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ABSTRACT/SUMMARY

This experiment is on the properties of gas. It is conducted on 22 nd of September in Pilot Plant. This experiment is divided into seven parts, each with objectives to study the relationship between ideal gas and other different factors to deliver a better understanding of the gas properties and the relationship between pressure, temperature and volume. Only one type of apparatus is used. The one and only apparatus used is called the Solteq® Perfect Gas Expansion Apparatus (Model: TH11).The first experiment was conducted to show the Boyles Law and also to determine the ratio of volume. The experiment is conducted for three times, each time with different condition that are from pressurized chamber to atmospheric chamber, from pressurized vessel to vacuum vessel and lastly from atmospheric vessel to vacuum vessel. During the experiment, the valve no.2 was opened to allow the gas to merge so that the pressure of the other chamber can be recorded. The second experiment is conducted to determine the Gay-Lussac Law. This experiment is also done repeatedly for 3 times in order to produce an average value. The data from this experiment is converted into several graphs as the relationship can be seen clearer. Next, ratio of heat capacity is determined by conducting the third experiment. The last experiment is on the isentropic expansion process whereby the pressure and the temperature of pressurize chamber is taken before and after the expansion occurs. The used of valves is very crucial. Even though these experiments seem to be time- consuming, however all of the experiment were conducted successfully at the end of the day.

INTRODUCTION

Boyle’s law explain how the volume of a gas varies with the surrounding temperature.

From Boyle’s law the pressure of the gas will vary inversely with the volume so that P 1/V or PV = a constant. To determine whether this relationship holds for a mixture of gases, the pressure of a fixed amount of air (which is a mixture of gases) will be measured as the volume of the air is varied while keeping the temperature of the air constant. The equation P 1 V 1 =P 2 V 2 use is to predict on how a change in pressure will alter the volume of a gas.

Isentropic means no change in entropy. Entropy is a thermodynamic property that is

the

measure of a system’s thermal energy per unit temperature that is unavailable for doing useful

work. This is the measure of the level of disorder in a closed but changing system, a system in

which energy can only be transferred in one direction from an ordered state to a disordered state. Higher the entropy, higher the disorder and lower the availability of the system's energy to do useful work. The expansion process which assumes there is no heat transfer between the system and its surroundings. No heat transfer is called "adiabatic. A isentropic process is for purposes of engineering analysis and calculation, one may assume that the process takes place from initiation

to completion without an increase or decrease in the entropy of the system. An isentropic process is an idealisation. The stepwise depressurization is conducted by depressurizing the pressurized chamber or tank gradually by releasing the gas expansion at every instance the valves are opened and closed to see the gradual changes in pressure within the container. Pressure decreases with each of the expansions.

AIM/OBJECTIVES:

• 1. The experiment is carried out to know the relationship between pressure and volume of an ideal gas and the calculation is compared with the theoretical value.

• 2. To determine the relationship between pressure and temperature of an ideal gas

• 3. To determine the ratio of heat capacity

• 4. To study the response of the pressurized vessel following stepwise depressurization.

• 5. To study the response of the pressurized vessel following a brief depressurization. To determine the relationship between the pressure, the temperature and the kinetic energy of gas molecules. To determine and to show the effects of depressurization by using a graph between pressure and no of stages.

• 6. To determine the ratio of volume and compares it to the theoretical value

• 7. To determine the ratio of heat capacity

THEORY:

• 1. Boyle’s law common use is to predict on how a change in pressure will alter the

volume of a gas. The equation P 1 V 1 =P 2 V 2 is used for fixed amount of gas at constant temperature. The volume of gas is indirectly related which is if the pressure of the chamber increase then the volume of the gas inside the chamber also decrease. Besides

ideal gas also affected by the kinetic energy. If we decrease the volume of a gas, thus the gas particle will come in contact with each other and the wall of the container. The pressure also will measured the frequency of collision between the gas and the container. Thus if the volume decrease, the pressure will increase gradually.

• 2. Compare to the Boyle’s Law, the expression of Gay-Lussac’s Law is used for each of the two relationship named after the French chemist Joseph Louis Gay-Lussac (1778-1850) and which concern the properties of gases, though it is more usually applied to his law of combining volumes. One law relates to volumes before and after chemical reaction while the other concerns the pressure and temperature relationship for a sample

of gas. According to Gay-Lussac’s law, for a given amount of gas held at constant volume, the pressure is proportional to the absolute temperature.

• 3. In thermodynamics, an isentropic process or can be called isoentropic process is aprocess takes place from initiation to completion without an increase or decrease in theentropy of the system. The entropy of the system remains in constant. Entropy is a type ofenergy (like heat, work, and enthalpy) and is by definition energy which is lost in a process: ΔS=0

S 1 = S 2

• 4. The stepwise depressurization is conducted by depressurizing the pressurized chamber or tank gradually by releasing the gas expansion at every instance the valves are opened and closed to see the gradual changes in pressure within the container. Pressure decreases with each of the expansions.

• 5. In this experiment, similar procedures as the previous are repeated. However the time interval or the time taken to open the valve is being increased to a few seconds. The time is increased so that the response or the effect of brief depressurization of the gas could be seen and observed properly. From this the gas should expand faster as longer time is taken for the gas to flow and expand.

• 6. For a perfect gas, C P = C V + R Where, Cp = molar heat capacity at constant pressure C V = molar heat capacity at constant volume. The heat capacity ratio may then be determined experimentally using a two steps process:

An adiabatic reversible expansion from the initial pressure Ps to an intermediate pressure P i

{P S ,V S ,T S }→{P i , V i , T i } A return of the temperature to its original value Ts at constant volume Vi {Pi, Vi, Ti }→{P f, V i , T s } For a reversible adiabatic expression dq= 0

From the First Law of Thermodynamics dU = dq + dW Therefore during the expansion process

dU = dW

or

dU = -PdV

At constant volume the heat capacity relates the change in temperature to the change in internal energy.

Substitute,

dU = C v dT

C v dT = -pdV Substituting in the ideal gas law and then integrating gives C v ln(T i /T s ) = - Rln(V i /V s )

Now, for an ideal gas

Therefore,

T i /T s = P i V i /P s V s

C v (ln(P i /P s ) + ln(V i /V s )) = - R ln(V i /V s ) Rearranging and substituting ln(P i /P s ) = (-C p /C v ) ln (V i /V s ) During the return of the temperature to the starting value V i /V s = P s /P f

Thus

,

ln(Ps/P i ) = (C p /C v ) ln (P s /P f ) Rearranging gives the relationship in its required form:

Cp/Cv = (lnP s ln P i ) / (lnP s lnP f )

APPARATUS:

• 1. Perfect gas expansion Apparatus

• 2. Power supply

• 3. Pressurize chamber

• 4. Vacuum Chamber

• 5. Compresses and Vacuum Pump

PROCDURES:

PROCEDURE 1:

• 1. The general startup was set and all the valves are closed.

• 2. The compressive pump was on and the pressure inside the chamber was allowed to increase about 150kpa. After that the pump was switch off and the hose was remove from the chamber.

• 3. The pressure inside the chamber was monitor until it was stabilized.

• 4. The pressure reading for both chamber before expansion were recorded

• 5. Valve 2 is then open and the pressure in pressurize chamber was allowed to flow into the atmospheric chamber

• 6. The pressure reading for both chamber after expansion were recorded

• 7. The experiment was the repeated for the following condition

• 1. From atmospheric to vacuum chamber

• 2. From vacuum chamber to atmospheric chamber

• 8. The PV value was calculated and prove the Boyle’s Law

• PROCEDURES 2:

• 1. The general start up is was perform and all the valves were make sure to be closed

• 2. Hose from compressive pump was connected to pressurized pump

• 3. The compressive pump was switch on and the temperature was recorded for every increment of 10 kPa in the chamber and the pump was stop when PT1 reaches 160 kPa

• 4. Valve 1 was slightly open and the pressurized was allowed to flow out and the temperature for every increment of 10 kPa was recorded.

6.

The experiment was repeated 3 times to get the average value.

• 7. The Graph of pressure versus temperature was plotted.

PROCEDURES 3:

• 1. General start up procedures in section 5.1 is performed. All valves are fully closed.

• 2. The hose from compressive pump is connected to pressurized chamber.

• 3. The compressive pump is switched on and the pressure inside chamber is allowed to increase until about 160kPa. Then the pump is switched off and the hose is removed from the chamber.

• 4. The pressure reading inside the chamber is monitored until it stabilizes. The pressure reading PT 1 and temperature TT 1 is recorded.

• 5. Valve V 01 is fully opened and brought back to closed position after a few seconds. The pressure reading PT 1 and TT1 is monitored and recorded until it becomes stable.

• 6. Isentropic expansion process is discussed.

PROCEDURE 4

• 1. The general start up procedures in section 5.1 was performed and all of the valves are fully closed.

• 2. The hose from compressive pump was connected to pressurized chamber.

• 3. The compressive pump was switched on and allowed the pressure inside chamber to increase until about 160kPa. Then, the pump was switched off and the hose was removed from the chamber.

• 4. The pressure reading inside the chamber was monitored until it stabilizes. The pressure reading PT 1 was recorded.

• 5. The valve, V 01 was opened and brought it back to the closed position instantly. The pressure reading PT 1 was monitored and observation was made from the stable reading.

• 6. Steps 5 were repeated for four times.

• 7. After that, the experiment was repeated 6 times to get the pattern of the graph.

PROCEDURES 5:

 1) The general start up procedures are performed as in the first experiment and all the valves 2) are made sure to be fully closed. Hose from the compressive pump is the connected to pressurized chamber. 3) The compressive pump is then switched on and the pressure inside the chamber is 4) allowed to increase until about 160kPa.After that, the pump is switched off and the hose ai removed from the chamber. The pressure reading inside the chamber is monitored until it stabilizes. The pressure 5) reading of PT1 is then recorded. Valve V01 is then opened fully and was brought back to the closed position after a few 6) seconds. When the pressure reading PT1 had become stable, it is recorded. The pressure readings are then displayed on a graph.

PROCEDURE 6:

• 1. The general start up procedure is prepared. Make sure all valve is close

• 2. The compressive pump is switched on and the pressure inside the chamber is allowed to increase up to 150kPa. Then, the pump is switch off and the hose is removed from the chamber.

• 3. The pressure reading inside the chamber is monitor until it stabilizes.

• 4. The pressure reading for both chambers before the expansion is recorded.

• 5. The V 02 is open and allows the pressure air flow into the atmospheric chamber slowly.

• 6. The pressure reading for both chambers after the expansion is recorded.

• 7. The experiment procedure is repeated for difference condition

• a) From atmospheric chamber to vacuum chamber.

• b) From pressurized chamber to vacuum chamber.

• 8. Then, the ratio of the volume is calculated and compare with the theoretical value.

• PROCEDURES 7

• 1. General start up procedures in section 5.1 is performed. All valves are fully closed.

• 2. The hose from compressive pump is connected to pressurized chamber.

• 3. The compressive pump is switched on and the pressure inside chamber is allowed to increase until about 160kPa. Then the pump is switched off and the hose is removed from the chamber.

• 4. The pressure reading inside the chamber is monitored until it stabilizes. The pressure reading PT 1 and temperature TT 1 is recorded.

• 5. Valve V 01 is fully opened and brought it back to the closed position after few seconds. Pressure reading PT 1 and TT1 is monitored and recorded until it becomes stable.

• 6. The ratio of heat capacity is determined and compared with the theoretical value

RESULT:

EXPERIMENT 1:

 1. From pressurized vessel to atmospheric vessel Before Expansion After Expansion PT1(kPa abs) 150.8 134.2 PT2(kPa abs) 102.5 133.9 2. From pressurized vessel to vacuum vessel Before Expansion After Expansion PT1(kPa abs) 156.3 122.9 PT2(kPa abs) 53.4 122.9 3. From atmospheric vessel to vacuum chamber Before Expansion After Expansion PT1(kPa abs) 103.4 119.9 PT2(kPa abs) 153.0 119.4

EXPERIMENT 2:

 RESULT: PRESSUR TRIAL 1 TRIAL 2 TRIAL 3 E (kPa abs) TEMPERATURE ( ) TEMPERATURE( ) TEMPERATURE( ) PRESSURIZE DEPRESSURI PRESSURIZ DEPRESSURI PRESSURIZ DEPRESSURI D VESSEL ZED ED VESSEL ZED ED VESSEL ZED VESSEL VESSEL VESSEL 110 27.3 27.3 26.6 27.5 27.2 27.7 120 27.5 28.5 26.9 28.7 27.4 28.9 130 28.0 29.5 27.6 29.1 28.0 29.8 140 28.8 30.2 28.7 30.3 28.9 30.6 150 29.6 31.0 29.6 30.9 29.7 30.9 160 30.4 31.2 30.5 31.0 30.6 31.2 PRESSURE AVERAGE PRESSURE AVERAGE (kPa abs) PRESSSURIZED (kPa abs) DEPRESSSURIZED TEMPERATURE( ) TEMPERATURE( ) 110 27.03 110 27.50 120 27.30 120 28.70 130 27.86 130 29.47 140 28.80 140 30.37 150 29.64 150 30.94 160 30.50 160 31.14

EXPERIMENT 3:

 Before Expansion After Expansion PT1 (kPa) 161.8 103.0 TT1 (°C) 31.6 28.8

EXPERIMENT 4:

 PT 1 (kPa∙abs) Trial Initial After first After second After third After fourth expansion expansion expansion expansion 1 st 160.0 149.1 139.5 130.2 125.0 2 nd 160.0 151.7 140.1 137.1 124.8 3 rd 161.2 155.8 140.8 127.1 120.5 4 th 162.0 146.5 136.2 118.2 111.2 5 th 160.0 147.6 139.3 126.8 117.9 6 th 162.9 145.3 132.3 124.5 116.9

EXPERIMENT 5:

 PTI (kPa abs) Initial After Brief Expansion 160.1 113.3 160.9 110.9 161.8 116.3 161.2 118.8 162.8 121.2 162.2 120.4 EXPERIMENT 6: condition 1 : from pressurised vessel to atmospheric vessel PT 1 (kpa abs) PT 2 (kpa abs) Before expansion 150.2 104.5 After expansion 135.2 135.3 condition 2 : from atmospheric vessel to vacuum vessel PT 1 (kpa abs) PT 2 (kpa abs) Before expansion 103.3 53.4 After expansion 87.9 87.1 condition 3 : from pressurised vessel to vacuum vessel PT 1 (kpa abs) PT 2 (kpa abs) Before expansion 103.85 119.4 After expansion 151.3 63.5

EXPERIMENT 7:

 Initial Intermediate Final PT1 (kPa) 163.1 112.8 123.1 TT1 (°C) 31.2 28.0 28.4

CALCULATION:

EXPERIMENT 1:

Ideal gas equation PV=RT. For Boyle’s Law the temperature is constant at room temperature. Hence, R=8.314 L kPa K -1 mol -1 T=25

• 1. From pressurized vessel to atmospheric vessel P 1 = 150.8 kPa, P 2 = 134.2 kPa V 1 = RT/P 1 = (8.314 L kPa K -1 mol -1 )(273.15+25)/150.8 kPa = 16.43 L

V 2 = RT/P 2 = (8.314 L kPa K -1 mol -1 )(273.15+25)/134.2 kPa = 18.47 L

According to Boyle’s Law P 1 V 1 =P 2 V 2

P 1 V 1 = (150.8 kPa)( 16.43 L) = 2477.64 L kPa P 2 V 2 = (134.2 kPa)( 18.47 L) = 2478.64 L kPa

• 2. From pressurized vessel to vacuum vessel

P 1 = 156.3 kPa, P 2 = 122.9 kPa

V 1 = RT/P 1 (8.314 L kPa K -1 mol -1 )(273.15+25)/156.3 kPa

=

= 15.86L

V 2 = RT/P 2 = (8.314 L kPa K -1 mol -1 )(273.15+25)/122.9 kPa = 20.17 L

According to Boyle’s Law P 1 V 1 =P 2 V 2

P 1 V 1 = (156.3 kPa)( 15.86 L) = 2478.92 L kPa P 2 V 2 = (122.9 kPa)( 20.17 L) = 2478.89 L kPa

• 3. From Atmospheric vessel to vacuum vessel P 1 = 103.4 kPa, P 2 = 119.9 kPa V 1 = RT/P 1 = (8.314 L kPa K -1 mol -1 )(273.15+25)/103.4 kPa

=

23.97 L

V 2 = RT/P 2 = (8.314 L kPa K -1 mol -1 )(273.15+25)/119.9 kPa = 20.67 L

According to Boyle’s Law P 1 V 1 =P 2 V 2

P 1 V 1 = (103.4 kPa)(23.97 L) = 2478.49 L kPa P 2 V 2 = (119.9 kPa)(20.67 L) = 2478.33 L kPa

EXPERIMENT 2:

GRAPH OF PRESSURE (kPa abs) AGAINST TEMPERATURE(C)

PRESSURE (kPa abs)
27
29
31
28
30
27.5
29.5
28.5
26.5
30.5
0
100
120
140
160
180
20
40
60
80

GRAPH OF PRESSURE (kPa abs) AGAINST TEMPERATURE (C)

PRESSURE (kPa abs)
27
29
31
28
30
29.5
27.5
28.5
30.5
31.5
0
100
120
140
160
180
20
40
60
80

EXPERIMENT 3:

T 2 /T 1 = (V 1 /V 2 ) (k-1) = (P 2 /P 1 ) (k-1/k)

K = C p /C v

28.8/31.6 = (103.0/161.8) (k-1/k)

 0.911 = (0.637) (k-1/k) ln0.911 = (k-1/k) ln0.637 k = 1.26

EXPERIMENT 4:

## Response of Pressurized Vessel Following Stepwise Depressurisation

140
expansion
expansion
expansion
expansion
After fourth
After third
After second
After first
Initial
Pressure (KPa)
100
120
1st Trial
160
180
20
40
60
80
0
6th Trial
5th Trial
4th Trial
3rd Trial
2nd Trial

Expansion

EXPERIMENT 6:

(i)From atmospheric chamber to pressurized chamber

P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2

V 2 / V 1 = P 1 / P 2

V 2 / V 1 = 150.2 / 135.2

V 2 / V 1 = 1.11

(ii)From atmospheric chamber to vacuum chamber

 P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 V 2 / V 1 = P 1 / P 2 V 2 / V 1 = 53.4 / 87.9 V 2 / V 1 = 0.618

(iii)From pressurized chamber to vacuum chamber

P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2

V 2 / V 1 = 103.85 / 151.3

V 2 / V 1 = 0.67

In vacuum chamber:

P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2

V 2 / V 1 = P 1 / P 2

V 2 / V 1 = 63.5 / 103.85

V 2 / V 1 = 0.611

Theoretical value

V 2 / V 1 = 15 / 25

= 0.6

EXPERIMENT 7:

(C v /R) ln (T i /T s ) = - ln (V i /V s )

Where Ti/Ts = P i V i / P s V s

Vi/Vs = T i P s / T s P i

(Cv/R) ln (Ti/Ts) = - ln (TiPs / TsPi )

( Cv / 8.314 ) ln (301 / 301.25) = - ln ((304.2 x 163.1) / (301 x 112.8 ))

• Cv = 298.0781 L kPa K -1 mol -1

C p = C v + R

C p = 298.0781 + 8.314

= 306.3921 L kPa K-1 mol-1

(C p /C v ) = 298.0781 / 306.3921

= 1.028

DISCUSSION:

From the ideal gas equation PV=RT , the volume is calculated for all the value of V 1 and V 2 for all condition 1.From pressurized vessel to atmospheric vessel, 2.From Pressurized vessel to vacuum vessel, 3.From atmospheric vessel to vacuum vessel. For the first condition, the value of V 1 =16.43 L and V 2 =18.47 L. For the second condition,The Value of V 1 =15.86 L and V 2 =20.17 L. For the third condition The Value of V 1 =23.97 L and V 2 =20.67 L

From Boyle’s Law P 1 V 1 =P 2 V 2 the value is almost the same before and after expansion. The slight different maybe due to some errors during conducting the experiment. However from these

calculation it shows that the experiment of Boyle’s law is succeeded.

The isentropic expansion process happen went both reversible and adiabatic, therewill be no heat transferred within the system, and no energy transformation occurs.Given that,

pV k = constant

Where,k is constant. Given the value of temperature and pressure before and after expansion, we can find the value of k. Thus, the calculated value of k in this experiment is 1.26.

In the stepwise depressurization experiments, the strategy to adopt an equal-time- stepwise depressurization approach in this study yielded a more reliable result for being an example in industries. The pressure in the compression vessel is found to be affected by the frequency and time of system depressurization since it has a direct bearing on the stabilization time.

In experiment 5 (Brief Depressurization) ,the result as in the graph shows that pressure is higher before the expansion compared to the reading after expansion take place. The important point of this experiment is to adopt an equal time-stepwise depressurization. With this approach, this experiment yielded a more accurate and reliable result. Since it has a direct bearing on the stabilization time (Petrowiki.org), system of depressurization do affects the system onset pressure. However, some error had occurred during this experiment which causes the reading of pressure taken is quite different from the theoretical reading.

In experiment 6 determination of volume ratio, we use Boyle’s law equation (P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 ). To find the volume ratio, we rearrange the equation to V 2 / V 1 = P 1 /P 2. There also 3 condition for this experiment. The theoretical value for volume of gas ratio is 0.6. We need to find the percentage error from the result.

For the first condition atmospheric to pressurize, the volume ratio of the gas obtained from the experiment is 1.11.

so, error = ( 1.11 -0.6 ) / 1.11 = 45.95%

x 100

For the second condition atmospheric to vacuum, the volume ratio of the gas obtained from experiment is 0.618. so, error = (0.618 0.6) / 0.618 x 100 = 2.91 %

For the third condition pressurized to vacuum, the volume ratio of the gas obtained from experiment is 0.45.

In Pressurized Chamber, error =(0.67 0.60) / 0.67 x 100 = 10.45 %

In vacuum chamber

error = (0.611 0.6) / 0.611 x 100

=

1.8 %

The determination of ratio of heat capacity using the expression of the heat capacity ratio, the heat capacity ratio is calculated to be 1.028. This value is far from the theoretical value which is 1.4. Hence, the percentage error is calculated as follows:

Percentage error = (theoretical valueactual value) / theoretical value x 100

 = (1.4 – 1.028)/1.4 x 100 = 26.57%

Since the percentage error is too big, more than 10%. So, this experiment is not successful because maybe there are some errors that effect the reading of the pressure or the temperature in the chamber.

CONCLUSION:

In conclusion, we can conclude that this experiment is to study the properties measurement/PVT according to Boyle’s Law, Gay-Lussac law, heat capacity equation, heat

capacity equation and isentropic expansion process. Even some error were done ,the result still

what we want such as in experiment one which me manage to prove

the Boyle’s law that is when pressure decrease the volume will increase and vice versa. We also manage to prove the Gay-Lussac law that is pressure is proportional to temperature. In

conclusion, this experiment is successfully done and the objective of the experiment is achieve.

RECOMMENDATION:

There are four experiments under properties measurement/PVT. Each experiment we must do the start-up and shut-down experiment first in order to make sure there are no gas are left in the chamber. We must ovoid the parallax error during taking the reading of pressure and temperature. The experiment is repeat 3 times to get the average and more accurate result. Open and close the valve carefully according to the procedure given. The experiment should be conducted at the stable and unshaken place. All the data must be recorded into a table.

REFERENCE:

An engineering approach. Boston: McGraw-Hill.

APPENDICES: