it would
be interesting to mention it.






pic1. Joule Thief simulation



18




pic2. Some variation

19

pic3. MCU based flash light



pic4. Slightly modified MCU based flash light


20

21

pic5. Different JT-like circuits


pic6. My version of LED flash light, I think more practical


Suggested reading:
- SMPS http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Switched-mode_power_supply
- blocking oscillator http://mysite.du.edu/~etuttle/electron/elect37.htm

22



Observing core saturation


pic1. Core saturation

top MOSFET control pulse; bottom current in the primary coil (observed
across resistor in MOSFETs source)


* Notice that after some time current start growing very fast (and non-
linear)



pic2. Example circuit

This is same looped flyback circuit I posted before.
23
To observe saturation you just need gradually increase pulse width and
observe current thru resistor in MOSFETs source (point C). When
experimenting with saturation you should take care about MOSFET cooling
because current grows very fast and transistor can became very hot.
Transformer core saturation one of most common reasons of low efficiency in
power supply circuits.


Some related links
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturation_%28magnetic%29
(Surprisingly not much information on the topic on the web)



Simulation with real core and real diode

LTSpice gives some possibilities to simulate behaviour of real cores and
other components like diodes.
I dont think that it is very practical but interesting to try




24

pic.1 Flyback with real core (based on LTSpice built-in model)


* notice shape of current in primary and secondary




25

pic2. Adding real diode to the simulation

* notice oscillations on primary

So its looks quite similar to what real oscilloscope shows.


B-H curve model

As we saw "real" core in transformer brings non-linearity

Let's consider these effects in more details




pic.1 A page from LTSpice manual about built-in core model

26





pic.2 BH curves drawn with above formulas


27

pic3. Inductance (H) vs. current (A) based on above BH curve


This result opens quite interesting possibility to model non-linear
inductance ourselves.




28

pic4. Simple circuit with linear inductance




pic5. Simulation for above circuit made in SCI lab using model for non-
linear core

29
Graphs from top to bottom:
- voltage on power source,
- current thru inductor,
- voltage on inductor,
- inductance of inductor vs. time

* Notice current and inductance variations

This simulation made using Finite difference method to solve differential
equation

Us = IR + L dI / dt

It might be not very straight forward to perform (comparing to LTSpice
simulation) but it gives us full control on the model.


Some links:
https://www.dropbox.com/s/lx23vkvjpsgi0hc/John%20Chan%20Nonlinear_Transforme
r_Model_for_Circuit_Simulation.pdf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Finite_difference_method



Plotting BH curves yourself

We saw quite a lot of theoretical staff about BH curve and core non-
linearity.
Perhaps it would be interesting to do something practical about it.



pic.1 Core tracer schematic

With this simple circuit and oscilloscope we can observe actual
magnetization curves for different cores.
It is also interesting how magnet affects these curves.


30

pic2. Effect of magnet attached to the core's side


Here some pictures of experimentally obtained BH curves for Ferroxcube N30
ring core.

31

pic3. Effect of magnet inserted into cores gap


32

pic4. BH curve for N87 ferrite from datasheet - looks similar to what we see
in experiment


Plotting Magnetization Curves
http://info.ee.surrey.ac.uk/Workshop/advice/coils/BHCkt/index.html
http://www.cliftonlaboratories.com/type_43_ferrite_b-h_curve.htm


HV power source

We saw a step-down flyback application in MB3,
another very important application of step-up flyback is a spark gap drivers
and HV DC power sources.

33

pic1. Schematic HV pulse generator and optional voltage multiplier



pic2. Pulse generator and multiplier assembled in plastic boxes

34

pic3. Side view




pic4. Testing before placing into boxes


This simple circuit produces short pulses up to 5KV (without multiplier)
and capable to supply about 1ma current at 5KV with 10 stage multiplier.
Output voltage can be adjusted in some range by changing pulse width (20k
pot.).


Please be careful when working with high voltage!


Some related links:
10KV power source http://www.sentex.ca/~mec1995/circ/hv/hvdcgen/hvdcgen.html









Free Energy Research Basics




Chapter 3. Resonance................................................................................................................................. 2
Parallel and series resonance circuits ..................................................................................................... 2
Single switch driver................................................................................................................................ 4
Push pull driver ...................................................................................................................................... 6
Half bridge driver ................................................................................................................................... 9
Bridge drivers....................................................................................................................................... 10
Analogue approach............................................................................................................................... 15
Extracting power .................................................................................................................................. 17
More examples of power extracting circuits ........................................................................................ 20
Ferroresonance ..................................................................................................................................... 25
Properties of ferroresonance................................................................................................................. 30
Tesla switch and Co. ............................................................................................................................ 35
Switching coils and caps ...................................................................................................................... 36
Simulating switched capacitors............................................................................................................ 40
Switching coils and caps ...................................................................................................................... 43
Variable Inductor.................................................................................................................................. 46
Magnetic amplifiers.............................................................................................................................. 51
Parametric resonance............................................................................................................................ 56
Building parametric resonator .............................................................................................................. 59
Standing waves or resonance in a media.............................................................................................. 62
Waves in ferrite core ............................................................................................................................ 64
Chapter 4. Bifilar coils ............................................................................................................................. 66














Revision 1

FE R&D group http://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/ferd041/info

2014

2

Chapter 3. Resonance

Resonance is next topic I would like to discuss.

Lets start with two most common setups

Parallel and series resonance circuits

In these two setups energy from capacitor (C * U * U / 2) flow to inductor
(L * I * I / 2) and back. Originally this energy comes from power supply
(V1). Resonance circuit accumulate energy until power of source became
equal to power of loses in the circuit. Or Pcirc = Psource * Q where Q is
quality factor



pic1. Parallel resonance circuit



pic2. Simulation of parallel resonance circuit

3
In parallel resonance circuit we have circulating current Q times more than
power source current

* notice current decreasing while oscillation settling down


pic3. Series resonance circuit



pic4. Simulation of series resonance circuit

In series resonance circuit voltage on capacitor (and inductor) Q times more
than voltage on power source.

* notice voltage grow while oscillations settling down

We can accumulate some energy in resonance circuit, we can extract this
energy back at any time and rate butno more than we put there from power
source.
By some reason people tend to believe that there is extra power in resonance
circuit and we just need to find a way how to get it from there ;-)
4


Some reading about resonance:
http://www.allaboutcircuits.com/vol_2/chpt_6/1.html
http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/accircuits/series-resonance.html
http://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/accircuits/parallel-resonance.html
http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/teaching/315/Waves/node12.html


Single switch driver

Let's review methods how we can power resonance circuit
and start with single switch driver


pic1. Model for single switch driver setup



pic2. Simulation (driver frequency equal to resonance frequency)

5

pic3. Simulation (driver frequency 10 times lower than resonance frequency)


pic4. Simple driver setup schematic

* notice diode in MOSFETs drain to prevent built-in zener diode to
interfere


6

pic5. top driver signal (point A), bottom voltage on inductor and
capacitor (point B)

This circuit quite simple and can be used for experiments on frequencies up
to 100kHz. Two transistors can be replaced with integral MOSFET driver like
TC40204029 (or similar) For higher frequencies cd4011 can be replaced with
74hc00 (requires 5v power supply and changes in MOSFET driver).



Push pull driver

more powerful option




pic.1 Push-Pull driver with TL494
7

It appeared that TL494 does not work well on low frequencies so I made a
simple substitution for it using CD4011 and CD4013. Other possibility is to
use KA7500 (pin-to-pin replacement for TL494 which works ok on low
frequencies) or some other PWM chip.



pic2. Push pull driver using CMOS logic

* 50k pots are mechanically connected so driver legs adjusted synchronously
** Additional 4011 elements after 4013 needed to avoid loading 4013 outputs
by RC chains (number of elements can be reduced by using 4001 elements and
rearranging the circuit)


8

pic3.top - one MOSFETs drain, bottom - secondary (w/o capacitor)



pic4. MOSFET drains



pic5. top one of MOSFETs drain, bottom - secondary (with capacitor
connected)


This circuit can also be used as an inverter to provide power to some
appliances like led lamps etc.




9

Links:
- Designing Switching Voltage Regulators With the TL494
http://www.ti.com/lit/an/slva001e/slva001e.pdf
- http://www.instructables.com/id/250-to-5000-watts-PWM-DCAC-220V-Power-
Inverter/



Half bridge driver




pic1. Simple half-bridge driver based on 74HC4046 VCO.


* Power supply voltage can be increased up to 35v
** Value of resistor in 2n7000 drain may be need to be changed (depends on
frequency and power supply voltage)



pic2. Voltage and current in inductor


This driver works quite ok up to 200-300kHz

10


Bridge drivers

Lets review one of possible MCU controlled HBridge setup


pic.1 Regulated DC-DC converter (output voltage can be adjusted 50-200v)

11

pic.2 One half of bridge driver



pic.3 LPF filter


12

pic.4 PWM signal created with MCU



pic.5 Bridge assembled on prototype board

13

pic.6 top - signal after LPF, bottom - before LPF





14

pic.7 Simulation of HBridge

This is example of much more complicated setup. MCUs allow modify operation
of the bridge without changing circuit. But it is also possible use
hardware PWM like TL494 to produce PWM signal to control the bridge
output.

Embedded software for MCUs created using Win AVR C compiler (see attached
archives).

Some links:
- see page 40 for more advanced version of the bridge driver
<https://04e8faec-a-62cb3a1a-s-
sites.googlegroups.com/site/vasik041/homebrewtools.pdf?attachauth=ANoY7cqaam
gaX-
JXJRbIvErNtp4oVDipTLpw8NCUaF6guZH622pxRZFsEKfUf7rxr6RRJziZ2sa5h1sKsMRELqgyBK
tBBHR4_hlT7884j9Mb9MEAX04mO1mauadYqHKhOUHz20_Gc0i1S0ABrvvWf6yZJEgyyCKNPGUOf7
9k6F3Ne7oiTyuFd6xwBFDyH8mYLfxfxfelQBj_Z741wnWr98H3bWy2nOJXpw%3D%3D&attredire
cts=0>
- http://www.tantratron.tk/index/tantratron.html
- http://winavr.sourceforge.net/
- http://www.wpi.edu/Pubs/E-project/Available/E-project-042711-
190851/unrestricted/PWM_Techniques_final.pdf
- http://uzzors2k.4hv.org/index.php?page=ihpll1
- http://webpages.charter.net/dawill/tmoranwms/Elec_IndHeat1.html
- https://www.fairchildsemi.com/an/AN/AN-9012.pdf


15

Analogue approach

We saw variety of digital drivers, but it is also possible to do it in a
"pure analogue" way. This is more (or less) conventional electronics, so I
will just list circuits which I tried.

pic.1 Sin wave generator



pic2. Simple sin wave generator which require with one power supply voltage

16
* Disadvantage of both generators is that FET transistor and precise
selection of components needed



pic3. Simple power amplifier


* Perhaps too simple, it has big crossover distortion



pic4. Simple driver (circuit found as a generator for tape recorder erase
head)

* Despite simplicity it works very nice, it tunes resonance automatically if
L or C changes



Links:
http://sound.westhost.com/articles.htm

17

Extracting power

We saw many different driver setups; all of them allow us put some power
into resonance circuit and create some oscillations. Now lets consider ways
how we can extract power back.


pic1. We can use small additional winding on inductor



pic2. Simulation for circuit with additional winding


18

pic3. We can take power from capacitor



pic4. Simulation for extracting from capacitor circuit


Some people are claiming that they just invented new and very advanced
concept of extracting power from resonance circuit. Well, for me it sounds
naive. It all was invented about 100 years ago, we just got better
components (e.g. diodes) but ideas are the same.


19
pic5. Crystal radio as an example of power extraction circuit




pic6. More powerful setup

We cam use different setups, with diodes or switches but at the end load (or
extracted power) always work as Q factor loss in resonant circuit. (This
claim easy to prove using electrical circuits theory by drawing equivalent
schematics).


Links:
High Power Crystal Set http://hibp.ecse.rpi.edu/~john/xtal.html
http://www.crystalradio.net/crystalplans/
http://www.makearadio.com/
http://www.radiosparks.com/schematics.asp?UID=Crystal+Radio
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mihajlo_Pupin
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Loading_coil

20

More examples of power extracting circuits

These two circuits are my implementation of Hectors transverter (TV) which
is often discussed on EVGRAY group.
It could be a nice tool to learn about resonance, drivers and power
extracting circuits However, I see these circuits as an over complication
in a hunt for magic resonance or frequency. If there would be a real
extra power no such complex setup would be needed, just a regular diode
bridge work fine ;-)


First setup is MCU based, MCU control driver and diode plug switches.


pic1. MCU used to control the setup


21

pic2. Other parts of the setup (driver, transformer, diode plug, zero
crossing detector and discharge switches)


Below shown less complicated setup, without MCU.


22

pic3. Simple diode plug (two zero-crossing detectors and triac drivers)


Here some diagrams from important points in the circuit


pic4. top transformer output, bottom - voltage on positive leg capacitor


23

pic5. top transformer output, bottom - voltage on negative leg capacitor



pic6. top transformer output (more power injected), bottom - voltage on
the output (Rn)


I made this simulation to illustrate the idea of TV setup. Transformer core
is linear in this simulation.

24

pic7. Simple TV model


25

pic8. Simulation results


After all I still think that no mater what driver we use and how complicated
extracting circuit, energy stored in LC circuit comes from power source
unless some real magic happen ;-).


Ferroresonance

What would happen if we "put" too much power into LC resonance circuit?

If there is a core in inductor, occasionally it get saturated and
ferroresonance occurs.

As you remember saturation causes non-linear change of inductance. This non-
linearity in combination with oscillations produces many interesting
effects.


Let's take a closer look on ferroresonance.


26

pic1. Parallel ferroresonance model



pic2. Simulation of parallel ferroresonance

* notice frequency variations and current shape



27

pic3. Series ferroresonace model



pic4. Simulation of series frerroresonance

* notice voltage on the inductor


Here a simple setup to observe a ferroresonance


28
I used 4,7uF capacitor and 20 turns coil on 35mm N30 ferrite ring, signal
generator and audio amplifier as a signal source. Below waveforms I got
after tuning resonance:



pic5. Observing series ferroresonance


In simple words, when current increase core saturating and inductance
decrease, this cause current increase even more.

When studding non-linear inductance we managed to get a formula how
inductance depends on current, now we can use this to draw a resistance of
LC circuit witch take into account inductance variations.


29

pic6. Drawing reactance (reactive resistance) for LC circuit with saturating
inductor (voltage vs. current)

Formulas used to draw above graphs:







Does it look interesting?
(yes, it is negative differential resistance, I am going to discuss it later
in more details)


Some links:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_reactance
http://www05.abb.com/global/scot/scot235.nsf/veritydisplay/2e4528a2d55c5414c
12572dd00247313/$file/vt%20guard_presentation-ferrores_sales_version_eng.pdf
http://www.kau.edu.sa/Files/320/Researches/52676_22982.pdf

30

Properties of ferroresonance

To observe interesting properties of ferroresonance circuits I made a simple
sweep generator and loaded it with parallel LC circuit.


pic.1 VCO generator


pic.2 Driver


31

pic3. Triangle generator (I will use it as a modulator to control VCO
frequency)



pic4. Experimental setup assembled on bread board


In first experiment I didnt use modulation but slowly adjusted frequency
manually. I measured voltage and current on inductor, here results



and graphs drawn based on the data

32

pic5. Voltage on inductor vs. frequency


pic5a. Inductors current vs. frequency

You can see interesting effect - sometimes it called trigger effect. When
frequency slowly increased voltage and current also increasing until some
point and then amplitude drop sharply. Frequency need to be decreased
significantly first to repeat this effect.

Below pictures obtained with modulation generator, circuit tuned so that we
can continuously observe trigger effect.

33


pic6. yellow - voltage on inductor
U, blue inductor current I, red
- U * I





pic7. voltage on inductor pic8. inductor current


pic9. inductors current (bigger
scale)

In resonance energy is accumulated in LC tank, but after some point it
"does not fit" into the coil anymore because inductance decrease due to
saturation, this cause non-linear oscillations and trigger effect.

I also tried to adjust power supply voltage and see how it affects
oscillations.
Below pictures obtained for different power supply voltage

34

pic.10 Ups=20v



pic.11 Ups=25v



pic.12 Ups=30v

The higher the power supply voltage the greater frequency up to which the
ferroresonance occurs. So in this mode of operation to achieve more current
and voltage we have to apply more energy from power source (again).

35

Tesla switch and Co.

We saw a "natural" non-linearity caused by saturatiton, but what if we want
create non-linearity ourselves? One interesting approach is to change
inductance and capacitance in LC circuit on-the-fly.

Let's consider first switching capacitors.


pic1. Two capacitors in series and in parallel

Often people confused with capacitance, charge and stored energy when
rearranging capacitors. This confusion cause some interesting claims about
extra energy etc. Lets remember what we learned in school and calculate
capacitance, charge and stored energy for these two cases shown on pic1.

For series connection:

Cs = C/2
Qs = C/2 * U = C * U / 2
Es = C/2 * U * U / 2 = C * U * U / 4

For parallel connection:

Cp = 2*C
Qp = 2*C * U/2 = C * U
Ep = 2*C * U/2 * U/2 / 2 = C * U * U / 4

These are interesting results; we see that stored energy does not change if
we re-connect capacitors, but charge change.
Perhaps we can use this somehow


Some links:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Capacitor


36

Switching coils and caps

Lets try switching something



pic1. My variant of switching capacitors



pic2. Simple MCU based generator to control the switch (see plsgen.rar for
source code)


37

pic3. Updated switch use MOSFETs



pic4. Experimental setup assembled on bread board

Below some oscilloscope traces for the switch connected to 12v power source
thru resistor 1 = C2 = 4.7uF

38

pic5. Switched capacitors and resistor; top on the switch, bottom one of
switch control signals


* notice that half of time current flowing back to battery (or power
source), however this does not mean that we got FE device here ;-)


39

pic6. Switching capacitors connected to power source thru transformer (as
shown on pic3)

In this setup 1 = C2 = 0.1uF


pic7. Switched capacitors and transformer; top-on the switch, bottom-on of
the load (third coil) Both are same picture, but the right is bigger scale.


Link:
http://web.archive.org/web/20120826225130/http://www.energenx.com/john34/tes
la.html

40

Simulating switched capacitors

I made also some simulations about switched capacitors


pic1. Charging and discharging thru resistor


pic2. Charging and discharging thru resistor


41

pic3. rotating capacitor with coil


pic4. rotating capacitor with coil simulation

* this setup somehow similar to synchronous rectifier


42

pic5. rotating capacitor with resistor


pic6. Simulation results for rotating capacitor with resistor



Links:
http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-
173510281975580/unrestricted/chapter2.pdf
http://www.irf.com/product-info/fact_sheet/farnell/10142.pdf
http://www.ti.com/lit/an/snva595/snva595.pdf


43
Switching coils and caps

We tried switching caps, coils (in flyback), now we can try switching both
caps and coils.

Here a model for L/4L 2C/0.5C switch. Such combination of switched L and C
keeps resonance frequency the same.
However frequency can also be adjusted as we will see soon.


pic1. Switching both L and C


pic2. Simulation results for switching both L and C

* notice that waveforms have offset ;-)
** coils can also be switched using diodes.

Real implementation of switches is difficult. I tried several different
setups before I got something working ok.
Here one of setups which works. I use optocouplers to avoid any interference
between control circuit and LC circuit.
44


pic3. Switch based on optocouplers



pic4. Trying switch with resistor (in series to power supply)
top switch control, bottom - current



pic5. Trying switch with inductor (in series to power supply)
top switch control, bottom - current


45

pic6. Inductor and 2C / 0.5C switching, timing adjusted for resonance
top voltage, bottom - current



pic7. Optocouplers switch assembled on bread board


This experiment shows quite well that energy stored in LC tank does not
change when we re-arranging capacitors or coils.

Follow my analogy with water I can say that the amount of water does not
change if you pour it in different size cup


Links:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Opto-isolator

46

Variable Inductor

We already saw non-linearity and inductance variations due to saturation.
This effect can be used to create a variable inductor, electrically
controlled variable inductor.

Below shown one of the simplest setups which allow create variable inductor.
We need two identical ring cores with two identical coils on each inductor.
One pair of coils connected co-directional and second pair connected in
opposite direction. One pair will be used to control inductance and other
will be variable inductor.


pic.1 Two ring cores
Ferroxcube FE25 3E25 25/14/10

2x18 turns on each

L1 = 2080uH
L1 + L2 = 4186 uH



pic.2 experimental setup

current adjusted with
potentiometer

inductance measured with L
meter


I,ma 0 4 8 12 16 28 48 72 88 140 200
L,uH 4186 4228 4400 4255 4200 3980 3253 2424 1978 840 383
tab1. Inductance vs. control current

47

pic.3 inductance (L,uH) vs control current (I,ma)



pic4. Comparison of measured inductance with theoretically calculated based
on formula used for non-linear inductance. blue experimental; red -
theoretical



48

pic5. Same setup but bigger cores used



pic6. Even bigger cores

49

pic7. Inductance vs. current for big cores


50

pic8. This a page from old russian book with different variable inductors
setups shown



Some links:
http://translate.google.com/translate?sl=auto&tl=en&js=n&prev=_t&hl=en&ie=UT
F-8&u=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.hcrs.at%2FPARAMET.HTM
http://jnaudin.free.fr/html/paraconv.htm


51
Magnetic amplifiers

Lets consider one of traditional application of variable inductor
magnetic amplifier.
If we make primary coils in variable inductor with many turns and
secondary coils with small number of turns we can control our variable
inductor with small current and build an amplifier out of it.

Below measured inductance vs. current for coils shown on pic.2

I,ma 0 2,7 3,6 4 5,1 7 10 15,2 21 26,7 30,5 40 50,7
L,mH 35,1 39 37,2 28,4 26,9 21,8 17,2 9,1 5,7 3,4 2,47 1,26 0,75
tab1. Measuring Inductance vs. control current


pic1. Inductance vs. control current (ma)



pic2. coils
two ring cores Ferroxcube FE25-3F3
I 11m -> 250t 0.35
II 1.5m -> 25t 0.5



Now we can try building simple magnetic amplifier

52

pic3. top on one leg of output
transformer; bottom - control



pic4. top output; bottom
control


It would be interesting estimate efficiency of my amplifier

R,ohm 2000 1000 500 400 300 200 100 50
U,v 25,2 21 17,2 14,8 12,8 10 5,6 3,2
P,w 0,159 0,221 0,296 0,274 0,273 0,25 0,157 0,102
COP 14,6 20,2 27,1 25,1 25,1 22,9 14,4 9,4


Power consumption Up = 11,5V; Ip = 0,095A; Pp = 1,0925W



53


pic5. Trying measure COP of my magnetic amplifier (COP in percents vs R load
in ohms)




pic6. Experimental setup

* two secondary winding 24v from small power transformer used as output
transformer



54

pic7. Experiment schematic (hi frequency about 15 KHz, low frequency about 1
KHz)


Its probably not very useful model but it is interesting if we can simulate
magnetic amplifier.


pic8. Model for magnetic amplifier

55

pic9. Simulation of magnetic amplifier


It is interesting why some people tend to believe that magnetic amplifiers
have some magic properties e.g. can have COP more than 100%. What is
actually different from a regular amplifier which uses transistors?
(Power for output signal coming from power source in both cases)


Links:
http://sparkbangbuzz.com/mag-audio-amp/mag-audio-amp.htm
http://www.rfcafe.com/references/popular-electronics/magnetic-amplifiers-
jul-1960-popular-electronics.htm
http://www.themeasuringsystemofthegods.com/magnetic%20amplifiers.pdf
http://www.grimeton.info/long_wave_transmitter.html
http://earlyradiohistory.us/1920alt.htm


56

Parametric resonance

- other interesting type of resonance I would like to mention



pic1. Parametric resonator with variable inductor and a bit of theory


We can see that not only current variation but also inductance variation
affects voltage on the inductor (usually
inductance is constant, so second term is zero).




57

pic2. Simulation for sinusoidal control current



pic3. Simulation for sinusoidal control current with offset
58

Simulation made using finite difference method to solve differential
equation shown above.


Below two examples of parametric resonators from patents


pic4. Mechanical parametric resonator with variable capacitor (see patent
4522510)



pic5. Parametric resonator with electrically controlled inductor

Mechanically controlled inductance is also possible, inductance can be
changed e.g. by changing coils relative position or orientation.

59

pic6. One of setups which were used by L. Mandelstam.
Inductance controlled by changing distance between coil and aluminum plate.



Links:
http://www.tuks.nl/pdf/Reference_Material/Mandelstam_Papalexi/Concerning%20t
he%20Excitation%20of%20Electrical%20Waves%20Through%20Parameter%20Changes%20
English%20translation%201934.pdf
http://www.tuks.nl/pdf/Reference_Material/Mandelstam_Papalexi/
http://www.animations.physics.unsw.edu.au/jw/AC.html
http://aa1tj.blogspot.fi/2012/02/dl3pbs-all-tunnel-diode-parametric.html



Building parametric resonator

Lets try building parametric resonator ourselves.
We can use variable inductor from our previous experiments.

pic1. Parametric resonator experiment

I use signal generator and audio amplifier to control variable inductor.
Below shown waveforms for different modes of oscillations in parametric
resonator.

60






pic2. top- I
x
, bottom- U
x,
f = 511hz


61
Same circuit but 2x control frequency











pic3. top- I
x,
bottom - U
x,
f = 911hz



This is very interesting setup, our variable inductor has inductive input
reactance, so theoretically we can have normal resonance in a control
circuit and parametric resonance on the output ;-)

62
Standing waves or resonance in a media

So far we observed resonance which was localized in components or circuit
but it is possible to have a dimensional resonance when oscillations occurs
e.g. due to limited propagation velocity and reflections.
As first example lets see a resonance in 10m long coaxial cable shorted at
one end (1/4 wave resonance, frequency near 8 MHz).


pic1. Generator I used for this experiment





pic2. Power amplifier


63

pic3. Experimental setup




pic4. Resonance in coaxial cable

top voltage on the amplifier
output, bottom on the end of the
line




pic5. Same but frequency adjusted
a little



Links:
http://physics.info/waves-standing/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflections_of_signals_on_conducting_lines
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Il_eju4D_TM


64
Waves in ferrite core

There can be different type of media where resonance occur, sound waves
inside some objects can produce very powerful resonance.

See this for example http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=17tqXgvCN0E

Similar effects can be created in ferrite cores. Conventional use of this
effect is ultrasonic sound sources
but perhaps, one day we can find some other interesting applications.



pic1. How oscillations occur in a rod



pic2. How oscillations occur in a ring core


I made a small Java program which simulate waves (based on wave equation)
Here a video with results captured
https://www.dropbox.com/s/annxxvnmh8chq9v/wave.flv
and here Java application itself
https://www.dropbox.com/s/4dmte1747d4lbe9/wave.jar (source code included)
It is easy to modify the program to simulate different setups.
65
In this particular simulation two sources (with same amplitude and phase)
connected to the left and to the right ends of the media.


pic3. Snapshot of simulation screen

panel 1 "snapshot of the wave"
panel 2 generator 1 (most left point, 0)
panel 3 oscilations in point L/4
panel 4 oscilations in point 3*L/4
panel 5 oscilations in point L/2
panel 6 = 3 + 4

Panels 2-6 are oscilloscope like views (amplitude vs time) and panel 1
show media state in different locations (amplitude vs position).


Links:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standing_wave
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnetostriction
https://www.dropbox.com/s/sbeoh5y185xe9h1/How%20oscillations%20occur.pdf
http://mathworld.wolfram.com/WaveEquation.html
http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/waves/








Free Energy Research Basics




Chapter 4. Bifilar coils ............................................................................................................................... 2
Permanent magnets ................................................................................................................................ 2
Magnetic field of aregular coil ........................................................................................................... 6
Simple magnetic field probe................................................................................................................... 8
Magnetic field of bifilar coil .................................................................................................................. 9
Magnetic field of bifilar coil 2 ............................................................................................................. 13
Opposite coils on ferrite rod................................................................................................................. 17
Opposite coils on the ring core............................................................................................................. 20
Reversed Phi transformer ..................................................................................................................... 24
Scalar coil ............................................................................................................................................. 26
Chapter 5. Displacement current .............................................................................................................. 34


























Revision 1

FE R&D group http://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/ferd041/info

2014

2
Chapter 4. Bifilar coils

Permanent magnets

and magnetic fields of different coils is a next topic I would like to
discuss.



pic1. Ring magnets



pic2. Magnetic flux density vs distance from magnet for ring magnet



3

pic3. Rectangular magnets



pic4. Magnetic flux density vs distance from magnet for rectangular magnet




4

pic5. Ring magnet with hole



pic6. Magnetic flux density vs distance from magnet for ring magnet with
hole


I was just drawing these graphs and result was quite unexpected for me,
according to this graph there is a point at some distance (about 4mm) where
flux is zero and changing sign.
So the hole in magnet behave as a magnet with opposite orientation



5

pic7. Magnetic flux density for different shape magnets
red ring 20x5, green ring 9x5, blue rectangular 10x10x5, black circ.
20x5 with hole 5mm




pic8. Properties of different magnets


Links:
http://3gcl.no-
ip.org/3GCL/Datasheets/Electronics/Magnetics/Magnetic%20Design.htm
http://www.magneticsolutions.com.au/magnet-formula.html
http://www.kayelaby.npl.co.uk/general_physics/2_6/2_6_6.html
http://www.rare-earth-magnets.com/Permanent-Magnet-Selection-and-Design-
Handbook.pdf
http://ether.sciences.free.fr/electrets.htm
http://www.sae.edu/reference_material/audio/pages/Microphones.htm




6
Magnetic field of aregular coil

There is a lot of confusion about magnetic field and especially about anti-
aligned or opposed magnetic fields.
Some people tend to believe that field lines and poles are exist in reality,
also often said that fields adding or compensating each other.

When you use geographical map, are you expecting to see geodesic lines on
the field or mountain? ;-) No, of course not. We know that these are
imaginary lines showing places with equal height. Please remember about
this when dealing with fields in physics. Dont mix math which used for
calculations with reality.



pic1. Magnetic field of solenoid, see (1) for more details.




7

pic2. Magnetic field of solenoid calculated using formula above



pic3. Magnetic field lines, see (1) for more details.


Links:
http://web.mit.edu/8.02t/www/materials/StudyGuide/guide09.pdf (1)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Helmholtz_coil
http://ocw.mit.edu/ans7870/8/8.02T/f04/visualizations/magnetostatics/24-
coilsopposed/24-coilsopposed320.html
http://homepages.ius.edu/kforinas/physlets/magnetism/magnetism.html
http://www.rakeshkapoor.us/ClassNotes/MagneticFieldduetoCurrent.html


8
Simple magnetic field probe


Before going into details, I would like to warn you.
Even mainstream medicine accepts that pulse magnetic fields have very
significant effect on human body and consciousness, not always positive
effects.
It is known that about 10% of animals can feel magnetic fields. Some people
also can feel and even see fields but due to current social conditions these
skills are not appreciated, so most people are not even aware that it is
possible.
To avoid any potential damage we can (must) build simple magnetic field
probe.


pic1. Probes schematic

* second LED is optional

Wind some coil on the ferrite rod and attach LED thru 1k resistor.
You can use this probe as indicator and as a safety tool.



pic2. Picture of my probe

* Assembled on a wood ruler
** One layer coil, 0.4mm wire on ferrite rod (mu = 400)

When you see LED glowing, it means that strength of magnetic field is high
enough, so you should never be near that place, do not expose your body to
magnetic fields until you want risk your health (and may be life).
Please note that that often results of exposure are cumulative, symptoms
appeared after some time and grows exponentially. It could be too late. Do
not neglect your health and safety!

Now you have been warned.
9
Magnetic field of bifilar coil

I will be using word bifilar for coils made of two sections with opposing
magnetic fields.
There are many possible variations and I will try to review them one by one.
First setup I would like to discuss made of two cylindrical coils with
different diameters, small coil placed inside bigger one. This setup was
inspired by magnet with a hole.



pic1. Bifilar coil type 1


pic2. Magnetic field of bifilar coil
10
top red magnetic field of outer(bigger) coil, green - magnetic field of
inner (smaller) coil,
bottom resulting magnetic field (sum)

Please note that this graph represent Bz, component of B which is directed
along central axe of the coils.
Dont be confused, there is a magnetic field at the point where Bz = 0, it
is just have vector B perpendicular to z.

It is similar to situation when two magnets face each other with same poles.
Field in the middle is not zero, only horizontal component (on pic2a) is
zero in the middle point.


pic2a. Magnetic field lines of two opposed magnets



pic3. Driver schematic

11

pic4. Experimental setup


Coils parameters:

Inner coil diameter 5cm,
outer coil diameter 10cm,
height (of winding) 5,5cm,
Approximately 140 turns, wire 0,4mm
Inductance of outer coil L
10
= 1415uH,
Inductance of inner coil L
5
= 450uH
Inductance when coil connected same direction L
+
= 2540 uH,
when connected in opposite L
--
= 1292 uH




pic5. top voltage on primary, bottom - voltage on small test coil


12

pic6. Two pickup coils (connected also in opposite) placed symmetrically
related to zero Bz point (see points A and B on pic2)



pic7. top - voltage on primary, bottom voltage on pickup coils (with
some small load resistor)

* It seems that my calculations give realistic shape of the magnetic field,
* Even symmetric bifilar pickup coils affects resonance in primary coil when
loaded.


Links:
http://homepages.ius.edu/kforinas/physlets/magnetism/magnetism.html (see
case B, anti parallel)

13

Magnetic field of bifilar coil 2


Next possible setup is - two cylindrical coils near each other (also known
as anti aligned Helmholtz coils)


pic1. Calculation of magnetic field of anti aligned Helmholtz coils



pic2. Bifilar coil type 2


14


pic3. top-voltage on the coil,
bottom voltage on one turn coil
used as magnet field sensor



pic4. When moving test coil
amplitude decrease and then
increase again, phase change when
we cross 0 point




pic5. Phase changed

15

pic6. Different coil used to see if there is a perpendicular magnet field
component



pic7. top-voltage on the coil, bottom voltage on test coil shown on pic.6

16

pic8. Two coils wound in opposite direction placed symmetrically relative to
0 point used as pick-up coils



pic9. top-voltage on the coil, bottom voltage on two coil shown on pic.8


* Loading pickup coils affects resonance in primary coil, again.

17
Opposite coils on ferrite rod

It is interesting to see how ferrite (core) affects behavior of our setup.
So I decided to try setup with two opposed coils on ferrite rod. Usually it
said that core absorbs magnetic field and there is very small part of
magnetic field exists outside transformer core. With opposed coils it is not
true, significant part of magnetic field is forced out.
(this can be confirmed easily with simple magnetic field probe)



pic1. Similar setup but with ferrite

Two section of primary coil, about 200 turns each, wire 0.33mm


pic2. Moving test coil along the rod




moving small coil from left to
right, minimum amplitude in the
middle and phase change

18





pic3. Moving test coil and observing amplitude and phase change


Often people tend to believe that bifilar coils does not create magnetic
field and therefore bifilar pickup coils will not load primary coil. It is
difficult to resist checking this again ;-)



pic4. Two pickup coils placed symmetrically



19

pic5. Setup for power extraction
test

top on the primary coil, bottom
on pickup coils, both pairs
connected in opposite

Circuit consumption
Ups = 11.6v, Ips = 8ma, P = 90mW



pic6. Under load

R load = 1k






R,k 0,1 0,2 0,3 0,4 0,5 0,6 0,7 0,8 0,9 1
U,v 1,5 2,2 3,3 4,1 5 5,5 6,2 7 7,5 8,1
P,mW 22,5 24,2 36,3 42 50 50,4 54,9 61,3 62,5 65,6
Tab.1 Voltage on pickup coils vs load resistance


20

pic7. Voltage and power vs load resistance


Some how magic doesnt work and we can see that load affect primary coils


Opposite coils on the ring core

I am continuing fun with opposite coils on ferrite cores and now I decided
test ring core.



pic1. Two coils wound on ring ferrite core

Primary coils parameters:
Two coils about 40 turns each (4m of wire used for each), wire 0.44mm
L1,2 = 2540uH
L1+2 = 9420uH
L1-2 = 540uH
21



pic2. Test setup



pic2a. Test setup, coils arrangement.


Secondary coils same as primary (40 turns each)




pic3. Testing the setup, top voltage on the primary, bottom voltage on
pickup coils




22
R,ohm 1 2 3 4 5 10 20 30 40 50
U,v 0,7 0,8 1 1,2 1,3 1,7 2,2 2,5 2,8 3
P,mW 490,00 320,00 333,33 360,00 338,00 289,00 242,00 208,33 196,00 180,00
Tab1. Measuring voltage vs load resistance

R,ohm 100 200 300 400 500 1000 1500 2000
U,v 3,6 4,2 4,5 4,6 4,7 5 5 5
P,mW 129,60 88,20 67,50 52,90 44,18 25,00 16,67 12,50
Tab1. part 2




pic4. Voltage on the load vs load resistance

23

pic5. Power on the load vs load resistance


It is interesting that this setup shows quite good behavior under load
(but its still not OU, at least in my tests).

24

Reversed Phi transformer

- another interesting setup I would like to show.



pic. Phi transformer, picture from A Practical Guide to Free-Energy
Devices by Patrick Kelly

Instead of rotating magnet and attaching load to the coils, we can connect
coils in opposite and apply some power to them. Then significant part of
magnetic field will be forced out of the core on the points where coils
connects (points A and B). We can put a pickup coil between these two
points.


pic1a. Two variants of winding of pickup coils


pic1. Pickup coil wound on a tube assembled of 8 ring cores (variant 1)

25

pic2. Test setup schematic




pic3. top voltage on primary, bottom voltage on pickup coil, does not
work very well




pic4. Rewound pickup coil (variant 2)


26

pic5. top voltage on primary, bottom voltage on pickup coil for second
setup, works better.

Second attempt seems to be working ok; it has very small effect on primary
under load, but also does not provide much power.


Links:
http://frienergi.alternativkanalen.com/Chapt1.html
http://www.free-energy-info.co.uk/



Scalar coil

If you take two wires and wind two coils together, then connect coils to
have opposing magnetic fields you get non-inductive bifilar coil. Two
variants of connection presented on pic.4 and pic.5. Both variant will have
similar magnetic field configuration.



pic1. Picture and formula for magnetic field produced by one turn of wire
(from MIT 8.02 physics course chapter 9)
27


pic2. Magnetic field of one turn.




pic3. Magnetic field of two turns with opposite currents (top) and sum
(bottom).


28


pic4. Parallel connection



pic5. Serial connection



pic6. Drawing field of scalar coil
top field of separate turns, bottom resulting sum

Please note that this graph again represent only Bz, component of B which is
directed along central axe of the coil.
Dont be confused, there is a magnetic field at the point where Bz = 0, it
is just have vector B perpendicular to z.


29

pic7. Field of two opposed magnets, similar to field of two opposed turns


So lets try taking a closer look on the perpendicular (By) component of
magnetic field of scalar coil.




pic1. Picture from MIT 8.02 course (see 1)



pic2. Formulas for magnetic field (see 1)



30

Strength of By change significantly with distance from the coil (y)
I will draw By at tree fixed distance (3.5, 4, 4.5 cm from the coil central
axe)



pic3. Field of one turn By(z)
red y=4.5, green y=4, blue y=3.5





pic4a. By(z), y = 3.5
Field of two turns
31


pic4b. By(z), y = 4


pic4c. By(z), y = 4.5





32

pic5a. By(z), y = 3.5
Field of 10 turns



pic5b. By(z), y = 4

33

pic5c. By(z), y = 4.5


The simulation use very simple algorithm for integral calculation, it can
give some calculation errors.
However, main point here is that fields of scalar coil are far nonzero
and mainly located outside the coil and core (if it present).

I hope this help to avoid unexpected interference and exposure to magnetic
fields.



Links:
http://web.mit.edu/8.02t/www/materials/StudyGuide/guide09.pdf (1)
http://christopherbradshaw.net/The_Project_Bin/Schumann%20Frequency%20Oscill
ator%20with%20Scalar%20Coil.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bifilar_coil









Free Energy Research Basics




Chapter 5. Displacement current ................................................................................................................ 2
How they do that? .................................................................................................................................. 2
Coaxial transformer with a pipe......................................................................................................... 7
Properties of coaxial transformer ........................................................................................................... 9
Displacement current in capacitor........................................................................................................ 12
Capacitor with a coil on ring core ........................................................................................................ 16
Capacitor with a coil of ferrite rod....................................................................................................... 19
Coil - capacitor ..................................................................................................................................... 24
Aligned and anti-aligned connection.................................................................................................... 27
Coil-capacitor on the ring core............................................................................................................. 30
Chapter 6. Negative resistance ................................................................................................................. 32


























Revision 1

FE R&D group http://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/ferd041/info

2014

2
Chapter 5. Displacement current

How they do that?

I am starting new thread to discuss not very common transformer
arrangements. And for beginning I would like to show some strange
pictures. When I saw these pictures first time, my reaction was How they do
that?


pic1. Voltage across screwdriver enough to light a bulb



pic2. One short wire inside lighting a 12v bulb

3

pic3. Voltage across tweezers leg enough to light a bulb.


pic4. Capacitor placed inside the coil lighting a bulb, primary coil also
capacitor



pic5. Again primary and secondary are capacitors



4

pic6. Transformer layout





pic7. If we take N transformers
with N:1 windings and connect them
like it shown on the picture we will
get 1:1 transformer.

Inductance is proportional to the
square of turns. Ring with 10 turns
has an inductance of 100. Ten rings
in parallel have inductance 10. This
is 10 times greater than a single
turn.
So after consideration it appeared to be just a different step down
transformer setup. After studding this subject more I found that such
transformers used in different equipment and not invention of some smart
guy on FE forum (as it usually claimed :-). See below some examples.




5

pic8. transformer from
modern welding machine



pic9. Picture from http://www.classeradio.com/driver.htm (MOSFET driver)


6

pic10. Picture from http://homepage.tinet.ie/~ei9gq/pa1.html (HF amplifier)


Thats fine, but what about capacitors instead of windings?
Well, it seems that transformer actually dont care whether winding is a
wire or capacitor (some combination of wires or plates). I will show more
of it in next posts ;-)


Links:
http://homepage.tinet.ie/~ei9gq/pa1.html
http://www.classeradio.com/driver.htm

7


Coaxial transformer with a pipe

Lets consider similar setup to what we seen in previous post but this time
we will take a copper pipe as a primary and use just one wire as a secondary
(and put this wire inside the pipe). Lets do a simple experiment and let
physicists explain why and how it works ;-)



pic. A transformer layout




pic1. Experiment with coaxial transformer (only one half used in this
experiment)

8

pic2. Schematic for the experiment



pic3. top voltage on primary
(pipe), bottom - on the secondary
(single wire inside pipe)
connected to a small light bulb.


pic4. top voltage on primary
(pipe), bottom current in
primary (measured on 0.03 ohm
resistor)

Circuit's power consumption:
Ups = 11.6v
Is = 245ma
Ps = 2.7W

Small light bulb from car side lights used as a load.



9

pic5. Similar setup, different driver and ferrite rings used

Amazingly it works! Do you see something unusual or strange in this setup?



Properties of coaxial transformer


So, whats wrong with coaxial transformer? Ok, lets try remember some
physics.


pic1. Magnetic field of wire (see 1 for more details)


10

pic2. Magnetic field of the wire


1) Based on above information we can conclude that magnetic field inside a
pipe (our primary) should be zero (because there is no current inside it).
However why then our transformer works? How voltage/current in secondary
induced? ;-)


pic3. More weird experiments to consider

2) Why phase of current in secondary same as in primary?
(remember oscilloscope sots from previous post ?)
11

3) Let say if use single wire as a secondary we get 10v output voltage.
Now if we take a longer wire and make a coil of it and insert it in side or
primary
Guess what voltage we get ok, same 10v.
So we have different inductance but same voltage, isnt it nice?

We can wound bifilar coil, other different types of coils but result will be
same, same voltage on the ends.
(Still nothing strange ?)

4) We can put capacitor inside pipe, we will get same voltage on it.
What ever we put inside e.g. screwdriver - same voltage will be on its ends



Links:
http://web.mit.edu/8.02t/www/materials/StudyGuide/guide09.pdf (1)

12


Displacement current in capacitor

Some people say that there is a magnetic field inside capacitor, some other
people say that this magnetic field created by displacement current and if
we put a coil inside capacitor we will get some voltage induced on the coil
and if put load on the coil there will be no reaction on the circuit where
capacitor connected.
Despite these claims sounds obscure philosophically lets try consider
them more deeply. (Obscure, because usually we dont see actions without
reactions in nature)

When talking about magnetic field usually picture like this presented


pic1. Calculating magnetic field


and formula like this appeared


pic2. Magnetic field inside thin capacitor according to (2)


We can even draw the magnetic field using above formula
13

pic3. Drawing magnetic field inside capacitor

However if you read explanations you see that there is definetly something
wrong. To illustrate how really bad situation is I would like to quote
explanations about displacement current from (2)




pic6. Quote from (2)


Sure, it is a challenge to understand what is virtual wire and virtual
magnetic field ;-)
(see 2 for more challenges)

I got impression that the only thing guys care about is to make their
equations look nice. And what I actually would like to know - is there
really displacement current and magnetic filed inside capacitor ?

After some search I found these measurements results (see 4)


14

pic4. Magnetic field measured inside capacitor (see 4 for more details)


So it seems that there is really a magnetic field inside capacitor.




15

pic5. Current in capacitors plates (picture from 6)


However this fields caused by currents inside capacitor plates and no
actual current exists inside capacitor. Lets try check other obscure
claims in practice ;-)


Links:
http://web.mit.edu/8.02t/www/materials/StudyGuide/guide13.pdf
http://www.physics.princeton.edu/~mcdonald/examples/displacement.pdf (2)
http://www.phy.duke.edu/~rgb/Class/Electrodynamics/Electrodynamics/node28.ht
ml
https://www.dropbox.com/s/ijvf7o6czndn893/dc_meas.pdf (4)
https://www.dropbox.com/s/8l8uyqwqwk5alsm/809.full.pdf
http://www.ivorcatt.org/icrwiworld78dec1.htm (6)
http://download.antennex.com/preview/Nov02/Nov0602/dca-1.pdf
http://www.antennex.com/shack/Apr07/dc_factfan.pdf
http://www.antennex.com/shack/Aug05/dc-final_piece.pdf
http://itee.uq.edu.au/~aupec/aupec04/papers/PaperID84.pdf
http://www.overunityresearch.com/index.php?topic=210.0


16
Capacitor with a coil on ring core


I took big ferrite ring core and put two aluminum disks (made from cooking
foil) on core sides.
I made about 1/4 length gap in the disks and wound a test coil there.
Here a picture (see layout on pic. 3)


pic1. Capacitor with coil



pic2. Experimental setup, half bridge driver connected to capacitor-with-
coil


17

pic3. Capacitor with coil layout

Parameters measured with LC meter:
C = 33pf
L = 1.1mH (30turns wire 0.7mm)

First I attached a signal generator and tried to see how my setup behaves,
here some pictures







pic4. top-on the output coil, bottom- on capacitor
18

Then I tried same with half bridge driver.


pic5. Rectangular pulses seems
produce better results



pic6. Load resistance 10

Perhaps capacitance is too small.

19

Capacitor with a coil of ferrite rod

After failure with ring capacitor I decided try slightly different
arrangement.
I made a capacitor like this




and wound it on ferrite rod, than I wound a pickup coil on top of it.
I used aluminum foil and got about 2000pf capacitance for my capacitor.




pic1. Half bridge driver, 390uH inductor and capacitor-with-coil wound on
ferrite rod

20
I decided try use resonance in primary; this could help see if load affects
driver circuit.


pic2. Capacitor-with-coil on ferrite rod layout (serial resonance)



R,ohm 50 100 200 300 400 500 1000 2000 3000
U,v 0,7 1,28 2,4 3,6 4,6 5,2 7,8 9,6 10,2
P,mW 9,8 16,38 28,8 43,2 52,9 54,08 60,84 46,08 34,68


It seems that load does not affect the much input! I can see even in some
cases that amplitude on capacitor increased under load, but Pin/Pout ratio
is far from 1. If we manage to optimize the geometry and the driver
perhapswe can get something interesting ;-)


pic3. Voltage vs load resistance


21

pic4. Power vs load resistance

I also tried longer pickup coil and parallel resonance in primary.





pic5. Experimental setup with longer pickup coil


22

pic6. Capacitor-with-coil on ferrite rod layout (parallel resonance)



R,ohm 50 130 250 500 1000 1500 2000 3000 4200 5200 6200
U,v 0,8 2 4 6,4 10 12,5 16 20,8 27,2 28,8 30
P,mW 12,8 30,77 64 81,92 100 104,2 128 144,2 176,2 159,5 145,2



pic7. top on the capacitor, bottom on the coil



23


pic8. Voltage vs load resistance


pic9. Power vs load resistance

I thought that this is interesting and I continued efforts in this
direction.

24
Coil - capacitor

I am continuing with weird transformers setups. After some experiments I
found out that we can make a capacitor and wind it on ferrite core. We will
have a capacitor and each its plate became an inductor.



Layout of coil/capacitor, two foil stripes isolated with scotch tape and
wound into RM ferrite core.



pic1. Coil-cap on RM10 core

Stripes length = 30cm, width = 10mm
Measured capacitance C
13
= 1000pf,
Inductance L
12
= 828uH (about 10 turns)



pic2. Experimental setup 1

25
We have a capacitor (points 1,4) and it is also a primary coil. At the same
time we can use one of plates as a secondary coil (points 3,4) to connect
some load.



pic3. top voltage in point 1, bottom voltage on resistor (point 3)




pic4. Resonance setup 1 (serial resonance inductor + our capacitor 14)

We can have resonance in this setup by adding extra inductor and using
corresponding frequency.


pic5. top voltage in point 1, bottom voltage on resistor (point 3)

26


pic6. Resonance setup 2 (parallel with extra inductor)



pic7. top voltage in point 1, bottom voltage on resistor (point 3),
frequency too small for resonance on this picture.


In all these setups we can also use extra normal winding as a secondary
and our capacitor as a primary winding.

27


Aligned and anti-aligned connection

Thinking more about different combinations and how coil-capacitor can be
used I found that there are two different connections possible.


pic1. Experimental setup with coil-capacitor


pic2. Two connections

When we use points 1,2 as a capacitor connection currents in plates will
flow in opposite directions and will have anti-aligned magnetic fields. But
if we use points 1,4 currents in plates will flow in same direction and
will have aligned magnetic fields. In both cases external circuit will see
our coil-capacitor as a capacitor.


28

pic3. aligned connection

top voltage on the driver
connected to our capacitor (point
1, 4 connected to the ground);
bottom voltage on free plate
end (point 3)

Found resonance and apparently it
depends on the length of the
plates.


pic4. Effect of load resistor (1
connected to 3,4)



pic5. Anti-aligned connection

top voltage on the driver
connected to our capacitor (point
1, 3 connected to the ground);
bottom voltage on free plate
end (point 4)

(same voltage scale on top and
bottom)


29

pic6. Same as pic.5, but bigger
scale on bottom


After all these exercises it seems that coil-capacitor behaves more like a
transmission line (line with distributed inductance and capacitance)


Links:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_line



30

Coil-capacitor on the ring core

First successful experiments with coil-capacitor were performed on RM cores;
it was interesting for me to see if it will work same way on core with
different shape, so I made a coil-capacitor on ferrite ring core.



pic. Coil-capacitor layout, prepared to be wound on the core

I used foil stripes with length 30cm and width 15mm.
I got capacitance 3400pf and inductance 270uH


pic1. Coil-capacitor on a ring core (Epcos N30 34x20,5x12,5)



pic2. Aligned and anti-aligned connection


I tried how aligned and anti-aligned connection works

31

pic3. Anti-aligned connection (1-3)

top voltage on the driver
connected to our capacitor (point 1,
3 connected to the ground);
bottom voltage on free plate end
(point 4)



pic4. Aligned connection (1-4)

top voltage on the driver
connected to our capacitor (point 1,
4 connected to the ground);
bottom voltage on free plate end
(point 3)




Behavior looks very similar to coil-capacitor made using RM-10 core.


Links:
http://www.ferroxcube.com/prod/assets/rm10ilp.pdf









Free Energy Research Basics




Chapter 6. Negative resistance ................................................................................................................... 2
Examples of NDR with transistors......................................................................................................... 6
Zener diode............................................................................................................................................. 8
Core saturation ....................................................................................................................................... 9
LC circuit as negative resistance.......................................................................................................... 11
Avalanche breakdown effect in transistor ............................................................................................ 14
Broomstick antenna.............................................................................................................................. 16
Spark gap.............................................................................................................................................. 17
Shorting ................................................................................................................................................ 19


























Revision 1

FE R&D group http://groups.yahoo.com/neo/groups/ferd041/info

2014

2
Chapter 6. Negative resistance

- is next topic I would like to discuss.

Every one (probably) remember the Ohms law, it relies on linear behavior of
resistors. However we see in nature circuits with non-linear resistance,
also we can create such circuits ourselves. Here we will take a closer look
on negative resistance.



pic1. Normal resistance behavior

Negative resistance is a property of some electric circuits where an
increase in the current results in a decreased voltage. This is in contrast
to a simple ohmic resistor, which exhibits an increase in voltage under the
same conditions.

There are two types of negative resistance usually discussed, one with N-
shape and one with S-shape I-V characteristic.

pic2. N type negative resistance I-V characteristic

3

pic2a. Here a simulation which tries to create N type of negative resistance
top R(U), bottom I(U)

I think it is obvious that even resistance changes here overall behavior of
circuit will be similar to normal resistance, so all power in the circuit
comes from power source. Often people give this as an argument when they
saying that its negative differential resistance and no power comes from
it. Yes, it is true but only for this type of NDR.

Second type of negative resistance is S type.


pic3. S type negative resistance I-V characteristic

Here some more consideration required because we have to increase voltage
and decrease it in order to enter negative resistance region. I tried make a
simulation where voltage grows linearly and then decrease back to zero.


4

pic3a. Simulation of S type NDR, top-voltage, middle-R(U),bottom-I(U)

I think it is obvious that in some cases circuit with negative resistance
have to deliver extra power into circuit in order to implement S shaped I-
V curve. (Even Wikipedia admits it :-)

So theoretically, if we subject some circuit with S type NDR to short pulses
we could have some extra power (Short pulses needed because we have to enter
negative resistance region with a minimal energy loses).

I tried to illustrate this with the next simulation



pic4. Circuit for energy balance estimation


5

pic5. Simulation of circuit shown on pic.4



pic6.Energy consumed from power source pic7. Energy on load (R1)

I think this is very interesting theoretical conclusion which can help us in
a search for FE. There are many natural circuits with S shaped NDR
characteristic.

I will try list different NDR circuits in next posts.


Links:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ohm%27s_law
http://users.tpg.com.au/ldbutler/NegativeResistance.htm
http://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/S-Type+Negative-
Resistance+Semiconductor+Device
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Circuit_Idea/Revealing_the_Mystery_of_Negative_
Impedance
http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/Circuit_Idea/Negative_Resistance
http://www.sparkbangbuzz.com/els/zincosc-el.htm


6

Examples of NDR with transistors

Lets see two example circuits with artificially created N-shape negative
resistance type.



pic1. N-shape negative resistance circuit using transistors



pic2. I-V curve and R(I) characteristic


7

pic3. Basic Lambda diode implementation



pic4. I-V curve of Lambda diode

This lambda diode replacement circuit used very often in different RF
applications.


Links:
http://electronbunker.ca/NegativeResistance.html
http://www.zen22142.zen.co.uk/Theory/neg_resistance/negres.htm
http://users.tpg.com.au/ldbutler/NegResDipMeter.htm

8

Zener diode

- also can be seen as an negative resistance in some cases


pic1. Test circuit



pic2. U,I and R=U/I for zener diode


9

pic3. top-R(U),bottom - I(U)


Links:
http://www.fairchildsemi.com/ds/BZ/BZX84C6V8.pdf
http://www.onsemi.com/pub_link/Collateral/HBD854-D.PDF



Core saturation

We saw that inductance decreases due to saturation; this gives us
interesting natural non linear resistance behavior.


pic1. Looped flyback


10

pic2. V,I and R=V/I




pic3. I-V and R(V) graphs


11
LC circuit as negative resistance

Core saturation in inductor together with capacitor can behave as negative
resistance. This often causes unwanted oscillations in power lines and
serious efforts made to prevent it.


pic1. Parallel LC as NDR



pic2. Simulating parallel LC as NDR


12

pic3. Simulating parallel LC as NDR (top-R(U), bottom- I-V characteristic)



pic4. Serial LC as NDR


13

pic5. Simulating serial LC as NDR



pic6. Simulating serial LC as NDR (top-R(U), bottom- I-V characteristic)


14
Avalanche breakdown effect in transistor

Almost any bipolar transistor can be used as a negative resistance. Below
shown S type I-V curve for npn transistor. (Unfortunately cant find any
better quality picture)



pic1. I-V curve for reverse biased npn transistor



15

pic2. Test schematics with transistor in avalanche mode (see 1 for more
details)





pic3. Waveforms for above circuits





Links:
http://jlnlabs.online.fr/cnr/negosc.htm (1)
http://www.onsemi.com/pub_link/Collateral/AN1628-D.PDF
http://www.elektor.com/magazines/2012/september/electronics-for-starters-
%287%29.2235967.lynkx (3)

16
Broomstick antenna

Broomstick antenna is known for a very long time, since the 30s of the last
century, and is sometimes still used as radio receivers for the LW and MW
bands.



pic1. The antenna has S-type NDR characteristic



pic2. Construction of broomstick antenna



Links:
http://translate.google.com/translate?sl=ru&tl=en&js=n&prev=_t&hl=en&ie=UTF-
8&u=http%3A%2F%2Fqrp.ru%2Farticles%2F56-ra3aae-articles%2F474-
%D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%82%D0%B5%D0%BB%D0%BA%D0%B0&act=url
http://www.km5kg.com/negative.htm

17
Spark gap

The spark gap is most common effect used by FE researchers since 19
th

century. However not many researchers recognize it as S type NDR and
therefore good candidate for energy source itself.


pic1. Test circuit with spark gap



pic2. Spark gap simulation

18

pic3. Same as pic.2 but larger time scale




pic4. Voltage versus current characteristics for neon gas (turn picture 90
degree to see S shape I-V NDR)


Voltage versus current characteristics for neon gas at 1 Torr pressure
between flat electrodes spaced 50 cm. A-D dark discharge, D-I glow
discharge, I-K arc. A-B represent non-self-sustaining discharge and
collection of spontaneously-generated ions. B-D is the Townsend region,
where the cascade multiplication of carriers takes place. D-E is the
transition to a glow discharge, breakdown of the gas. E-G represents
transition to a normal glow; in the regions around G, voltage is nearly
constant for varying current. The region G-I represents abnormal glow, as
current density rises. I-J represents transition to an arc discharge.

*picture and text from (1)


19

Links:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electric_discharge (1)
http://mysite.du.edu/~jcalvert/phys/dischg.htm




Shorting

The idea of shorting transformer secondary often discussed on EVGRAY group.
Shorting creates an artificial negative resistance and oscillations.


pic1. Model



pic2. Simulation without shorting switch

20


pic3. Simulation with switch active



In last posts I tried to show different types of NDR and theoretical
possibility to get some extra energy. This is just an idea. I hope it helps
somebody who wants research this subject deeper.
















FE R&D Group