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PEPERIKSAAN PERCUBAAN SPM


2014
SKEMA PEMARKAHAN
BIOLOGY
KERTAS 2
Bahagian A
No Marking !h"#" Mark
1a A$%" &o &a&" &h" #"aning o' "n()#"
Sample answers
Is a biological catalysts
That regulate (almost all) the cellular reactions
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1
Total=2
b.i A$%" o &a&" &h" organ &ha& "!r"&" r"nnin
Stomach 1
b.ii A$%" &o "*+%ain &h" r"aon ,h) ra&" o' r"nnin i &h" high"&
Sample answers
P1: 3!"#3$!"#3%!" is the optimum temperature
P2: en&yme catalyses a reaction at ma'imum rate
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1
c A$%" &o "*+%ain &h" "''"!& o' high"r +H on r"nnin a!&i-i&)
Sample answers
P1: rennin # rate o( en&yme acti)ity#action *ecreases # slower ## coagulation mil+
slower ## caseinogen is not con)erte* into casein
P2: p, - causes al+aline me*ium
P3: rennin re.uires aci*ic me*ium
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1
/ny 2
*.i A$%" &o na#" an. "*+%ain &h" "n()#" on h"%+ing r"#o-" &ain on !%o&h"
Sample answers
P1: protease # amylase # lipase
P2: is a**e* to washing pow*er
P3: ri* # *igest protein # starch # (at
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1
*.ii P1: cellulase is use*
P2: *igest cell wall (o( seawee*s)
Total = 12
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1
2a.i A$%" &o na#" &r/!&/r" P
Sample answers
Palisa* mesophyl
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ii A$%" &o na#" 0 an. R
Sample answers
0: 'ylem
1: phloem
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1
b A$%" &o "*+%ain ho, &i/" 0 i a.a+&". 'or &ran+or&a&ion.
Sample answers
21: 'ylem )essel is hollow # narrow #absence o( protoplasm#cytoplasm
22: continuous tube # open at both en*s # 3oint en* to en*
23: the wall is ligni(ie* ## it is thic+ene* with lignin
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3
24: impermeable to water
2: allow continuous (low o( water ## increase#create the capillary action ##
a*hesion an* cohesion (orce
1252"T: any e'planation on trachie*
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/ny 2
c.i A$%" &o "*+%ain ,h) &h" !on.i&ion o' &h" !"%% i '%a!!i.
Sample answers
P1: the solution is hypertonic compare* to the cell
P2: water *i((uses out )ia osmosis
P3: )acuole become smaller
P6: plasma membrane is *etache* # pulle* away ((rom the cell wall)
P4: cell is (lacci* # plasmolyse* ## cell un*ergoes plasmolysis
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1
c.ii A$%" &o "*+%ain ho, &o o-"r!o#" &h" !on.i&ion in or."r &o #ak" /r" &h"
+%an& /-i-a%
Sample answers
P1: immerse into hypotonic solution
P2: this causes water *i((uses into the cell (by osmosis)
P3: )acuole becomes bigger # (ille* with water
P6: cell is turgi* ## turgor pressure is create*
P4: plant is (resh (an* upright)
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/ny 2
* A$%" &o "*+%ain &h" r"aon ,h) &h" ai%or !anno& .rink &h" "a,a&"r
Sample answers
P1: *rin+ing seawater causes bo*y (lui* becomes hypertonic
P2: hence7 bo*y cells (lacci* ## re* bloo* cells crenate*
P3: less substances will be transporte*
P6: so7 bo*y system will be less e((icient ## negati)e e((ect to bo*y system
Total = 12
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1
3a.i A$%" &o na#" &h" #/!%" o' $o&h organi#
Sample answers
2arthworm: longitu*inal (muscle) an* circular (muscle)
8ish: myotome
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1
3a.ii A$%" &o na#" &h" &)+" o' k"%"&on 'or $o&h organi#
Sample answers
2arthworm: hy*rostatic (s+eleton)
8ish: en*os+eleton
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1
b A$%" &o ."ri$" &h" #"!hani# o' %o!o#o&ion in &h" "ar&h,or# 1#o-ing
'or,ar.)
Sample answers
Set 1
91: when circular muscle# muscle : contract7 longitu*inal muscle # muscle ;
rela'es
92: earthworm becomes thinner an* longer
Set 2
S1: when longitu*inal muscle # muscle ; contract7 circular muscle # muscle :
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1
4
rela'es
S2: earthworm becomes thic+er an* shorter
/ny one set
1
c A$%" &o "*+%ain ,ha& i &h" "''"!& i' in&"r-"r&"$ra% .i! i a$"n& in -"r&"$ra%
!o%/#n
Sample answers
81: < is inter)ertebral *isc
21: the )ertebral column can=t mo)e # shoc+ is not absorbe* ## increase (riction
(between )ertebral) lea*s to bac+ pain
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1
* A$%" &o ."!ri$" #/!/%ar .)&ro+h)
Sample answers
81: is cause* by progressi)e *egeneration an* wea+nesses o( s+eletal muscle
P1: because* o( mutate* gene on ; chromosome
P2: so mainly a((ects boys
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/ny 2
e A$%" &o "*+%ain &h" +oi$i%i&) "''"!& i' &h" ri$ &a$ on .ia+hrag#
Sample answers
P1: >amage # ruin the *iaphragm
P2: *iaphragm looses # less elasticity
P3: )olume o( thoracic ca)ity # air pressure cannot be controlle*
P6: *i((iculties in breathing
Total = 12
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/ny 2
6a.i A$%" &o na#" organ A an. hor#on" B
Sample answers
?rgan / : Pancreas
,ormone @: Insulin
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1
a.ii A$%" &o "*+%ain ,h) $%oo. g%/!o" %"-"% ri"
Sample answers
P1: because carry out )igorous e'ercise ## sweating
P2: because o( meal # (oo* # salte* (oo* # carbonate* *rin+ inta+e
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1
a.iii A$%" &o "*+%ain ,ha& ,i%% ha++"n i' o/r $%oo. g%/!o" %"-"% i 20#g3100#%
Sample answers
P1: negati)e (ee*bac+ mechanism wor+s
P2: pancreas (is stimulate*) to secrete glucagon
P3: glucagon stimulates li)er to brea+*own glycogen into glucose
P6: glucagon promotes lipi* brea+*own
P4: which releases (atty aci*s
P: that can be metabolise* (or energy
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/ny 3
b A$%" &o "*+%ain &h" +ro!" o!!/r a& +ro*i#a% !on-o%/&". &/$/% i' a +"ron
/n."rgo" +or& a!&i-i&)
Sa#+%" an,"r
P1: > is pro'imal con)olute* tubul
P1: (the process is) reabsorption
P2: more water is reabsorbe*
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/ny 2
c A$%" &o "*+%ain $ri"'%) Parkinon4 .i"a"
5
Sample answers
P1: It is progressi)e *isor*er o( the central ner)ous system
P2: it a((ects muscular mo)ement
P3: causing tremor # trembling o( arms # 3aws # legs # (ace
P6: *i((iculty in maintaining posture # impaire* balance an* coor*ination
Total = 12
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/ny 3
4a.i A$%" &o na#" hor#on" 5 an. E
Sample answers
,ormone >: 9S, # luteinising hormone
,ormone 2: 8S, # (ollicle stimulating hormone
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1
a.ii A$%" &o "*+%ain &h" '/n!&ion o' hor#on" 5 an. E
Sample answers
,ormone >: stimulates o)ulation # growth o( corpus luteum # secretion o(
oestrogen an* progesterone
,ormone 2: stimulates growth o( (ollicles (in o)ary)
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1
a.iii A$%" &o r"%a&" &h" %"-"% o' hor#on 6 1+rog"&"ron"7 &o!hang" in &hi!kn" o'
&h" "n.o#"&ri/#
Sample answers
P1: ,ormone 8 is progesterone
P2: (the hormone) is to maintain the thic+ening o( en*ometrium # uterus wall
P3: the higher le)el o( progesterone7 the thic+er the en*ometrium # uterus wall
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/ny 2
b.i A$%" &o &a&" &h" +ro!" in &h" +ro./!&ion o' +"r# an. o-/#
Sample answers
Aeiosis 1
ii A$%" &o &a&" &h" o&h"r &,in an. .i''"r"n!" $"&,""n &h" &,in
Sample answers
I*entical twins BCon i*entical # (raternal
twins D 1 mar+
>1. / sperm (ertilises an o)um >1. 2 sperms (ertilises 2
o)ums seperately
>2. (orm an embryo ## *e)elop
into a (oetus
>2. (orms 2 embryos ##
*e)elop into 2 (eotus
>3. has one placenta >3. has 2 placenta
>6. so7 sharing placenta >6. has its own placenta
>4. same genetic constituent >6. *i((erent genetic
constituent
>. same physical (eatures >. *i((erent physical
(eatures
>$. same gen*er >$. same # *i((erent gen*er
/ny 2 E 1B
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1
c A$%" &o "*+%ain ,h) ann/a% gro,&h ring .i&in!& in ,oo. 'ro# &"#+"ra&"
'or"&
6
Sample answers
P1: the acti)ity o( )ascular cambium is not uni(orm throughout the year
P2: in spring7 the cambium is more acti)e
P3: an* (orms larger an* thinnerFwalle* 'ylem )essels
P6: in autumn7 the cambium less acti)e
P4: so (orms narrower )essels# (ibre
Total = 12
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/ny 2
BAHAGIAN B
No Marking !h"#" Mark
7
a A$%" &o "*+%ain &h" .ig"&ion o' !ar$oh).ra&"
Sample answers
P D mouth
P1 : /mylase hy*rolyses# *igests # brea+*own starch to maltose
P2 : in neutral me*ium
0 D *uo*enum
P3 : /mylase completes#hy*rolyses the *igestion o( starch
P6 : to maltose
P4 : in al+aline me*ium.
1 D ileum
P : Aaltase hy*rolyses # *igests # brea+*own maltose
P$ : to glucose
P% : in al+aline me*ium
P- : /bsorption o( glucose into the epithelial cells
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/ny 1G
b A$%" &o &a&" &h" .i"a" an. &h" "''"!& &o &h" +"ron
Sample answers
81 D /rteriosclerosis
P1 : a clot (ormation
P2 : cause* o( ta+ing e'cessi)e cholesterol
P3 : I( a clot (orms in a coronary artery7 can lea* to heart attac+
P6 : I( a clot bloc+s bloo* (low to the brain Dstro+e
82 D 2mphysema
P4 : The e((iciency o( gaseous e'change through the respiratory
sur(ace is greatly re*uce*
83 F lung cancer
P : cause* by *eposite* o( tar in the bronchioles
86 F @ronchitis
P$ : respiratory *isease in which the airways become in(lame* *ue to an irritant
or an in(ection
84 D 1ic+ets
P% : (a *isease characterise* by) poor bone (ormation in chil*ren.
P- : lac+ o( Hitamin >
Total = 2G
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/ny 1G
No Marking !h"#" Mark
$a A$%" &o "*+%ain ,h) ha"#o+hi%ia //a%%) a''"!& #a%"
Sample answers
8
P1 : Se'Flin+e* *isease is a here*itary *isease transmitte* (rom
parents to the o((spring.
P2 : haemophilia is cause* by recessi)e allele (orme* on se'
chromosome ;
P3 : Cormal *ominant gene on ; chromosome is represente* by ;
,
P6 : 1ecessi)e gene on ; chromosome is represente* by ;
h
P4 : Aale is homo&ygous7 recei)ing only one ; chromosome (rom
their mother
P : 8emales recei)es ; chromosomes both (rom their parents
P$ : Aale has one allele to control the pro*uction o( clotting (actor
but (emale has a pair o( alleles
P% : 8emale maybe homo&ygous *ominant (;
,
;
,
) or hetero&ygous
( ;
,
;
h
) (or bloo* clotting
P- : 8emale with hetero&ygous (or bloo* clotting is a carrier (or
the *isease.
P1G : a carrier *oes not show the symptom or su((er the *isease
but can transmit the *isease to the ne't generation.
P11 : / (emale can only ha)e the *isease i( she is homo&ygous
recessi)e. (;
h
;
h
)
P12 : Aale with ;
h
# recessi)e allele on ; chromosome will get the
*isease
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/ny 1G
b.i A$%" &o .ra, a !h"#a&i! .iagra# !orr"!&%)
Sample answers
Ieys:
, D curly hair @ D brown eyes
h D straight hair b D blue eyes
Parents : Aoh* /minah
8enotype: Straight hair7 blue eyes "urly hair7 brown eyes
Jenotpye: hhbb ,h@b
Jametes hb hb hb hb
,@ ,h@b ,h@b ,h@b ,h@b
,b ,hbb ,hbb ,hbb ,hbb
h@ hh@b hh@b hh@b hh@b
hb hhbb hhbb hhbb hhbb

P1 = 1
P2 = 1
P3 = 1
BP6 = 2
1 K =2
16F14K = 1
L 16K = G
P4 = 1

b.ii A$%" &o ."!ri$" &h" a++%i!a&ion o' &"# !"%%


Sample answers
P 1
P 2
P 3 = gametes
B P 6 = genotype 8
1
(1 genotypes)
P 4 = phenotype 8
1
M (6) curly hair7 brown eyesM (6) curly hair blue eyesM
(6) straight hair brown eyesM (6) straight hair blue eyes
9
P1 : / basic cell which can *i)i*e an* *e)elop into cells with
particular (unctions. ## special cell with the ability to repro*uce itsel( o)er
long perio*s
P2: (two types o( stem cell7) embryonic stem cells an* a*ult stem cells
P3 : the cells can *i((erentiate to (orm specialise* (bo*y) cells
P6 : the cells # the tissues that can be use* in the treatment o( in3ury # *iseases.
P4: (stem cells) can also be obtaine* (rom (oetal tissues (rom terminate*
pregnancies
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/ny 6
%a A$%" &o "*+%ain &h" a.a+&a&ion o' #angro-" +%an&
Sample answers
81 D /)icennia sp. Sonneratia sp. 1hi&ophora sp.7 @rugueira sp
82 : ha)e cable roots # prop roots
P2 : to support themsel)es (rom so(t mu**y soil
83 : @reathing roots calle* pneumatophores
P3 : gaseous e'change ta+es place
86 : 9enticels
P6 : gaseous e'change occurs through pores
84 : 9ea)es are co)ere* by a thic+ layer o( cuticle
P4 : re*uces transpiration *uring hot *ays
8 : 9ea)es are thic+ an* succulent
P : able to store water
8$ : ,y*atho*es
P$ : where e'cess salt is e'crete*
48 an* 4P
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1G
%b.i A$%" &o &a&" an. "*+%ain &h" in&"ra!&ion
Sample answers
81 D Autualism
P1: relationship between root no*ules o( a leguminous plant an* 1hi&obium sp.
P2 : @oth bene(it
82 D Parasitism
P3: The tapeworm li)es within the tissue o( their host.
P6 : ?ne organism bene(its while the other is harme*
/ny 4
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b.ii A$%" &o &a&" ,ha& ar" +a&hog"n an. &h" #"&ho. !on&ro%%ing +a&hog"n
Sample answers
8 D Pathogens are microorganisms that cause *iseases.
P1 : /ntibiotics such as penicillin can +ill bacteria or inhibit their
growth
P2: Haccines can stimulate the pro*uction o( antibo*ies.
P3: /ntiseptics can inhibit the growth o( microorganisms.
P6: 8ormal*ehy*e is use* to +ill microorganisms on the sur(ace
o( (loors7 buil*ings an* (urniture.
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4
10
Total = 2G
No Marking !h"#" Mark
-a A$%" &o an,"r &h" i#+a!& o' h/#an a!&i-i&i"
Sample answers
8 D The phenomenon is *e(orestation
81 D soil erosion
P1 : remo)al an* thinning o( the soil layer *ue to physical an* climate processes
such as high rain(all
P2: causes the lan* to be *eplete* o( minerals an* natural resources.
82 D lan*sli*es
P3: when it rains hea)ily (or a long perio* o( time.
P6 : the ero*e* soil is then carrie* away by mo)ing water
83 : cause* (lash (loo*s
P4 : *epletion o( water catchment areas.
P : the remo)al o( bases o( numerous (oo* webs
P$ : the loss o( habitats (or many species o( (lora an* (auna
P% : less o'ygen is release* by plants.
P- : *istrupts normal weather patterns
P1G : causing climatic changes.
/ny 1G
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a.ii A$%" &o ."!ri$" &h" ,a) &o o-"r!o#" &h" i&/a&ion
Sample answers
P1 : 8orests must be manage* properly
P2 : The *e)elopment must go on without *amaging the resources
o( the country
P3 : Implementation o( laws
P6 : 1e(orestationF replanting o( trees.
P4 : "on*ucting restoration programmes to restore *amage* habitats.
P : Selecti)e har)esting only mature trees are remo)e*
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b A$%" &o "*+%ain &h" i#+a!& o' &hinning o' &h" o(on" %a)"r an. g%o$a% ,ar#ing
Sample answers
Thinning o( o&one layer
T1: cataract
T2: har*ening o( cornea
T3: s+in cancer # melanoma
T6: abnormal # uncontrolle* cell *i)ision ## any suitable e'palanation
T4: genetic *isor*er# *isease
T: mutation
T$: *ecreasing # low immunity system
T%: *estruction o( immunity system
T-: NH ra*iation +ills microorganisms#phytoplan+ton
T1G: NH re*uces the nutrient content an* crop yiel*s
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11
Jlobal warming
J1 : agricultural acti)ities will be *istrupte*.
J2: the change in weather patterns will also change the *istribution o( species##
climatic change
J3 : warmer climates7 pests an* )ectors may sprea* to new areas.
J6 : lea*s to an increase in the 2arth=s temperature.

Total = 2G
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/ny 2
(rom T
an* J
6
EN5 O6 MARKING SCHEME