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10.

Dynamic soil properties: what


10. Dynamic soil properties: what
are they and why do we care?
are they and why do we care?
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Soil stability kit (aggregate
Soil stability kit (aggregate
stability) introduction
stability) introduction
Objectives
Objectives
1. 1. Understand difference between Understand difference between
(relatively) static and dynamic soil (relatively) static and dynamic soil
properties properties
2. 2. Understand when each type of soil Understand when each type of soil
property is used property is used
(Relatively) static vs.
(Relatively) static vs.
Dynamic Soil Properties
Dynamic Soil Properties
What
What

s the difference?
s the difference?
Why do we care?
Why do we care?
(Relatively) static vs. dynamic soil
(Relatively) static vs. dynamic soil
properties
properties
u u (Relatively) static properties: (Relatively) static properties:
are used to define soil series (and therefore ecological
sites)
change little in response to differences in management
and vegetation
u u Dynamic properties: Dynamic properties:
are used to define the relative condition of the soil
change in response to differences in management
are related to changes in erodibility, infiltration, nutrient
availability, etc...
Inherent (static) vs. dynamic soil
Inherent (static) vs. dynamic soil
properties
properties
u u (Relatively) static properties associated with: (Relatively) static properties associated with:
parent material and soil profile development
(mineralogy, depth, texture)
landscape position (long-term source/sink for
sediment, water and nutrients)
u u Dynamic properties associated with: Dynamic properties associated with:
vegetation
soil biotic activity (from bacteria to badgers)
above-ground disturbance and short-term
erosion/deposition (surface texture, infiltration
capacity, microbiotic crusts)
(Relatively) static
(Relatively) static
soil properties used
soil properties used
to identify ecological sites
to identify ecological sites
u u Soil depth Soil depth
u u Soil texture (each depth) Soil texture (each depth)
u u Type of clay (cracking vs. non Type of clay (cracking vs. non- -
cracking) cracking)
(Relatively) dynamic
(Relatively) dynamic
soil properties
soil properties
used for assessment and monitoring
used for assessment and monitoring
u u Bulk density (compaction) Bulk density (compaction)
u u Organic matter Organic matter
u u Type of structure Type of structure
u u Aggregate stability Aggregate stability
u u Nutrient availability Nutrient availability
u u Redox Redox potential (primarily flooded soils) potential (primarily flooded soils)
u u pH (primarily agricultural soils) pH (primarily agricultural soils)
u u Moisture content Moisture content
Why dynamic soil properties?
Why dynamic soil properties?
u u Additional information on current and future Additional information on current and future
condition condition
u u Possible early Possible early- -warning indicators of warning indicators of
changes in plant community changes in plant community
Microsite Microsite conditions for regeneration conditions for regeneration
Alteration of resource supply capacity Alteration of resource supply capacity
Spatial and temporal distribution of resources Spatial and temporal distribution of resources
Change in processes responsible for nutrient cycling Change in processes responsible for nutrient cycling
and energy flow and energy flow
Changes in root environment Changes in root environment
"If one agrees that a variety of current and "If one agrees that a variety of current and
potential plant communities can occur potential plant communities can occur
above a conservation threshold for a above a conservation threshold for a
particular ecological site, then particular ecological site, then
monitoring vegetation has to take a monitoring vegetation has to take a
backseat to monitoring soils." backseat to monitoring soils."
-- -- Neil West, Kirk McDaniel, E. Lamar Smith, Paul Neil West, Kirk McDaniel, E. Lamar Smith, Paul Tueller Tueller and and
Steve Leonard. 1994. Monitoring and Interpreting Ecological Steve Leonard. 1994. Monitoring and Interpreting Ecological
Integrity of Arid and Semi Integrity of Arid and Semi- -Arid Lands of the Western United States. Arid Lands of the Western United States.
New Mexico Range Improvement Task Force. New Mexico Range Improvement Task Force.
"If one agrees that a variety of current and "If one agrees that a variety of current and
potential plant communities can occur potential plant communities can occur
above a conservation threshold for a above a conservation threshold for a
particular ecological site, then particular ecological site, then
monitoring vegetation has to take a monitoring vegetation has to take a
backseat to monitoring soils." backseat to monitoring soils."
-- -- Neil West, Kirk McDaniel, E. Lamar Smith, Paul Neil West, Kirk McDaniel, E. Lamar Smith, Paul Tueller Tueller and and
Steve Leonard. 1994. Monitoring and Interpreting Ecological Steve Leonard. 1994. Monitoring and Interpreting Ecological
Integrity of Arid and Semi Integrity of Arid and Semi- -Arid Lands of the Western United States. Arid Lands of the Western United States.
New Mexico Range Improvement Task Force. New Mexico Range Improvement Task Force.
Problem: fewreliable, rapid field indicators Problem: fewreliable, rapid field indicators
have been tested on rangelands have been tested on rangelands
Qualitative Rangeland Health Indicators Qualitative Rangeland Health Indicators
Associatedwith Dynamic Soil Properties Associatedwith Dynamic Soil Properties
1. Rills 1. Rills
2. Water flow 2. Water flow
patterns patterns
3. Pedestals and 3. Pedestals and
terracettes terracettes
5. Gullies 5. Gullies
6. Blowouts and 6. Blowouts and
deposition areas deposition areas
8. Soil surface 8. Soil surface
erosion resistance erosion resistance
9. Soil surface loss 9. Soil surface loss
or degradation or degradation
11. Compaction layer 11. Compaction layer
Soil Stability Kit Use and Interpretation
Soil Stability Kit Use and Interpretation
for Indicator 8
for Indicator 8
(Soil Surface Erosion Resistance)
(Soil Surface Erosion Resistance)
Outline
Outline
u u Soil stability kit Soil stability kit
design and use
interpretation
application: on-site inventory & monitoring
directly applicable to indicator #8
related to indicator #9
u u Integration of soil measurements into Integration of soil measurements into
inventory and monitoring programs inventory and monitoring programs
Why soil (surface) structure?
Why soil (surface) structure?
u u Soil surface Soil surface
characteristics characteristics
control capture and control capture and
retention of retention of
water and nutrients water and nutrients
u u Soil structure is correlated with: Soil structure is correlated with:
erodibility
soil organic matter cycling
infiltration capacity & water and nutrient retention
recovery processes (e.g. soil biotic activity)
Why a field kit?
Why a field kit?
RELATIONSHIP RELATIONSHIP TO TO FIELD FIELD
u u Rangeland soils highly Rangeland soils highly
stratified, esp. surface stratified, esp. surface
u u Soil structure destroyed by Soil structure destroyed by
sampling & transport. sampling & transport.
u u Level of lab replication often Level of lab replication often
insufficient to characterize insufficient to characterize
site: most analyses from pits site: most analyses from pits
in plant interspaces in plant interspaces
USER USER ACCESSIBILITY ACCESSIBILITY
u u Relationship of results Relationship of results
to system function can to system function can
be readily explained be readily explained
u u Permits immediate Permits immediate
interpretation and interpretation and
facilitates additional facilitates additional
sampling when results sampling when results
unclear unclear
Note: After collection the samples were put into Note: After collection the samples were put into
plastic bags and then put in back packs to be plastic bags and then put in back packs to be
hauled from the sites. These were then tossed hauled from the sites. These were then tossed
into the back of vehicles. They were then into the back of vehicles. They were then
unloaded at the field offices and eventually sent unloaded at the field offices and eventually sent
to (a collection point), then put in boxes and sent to (a collection point), then put in boxes and sent
to lab. The soil samples used to run aggregates to lab. The soil samples used to run aggregates
were very disturbed. were very disturbed.
Soil stability kit: design
Soil stability kit: design
Materials Materials
2 18 2 18- -cell cell parts parts or or
tackle tackle boxes boxes
18 sieves made from 18 sieves made from
1 1 PVC and alum. PVC and alum.
window screen window screen
Twosetsof sievesarerecommended Twosetsof sievesarerecommended
for anintensivemonitoringprogram. for anintensivemonitoringprogram.
Easytomake; shouldbeavailable Easytomake; shouldbeavailable
through throughGemplers Gemplersin2001. in2001.
Soil stability kit: use
Soil stability kit: use
(2) Immerse in (2) Immerse in dI dI water. water.
(3) Record slaking in 1 (3) Record slaking in 1
st st
5 min. 5 min.
(4) Sieve 5x. (4) Sieve 5x.
(5) Rate sample on a (5) Rate sample on a
scale from 1 to 6. scale from 1 to 6.
(1) Collect 6 (1) Collect 6- -8 mm 8 mm- -diameter diameter
sample from surface and 20 sample from surface and 20- -
25mm depth (1 sample/sieve). 25mm depth (1 sample/sieve).
Stability
class
Criteria for assignment to stability class
(for Standard Characterization)
a
1 50 %of structural integrity lost within 5 seconds
of insertion in water or too unstable to sample.
2 50 %of structural integrity lost 5 - 30seconds.
3 50 %of structural integrity lost 30- 300 seconds
after insertion OR <10%of soil remains on sieve
after 5 dipping cycles.
4 10 - 25%of soil remains after 5 dipping cycles.
5 25 - 75%of soil remains after 5 dipping cycles.
6 75 - 100%of soil remains after 5 dipping cycles.
Soil stability kit: interpretation
Soil stability kit: interpretation
Stability
class
Criteria for assignment to stability class
(for Standard Characterization)
a
1 50 %of structural integrity lost within 5seconds
of insertion in water or too unstable to sample.
2 50 %of structural integrity lost 5- 30seconds.
3 50 %of structural integrity lost 30- 300 seconds
after insertion OR <10%of soil remains on sieve
after 5 dipping cycles.
4 10 - 25%of soil remains after 5 dipping cycles.
5 25 - 75%of soil remains after 5 dipping cycles.
6 75 - 100%of soil remains after 5 dipping cycles.
Soil erosion Soil erosion: : high values indicate lower high values indicate lower erodibility erodibility*. *.
Water infiltration Water infiltration: : high values high values
may be associated with higher may be associated with higher
infiltration rates. infiltration rates.
Organic matter cycling Organic matter cycling: : high high
values generally due to recently values generally due to recently
deposited organic matter deposited organic matter
produced by an active soil produced by an active soil
microbial community. microbial community.
vs. vs. erosivity erosivity which is the ability of wind, which is the ability of wind,
water or other factors to cause erosion water or other factors to cause erosion
Soil stability kit: interpretation
Soil stability kit: interpretation
Quantitatively related to processes Quantitatively related to processes
AND other measurements of these AND other measurements of these
processes? processes?
Insensitive to single, acute Insensitive to single, acute
disturbances? disturbances?
Sensitive to long Sensitive to long- -term changes? term changes?
Interpretation: quantitatively related to
Interpretation: quantitatively related to
processes ANDother measurements?
processes ANDother measurements?
soil aggregate stability soil aggregate stability has been demonstrated to have a has been demonstrated to have a
strong relationship with interrill erosion strong relationship with interrill erosion (Blackburn & Pierson, 1994) (Blackburn & Pierson, 1994)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Soil stability class = 6 for 75-100%
remaining
Soil stability class = 5 for 25-75%
Soil stability class = 4 for 10-25%
Soil stability class = 1-3 for <10%
Herrick, J.E., W.G. Whitford, A.G. de Soyza, J.W. Van Zee, K.M. Havstad, C.A. Seybold, M. Walton. 2001. Soil aggregate stability kit for
field-based soil quality and rangeland health evaluations. CATENA44: 27-35.
Interpretation:
Interpretation:
insensitive
insensitive
to single,
to single,
acute disturbances?
acute disturbances?
Post Post- -disturbance data from disturbance data from
gravelly gravelly- -sandy loam site at sandy loam site at
the Jornada Experimental the Jornada Experimental
Range, New Mexico. Range, New Mexico.
Strata Strata Control Disturbed Control Disturbed
Control Control
Bare Bare 2.6 2.6 2.3 2.3
Grass Grass 4.5 4.5 4.4 4.4
Bare/Grass Bare/Grass 0.58 0.58 0.53 0.53
Interpretation:
Interpretation:
sensitive
sensitive
to long
to long
-
-
termchanges?
termchanges?
Grassland
Grass: 23%Stability: 2.2
Grassland Exclosure
Grass: 25%Stability: 3.4
Mesquite Dune
Grass: 3.9%Stability: 1.7
Summary of trampling effects
Summary of trampling effects
u u Short Short- -term: minimal term: minimal
u u Long Long- -term: trampling reduces soil term: trampling reduces soil
organic matter content and soil stability organic matter content and soil stability
unless unless it it significantly significantly increases soil increases soil
organic matter inputs organic matter inputs
by incorporating litter and standing dead
by leading to a change in species
composition
Interpretation of Soil Measurements
Interpretation of Soil Measurements
Interpret soil measurements in the context of Interpret soil measurements in the context of
the ecological site, including: the ecological site, including:
inherent soil and landscape characteristics inherent soil and landscape characteristics
( (what is possible what is possible) )
vegetation cover, composition and spatial vegetation cover, composition and spatial
distribution ( distribution (test values under canopy vs.
interspaces)
Summary: stability kit
Summary: stability kit
u u Soil stability test Soil stability test may may be used as part of an be used as part of an
evaluation of erosion evaluation of erosion risk risk
u u In order to use as an In order to use as an assessment assessment tool, reference tool, reference
values must be established for the particular values must be established for the particular
ecological site. ecological site.
u u This test should always be used in combination This test should always be used in combination
with vegetation measurements, and stratified by with vegetation measurements, and stratified by
vegetative cover vegetative cover
u u Additional research is required to test direct Additional research is required to test direct
relationship with erosion and other properties and relationship with erosion and other properties and
processes of interest processes of interest
Soil Stability Kit Exercise
Soil Stability Kit Exercise
Soil stability kit: use
Soil stability kit: use
(2) Immerse in (2) Immerse in dI dI water. water.
(3) Record slaking in 1 (3) Record slaking in 1
st st
5 min. 5 min.
(4) Sieve 5x. (4) Sieve 5x.
(5) Rate sample on a (5) Rate sample on a
scale from 1 to 6. scale from 1 to 6.
(1) Collect 6 (1) Collect 6- -8 mm 8 mm- -diameter diameter
sample from surface and 20 sample from surface and 20- -
25mm depth (1 sample/sieve). 25mm depth (1 sample/sieve).
Stability
class
Criteria for assignment to stability class
(for Standard Characterization)
a
1 50 %of structural integrity lost within 5 seconds
of insertion in water.
2 50 %of structural integrity lost 5 - 30 seconds.
3 50 %of structural integrity lost 30 - 300 seconds
after insertion OR <10%of soil remains on sieve
after 5 dipping cycles.
4 10 - 25%of soil remains after 5 dipping cycles.
5 25 - 75%of soil remains after 5 dipping cycles.
6 75 - 100%of soil remains after 5 dipping cycles.
S Su ur rf fa ac ce e - - 1 1
P Po os s V Ve eg g I In n
T Ti im me e
D Di ip p
T Ti im me e
# # I In n
T Ti im me e
D Di ip p
T Ti im me e
# #
0 0: :0 00 0 5 5: :0 00 0 0 0: :4 45 5 5 5: :4 45 5
0 0: :1 15 5 5 5: :1 15 5 1 1: :0 00 0 6 6: :0 00 0
0 0: :3 30 0 5 5: :3 30 0 1 1: :1 15 5 6 6: :1 15 5
S Su ur rf fa ac ce e - - 1 1
P Po os s
m m
V Ve eg g I In n
T Ti im me e
D Di ip p
T Ti im me e
# # I In n
T Ti im me e
D Di ip p
T Ti im me e
# #
1 10 0 N NC C 0 0: :0 00 0 5 5: :0 00 0 6 6 0 0: :4 45 5 5 5: :4 45 5 1 1
2 20 0 N NC C 0 0: :1 15 5 5 5: :1 15 5 1 1 1 1: :0 00 0 6 6: :0 00 0 1 1
3 30 0 G G 0 0: :3 30 0 5 5: :3 30 0 5 5 1 1: :1 15 5 6 6: :1 15 5 6 6
Stability Kit Exercise
Stability Kit Exercise
Stability
class
Criteria for assignment to stability class
(for Standard Characterization)
a
1 50 %of structural integrity lost within 5 seconds
of insertion in water.
2 50 %of structural integrity lost 5 - 30 seconds.
3 50 %of structural integrity lost 30 - 300 seconds
after insertion OR <10%of soil remains on sieve
after 5 dipping cycles.
4 10 - 25%of soil remains after 5 dipping cycles.
5 25 - 75%of soil remains after 5 dipping cycles.
6 75 - 100%of soil remains after 5 dipping cycles.