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HALSS Feasibility Study Design Report- Appendix A 18 December 2006

83
The follo lations
are done . The
spreadsh ions of
RoRo ca
ASSUMP
Appendix A Scantling Calculations
wing is a brief summary of the calculations used to assign scantlings to the ship. The calcu
in an Excel Spreadsheet. Most of the formulas are from chapter 3 of Reference A
eet only calculates representative areas and does not cover all details for different combinat
rgo or tank configurations.
TIONS:
are assumed ineffective for hull girder strength since they end at midship. Hogging moments govern. Use Mild (G
l for transverse frames, AH-36 at Upper (Flight) Deck for wheel loads, and AH-36 for shell for Hull Girder & Local stren
has the scantlings required to meet 2006 ABS Rules for Unrestricted Ocean Service (SVR 2006)
of construction
el k
L
= 1.00 for Mild steel 3-2-1/5.5 0.72 for AH36 steel
k = 1.00 for Mild steel (Pt.3,Ch.2,1.2.3) 0.66 for AH36 steel
Side hulls rade A)
stee gth.
This file
Materials
Ste
k =235 / , or 0.66, whichever is the greater.
RESERV
1. S
2. S
Symbols
Scantlin
Lwl = W
AB
.96Lwl
B
T
R
D
bhd
=
17.100 m. Ds = 30.500 m to StrengthDk (3-1-1/7.3). Overflow = 0.910 m abv D B/D = 1.974
Equipment Number (ABS Rule 3-5-1/3)
Equipt Number EN =
2/3
+ 2Bh + .1A = 3037.5 (from Pt.3,Ch.1,7.1.1) ABS Equ Num U39
or wind profile area A = 5,550 m^2, B = 55.000 m, h = 8.000 m, = 64,152 tonnes
A is taken from General Arrangement profile view. Eqpt Ltr E+ Rule requires 2 std anchors @
8,700 Kg ea, + 632.5
73m (tot for both anchors) of
mm gr U3 chain
which will weigh 36,908 Kg (ea of 2 chains) and take 18.068 m3 per chain locker.
Optimum chn lkr is 1.752 m diam x 10.050 m high. .75Ld
2
= 30.332 m3 / lkr.
U39 + 3 = 9 Mooring wires each having 53.00 t BrkgStr, and each 200 m long.
Total weight of Anchors + Chain = 91.2 tonnes
Dimensions of a Baldt Snug 75% 15,000 pound Snug-Stowing (HHP) Anchor (43
o
swivel) are:
o
where,
o
= 235 N/mm^2 355 for AH-36
ATIONS:
hell PL@Ends, Dks, Double Bottom structure, pending development.
hell PL: Chk buckling after 2nd Midship SM & bending mom est
and definitions Nominal Lpp using transom as AP = 300.000 m
AP is 4.500 m fwd of transom Wave-piercing Bow Length = 12.030 m
g Length L = 291.000 m (ABS Rule 3-1-1/3.1). Design speed V = 35 kts
.L.Length (Summer) = 300.000 m C
b
= 0.531 (ABS Rule 3-1-1/11.3)
S High Speed Craft Rules apply if V/L
WL
>= 2.36 knots/m. V/L
WL
= 2.02 Kts/m
= 288.000 Lpp = 295.500 .97Lwl= 291.000 m C
b
(Lpp) = 0.523
Amidships = 145.500 m from fwd side of stem (Middle of Rule L)
1/2
= 33.760 m. CtrHull B = 24.100 Side Hull Beam = 4.830 m
= 12.000 m. D = 17.100 m (ABS
ule 3-1-1/7.1) to Freeboard deck.
A / EN = 1.83
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HALSS Feasibility Study Design Report- Appendix A 18 December 2006
Watertight & Deep Tank transverse bulkheads (Vertical stiffeners) Center Hull Side Hull
Top of the overflow of tank taken as 0.910 abv the Bulkhead Deck Bhd dk height: 17.100 22.500 m ABL
WT Bulkhead plating 3-2-9/5.1 t = sk \(qh) /c + 1.5 mm but not less than 6 mm or s/200 + 2.5 mm, whichever is g
1 DeepTank
reater
3-2-10/3. Bulkhead plating t = sk \(qh) /254) + 2.5 mm but not < 6.5 mm or s/150 + 2.5 mm, whichever is greater.
Therefore deep tank rules govern for the collision (Fore Peak) bulkhead.
k = 1
For WT bulkheads, h is from the bottom of the plate to the bulkhead deck at center, c = 254 for collision bulkhead, 290 others
Deep Tank h = bottom of plate to a point 1.3m above the top of the tank (or 2/3 overflow ht). = 1.025
PL Botm PL Top plate Top of Tk Watertight Bhd Deep Tank Bhd
m ABL m ABL height S (m) s(mm) q m ABL h, m t, mm h, m t, mm
4.000 7.000 3.000 3.000 800 1.00 0.662 22.500 18.500 9.7 19.800 11.4
7.000 10.000 3.000 3.600 900 1.00 0.662 22.500 15.500 9.9 16.800 11.8
10.000 14.500 4.500 4.500 900 1.00 0.662 22.500 12.500 8.9 13.800 10.7
14.500 17.100 2.600 3.420 900 1.00 0.662 22.500 8.000 7.1 9.300 8.8
17.100 22.500 5.400 3.820 900 1.00 0.662 22.500 5.400 7.0 6.700 8.5
0.000 3.600 3.600 7.200 900 1.00 0.662 17.100 17.100 10.4 18.400 12.4
3.600 6.750 3.150 6.300 957.76 1.00 0.662 17.100 13.500 9.9 14.800 11.8
6.750 9.900 3.150 6.300 957.76 1.00 0.662 17.100 10.350 8.6 11.650 10.5
9.900 13.500 3.600 7.200 900 1.00 0.662 17.100 7.200 7.0 8.500 8.5
13.500 17.100 3.600 7.200 900 1.00 0.662 17.100 3.600 7.0 4.900 8.5
Bulkhead stiffeners
, k = (3.075 2.077)/( + 0.272) where 1 2 q = 235/Y = 1.00 (.662=AH36, 1=mild stl)
k
SM = 7.8 c h s l
2
Q cm3
3-2-9/5.3 WT Bulkheads: Q=1, c = 0.30 for stiffeners having effective bracket attachments at both ends, or 0.43 for
stiffeners w/ brackets at one end and horizontal girders at the other end, or 0.60 for stiffeners between horizontal girders
h from middle of stiffener to same as PL, but if h < 6.10 m, h is to be 0.8 times the distance plus 1.22 m
3-2-10/3.3 DeepTank Bulkheads: (3-2-1/5.5) Q = .72=AH36, .78=AH-32, 1=mild stl)
For the end connections listed above, c = 0.594 or 0.747 or 1.00, respectively. H is to same point as plate.
H - L c From To h, m s, m l, m Q SM, cm3 Att PL t SM, cm3 A, cm2 t,%
S-<IB 0.59 4.200 5.460 18.970 0.800 1.260 1.00 111.6 11.4 111.5 14.60 16%
S - IB 0.59 5.660 5.660 18.140 0.900 3.000 0.72 490.2 11.8 561.9 42.60 40%
S ->IB 0.59 7.800 7.800 16.000 0.900 3.600 0.72 622.6 11.8 670.3 46.70 44%
S - Dk 0.59 10.900 10.900 12.900 0.900 4.500 0.72 784.3 10.7 793.3 50.13 52%
S - dk 0.59 15.400 15.400 8.400 0.900 3.420 0.72 295.0 8.8 312.9 32.30 41%
S - dk 0.59 18.000 18.000 5.800 0.900 3.820 0.72 254.1 10.7 256.8 29.60 31%
C -<IB 0.59 0.300 3.300 16.600 0.900 3.000 0.72 448.5 12.4 452.8 36 32%
C ->IB 0.59 7 64%
C -Mid 0.5 .30 37%
C -Mid 0.59 7.200 7.200 11.200 0.958 3.000 1 8.5 356.0 32.40 40%
C -Strgr 0.59 9.900 17.100 4.900 0.900 8.5 777.1 50.13 66%
C -top 0.59 10.800 10.800 7.600 0.900 8.5 215.8 23.60 31%
C -top 0.59 13.950 13.950 4.450 0.900 3.000 0.72 120.2 8.5 125.6 17.80 23%
3-2-10/3.7.1 Stringers supporting the bulkhead stiffeners
.10
.92 3.600 9.900 11.650 0.900 6.300 0.72 1388.2 11.8 1442.4 6
9 4.500 4.500 13.900 0.958 3.000 0.72 399.7 10.5 399.7 37
0.72 322.
7.200 0.72 762.6
3.000 0.72 205.4
SM = 4.74 c h s l
2
cm3 c = 1.50
h & s are similar to stiffeners. Where effective brackets are fitted, l may be modified as indicated in 3-2-6/7.1.
3.7.2 Proportions: Girders and webs minimum depths = 0.145l (0.0833l if struts are fitted), plus 1/4 the depth of the stiffener
slots, not < 3x the depth of the slots. 7.11
The thickness is not to be less than 1% of the depth plus 3 mm but need not exceed 11.5 mm.
From To h, m s, m l, m SM,cm
3
Min D,m min t,mm SM, cm3 A, cm2 t,mm
5.660 11.650 15.145 3.600 5.990 22,888 0.969 9.7 23,117 298.10 70%
4.600 15.100 8.550 3.000 10.500 33,087 1.623 11.5 33,720 394.20 111%
9.900 9.900 8.500 6.750 7.925 42,161 1.249 11.5 42,145 434.75 55%
9.900 9.900 8.500 6.750 15.000 151,040 2.275 11.5 155,808 147.00 15%
9.900 9.900 8.500 6.750 15.000 151,040 2.275 11.5 151,542 733.50 77%
4.600 15.100 8.550 22.500 13.500 410,206 2.058 11.5 410,521 1480.80 72%
4.600 9.900 11.150 3.000 5.300 10,993 0.869 8.7 16,534 222.50 63%
9.900 15.100 5.900 3.000 5.200 5,600 0.854 8.5 9,026 187.87 53%
On CL Longitudinal bulkhead, typical web fr full height adds 111% to 11.8mm PL weight.
A horizontal mid-height stringer with mid-span vertical adds (77%+72%)/2 + average(63%,53%) = 132% i.e. no benefit.
Stringer scantlings are indicative only, giving approximate depth and cross-sectional area. 14PL webs would actually be
12mm PL with stiffeners adding about 20%. Vertical at Fr 40, 61, would actually be a swash bulkhead.
BP200*9
BP160*9
Side > 4th dk
Side < 3d dk
Centr <IB
Centr - >IB
Centr - Mid
Centr - Strgr
Centr - top
Vert, Typ MT875x305x13/25.4
Hull - Below
Side < IB
Side, >IB
Side, <4th Dk
T325x102x11/15.9
MT1500x300x10/25.
Vert, Typ MT2550x200x14/20.
BP260*10
BP240*10
BP300*11
MT325x102x11/15.9
BP220*11.5
BP200*12
WtEst Equivalnt
Use
BP160*7
BP280*11
Vert, Typ
Transverse
Longitudnl-CL
Vert, Fr 40, 61 MT9750x400x14/30.
M
MT450x127x11/15.9
BP240*12
MT2100x254x12/19.1
Long'l-Outbd T2114x5000x12/14.
Side Hull
Use
MT2550x325x14/25.
Equivalent
MT4140x625x12/40.
87
HALSS Feasibility Study Design Report- Appendix A 18 December 2006
Deck structure Plating, Longitudinal Stiffeners, Transverse Beams, Longitudinal Girders & Pillars
Wheel-Load CALCULATIONS FROM 2006 ABS RULE 3-2-3/5.17.
Flight Deck Net t incl stfnrs + webs+grdrs+cols (for wgt est) is 23.09 mm = 85% Use 12.5 mm AH-36
t = 12.27 mm for sea-going conditions.
t = kKn CW mm where k = 25.2 for tf units, K is obtained from 3-2-3/Figure 1. W = static wheel load, in tf
n = 1.0 where l/s 2.0 and 0.85 where l/s = 1.0, interpolate for intermediate values. C=1.5 for oceangoing or 1.1 in port.
For higher-strength steel, use thts = tms ( 24 / Y ) = tms* 0.816 for AH- 36
For wheel loading, the strength deck plating thickness is not to be less than 110% of that required above. See Notes.
C-130J Tire pressure = 93 psi max= 6.200 Kg/cm2 135,000 Lb max = 61.224 t on 4 wheels
Wheel dimensns 1 wheel
K a b a/s b/s C W, t Rule t thts
900 762 483 0.84 15.306 15.03 12.27 4.159 Kg/cm2
900 762 483 0.847 0.537 0.145 1.1 22.500 18.23 14.88 6.113 Kg/cm2
0 483 0.567 0.537 0.155 1.1 15.306 16.04 13.10 6.214 Kg/cm2
900 434 483 0.482 0.537 0.158 1.1 13.000 15.07 12.31 6.200 Kg/cm2
Case - cm.
484.0
m
Rule
7 0.537 0.145 1.1
900 51
1 M = W a b/l = 15.31 73.2 847.0 Case 2 M = W a (b/l)
2
= 15.31 76.85 0.5533 650.8 t
Use With attached PL, SM = 498.3 cm3 H-36 q = 0.72 SMr = q M / f =
Stiffener Area As = 41.3 cm2 Equivalent t = As / s = 4.6 m
3-2-7/ 3.1 SM = 7.8chsl
2
= 127.2 cm3 for c= 0.879 = 1/(1.709 0.651k), k = SMr Y / I
A
= 88%
h = 2.290 m, s = 0.900 m,and l = 3.000 m.
Deck transverse Webs & Longitudinal Girders (2006 ABS Rule 3-2-8 / 5.3 but also 3-2-7/ 5.3)
SMr = 3513 cm3 Use MT600x203x12/19.1 Available SM = 3,500 cm3 w/ 3,000 12.5 m
0% Margin Weight = 28.9% of PL Weight equivalent t= 3.6 m
2-7/ 5.3: Case 1 M = W a b/l = 30.61 322.8 6928 t - cm. H-36 Q = 0.72 SMr = Q M / f = 3
.
m PL
m
3- ,513
72=AH-36, 1=M.S.
3 8 / 5.3 SMr = 4.74cbhl
2
, cm3, where c = 1.0
Beam b, m h, m l, m Q SMr m depth, web thk Use SM, cm3 Equiv t d=700
Tr.
-2-
in
Webs 3.00 2.290 10.800 0.72 2,735 630 11.9 MT600x203x12/19.1 3,500 3.61 3.46
L.Girders C=1.33 10.70 2.290 9.000 0.72 9 9.2 MT600x450x12/31. ,029 525 3 9,026 1.95 1.85
Tire Pressure stiffener s
MaxTO,lowPres
MxGrsWt,HiPres
MxTOW
MxLdgW ,HiPres
t,HiPres
t
BP260*12
For Stiff
longitudi
eners, use ABS Rule 3-2-7/ 5.3, Beams with Containers. Allowable stresses (static loads, q=1) are 1.26 t / cm2 for
nal stiffeners and 1.42 t / cm2 for transverse web frames, assuming fixed ends. Max shear = 1.055 tf / cm2 for both.
x b/l= = x x x x
x
x
mm mm mm
Girders and transverses are to have a depth of not less tha b thickness at least 1 mm per 100 mm of depth plus 4
mm, or 8.5 mm where the face area is <= 38 cm
2
, 10 mm with 63 cm
2
, 12.5 mm with 127 cm
2
and 15 mm with >= 190 cm
2
.
mm mm mm
n 0.0583l, and we
88
b/l= b/l=
HALSS Feasibility Study Design Report- Appendix A 18 December 2006
Columns (2006 ABS Rule 3-2-8/3.1 & 3.3):
3.3 Calculated Load W = nbhs, where n = .715 t/m3,
Transverse Column Spacing b = 10.800 m Longitudinal Column Spacing s = 9.000 m, and
, i.e. 63.2 t per dk.
For r 61.2 t, total = 231 t.
3.1 Allow le e, in meters, r is the gyradius in cm,
= 12m
0.41
Lower R
60% o ck Loads: t = 12.68 mm for sea-going conditions.
2 wheels
Drive Ax
60% 1 /cm2
/cm2
Columns tatic Load per column = 3 decks = 296.1 t, or h = 4.260 m, i.e. 296.1 t - use 300 t.
Use
l
= 4.200 m, A = 206.5 cm2, r = 9.5 cm, Wa= 298 t.
i.e. a W14 x 109# d = 363.7 tw = 13.3 bf = 371.0 tf = 21.8 mm.
This has an equivalent plate thickness of 0.89 mm. for weight estimating.
The allowable load provides enough margin for one C-130J directly on one stanchion.
Stiffeners:
Case 1 M = W a b/l = 19.05 45.72 738.1 Case 2 M = W a (b/L)
2
= 19.05 121.92 0.35236 818.3 t - cm.
Use With attached PL, SM = 480.0 cm3 H-36 q = 0.72 SMr = q M / f = 467.6
Stiffener Area As = 38.7 cm2 Equivalent t = As / s = 4.3 mm
Rule 3-2-7/ 3.1 SM = 7.8chsl
2
= 150.8
bridge-deck beams, i.e. column f of 3-2-7/Table 1 h = 0.910 m
pilla s below the Main deck, use h = 2.440 m, i.e. 169.6
ab Load Wa = (1.848 0.918
l
/ r) A where
l
is the length from deck to girder faceplat
and A is the column area in cm2. Use
l
= 2.800 m, A = 149.7 cm2, r = 7.7 cm, Wa= 227 t.
i.e. a W12 x 79# d = 314.5 tw = 11.9 bf = 306.8 tf = 18.7 mm. s
This has an equivalent plate thickness of 0.43 mm. for weight estimating.
oRo Decks: Net t incl stfnrs + webs (for wgt est) is 23.72 mm = 90% Use 12.5 mm AH-36
f MidTerm Sealift Cargo Handling Tru
le Ld stiffener s a b a/s b/s K C W, t Rule t thts
40 900 914 559 1.016 0.621 0.135 1.1 19.048 15.53 12.68 3.728 Kg
900 554 224 0.615 0.248 0.173 1.5 5.497 12.50 10.21 4.441 Kg
: Max S
cm3 for c= 0.796 = 1/(1.709 0.651k), k = SMr Y / I
A
= 69%
h = 3.000 m, s = 0.900 m,and l = 3.000 m.
Deck transverses (2006 ABS Rule 3-2-8 / 5.3 but also 3-2-7/ 5.3)
SMr = 3596 cm3 Use MT600x210x11/20. Available SM = 3,555 cm3 w/ 3,000 12.5 mm PL
-1% Margin Weight = 28.2% of PL Weight equivalent t= 3.53 mm
3-2-7/ 5.3: Case 1 M = W a = 19.05 372.4 7,092 t - cm. H-36 Q = 0.72 SMr = Q M / f = 3,596
.72=AH-36, 1=M.S.
Beam b, m h, m l, m Q SMr min depth, web thk Use SM, cm3 Equiv t
Tr. Webs 3.00 3.000 10.800 0.72 3,583 630 10.3 MT600x210x11/20. 3,555 3.53
L.Girders C=1.33 10.70 3.000 9.000 0.72 11,829 525 9.2 MT600x500x12/40. 11,936 2.50
Transverse Strength Estimate
Side Hull displacement at Crossover Deck draft (22.5m) = 9,499 t Double skin depth = 1.800 m
Side Hull displacement at full load draft (12m) = 5,122 t
109 t each.
Weight of Side Hull + 85 t each.
Design for a static lo over 91 web frames, or 85 t each.
ABS Rule 3-2-7/ 5.3 Max Shear Stress = 1 tf / cm2 requires 80.77 cm2 or 4.49 mm PL.
Loa 852 t - m
ABS Rule 3 7 cm3
SM = Depth x Flg area. hickness t = 8.00 mm PL.
Shell plating should be thicker because it's in compression. Deck plating will never see a compressive load more than about
22% of the above tensile load.
CH-53
BP260*11
=
Wheel dimensns
sure
t h for
or the beams at the top of the pillar plus the sum of the heights given
s ... above, which allows for reduced loads as above. The height for
devoted to passenger or crew accommodation may be taken as the height given in 3-2-7/3 for
the height h for any pillar under the first superstructure above the freeboard deck is not to be less than 2.44m. The heigh
any pillar is not to be less than the height given in 3-2-7/3 f
the same paragraph for the beams of all complete deck in
any tween decks
t plus one C-130J
E stowed
Tire Pres
x
x =
x = = x x =
k #
Max Wave Load = 5,122 t, Frames 18 -64 or
outboard decks+sponsons PL+framing = 7,755 t, Frames 0 -90 or
ad of 7,755 t
.055
d is applied 10.000 m outboard of the side shell giving a maximum moment M =
-2-7/ 5.3 Max Bending Stress = 1.42 / q = 1.972 tf / cm2 requires SM = 43,20
Flg width = Fr spcg = 3.000 m, giving required t
mm
mm
mm mm mm
mm mm mm
89
HALSS Feasibility Study Design Report- Appendix B 18 December 2006
Appendix B Weight Estimates
The following is a brief summary of the Light Ship Weight Estimate.
Center Extents Extents
Length Effect Thickns No of Stiffng Weight VCG LCG Aft Fwd Aft Fwd
or hgt, m W, m mm Pieces Allownc tonnes m ABL m-AP m-AP m-AP Fr # Fr #
24.0 14.0 7.0 7.8 100% 288 39.5 24.0 12.0 36.0 4 12.0
327.5 41.5 12.9 1.0 85% 2,546 30.3 163.8 0.0 327.5 0 109.2
276.0 13.4 14.0 1.0 85% 750 30.3 138.0 0.0 276.0 0 92
27.0 48.8 10.0 1.0 80% 186 27.0 271.8 261.0 288.0 87 96
66.5 44.5 14.0 1.0 80% 586 24.2 293.0 261.0 327.5 87 109.2
126.0 54.9 6.0 2.0 80% 1,172 25.6 198.0 135.0 261.0 45 87
135.0 54.9 10.9 2.0 90% 2,413 24.7 67.5 0.0 135.0 0 45
126.0 58.9 10.0 1.0 90% 1,106 22.0 198.0 135.0 261.0 45 87.0
147.0 11.7 12.0 2.0 90% 616 20.8 73.5 0.0 147.0 0 49.0
261.0 23.55 9.5 1.0 80% 825 16.9 117.5 0.0 261.0 0 87
126.0 13.9 9.9 2.9 78% 703 10.3 198.0 135.0 261.0 45 87
249.0 18.5 14.0 1.0 90% 961 3.3 135.6 36.0 285.0 12 95
36.0 5.7 14.0 2.0 90% 86 5.6 84.0 66.0 102.0 22 34
285.0 30.4 19.0 2.0 90% 4,918 10.0 151.5 9.0 294.0 3 98
156.0 20.7 18.0 4.0 100% 3,642 13.3 120.0 42.0 198.0 14 66
300.0 8.0 12.0 2.0 85% 836 28.0 150.0 0.0 300.0 0 100
75.0 5.4 8.0 1.0 80% 46 19.8 103.5 66.0 141.0 22 47
33.0 6.3 8.0 2.0 80% 47 14.0 118.5 102.0 135.0 34 45
36.0 21.0 8.0 1.0 80% 85 8.9 56.4 33.0 69.0 11 23
17.1 23.0 10.5 8.0 90% 492 8.6 148.5 12.0 285.0 4 95
5.4 24.5 8.0 9.5 90% 150 19.8 148.5 12.0 285.0 4 95
18.5 4.4 10.5 11.0 90% 140 13.3 111.0 54.0 168.0 18 56
8.0 54.9 8.0 6.0 90% 314 26.5 141.0 12.0 27
43.7 12.0 25.0 2.0 90% 391 5.0 33.9 12.0
.0 6.0 27.0 4.0 95% 139 9
keg (Shaft Alley)
heads Abv 3d Dk 0.0 4 90
55.7 4 18.6
14 .0 6.0 3.0 9.0 1 3
333.0 10.0 7.0 1.0 95% 357 30.3 166.5 0.0 333.0 0 111.0
25.0 12.0 9.0 7. 95% 289 30.3 135.3 36.0 267.0 12 89
81.0 12 27
42.4 21.2 80.8
5.0 16 45
85.5 36.0 135.0 12 45
33.0 30.0 36.0 10 12
90 26.0 -1.5 -3.0 0.0 -1 0
25,349 18.21 137.37
No
2,300 2 4,600 10.0 85.5 72.0 99.0 24 33
315 3 945 5.3 46.5 15.0 78.0 5 26
240 4.0 960 7.0 124.5 117.0 132.0 39 44
146 4.5 658 7.2 108.8 84.0 117.0 28 39
106 3 317 5.3 18.8 12.0 39.0 4 13
7,480 8.58 84.80
101 1 101 12.5 118.5 111.0 126.0 37 42
50 5.0 250 16.0 85.5 72.0 99.0 24 33
20 7.0 140 16.0 69.0 66.0 72.0 22 24
200 3.5 700 26.1 139.5 54.0 225.0 18 75
1,191 21.65 118.10
80 3 240 26.0 276.0 270.0 282.0 90 94
80 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0
40 0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0
15 1 15 24.0 45.0 36.0 54.0 12 18
1,200 125% 1,500 12.0 81.7 12.0 174.0 4 58
1,755 14.02 107.92
20 3 60 33.0 14.4 0.0 36.0 0 12
0.4 1600 690 26.7 198.0 135.0 261.0 45 87
1,800 1 1,800 17.1 140.0 0.0 333.0 0 111
2,550 20.06 152.74
11059.03649 12,976
8.58 38,324 497.065
Purifier Room Long'l Bulkheads
2nd Dk Fr 87-96
Passenger Dks 2 & 3
3rd Dk (Shell PL) Fr 87-109
Fuel Tank Lgl Bhds - ctr
Stbd Main Deck outb'd of flight deck
Outboard Sides above 3rd Deck
CL Longl Bhd > 4th Dk
4th Dk - ctr
Crossover Dk outbd aft AH-36
Subtotal Electrical
Outfit & Machy Subtotal
Lighting+House Elect & Distribution (1=crew, 3=Troops)
Mooring & Anchor
Joiner Work & furniture &c for troops
Transverse Bulkheads - Ctr 17.1-22.5
Tonnes each
Transformers (3=Troops)
Sta
Switchbds & VFC
Mn Engines - ctr - Sulzer 14 RTA 96 @ 80MW ea
5MW D-G sets - Wartsila 12V32
Foundations
Masts & Spars
Hinged Stern Ramp
Note - Fixed ramps included in deck weights
Subtotal Propulsion
Propulsion Generators + (Gear+Motors)
Side Eng + SSDG = Wartsila 18V46 @ 18MW ea
From Esti-Mate
Subtotal Steel Weight
Ctr Hull S
Sponsons (P)+ Bow Sponson
Sponsons (S) AH-36
Rudder & Horn
Propellers
Deckhouse Decks & L. Bhds
Flight Deck - AH-36 PL & Frs
2nd Dk+3d=Cargo Dk AH-36
Crossover Dk outbd + Pass Deck 3A
Mn Propulsion Shafting (sides = 1/2 ctr)
Bilge Keels (
Moveable Ramps
Sideport Doors
Subtotal Outfit & Furnishings
Rescue & Lifeboats
Cargo Elevator
Paint
Pipe & Aux (25% = Troops)
Subtotal Auxiliary Systems
Total Lightship Weight =
Transverse Bulk
Double Bottom - ctr
Double Bottom - wings
Ctr Hull Shell PL
Side Hull Shell PL
Transverse Bulkheads - Ctr <17.1
Transverse Bulkheads - Wings
5th & 6th Decks (Generator Flat)
HALSS Light Ship Weight
Estimate (tonnes):
0
58.0 32.2 6.0 1.0 95% 172 38.3 63.5 36.0
178.8 3.0 25.0 1.0 95% 205 0.3 153.0 63.6 2
108.9 48.0 13 cks (Uptakes)
Hangars (S)
None) & Keel .6L
20 24.7
748 8.0
30 38.0
From Esti-Mate
From Esti-Mate
From Esti-Mate
90
HALSS Design Report Appendix C - Maneuvering Assessment
Appendix C Maneuverability Assessment for the HALSS
References: This Report is developed in accordance with the following vessel
documentation and reference material:
1. Jun-Wu Zhang and David Andrews, Manoeuvrability Performance of a
Trimaran Ship, RINA Conference on High Speed Craft Motions and
Maneuverability, Feb 1998
2. Martin Renilson, Bob Scrace, Mike Johnson and Chris Richardsen, Trials to
Measure the Hydrodynamic Prtformance of RV Triton, RINA Conference on
Design and Operation of Trimaran Ships, London, UK
3. Scrace, , R. J., QuinetiQ Report FST/CR02 4287/1.0, RV TRITON, Phase
1a: Calm water manoeuvring trials. Final report (UC), Unclassified
Limited Distribution
4. Winnifred R. Jacobs, Estimation of Stability Derivatives and Indices of
Various Ship Forms and Comparison with Experimental Results, Davidson
Laboratory Report 1035, September 1964
5. l. Folger Whicker and Leo, F. Fehlner, Free-Stream Characteristics of a
Family of Low-Aspect Ratio, All-Movable Control Surfaces for Application
958
6. Wartsila Lips D SS Project, Figure
V
200613 GA.dwg, 8/9/2006
8. IMO Resolution MSC.137(76) adopted 4 December 2002, MSC 76/23/Add.1
10. USCG NVIC 7-89, 8 Jan 1990
to Ship Design, David Taylor Model Basin Report 933, December 1
efence, Power Absorption Diagram, HAL
7. HALSS
9. IMO Circular MSC/Circ.1053, 16 December 2002, Ref. T4/3.01
PRINCIPAL PARTICULARS
Length, over all .............................................................................. 327.45 m
Length, between perpendiculars .................................................... 300.00 m
Breadth (extreme) ............................................................................ 54.90 m
Depth @ side (center hull, molded) ................................................. 22.50 m
esign Draft (molded) ..................................................................... 12.00 m D
INTRODUCTION
In the development of the design of the Heavy Air Lift Seabasing Ship (HALSS)
trimaran, questions have arisen on the maneuvering characteristics that should be
expected of such a large and innovative hull configuration. In particular, ship steering at
a under rudder control, and slow speed maneuvering in harbor with only the side hull
propellers operating instead of bow thrusters, require an initial assessment to confirm that
se
91
HALSS Design Report Appendix C - Maneuvering Assessment
the rudders main dimensions and the side propeller thrust range would be sufficient to
ensure adequate maneuverability in all conditions.
The method by Zhang and Andrews [Ref. 1] of the University College London (UCL) is
used to estimate the maneuvering performance of the HALSS in this study. This paper
focuses primarily on high speed trimaran steady turning circles but the methodology used
is also suitable for predicting relatively low speed turning radii under the action of side
propellers. In brief, the method by Zhang and Andrews is a force and moment balance
that aims to estimate the value of the steady turn radius, given values for ship speed (not
the result of a resistance/thrust balance) and rudder angle (both quantities are considered
constant and uncoupled from the resulting turning characteristics). Multi-hull
ydrodynamic derivatives are computed assuming no interaction between main hull and
ssion series, those of the side
ulls are assumed equal to a very low aspect ratio lifting surface.
lthough turning circles do not provide a complete picture of a ship maneuvering
ults with current IMO and USCG
quirements for commercial ships is deemed sufficient for the purpose of qualifying this
aspect of the initial design. In this respect, please note that although the current IMO and
USCG requirements for commercial ships are based on the value of the tactical diameter
h
outriggers, and rudder and propeller forces (only used to estimate differential thrust
moments) are estimated linearly and independently from each other. Whilst the
derivatives of the main hull are derived from standard regre
h
A
characteristics a comparison of these numerical res
re
ther than the value of the steady turn diameter ra , the difference between half tactical
ically less than the margin the HALSS has on IMO
teady turn diameter derived for the HALSS using
ethod is compared directly with the current IMO and USCG
uirements. In support to this way of proceeding, a comparison of the tactical diameter
diameter and steady turn radius is typ
equirements. For this reason, the s r
Zhang and Andrews m
req
and the steady turn diameter measured during sea trials of the trimaran RV TRITON
[Ref. 2 and 3] is given next. Comparison of Figure 50 with Figure 45 confirms the above
thesis.
92
HALSS Design Report Appendix C - Maneuvering Assessment
93
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
0 10 20 30 40 50
Rudder angle (deg)
T
u
r
n
i
n
g

d
i
a
m
e
t
e
r
(
m
)
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
D
i
a
m
e
t
e
r

r
a
t
i
o
(
)
Steady Turn Diameter
Tactical Diameter
Tactical/Steady Turn Diameter
Linear (Tactical/Steady Turn
Diameter)
Figure 45 Steady turn versus tactical diameter from Table 8 of Ref. 3
Rudder only
In order to achieve the above objectives, the following approach was adopted:
1. Zhang and Andrews's method was implemented in an Microsoft Excel
spreadsheet
2. The ensuing spreadsheet was verified and calibrated using the model test results
provided by UCL in [Ref. 1]
3. The method was further validated against the full scale sea trials data collected by
QuinetiQ on the trimaran RV TRITON [Ref. 2 and 3]
4. The method was finally applied to the HALSS design [Ref. 6 and 7] to determine
steady turn radii for the following configurations:
- Using rudders only
- Using side props only assuming one idling and the other pushing
- Using side props only assumi one reversing and the other pushing
5. The HALSS results thus obtained were then ents of the
IMO and USCG [Ref. 8 to 10] to dete mine if the current design should be
considered satisfactor
ng
compared to the requirem
r
y.
HALSS Design Report Appendix C - Maneuvering Assessment
94
IMPLEMENTATION
The paper by Zhang and Andrews [Ref. 1] provides most details about the numerical
method therein proposed. Nevertheless, some small variations and additional
assumptions were made in order to either bridge the occasional gap or in order to
facilitate the code implementation. These variations and assumptions were as follows:
1. The side hulls resistance differential is ignored. The reason for this assumption is
that individual resistance regression lines for the side hulls are not available for
the HALSS, RV TRITON or UCL model. This assumption is justified by the
conclusion in [Ref. 1] that the influence of this element on the overall turning
moment is negligible.
2. B-Series were used in order to estimate thrust coefficients for the side propellers.
This is probably a coarse assumption for all three vessels since the actual
propeller geometries are quite different from those of the Wageningen series. The
reason to adopt these coefficients is that they are well established, readily
available and would serve relatively well the purpose of an initial estimation of
the propulsion characteristics.
3. The thrust of a side propeller backing was estimated in two ways. As suggested
by Zhang and Andrews [Ref. 1], one way would be to assume it equal to the
propeller bollard pull. This can be estimated using the B-Series simply by setting
the speed of advance equal to zero. It is believed that this method might
underestimate the steady turn radius. For this reason it was not employed to
estimate the HALSS slow speed maneuvering but only to compare HEC results
with UCL data.
A second way is to consider the thrust of the backing propeller equal to
approximately 20% of the equivalent forward thrust for the same RPM and speed
conditions. This is in accordance to what is stated in [Ref. 3 for RV TRITON]
and most probably a more realistic assumption than the first one. Results for the
HALSS were calculated with this method.
Note that the four quadrants propeller characteristics of the B series could also be
used to estimate the propeller thrust in any speed-RPM combination, using Ct-
Beta characteristics. However, the Triton experience is deemed to be more
accurate than the analytical model of four quadrants propeller characteristics for
such an original ship configuration.
CALIBRATION
In addition to the very detailed description of their numerical method, Zhang and
Andrews also provide som tests that can be used to
calibrate the spreadsheet im ee Table 27).
In the following comparison, one needs to bear in mind that not all input parameters were
available for the UCL trimaran in Zhang and Andrews paper. In Appendix A, the values
of the input parameters that were directly available from the paper are highlighted in bold
blue characters. All other parameter values (normal blue characters) were either
estimated from other similar ships or deduced from other data available in the paper.
e experimental results from model
plementation put together by HEC (s
HALSS Design Report Appendix C - Maneuvering Assessment
Because of the above assumptions, the com ison of the numerical results obtained by
HEC for the turning circles corresponding to the operation of the rudder only (no
differential trust from the side pro ental data provided by UCL is
not an exact match (see Figure rtheless that the difference in
results is not excessive and that the error gets progressively smaller as the rudder angle is
increased. This indicates that the implementation of the methodology is basically sound.
Table 27: Steady turn radius experimental data for UCL trimaran - Rudder Only
par
pellers) and the experim
46). One should note neve
Zhang and Andrews paper - Fig. 4
Rudder Angle Turning Radius
(deg) (m)
5.0 1600.0
10.0 800.0
20.0 400.0
35.0 220.0
0.0
200.0
400.0
600.0
800.0
1000.0
1200.0
1400.0
1600.0
1800.0
0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0
Rudder angle (deg)
T
u
r
n
i
n
g

r
a
d
i
u
s

(
m
)
UCL experiments
HEC numerical
Figure 46 Steady turn radius experimental data versus HEC numerical predictions for
UCL trimaran - Rudder only
The same comparison presented above for the case of sole rudder operation, was also
carried out for two modes of differential side propulsion: with one propeller pushing and
one idling (case a) and with one propeller pushing and one reversing (case c). The
95
HALSS Design Report Appendix C - Maneuvering Assessment
numerical results ob results obtained by
UCL (Table 28 and Table 29) in Figure 47 and Figure 48.
Again, the comparison is possible only for a few points because of lack of detailed input
data. Also, some discrepancies in the treatment of bollard pool are evident from Figure
48. In summary, although the comparison for the propulsion differential steering is
certainly encouraging, the scarcity of data makes this part of the calibration difficult to
rely on.
Table 28: Steady turn radius numerical data for UCL trimaran One propeller idling
tained by HEC are compared with numerical
Zhang and Andrews paper - Fig. 11 a
Rudder Angle Turning Radius
(deg) (m)
5.0 250.0
10.0 1000.0
20.0 7000.0
35.0
0.0
5000.0
10000.0
15000.0
20000.0
25000.0
0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0
Speed (knots)
T
u
r
n
i
n
g

r
a
d
i
u
s

(
m
)
UCL
HEC
Figure 47 UCL steady turn radius data versus HEC numerical predictions for UCL
One propeller idling
trimaran
96
HALSS Design Report Appendix C - Maneuvering Assessment
Table 29: Steady turn radius numerical data for UCL trimaran One propeller reversing
Zhang and Andrews paper - Fig. 11 c
Rudder Angle Turning Radius
(deg) (m)
5.0 125.0
10.0 600.0
20.0 2700.0
35.0 6100.0
0.0
1000.0
2000.0
3000.0
4000.0
5000.0
6000.0
7000.0
0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0
Speed (knots)
T
u
r
n
i
n
g

r
a
d
i
u
s

(
m
)
UCL
HEC
Figure 48 - UCL steady turn radius data versus HEC numerical predictions for UCL
trimaran
One propeller reversing
VALIDATION
Validation of the HEC spreadsheet was carried out by com
TRITON and comparing the result with ful scale data collected by QuinetiQ during an
exhaustive set of sea trials as more reliable than the
one available for UCLs m rom David Taylor Model
Basins archives. Table 29 gives details of part of the data available from [Ref. 3].
Figure 49 sho trial data for
maneuvering u
One should note that no direct data was available on the steady turn radii of the TRITON
under side propeller differential trust only. Furthermore, no data was available on the
puting steady turn radii for RV
l
. The input data for the TRITON w
odel, most of it oming directly f c
ws the comparison of HEC estimates and QuinetiQ sea
nder rudder action only. The agreement is extremely good.
97
HALSS Design Report Appendix C - Maneuvering Assessment
geometry and thrust of the TRITONs side propeller. For these reasons, the thrust
differential portion of HEC spreadsheet remains not fully validated.
0.0
50.0
100.0
150.0
200.0
250.0
300.0
350.0
400.0
450.0
500.0
0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0
Rudder angle (deg)
T
u
r
n
i
n
g

r
a
d
i
u
s

(
m
)
QuinetiQ Trials
HEC
Figure 49 - TRITON steady turn radius sea trials data versus HEC numerical predictions
Rudder only
RESULTS
Steady turn radius estimates were run for the HALSS trimaran for the same operation
modes as the ones run for the UCL model:
- Rudder only
- No rudder, one propeller pushing and the other one idle
- No rudder, one propeller pushing and the other one reversing
Figure 50 to Figure 54 show the results of these calculations. It should be noted that
when steering under differential propulsion only, the steady turn radius is both a function
of the ships speed and ed that
the ship speed
totally available for steering.
Figure 50 also shows the current IMO/USCG requirement for merchant vessels. This
stipulates that the tactical diameter should be less then five times the vessel length. For
the HALSS, this is approximately equivalent to a steady turn radius of less than about
750 m.
the side propellers RPM. In this exercise, it was assum
would be provided by the center hull propulsion so that side propellers are
98
HALSS Design Report Appendix C - Maneuvering Assessment
0.00
0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00 30.00 35.00 40.00 45.00
Rudder angle (deg)
200.00
400.00
600.00
800.00
T
u
r
n
i
n
g

r
a
d
i
1,000.00
1,400.00
1,600.00
u
s

(
m
)
1,200.00
HEC
IMO Res. MSC.137(76)
Figure 50 - HEC numerical predictions of HALSS steady turn radius
Rudder only
0.00
200.00
400.00
600.00
800.00
1,000.00
1,200.00
1,400.00
1,600.00
m
)
1,800.00
100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200
RPM
T
u
r
n
i
n
g

r
a
d
i
u
s

(
HEC
Figure 51 - HEC numerical predictions of HALSS steady turn radius
One propeller idling Speed = 10 knots
99
HALSS Design Report Appendix C - Maneuvering Assessment
0.00
500.00
1,000.00
1,500.00
2,000.00
2,500.00
0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00
Speed (knots)
T
u
r
n
i
n
g

r
a
d
i
u
s

(
m
)
HEC
Figure 52 - HEC numerical predictions of HALSS steady turn radius
One propeller idling - RPM= 190
0.00
500.00
100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200
RPM
1,000.00
1,500.00
2,000.00
2,500.00
3,000.00
T
u
r
n
i
n
g

r
a
d
i
u
s

(
m
)
HEC
Figure 53 - HEC numerical predictions of HALSS steady turn radius
One propeller reversing Speed = 10 knots
100
HALSS Design Report Appendix C - Maneuvering Assessment
0.00
500.00
1,000.00
1,500.00
2,000.00
2,500.00
3,000.00
3,500.00
4,000.00
4,500.00
0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00
Speed (knots)
T
u
r
n
i
n
g

r
a
d
i
u
s

(
m
)
HEC
Figure 54 - HEC numerical predictions of HALSS steady turn radius
One propeller reversing RPM = 190
CONCLUSIONS
In terms of comparison to existing IMO criteria, the HALSS in her current configuration
displays satisfactory turning ability.
The above results show that for high speed turning, rudder control is always required
since side propulsion differential quickly becomes inadequate as the ship speed increases.
The reason for this is that the propeller thrust decreases as the speed of advance increases,
whilst the hydrodynamic resistance of the hulls to turning increases as the ship speed
increases. Since the power (RPM) of the side propellers is limited, the vessel will
quickly get to a point (ship speed) where the turning moment from the side propellers
will simply not be enough to turn the ship.
Unlike the differential thrust turning moment provided by the propellers, the rudders
turning moment increases with ship speed in the same way as the hydrodynamic
resistance of the hulls to turning (they are both functions of the ship speed squared). This
is what makes rudders such effective steering devices at higher speeds. In fact, according
to Zhang and Andrews methodology, the steady turn radius under rudder action only is
independent of the ships speed. This is also confirmed by the data in [Ref. 3].
101
HALSS Design Report Appendix C - Maneuvering Assessment
For low speed tur ery effective but
side propulsion would allow extremely tight turns. This is hardly surprising when the
side propellers are compared to standard bow thrusters, where side propellers typically
have larger diameters (thrust is a function of ropeller diameter to the power of four) and
delivered power than bow thrusters, as well as the possibility to be operated in opposition
(one propeller pushing and the other one reversing). Including the fact that the resistance
from the bow thrusters ducts cannot be reduced by operational means, while side
propellers can be made to idle in order not to produce extra resistance, makes this a
strong argument for avoiding bow thrusters in the design of the HALSS. One should
nevertheless remember that the crabbing capability provided by bow thrusters could be
difficult to match using rudders, side and center propellers only.
One final word is finally due in regard to the course keeping characteristics of the
HALSS. Using the hydrodynamic derivatives estimated by Zhang and Andrews method
(see Appendix B and C), one can estimate if the inequality:
ning, the picture is instead reversed. Rudders are not v
p
0
Y
N
Y
N
'
v
'
v
' '
r
'
r
>
A
is satisfied or not. For the RT TRITON one obtains:
0 > 055 . 1
Y
N
Y
N
'
v
'
v
' '
r
'
r
=
A
For the HALSS one obtains instead:
0 279 . 0
Y
N
Y
N
'
'
v
' '
'
r
> =
A
v r
The above inequality, when satisfied, expresses the control fixed straight line stability of
a craft. This means that under the simplifying assumptions of Zhang and Andrews
method, both HAL line path after a
disturbance, even if their rudders are held fixed to zero. Note that the above analysis is
served that low speed course stability
ility when the assumptions of linearity
SS and the RV TRITON will resume a new straight
speed-independent. In practice, though, it is ob
might not necessarily entail high speed course stab
of the hydrodynamic derivatives used by Zhang and Andrews method break down.
102
HALSS Design Report Appendix C - Maneuvering Assessment
Appendix C-1: Calibration Spreadsheets
Constants
Sea water density - rho (MT/m^3) = 1.025
Variables
Ship speed - speed (kn) = 1 20.00 20.00 20.00 20.00
Rudder angle - delta (deg) = 1 5.00 10.00 20.00 35.00
Trim - deltaT (m) = 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Parameters
Center hull length at WL - L (m) = 1 150.00
Center hull beam at WL - B (m) = 1 10.80
Center hull draft at MS - T (m) = 1 5.50
Center hull block coefficient based on WL data - Cb () = 0.700
Ship displacement - disp (MT) = 1 5,400
Rudder sweep angle - lamda (deg) = 1 5.00
Rudder area - Ar (m^2) = 1 29.00
Rudder length - l (m) = 1 5.00
LCG from MS - xg (m) = 0.00
Distance of rudder 1/4 line from MS - xr (m) = 75.00
Distance from wing propeller to CL - ys (m) = 1 14.50
Profile area of side hull under WL - Af (m^2) = 189.00
Side hull length at WL - Ls (m) = 1 60.00
Side hull draft at WL - Ts (m) = 1 3.50
Distance of middle side hull from MS - xs (m) = 0.00
Pitch/diameter ratio - () = 1 1.68
Propeller diameter - (m) = 1 3.50
Number of blades - () = 4
RPM - (1/min) = 1 127 127 127 127
Blade area ratio - () = 1 0.80
Wake fraction - () = 1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
KT = 0.184 0.184 0.184 0.184
KQ = 0.050 0.050 0.050 0.050
Va (m/sec) = 10.288 10.288 10.288 10.288
J = 1 1.389 1.389 1.389 1.389
Thrust (N) = 126,801 126,801 126,801 126,801
Bollart Pull (N) = 534,649 534,649 534,649 534,649
Eta0 = 0.810 0.810 0.810 0.810
PS (MW) = 1.644 1.644 1.644 1.644
Derived quantities
Ship mass - m (kg) = 5,400,000 5,400,000 5,400,000 5,400,000
Longitudinal velocity - u (m/sec) = 10.288 10.288 10.288 10.288
Rudder area as a % or lateral center hull area - () = 3.52% 3.52% 3.52% 3.52%
Rudder aspect ratio - a () = 0.862 0.862 0.862 0.862
Rudder lift curve slope - dClddelta (1/deg) = 0.021 0.021 0.021 0.021
Rudder force control derivative - Ydelta - (N/deg) = 33,694.893 33,694.893 33,694.893 33,694.893
Rudder force - Ydeltadelta - (N) = 168,474.463 336,948.927 673,897.853 1,179,321.243
Rudder moment control derivative - Ndelta (N*m/deg) = -2,527,116.950 -2,527,116.950 -2,527,116.950 -2,527,116.950
Rudder moment - Ndeltadelta (N*m) = -12,635,584.748 -25,271,169.495 -50,542,338.990 -88,449,093.233
Center hull sway-sway derivative - Yvc (N/m*sec) = -808,000.524 -808,000.524 -808,000.524 -808,000.524
Center hull yaw-sway derivative - Yrc (N/rad*sec) = 37,580,394.984 37,580,394.984 37,580,394.984 37,580,394.984
Center hull sway-yaw derivative - Nvc (N*sec) = -47,848,845.000 -47,848,845.000 -47,848,845.000 -47,848,845.000
Center hull yaw-yaw derivative - Nrc (N*m/rad*sec) = -3,349,419,150.000 -3,349,419,150.000 -3,349,419,150.000 -3,349,419,150.000
Side hull aspect ratio - as () = 0.117 0.117 0.117 0.117
Side hull lift curve slope - dCldbeta (1/rad) = 0.183 0.183 0.183 0.183
Side hull sway-sway derivative - Yvs (N/m*sec) = -182,622.085 -182,622.085 -182,622.085 -182,622.085
Side hull yaw-sway derivative - Yrs (N/rad*sec) = 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Side hull sway-yaw derivative - Nvs (N*sec) = 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Side hull yaw-yaw derivative - Nrs (N*m/rad*sec) = 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Ship sway-sway derivative - Yv (N/m*sec) = -1,173,244.694 -1,173,244.694 -1,173,244.694 -1,173,244.694
Ship yaw-sway derivative - Yr (N/rad*sec) = 37,580,394.984 37,580,394.984 37,580,394.984 37,580,394.984
Shp sway-yaw derivative - Nv (N*sec) = -47,848,845.000 -47,848,845.000 -47,848,845.000 -47,848,845.000
Ship yaw-yaw derivative - Nr (N*m/rad*sec) = -3,349,419,150.000 -3,349,419,150.000 -3,349,419,150.000 -3,349,419,150.000
Wing propeller thrust (starboard) - Tws (N) = 0 0 0
Wing propeller thrust (port) - Twp (N) = 0 0 0
Ship's turning rate - rr (rad/sec) = 0.007 0.015 0.030 0.052
Ship's steady turning radius - TurningRadius (m) =
0
0
1,379.89 689.95 344.97 197.13
UCL Rudder only
103
HALSS Design Report Appendix C - Maneuvering Assessment
Constants
Sea water density - rho (MT/m^3) = 1.025
Variables
Ship speed - speed (kn) = 1 20.00 30.00
lta (deg) = 1 0.00 0.00
00
.00
1 14.50
Side hull sway-yaw derivative - Nvs (N*sec) = 0.000 0.000
Side hull yaw-yaw derivative - Nrs (N*m/rad*sec) = 0.000 0.000
Ship sway-sway derivative - Yv (N/m*sec) = -1,076,343.179 -1,614,514.769
Ship yaw-sway derivative - Yr (N/rad*sec) = 37,580,394.984 56,370,592.476
Shp sway-yaw derivative - Nv (N*sec) = -47,848,845.000 -71,773,267.500
Ship yaw-yaw derivative - Nr (N*m/rad*sec) = -3,349,419,150.000 -5,024,128,725.000
Wing propeller thrust (starboard) - Tws (N) = 253,603 192,668
Wing propeller thrust (port) - Twp (N) = 0 0
Ship's turning rate - rr (rad/sec) = 0.001 0.001
Ship's steady turning radius - TurningRadius (m) =
Rudder angle - de
Trim - deltaT (m) = 0.00 0.00
Parameters
Center hull length at WL - L (m) = 1 150.00
Center hull beam at WL - B (m) = 1 10.80
Center hull draft at MS - T (m) = 1 5.50
Center hull block coefficient based on WL data - Cb () = 0.700
Ship displacement - disp (MT) = 1 5,400
Rudder sweep angle - lamda (deg) = 1 5.00
Rudder area - Ar (m^2) = 1 29.00
Rudder length - l (m) = 1 5.00
LCG from MS - xg (m) = 0.
Distance of rudder 1/4 line from MS - xr (m) = 75
Distance from wing propeller to CL - ys (m) =
Profile area of side hull under WL - Af (m^2) = 162.00
Side hull length at WL - Ls (m) = 1 60.00
Side hull draft at WL - Ts (m) = 1 3.00
Distance of middle side hull from MS - xs (m) = 0.00
Pitch/diameter ratio - () = 1 1.68
3.50 Propeller diameter - (m) = 1
Number of blades - () = 4
RPM - (1/min) = 1 127 166
Blade area ratio - () = 1 0.80
Wake fraction - () = 1 0.00 0.00
KT = 0.184 0.082
KQ = 0.050 0.025
Va (m/sec) = 10.288 15.432
J = 1 1.389 1.594
Thrust (N) = 126,801 96,334
Bollart Pull (N) = 534,649 913,435
Eta0 = 0.810 0.828
PS (MW) = 1.644 1.833
Derived quantities
Ship mass - m (kg) = 5,400,000 5,400,000
Longitudinal velocity - u (m/sec) = 10.288 15.432
Rudder area as a % or lateral center hull area - () = 3.52% 3.52%
Rudder aspect ratio - a () = 0.862 0.862
Rudder lift curve slope - dClddelta (1/deg) = 0.021 0.021
Rudder force control derivative - Ydelta - (N/deg) = 33,694.893 75,813.508
Rudder force - Ydeltadelta - (N) = 0.000 0.000
Rudder moment control derivative - Ndelta (N*m/deg) = -2,527,116.950 -5,686,013.136
Rudder moment - Ndeltadelta (N*m) = 0.000 0.000
Center hull sway-sway derivative - Yvc (N/m*sec) = -808,000.524 -1,212,000.786
Center hull yaw-sway derivative - Yrc (N/rad*sec) = 37,580,394.984 56,370,592.476
Center hull sway-yaw derivative - Nvc (N*sec) = -47,848,845.000 -71,773,267.500
Center hull yaw-yaw derivative - Nrc (N*m/rad*sec) = -3,349,419,150.000 -5,024,128,725.000
Side hull aspect ratio - as () = 0.100 0.100
Side hull lift curve slope - dCldbeta (1/rad) = 0.157 0.157
Side hull sway-sway derivative - Yvs (N/m*sec) = -134,171.328 -201,256.991
Side hull yaw-sway derivative - Yrs (N/rad*sec) = 0.000 0.000
7,135.23 21,131.70
UCL One propeller idling
104
HALSS Design Report Appendix C - Maneuvering Assessment
Constants
Sea water density - rho (MT/m^3) = 1.025
Variables
Ship speed - speed (kn) = 1 20.00 30.00
lta (deg) = 1 0.00 0.00
00
.00
1 14.50
Side hull sway-yaw derivative - Nvs (N*sec) = 0.000 0.000
Side hull yaw-yaw derivative - Nrs (N*m/rad*sec) = 0.000 0.000
Ship sway-sway derivative - Yv (N/m*sec) = -1,076,343.179 -1,614,514.769
Ship yaw-sway derivative - Yr (N/rad*sec) = 37,580,394.984 56,370,592.476
Shp sway-yaw derivative - Nv (N*sec) = -47,848,845.000 -71,773,267.500
Ship yaw-yaw derivative - Nr (N*m/rad*sec) = -3,349,419,150.000 -5,024,128,725.000
Wing propeller thrust (starboard) - Tws (N) = 253,603 192,668
Wing propeller thrust (port) - Twp (N) = -534,649 -913,435
Ship's turning rate - rr (rad/sec) = 0.004 0.004
Ship's steady turning radius - TurningRadius (m) =
Rudder angle - de
Trim - deltaT (m) = 0.00 0.00
Parameters
Center hull length at WL - L (m) = 1 150.00
Center hull beam at WL - B (m) = 1 10.80
Center hull draft at MS - T (m) = 1 5.50
Center hull block coefficient based on WL data - Cb () = 0.700
Ship displacement - disp (MT) = 1 5,400
Rudder sweep angle - lamda (deg) = 1 5.00
Rudder area - Ar (m^2) = 1 29.00
Rudder length - l (m) = 1 5.00
LCG from MS - xg (m) = 0.
Distance of rudder 1/4 line from MS - xr (m) = 75
Distance from wing propeller to CL - ys (m) =
Profile area of side hull under WL - Af (m^2) = 162.00
Side hull length at WL - Ls (m) = 1 60.00
Side hull draft at WL - Ts (m) = 1 3.00
Distance of middle side hull from MS - xs (m) = 0.00
Pitch/diameter ratio - () = 1 1.68
3.50 Propeller diameter - (m) = 1
Number of blades - () = 4
RPM - (1/min) = 1 127 166
Blade area ratio - () = 1 0.80
Wake fraction - () = 1 0.00 0.00
KT = 0.184 0.082
KQ = 0.050 0.025
Va (m/sec) = 10.288 15.432
J = 1 1.389 1.594
Thrust (N) = 126,801 96,334
Bollart Pull (N) = 534,649 913,435
Eta0 = 0.810 0.828
PS (MW) = 1.644 1.833
Derived quantities
Ship mass - m (kg) = 5,400,000 5,400,000
Longitudinal velocity - u (m/sec) = 10.288 15.432
Rudder area as a % or lateral center hull area - () = 3.52% 3.52%
Rudder aspect ratio - a () = 0.862 0.862
Rudder lift curve slope - dClddelta (1/deg) = 0.021 0.021
Rudder force control derivative - Ydelta - (N/deg) = 33,694.893 75,813.508
Rudder force - Ydeltadelta - (N) = 0.000 0.000
Rudder moment control derivative - Ndelta (N*m/deg) = -2,527,116.950 -5,686,013.136
Rudder moment - Ndeltadelta (N*m) = 0.000 0.000
Center hull sway-sway derivative - Yvc (N/m*sec) = -808,000.524 -1,212,000.786
Center hull yaw-sway derivative - Yrc (N/rad*sec) = 37,580,394.984 56,370,592.476
Center hull sway-yaw derivative - Nvc (N*sec) = -47,848,845.000 -71,773,267.500
Center hull yaw-yaw derivative - Nrc (N*m/rad*sec) = -3,349,419,150.000 -5,024,128,725.000
Side hull aspect ratio - as () = 0.100 0.100
Side hull lift curve slope - dCldbeta (1/rad) = 0.157 0.157
Side hull sway-sway derivative - Yvs (N/m*sec) = -134,171.328 -201,256.991
Side hull yaw-sway derivative - Yrs (N/rad*sec) = 0.000 0.000
2,295.61 3,680.86
UCL One propeller reversing
105
HALSS Design Report Appendix C - Maneuvering Assessment
Appendix C-2: Validation Spreadsheets
Constants
Sea water density - rho (MT/m^3) = 1.025
Variables
Ship speed - speed (kn) = 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00
Rudder angle - delta (deg) = 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00
0.00
Center hull beam at WL - B (m) = 7.20
Rudder area - Ar (m^2) = 7.69
Center hull yaw-yaw derivative - Nrc (N*m/rad*sec) = -261,097,741.580 -261,097,741.580 -261,097,741.580 -261,097,741.580
Side hull aspect ratio - as () = 0.124 0.124 0.124 0.124
Side hull lift curve slope - dCldbeta (1/rad) = 0.194 0.194 0.194 0.194
Side hull sway-sway derivative - Yvs (N/m*sec) = -20,219.392 -20,219.392 -20,219.392 -20,219.392
Side hull yaw-sway derivative - Yrs (N/rad*sec) = -45,493.633 -45,493.633 -45,493.633 -45,493.633
Side hull sway-yaw derivative - Nvs (N*sec) = -45,493.633 -45,493.633 -45,493.633 -45,493.633
Side hull yaw-yaw derivative - Nrs (N*m/rad*sec) = -102,360.674 -102,360.674 -102,360.674 -102,360.674
Ship sway-sway derivative - Yv (N/m*sec) = -204,790.138 -204,790.138 -204,790.138 -204,790.138
Ship yaw-sway derivative - Yr (N/rad*sec) = 4,874,283.598 4,874,283.598 4,874,283.598 4,874,283.598
Shp sway-yaw derivative - Nv (N*sec) = -6,412,966.481 -6,412,966.481 -6,412,966.481 -6,412,966.481
Ship yaw-yaw derivative - Nr (N*m/rad*sec) = -261,302,462.928 -261,302,462.928 -261,302,462.928 -261,302,462.928
Wing propeller thrust (starboard) - Tws (N) = 0 0 0 0
Wing propeller thrust (port) - Twp (N) = 0 0 0 0
Ship's turning rate - rr (rad/sec) = 0.011 0.023 0.034 0.046
Ship's steady turning radius - TurningRadius (m) =
Trim - deltaT (m) = 0.00 0.00 0.00
Parameters
Center hull length at WL - L (m) = 90.00
Center hull draft at MS - T (m) = 3.65
0.557 Center hull block coefficient based on WL data - Cb () =
Ship displacement - disp (MT) = 1,350
Rudder sweep angle - lamda (deg) = 2.20
Rudder length - l (m) = 3.20
LCG from MS - xg (m) = 2.20 aft
Distance of rudder 1/4 line from MS - xr (m) = 43.03
Distance from wing propeller to CL - ys (m) = 10.00
Profile area of side hull under WL - Af (m^2) = 39.52
Side hull length at WL - Ls (m) = 34.80
Side hull draft at WL - Ts (m) = 2.15
Distance of middle side hull from MS - xs (m) = 2.25 aft
Pitch/diameter ratio - () = 1.68
Propeller diameter - (m) = 1.05
Number of blades - () = 4
RPM - (1/min) = 70 70 70 70
Blade area ratio - () = 0.80
Wake fraction - () = 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
KT = 1.229 1.229 1.229 1.229
KQ = 0.010 0.010 0.010 0.010
Va (m/sec) = 5.144 5.144 5.144 5.144
J = 4.199 4.199 4.199 4.199
Thrust (N) = 2,084 2,084 2,084 2,084
Bollart Pull (N) = 1,313 1,313 1,313 1,313
Eta0 = 80.307 80.307 80.307 80.307
PS (MW) = 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Derived quantities
Ship mass - m (kg) = 1,350,000 1,350,000 1,350,000 1,350,000
Longitudinal velocity - u (m/sec) = 5.144 5.144 5.144 5.144
Rudder area as a % or lateral center hull area - () = 2.34% 2.34% 2.34% 2.34%
Rudder aspect ratio - a () = 1.332 1.332 1.332 1.332
Rudder lift curve slope - dClddelta (1/deg) = 0.031 0.031 0.031 0.031
Rudder force control derivative - Ydelta - (N/deg) = 3,261.621 3,261.621 3,261.621 3,261.621
Rudder force - Ydeltadelta - (N) = 32,616.212 65,232.423 97,848.635 130,464.847
Rudder moment control derivative - Ndelta (N*m/deg) = -140,334.512 -140,334.512 -140,334.512 -140,334.512
Rudder moment - Ndeltadelta (N*m) = -1,403,345.122 -2,806,690.244 -4,210,035.365 -5,613,380.487
Center hull sway-sway derivative - Yvc (N/m*sec) = -164,351.353 -164,351.353 -164,351.353 -164,351.353
Center hull yaw-sway derivative - Yrc (N/rad*sec) = 4,965,270.864 4,965,270.864 4,965,270.864 4,965,270.864
Center hull sway-yaw derivative - Nvc (N*sec) = -6,321,979.215 -6,321,979.215 -6,321,979.215 -6,321,979.215
449.23 224.62 149.74 112.31
TRITON Rudder only
106
HALSS Design Report Appendix C - Maneuvering Assessment
Appendix C-3: HALSS Spreadsheets
Constants
Sea water density - rho (MT/m^3) = 1.025
Variables
Ship speed - speed (kn) = 10.00 10.00 10.00
Rudder angle - delta (deg) = 10.00 20.00 30.00 35.00 40.00
Trim - deltaT (m) = 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
(m) = 300.00
0
0
0.583
64,152
Rudder sweep angle - lamda (deg) = 6.90 2.20
Rudder area - Ar (m^2) = 84.60 7.69
Rudder length - l (m) = 9.30 3.20
LCG from MS - xg (m) = 2.20 aft
Distance of rudder 1/4 line from MS - xr (m) = 43.03
Distance from wing propeller to CL 10.00
Profile area of side hull under WL - 39.52
157.15
8.00
tio - () =
5
in) 106 10 106
rea rat 0.75
tion - 0 0.00 0. 0.00
3 0.293 0.2 0.293
6 0.046 0.0 0.046
c) = 4 5.144 5.1 5.144
5 0.485 0.4 0.485
) = 22 6,622 1,216,6 1,216,622
ull (N 61 ,061 1,945,0 1,945,061
.489 0.4 0.489
= .060 13.0 13.060
quan
ss - m 00 ,000 ,152,0 64 64,152,000
inal v /sec) = 44 .144 5.1 5.144
a eral cen = % 35% 2.3 2.35%
ec = 22 .022 1.0 1.022
ft cur Cl 25 .025 0.0 0.025
orce at eg) = 97 .197 ,677.1 28 28,677.197
orce a - 72 .943 0,315.9 ,003 1,147,087.886
er *m/d 31 .331 2,109.3 ,112 -4,112,109.331
el 12 .624 3,279.9 ,923 -164,484,373.249
ull sw riv c) 56 .156 7,683.1 ,837 -1,837,683.156
ull ya iva sec) 93 3.393 5,103.3 ,895 178,895,103.393
ull sw iva = 00 0.000 6,320.0 ,776 -227,776,320.000
ull ya t *sec - 00 0.000 2,160.0 ,13 -31,433,132,160.000
0.102 0.1 0.102
0.160 0.160 0.160 0.160
Side hull sway-sway derivative - Yvs (N/m*sec) = -504,144.426 -504,144.426 -504,144.426 -504,144.426 -504,144.426
Side hull yaw-sway derivative - Yrs (N/rad*sec) = -17,152,858.692 -17,152,858.692 -17,152,858.692 -17,152,858.692 -17,152,858.692
Side hull sway-yaw derivative - Nvs (N*sec) = -17,152,858.692 -17,152,858.692 -17,152,858.692 -17,152,858.692 -17,152,858.692
Side hull yaw-yaw derivative - Nrs (N*m/rad*sec) = -583,603,718.263 -583,603,718.263 -583,603,718.263 -583,603,718.263 -583,603,718.263
Ship sway-sway derivative - Yv (N/m*sec) = -2,845,972.007 -2,845,972.007 -2,845,972.007 -2,845,972.007 -2,845,972.007
Ship yaw-sway derivative - Yr (N/rad*sec) = 144,589,386.010 144,589,386.010 144,589,386.010 144,589,386.010 144,589,386.010
Shp sway-yaw derivative - Nv (N*sec) = -262,082,037.383 -262,082,037.383 -262,082,037.383 -262,082,037.383 -262,082,037.383
Ship yaw-yaw derivative - Nr (N*m/rad*sec) = -32,600,339,596.526 -32,600,339,596.526 -32,600,339,596.526 -32,600,339,596.526 -32,600,339,596.526
Wing propeller thrust (starboard) - Tws (N) = 0 0 0 0 0
Wing propeller thrust (port) - Twp (N) = 0 0 0 0 0
Ship's turning rate - rr (rad/sec) = 0.004 0.007 0.011 0.012 0.014
Ship's steady turning radius - TurningRadius (m) =
10.00 10.00
Parameters HALSS
Center hull length at WL - L
Triton
90.00
Center hull beam at WL - B (m) = 25.0
Center hull draft at MS - T (m) = 12.0
Center hull block coefficient based on WL data - Cb () =
Ship displacement - disp (MT) =
7.20
3.65
0.557
1,350
10.69 aft
143.39
- ys (m) = 23.58
Af (m^2) = 1,195.70
Side hull length at WL - Ls (m) =
Side hull draft at WL - Ts (m) =
Distanc dle side hull from MS - xs (m)
34.80
2.15
2.2 e of mid = 34.02 aft 5 aft
Pitch/diameter ra
Propeller diamet
1
6.00 er - (m) =
es - () = Number of blad
1/m RPM - (
Blade a
=
io - () =
6 106 106
Wake frac () = 0.0 00 0.00
KT = 0.29 93 0.293
KQ = 0.04 46 0.046
Va (m/se
J =
5.14
0.48
44
85
5.144
0.485
Thrust (N 1,216,6 1,21 22 1,216,622
Bollart P
Eta0 =
) = 1,945,0
0.489
1,945
0
61
89
1,945,061
0.489
PS (MW) 13.060 13 60 13.060
Derived tities
Ship ma (kg) = 64,152,0 64,152 64 00 ,152,000
Longitud elocity - u (m 5.1 5 44 5.144
Rudder are as a % or lat ter hull area - () 2.35 2. 5% 2.35%
Rudder asp
Rudder li
t ratio - a ()
ve slope - d
1.0
0.0
1
0
22
25
1.022
0.025 ddelta (1/deg) =
Rudder f control deriv ive - Ydelta - (N/d 28,677.1 28,677 28 97 ,677.197
Rudder f
Rudder mome
- Ydeltadelt
nt control d
(N) =
ivative - Ndelta (N
286,771.9
-4,112,109.3
573,543
-4,112,109
86
-4,11
15 1
31 -4
,701.900
,109.331 eg) =
Rudder moment - Ndeltad ta (N*m) = -41,121,093.3 -82,242,186 -123,36 37 -143 ,826.593
Center h ay-sway de ative - Yvc (N/m*se = -1,837,683.1 -1,837,683 -1,83 56 -1 ,683.156
Center h w-sway der tive - Yrc (N/rad* = 178,895,103.3 178,895,10 178,89 93 178 ,103.393
Center h
Center h
ay-yaw der
w-yaw deriva
tive - Nvc (N*sec)
ive - Nrc (N*m/rad
-227,776,320.0
31,433,132,160.0
-227,776,32
-31,433,132,16
-227,77
-31,433,13
00 -227
00 -31,433
,320.000
2,160.000 ) =
Side hull aspect ratio - as () = 0.102
Side hull lift curve slope - dCldbeta (1/rad) = 0.160
02 0.102
1,451.49 725.75 483.83 414.71 362.87
IMO Standard = 750.00
HALSS Rudder only
107
HALSS Design Report Appendix C - Maneuvering Assessment
Cons
S
tants
ea water density - rho (MT/m^3) = 1.025
Variables
Ship speed - speed (kn) = 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
WL - L (m)
ter hull beam at WL - B (m) =
ter hull draft at MS - T (m) = 12.00
ter hull block coefficient bas on b () = 0.583
143.39
23.58
Profile area of side hull under WL - Af (m^2) = 1,195.70
ide hull length at WL - Ls (m) = 157.15
ide hull draft at WL - Ts (m) = 8.00
stance of middle side hull from MS - xs 34.02 aft
tch/diameter ratio - () =
peller diameter - (m) =
5
106 170 190
Wake fra = 0.00 0. 0.00
0.383
0.046 0.0 054 0.056 0.058
5.144 5.1 5.144
5 0.3 0.271
T 148 2,944 5,101,663
B (N) = 555 3,894 6,249,262
E 9 0.407 0. 0.285
P 0 737 43 93.902
D uantit
S - m (k 00 000 152, 64,152,000
L vel sec) = 44 5.144 5. 5.144
R al cente % 5% 2.3 2.35%
R pect r 22 1.022 1. 1.022
R curv lddelta ( 25 0.025 0. 0.025
R ce co tive - Yd 97 197 677. 28,677.197
R ce - Y (N) = 00 0.000 0. 0.000
R ment ivative - 31 331 109 4,1 -4,112,109.331
R ment lta 00 0.000 0. 0.000
C sway va ec) = 56 156 683 1,8 -1,837,683.156
C yaw ati ec) = 93 393 103 8 178,895,103.393
C sway ati = 00 000 320 7 -227,776,320.000
C yaw tiv *sec) -3 00 - 000 160 1 -31,433,132,160.000
S spect = 02 0.102 0. 0.102
S t curv Cl 60 0.160 0. 0.160
S way- tiv ) = 26 426 144 -5 -504,144.426
S aw-s ve ) = 92 692 858. 1 -17,152,858.692
S way- ve 92 692 858. 1 -17,152,858.692
i aw-ya ve - Nr ec) = 63 18.263 03,718.2 83,603 -583,603,718.263
hip sway-sway derivative - Yv (N/m*sec) = -2,845,972.007 -2,845,972.007 -2,845,972.007 -2,845,972.007 -2,845,972.007
hip yaw-sway derivative - Yr (N/rad*sec) = 144,589,386.010 144,589,386.010 144,589,386.010 144,589,386.010 144,589,386.010
hp sway-yaw derivative - Nv (N*sec) = -262,082,037.383 -262,082,037.383 -262,082,037.383 -262,082,037.383 -262,082,037.383
Ship yaw-yaw derivative - Nr (N*m/rad*sec) = -32,600,339,596.526 -32,600,339,596.526 -32,600,339,596.526 -32,600,339,596.526 -32,600,339,596.526
Wing propeller thrust (starboard) - Tws (N) = 2,433,244 4,150,296 5,889,263 7,907,144 10,203,326
Wing propeller thrust (port) - Twp (N) = 0 0 0 0 0
Ship's turning rate - rr (rad/sec) = 0.003 0.005 0.007 0.010 0.013
Ship's steady turning radius - TurningRadius (m) =
Rudder angle - delta (deg) =
Trim - deltaT (m) =
Parameters
ter hull length at Cen
Cen
Cen
= 300.00
25.00
Cen ed WL data - C
Ship displacement - disp (MT) = 64,152
Rudder sweep angle - lamda (deg) = 6.90
Rudder area - Ar (m^2) = 84.60
Rudder length - l (m) =
LCG from MS - xg (m) =
Distance of rudder 1/4 line from MS - xr (m) =
Distance from wing propeller to CL - ys (m) =
9.30
10.69 aft
S
S
Di (m) =
Pi
Pro
1
6.00
Number of blades - () =
RPM - (1/min) =
Blade are () =
130 150
a ratio -
ction - ()
0.75
0.00 00 0.00
KT = 0.293 0.333
51
0
0.
.355 0.371
KQ =
) = Va (m/sec
J =
44
96
5.144
0.343
5.144
0.303 0.48
1,216,622 hrust (N) = 2,075, ,632 3,953,572
ollart Pull
ta0 =
1,945,061
0.48
2,925, ,969
357
5,002,872
0.317
S (MW) = 13.06 26. .319 65.446
erived q
hip mass
ies
g) = 64,152,0 64,152, 64, 000 64,152,000
ongitudinal ocity - u (m/ 5.1 144 5.144
udder area as a % or later r hull area - () = 2.35 2.3 5% 2.35%
udder as atio - a () = 1.0 022 1.022
udder lift
udder for
e slope - dC
ntrol deriva
1/deg) =
elta - (N/deg) =
0.0
28,677.1
025
197
0.025
28,677.197 28,677. 28,
udder for deltadelta - 0.0 000 0.000
udder mo
udder mo
control der
- Ndeltade
Ndelta (N*m/deg
) =
) = -4,112,109.3
0.0
-4,112,109. -4,112, .331 -
000
12,109.331
0.000 (N*m
enter hull
enter hull
-sway deri
-sway deriv
tive - Yvc (N/m*s
ve - Yrc (N/rad*s
-1,837,683.1
178,895,103.3
-1,837,683.
178,895,103.
-1,837,
178,895,
.156 -
.393 178,
37,683.156
95,103.393
enter hull -yaw deriv ve - Nvc (N*sec) -227,776,320.0 -227,776,320. -227,776, .000 -227, 76,320.000
enter hull -yaw deriva e - Nrc (N*m/rad = 1,433,132,160.0 31,433,132,160. -31,433,132, .000 -31,433, 32,160.000
ide hull a ratio - as () 0.1 102 0.102
ide hull lif e slope - d dbeta (1/rad) = 0.1 160 0.160
ide hull s
ide hull y
sway deriva
way derivati
e - Yvs (N/m*sec
- Yrs (N/rad*sec
-504,144.4
-17,152,858.6
-504,144.
-17,152,858.
-504,
-17,152,
.426
692 -17,
04,144.426
52,858.692
ide hull s
de hull y
yaw derivati
w derivati
- Nvs (N*sec) =
s (N*m/rad*s
-17,152,858.6
-583,603,718.2
-17,152,858.
-583,603,7
-17,152,
-583,6
692 -17,
63 -5
52,858.692
,718.263 S
S
S
S
1,708.30 1,001.55 705.81 525.69 407.39
HALSS One propeller idling
108
HALSS Design Report Appendix C - Maneuvering Assessment
Constants
Sea water density - rho (MT/m^3) = 1.025
Variables
Ship speed - speed (kn) = 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
length at WL - L (m) =
Center hull beam at W m) =
Center hull draft at M T (m) = 12.00
Center hull block coef ent () = 0.583
64,152
r (m^2) = 84
10
14
23
Profile area of side hull under WL - Af (m^2) = 1,195.70
Side hull length at WL - 15
Side hull draft at WL - T
Distance of middle side hull from MS - xs (m) = 34 2 aft
Pitch/diameter ratio - () =
Propeller diameter - (m) =
190 190
ea ratio - () =
action - () = 0.0 0.00
= 0.383 0.32 0.268
= 0.05 0.043
Va (m 6 10.288
J = 0.541
Thrust 5, 60 3,563,836
Bollar 6, 262 6,249,262
Eta0 = 0.537
PS (M 54 69.712
Deriv ties
Ship g) = 64 00 64,152,000
Long city - u 6 10.288
Rudd l ll 35% 2.35%
Rudd atio - a ( 1.022
Rudd slope - 5 0.025
Rudd ntrol deri - ( 7 2 694 114,708.789
Rudd deltadel 0.000
Rudd control elt 8 -4,11 995 ,448,437.325
Rudd - ) = 0 0.000
Cent -s Yvc ( -918 -1,83 735 675,366.313
Cent sw c (N ,447 178,89 2 0 ,790,206.787
Cent -y vc (N ,888 27,77 -3 000 ,552,640.000
Cent ya c (N ,566 433,13 -47,1 0 ,264,320.000
Side ra 0.102
Side e (1/ra 0.160
Side w s (N/ -25 -50 638 008,288.851
Side a (N/ra -17,15 - 037 ,717.383
-17,15 - 037 ,717.383
-583,603,718.263 -875,405,577.394 -1,167,207,436.526
Ship sway-sway derivative - Yv (N/m*sec) = -1,422,986.004 -2,845,972.007 -4,268,958.011 -5,691,944.015
Ship yaw-sway derivative - Yr (N/rad*sec) = 72,294,693.005 144,589,386.010 216,884,079.016 289,178,772.021
Shp sway-yaw derivative - Nv (N*sec) = -131,041,018.692 -262,082,037.383 -393,123,056.075 -524,164,074.766
Ship yaw-yaw derivative - Nr (N*m/rad*sec) = -16,300,169,798.263 -32,600,339,596.526 -48,900,509,394.789 -65,200,679,193.052
Wing propeller thrust (starboard) - Tws (N) = 11,464,328 10,203,326 8,747,210 7,127,672
Wing propeller thrust (port) - Twp (N) = 0 0 0 0
Ship's turning rate - rr (rad/sec) = 0.028 0.013 0.007 0.004
HALSS One propeller idling
Rudder angle - delta (deg) =
im - deltaT (m) = Tr
Parameters
Center hull 300.00
25.00 L - B (
S -
fici based on WL data - Cb
Ship displacement - disp (MT) =
Rudder sweep angle - lamda (deg) =
Rudder area - A
6.90
.60
Rudder length - l (m) =
LCG from MS - xg (m) =
Distance of rudder 1/4 line from MS - xr (m) =
Distance from wing propeller to CL - ys (m) =
9.30
.69 aft
3.39
.58
Ls (m) =
s (m) =
7.15
8.00
.0
1
6.00
Number of blades - () =
RPM - (1/min) =
5
190 190
Blade ar 0.75
0.00 Wake fr 0.00 0
KT
KQ
0.430
0.064
8
1 0.058
5.144 /sec) = 2.572 7.71
0.135
732,164
0.271
5,101,663
0.40
4,373,
6
5 (N) =
t Pull (N) = 249,262 6,249,262 6,249,
0.145 0.285 0.417
W) = 103.661 93.902 82. 6
ed quanti
mass - m (k
itudinal velo
,152,000
2.572
64,152,000
5.144
64,152,
7.71
0
(m/sec) =
er area as a % or
er aspect r
ateral center hu
) =
area - () = 2.35%
1.022
2.35%
1.022
2.
1.022
er lift curve dClddelta (1/deg) = 0.025 0.025 0.02
er force co vative - Ydelta N/deg) = ,169.299 8,677.197 64,523.
er force - Y
er moment
ta - (N) =
derivative - Nd
0.000
,027.333
0.000
2,109.331
0.00
-9,252,245.
0
-16 a (N*m/deg) = -1,02
er moment Ndeltadelta (N*m 0.000 0.000 0.00
er hull sway way derivative - N/m*sec) = ,841.578 7,683.156 -2,756,524. -3,
er hull yaw- ay derivative - Yr /rad*sec) = 89 ,551.697 5,103.393 68,342,655.09 357
er hull sway
er hull yaw-
aw derivative - N
w derivative - Nr
*sec) =
*m/rad*sec) =
-113
-15,716
,160.000 -2
,080.000 -31,
6,320.000
2,160.000
41,664,480.
49,698,240.00
-455
-62,866
hull aspect tio - as () = 0.102 0.102 0.102
hull lift curv
hull sway-s
slope - dCldbeta
ay derivative - Yv
d) =
m*sec) =
0.160
2,072.213
0.160
4,144.426
0.16
-756,216.
0
-1,
hull yaw-sw y derivative - Yrs d*sec) = -8,576,429.346 2,858.692
2,858.692
25,729,288.
25,729,288.
-34,305
-34,305 Side hull sway-yaw derivative - Nvs (N*sec) = -8,576,429.346
Side hull yaw-yaw derivative - Nrs (N*m/rad*sec) = -291,801,859.131
109
HALSS Design Report Appendix C - Maneuvering Assessment
Cons
S
tants
ea water density - rho (MT/m^3) = 1.025
Variables
Ship speed - speed (kn) = 10.00
0.00
10.00 10.00 10.00 10.00
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
WL - L (m)
L - B (m) =
S - T (m) =
ter hull block coefficient bas on WL data - Cb () =
ip displacement - disp (MT) = 64,152
der sweep angle - lamda (de = 6.90
10.69 aft
8
1,195.70
157.15
Side hull draft at WL - Ts (m) = 8.00
Distance of middle side hull from 34.02 aft
Pitch/diameter ratio - () =
Propeller diameter - (m) =
Number of blades - () =
RPM - (1/min) = 150 170 190
0.75
0.00 0.00 0.00
.33 0.383
0.05 0.058
5.144 5.14 144 5.144 5.144
0.485 0.39 0.271
) = ,622 75,14 2,9 5,101,663
(N) = 55 3,8 6,249,262
E 9 0.407 0. 0.285
P 0 737 43 93.902
D uantiti
S - m (k 000 152, 64,152,000
L velo /sec) = 44 5.144 5. 5.144
R al cente % 5% 2.3 2.35%
R pect r 22 1.022 1. 1.022
R curv lddelta ( 25 0.025 0. 0.025
R ce co tive - Yd 97 197 677. 28,677.197
R ce - Y (N) = 00 0.000 0. 0.000
R ment ivative - 31 331 109 4,1 -4,112,109.331
R ment lta 00 0.000 0. 0.000
C sway va ec) = 56 156 683 1,8 -1,837,683.156
C yaw ati ec) = 93 393 103 8 178,895,103.393
C sway ati = 00 000 320 7 -227,776,320.000
C yaw tiv *sec) -31, 00 -3 000 160 1 -31,433,132,160.000
S spect = 02 0.102 0. 0.102
S t curv Cl 60 0.160 0. 0.160
S way- tiv ) = 26 426 144 -5 -504,144.426
S aw-s ve ) = 92 692 858. 1 -17,152,858.692
S way- ve 92 692 858. 1 -17,152,858.692
S aw-y e - ) = 63 263 718 6 -583,603,718.263
5,972.007 -2,845,972.007 -2,845,972.007 -2,845,972.007
S ,386.010 144,589,386.010 144,589,386.010 144,589,386.010
Shp sway-yaw derivative - Nv (N*sec) = -262,082,037.383 -262,082,037.383 -262,082,037.383 -262,082,037.383 -262,082,037.383
Ship yaw-yaw derivative - Nr (N*m/rad*sec) = -32,600,339,596.526 -32,600,339,596.526 -32,600,339,596.526 -32,600,339,596.526 -32,600,339,596.526
Wing propeller thrust (starboard) - Tws (N) = 1,216,622 2,075,148 2,944,632 3,953,572 5,101,663
Wing propeller thrust (port) - Twp (N) = -243,324 -415,030 -588,926 -790,714 -1,020,333
Ship's turning rate - rr (rad/sec) = 0.002 0.003 0.004 0.006 0.008
Ship's steady turning radius - TurningRadius (m) =
Rudder angle - delta (deg) =
Trim - deltaT (m) =
Parameters
Center hull length at
Center hull beam at W
ter hull draft at M
= 300.00
25.00
Cen
Cen
12.00
0.583 ed
Sh
Rud g)
Rudder area - Ar (m^2) = 84.60
Rudder length - l (m) = 9.30
LCG from MS - xg (m) =
Distance of rudder 1/4 line from MS - xr (m) = 143.39
Distance from wing propeller to CL - ys (m) = 23.5
Profile area of side hull under WL - Af (m^2) =
Side hull length at WL - Ls (m) =
MS - xs (m) =
1
6.00
5
106 130
Blade area ratio - () =
Wake fraction - () = 0.00 0.00
KT =
KQ =
0.293
0.046
0 3
1
0.355
0.054
0.371
0.056
Va (m/sec) =
J =
4
6
5.
0.343
44,632
94,9
0.303
3,953,572
2
Thrust (N
B
1,216 2,0 8
5 ollart Pull
ta0 =
1,945,061
0.48
2,925, 69
357
5,002,87
0.317
S (MW) = 13.06 26. .319 65.446
erived q es
hip mass g) = 64,152,000 64,152, 64, 000 64,152,000
ongitudinal city - u (m 5.1 144 5.144
udder area as a % or later r hull area - () = 2.35 2.3 5% 2.35%
udder as atio - a () = 1.0 022 1.022
udder lift
udder for
e slope - dC
ntrol deriva
1/deg) =
elta - (N/deg) =
0.0
28,677.1
025
197
0.025
28,677.197 28,677. 28,
udder for deltadelta - 0.0 000 0.000
udder mo
udder mo
control der
- Ndeltade
Ndelta (N*m/deg
) =
) = -4,112,109.3
0.0
-4,112,109. -4,112, .331 -
000
12,109.331
0.000 (N*m
enter hull
enter hull
-sway deri
-sway deriv
tive - Yvc (N/m*s
ve - Yrc (N/rad*s
-1,837,683.1
178,895,103.3
-1,837,683.
178,895,103.
-1,837,
178,895,
.156 -
.393 178,
37,683.156
95,103.393
enter hull -yaw deriv ve - Nvc (N*sec) -227,776,320.0 -227,776,320. -227,776, .000 -227, 76,320.000
enter hull -yaw deriva e - Nrc (N*m/rad = 433,132,160.0 1,433,132,160. -31,433,132, .000 -31,433, 32,160.000
ide hull a ratio - as () 0.1 102 0.102
ide hull lif e slope - d dbeta (1/rad) = 0.1 160 0.160
ide hull s
ide hull y
sway deriva
way derivati
e - Yvs (N/m*sec
- Yrs (N/rad*sec
-504,144.4
-17,152,858.6
-504,1
-17,152,858.
44. -504,
-17,152,
.426
692 -17,
04,144.426
52,858.692
ide hull s yaw derivati - Nvs (N*sec) = -17,152,858.6 -17,152,858. -17,152, 692 -17, 52,858.692
ide hull y aw derivativ Nrs (N*m/rad*sec -583,603,718.2 -583,603,718. -583,603, .263 -583, 03,718.263
Ship sway-sway derivative - Yv (N/m*sec) = -2,845,972.007 -2,84
hip yaw-sway derivative - Yr (N/rad*sec) = 144,589,386.010 144,589
2,847.17 1,669.25 1,176.36 876.15 678.98
HALSS One propeller reversing 20% fwd thrust
110
HALSS Design Report Appendix C - Maneuvering Assessment
Constants
Sea water density - rho (MT/m^3) = 1.025
Variables
Ship speed - speed (kn) = 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00
Rudder angle - delta (deg) = 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Trim - deltaT (m) = 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Parameters
Center hull length at WL - L (m) = 300.00
Center hull beam at WL - B (m) = 25.00
Center hull draft at MS - T (m) = 12.00
Center hull block coefficient based on WL data - Cb () = 0.583
Ship displacement - disp (MT) = 64,152
Rudder sweep angle - lamda (deg) = 6.90
Rudder area - Ar (m^2) = 84.60
Rudder length - l (m) = 9.30
LCG from MS - xg (m) = 10.69 aft
Distance of rudder 1/4 line from MS - xr (m) = 143.39
Distance from wing propeller to CL - ys (m) = 23.58
Profile area of side hull under WL - Af (m^2) = 1,195.70
Side hull length at WL - Ls (m) = 157.15
Side hull draft at WL - Ts (m) = 8.00
Distance of middle side hull from MS - xs (m) = 34.02 aft
Pitch/diameter ratio - () = 1
Propeller diameter - (m) = 6.00
Number of blades - () = 5
RPM - (1/min) = 190 190 190 190
Blade area ratio - () = 0.75
Wake fraction - () = 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
KT = 0.430 0.383 0.328 0.268
KQ = 0.064 0.058 0.051 0.043
Va (m/sec) = 2.572 5.144 7.716 10.288
J = 0.135 0.271 0.406 0.541
Thrust (N) = 5,732,164 5,101,663 4,373,605 3,563,836
Bollart Pull (N) = 6,249,262 6,249,262 6,249,262 6,249,262
Eta0 = 0.145 0.285 0.417 0.537
PS (MW) = 103.661 93.902 82.546 69.712
Derived quantities
Ship mass - m (kg) = 64,152,000 64,152,000 64,152,000 64,152,000
Longitudinal velocity - u (m/sec) = 2.572 5.144 7.716 10.288
Rudder area as a % or lateral center hull area - () = 2.35% 2.35% 2.35% 2.35%
Rudder aspect ratio - a () = 1.022 1.022 1.022 1.022
Rudder lift curve slope - dClddelta (1/deg) = 0.025 0.025 0.025 0.025
Rudder force control derivative - Ydelta - (N/deg) = 7,169.299 28,677.197 64,523.694 114,708.789
Rudder force - Ydeltadelta - (N) = 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Rudder moment control derivative - Ndelta (N*m/deg) = -1,028,027.333 -4,112,109.331 -9,252,245.995 -16,448,437.325
Rudder moment - Ndeltadelta (N*m) = 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000
Center hull sway-sway derivative - Yvc (N/m*sec) = -918,841.578 -1,837,683.156 -2,756,524.735 -3,675,366.313
Center hull yaw-sway derivative - Yrc (N/rad*sec) = 89,447,551.697 178,895,103.393 268,342,655.090 357,790,206.787
Center hull sway-yaw derivative - Nvc (N*sec) = -113,888,160.000 -227,776,320.000 -341,664,480.000 -455,552,640.000
Center hull yaw-yaw derivative - Nrc (N*m/rad*sec) = -15,716,566,080.000 -31,433,132,160.000 -47,149,698,240.000 -62,866,264,320.000
Side hull aspect ratio - as () = 0.102 0.102 0.102 0.102
Side hull lift curve slope - dCldbeta (1/rad) = 0.160 0.160 0.160 0.160
Side hull sway-sway derivative - Yvs (N/m*sec) = -252,072.213 -504,144.426 -756,216.638 -1,008,288.851
Side hull yaw-sway derivative - Yrs (N/rad*sec) = -8,576,429.346 -17,152,858.692 -25,729,288.037 -34,305,717.383
Side hull sway-yaw derivative - Nvs (N*sec) = -8,576,429.346 -17,152,858.692 -25,729,288.037 -34,305,717.383
Side hull yaw-yaw derivative - Nrs (N*m/rad*sec) = -291,801,859.131 -583,603,718.263 -875,405,577.394 -1,167,207,436.526
Ship sway-sway derivative - Yv (N/m*sec) = -1,422,986.004 -2,845,972.007 -4,268,958.011 -5,691,944.015
Ship yaw-sway derivative - Yr (N/rad*sec) = 72,294,693.005 144,589,386.010 216,884,079.016 289,178,772.021
Shp sway-yaw derivative - Nv (N*sec) = -131,041,018.692 -262,082,037.383 -393,123,056.075 -524,164,074.766
Ship yaw-yaw derivative - Nr (N*m/rad*sec) = -16,300,169,798.263 -32,600,339,596.526 -48,900,509,394.789 -65,200,679,193.052
Wing propeller thrust (starboard) - Tws (N) = 5,732,164 5,101,663 4,373,605 3,563,836
Wing propeller thrust (port) - Twp (N) = -1,146,433 -1,020,333 -874,721 -712,767
Ship's turning rate - rr (rad/sec) = 0.017 0.008 0.004 0.003
Ship's steady turning radius - TurningRadius (m) = 151.07 678.98 1,782.02 3,887.87
HALSS One propeller reversing 20% fwd thrust
111
112
Appendix D Longitudinal Strength Study
Longitudinal Strength Study
The Midship Section is taken at frame 45 with the following elements considered continuous and
effective:
The elements shown have a total weight of 37.099 t/m. Elements which are not continuous, such
as the inner skin, centerline bulkhead and accommodation deck forward of frame 45 and the
innerbottom girders (engine foundations) aft of frame 45.
The Seakeeping Analysis / Structural Loads Assessment gave a maximum anticipated Wave
Bending Moment of 870,000kN-M (page 38) in Sea State 7 head seas at 35 kts. This is only
about 1/3 of the ABS Rule Hogging Wave Moment of 356,275t-m or 3,490,000kN-M.
From the Intact Stability Summary, the Full Load departure condition was found to have a
maximum Stillwater Bending Moment (SWBM) of 695,014t-m(Hogging) at about frame 42.
To provide some margin, an allowable maximum of 750000t-m is desired.
Adding the Rule Hogging Wave Moment 356,275t-m requires SM = 44.648m3 for H-36 grade
steel. The Midship Section with Rule minimum bottom scantlings has approximate values of
SMB = 29.32m3 and SMT = 46.99m3, and the bottom shell plate is 19mm AH-32.
To achieve the required strength, all bottom shell plate (up to 3.8m ABL), and the CL bulkhead
below the Innerbottom, could be increased to 38mm plate with 300x38FB stiffeners, all grade H-
36 (bottom shell plate is DH-36, bilge EH-36, Lgl Bhd BH-36, stiffeners AH-36), throughout
.4L, and tapered beyond .4L. This is too big a contrast with the 12mm innerbottom plate, so
make it 30mm also, reducing the required plate thickness to 28 mm and giving the following
longitudinal strength results:
Project: 2005-45 Scantlings shown are for both sides Date: 8-Dec-06
L scant. B T scant. D deck Bilge Rad
Ship Type Ro-Ro 291.000 33.760 12.000 30.500 3.750 meters
Cb = 0.600 3-2-1/3.5.1 Sagging Moment Mws = 11.22 C
1
L
2
B(Cb + 0.7 ) 10
-3
= -447,137
3-2-1/3.7.1(b) Minimum Hull Section Modulus Hogging Moment Mwh = +19.37 C
1
L
2
B Cb 10
-3
= 356,275
Zmin = 10
-6
Q C
1
L
2
B (Cb + 0,7) m3 Q = 0.72 for AH-36 for C
1
= 10.75 - (3 - L/100)
1.5
= 10.723
IACS min SM (3.7.1) = Zmin = 28.693 m3 Actual SM = 45.301 m3
Item Element Element # Pcs. A y Ay
Io A y
2
SIox
Height (mm) Width (mm)
(m
2
)
(m)
(m
3
) (m
4
) (m
4
) (m
4
)
For Detailed calculation, see 'Midship Section Modulus'
Totals Wgt = 43.416 t/m 5.531 16.130 89.210 730.695 2,168.146 1.479
Required minimum inertia I = L SM / 33.3Q = 348.3 m4 Available I = 730.7 m4
SM bottom = I / y = 45.30 m3 89% of SM deck = I / (Ds-y) = 50.85 m3
Wave Stillwater Frm 42.43
Mhogg = 356,275 750,000 t-m estimated SWBM is 750,000 t-M from T&S
Msagg = -447,137 -375,000 t-m 3.7.1(a) Required SM = 44.648 m3
DTRC values 109,595 t-m difference 23.5% Hog
105,593 t-m difference 19.1% Sag
3.5.3 Wave Shear Force
maximum shearing forces induced by waves, Fw = + 3.059 F
1
C
1
L B (Cb + 0.7) 10
-2
= 4,189 tonnes
using F
1
= 1 (.7 to 1.0 in 3-2-1/Figure 3), C
1
, L B & Cb as above. 41,084 kN
3.9 Shearing Strength
The thickness of the side shell is to be such that the nominal total shear stress fs is not greater than 1.122 / Q = 1.558 Frm 18.83
where fs = (Fsw + Fw) m/2t
s
I From intact stability study, maximum stillwater shear force Fsw = 8,280 tonnes
From Appendix S, first moment m = 292,068 m-cm2 Required Shell PL thickness t
s
= 1.60 cm
Inertia I = 730,695,452 m-cm3 Required Shear Modulus = 2 t
s
I / m= 8,006 cm2
Total shear force Fsw+Fw = 12,469 tonnes, giving fs = (Fsw + Fw) m / 2 t
s
I = 1.558 OK
7.3.2 In Port 3-2-1/7.3.2 SWBMh= 843,103 t-m In-Port max Shear = 11,397 tonnes
The allowable still water in-port stress is 1.34 tf/cm2 for bending and 1.025 tf/cm2 for shear.
For higher-strength steel, the allowable stress may be increased by a factor of 1/Q where Q is as defined in 3-2-1/5.5.
-822,137
1,106,275
Total
t-m
t-m
tf/cm2.
tf/cm2.
The revised scantlings give a weight increase of 6.318 t/m. Since the calculation omits the inner
skin and centerline longitudinal bulkheads forward of frame 45, only about 23mm PL bottom
structure would be required forward of frame 45, reducing the weight increase to about 3.77 t/m.
Similarly the engine foundation girders aft of frame 45 reduce the required bottom plate
thickness to 16mm (less than the original bottom shell plate thickness), a negligible weight
increase. The curves below indicate that the original scantlings would suffice fwd fr 72
(422,980H in MPFF Arrival Condition), so it appears that the total weight increase for
longitudinal strength will be approximately 2.5 t/m (average over frs 42-72) x 30 frames @ 3m =
225 t or about 0.6% of the 38,310 t lightship weight. Clearly it is critical to carry the engine
113
foundation girders forward of frame 45 to provide a good transition, in addition to providing
brackets to taper the inner skin bulkheads aft of frame 45.
Longitudinal Strength Curves Strategic Mobility Departure
Longitudinal Strength Curves - Strategic Mobility Arrival
114
Longitudinal Strength Curves - Early Entry Departure
Longitudinal Strength Curves - Early Entry Arrival
The maximum shear force requires the side shell plating to be 16.5mm vs 16.0 provided, if all
longitudinal bulkheads are ineffective. In the area of maximum shear, the main engine
foundation girders and centerline longitudinal bulkheads provide additional shear area which
should be sufficient to achieve adequate shear strength with no increase in shell plate thickness.
115
APPENDIX E: Model test results (Tables)
The test results are presented in the following Tables
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
EHP RESULTS FROM EXPERIMENT NUMBER = 1
DTRC MODEL NUMBER = 5651
MODEL CONDITION = HALSS: Center Hull Only @ 11.5 m Draft, Bare Hull, Bow Bulb
SHIP MODEL
LENGTH 950.83 FT (289.8 M) 17.61 FT (5.367 M)
WETTED SURFACE 101780.0 FT2 (9456.0 M2) 34.90 FT2 (3.24 M2)
DISPLACEMENT 47297.TONS (48054. T) 0.29 TONS (0.29 T)
RHO 1.9905 (31.885 N S2/M4) 1.9367 (31.023 N S2/M4)
NU (E+5) 1.2816 (0.11906 M2/SEC) 1.9905 (0.18493 M2/SEC)
LINEAR RATIO 54.000
ITTC FRICTION LINE
CORRELATION ALLOWANCE (CA) 0.00000
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
VS PE FRICTIONAL POWER FN V-L 1000CR
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
KNOTS M/S HP KW HP KW
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.0 5.14 1460.0 1088.7 1318.3 983.1 0.096 0.324 0.160
12.0 6.17 2472.9 1844.0 2228.1 1661.5 0.116 0.389 0.160
14.0 7.20 3886.1 2897.9 3473.0 2589.8 0.135 0.454 0.170
15.0 7.72 4900.0 3653.9 4236.5 3159.2 0.145 0.486 0.222
16.0 8.23 6139.5 4578.2 5102.2 3804.7 0.154 0.519 0.286
18.0 9.26 8981.8 6697.7 7163.9 5342.1 0.174 0.584 0.352
20.0 10.29 12397.8 9245.1 9705.9 7237.7 0.193 0.649 0.380
22.0 11.32 16546.8 12338.9 12775.2 9526.5 0.212 0.713 0.400
24.0 12.35 21547.6 16068.0 16418.5 12243.2 0.232 0.778 0.419
25.0 12.86 24447.0 18230.1 18469.8 13772.9 0.241 0.811 0.432
26.0 13.38 28168.1 21004.9 20681.9 15422.5 0.251 0.843 0.481
28.0 14.40 39821.0 29694.5 25611.3 19098.3 0.270 0.908 0.731
30.0 15.43 58747.2 43807.8 31252.0 23304.6 0.289 0.973 1.150
32.0 16.46 76241.2 56853.0 37649.2 28075.0 0.309 1.038 1.330
34.0 17.49 90197.5 67260.3 44847.7 33442.9 0.328 1.103 1.303
35.0 18.01 98117.6 73166.3 48761.3 36361.3 0.338 1.135 1.300
36.0 18.52 107798.8 80385.6 52891.9 39441.5 0.347 1.167 1.329
38.0 19.55 134710.9 100453.9 61826.1 46103.7 0.367 1.232 1.500
40.0 20.58 177729.2 132532.6 71694.3 53462.4 0.386 1.297 1.871
42.0 21.61 235008.2 175245.6 82540.2 61550.2 0.405 1.362 2.324
44.0 22.64 301014.3 224466.3 94407.4 70399.6 0.425 1.427 2.739
45.0 23.15 337488.7 251665.3 100737.4 75119.9 0.434 1.459 2.934
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
116
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
EHP RESULTS FROM EXPERIMENT NUMBER = 2
DTRC MODEL NUMBER = 5651
MODEL CONDITION = HALSS: Center Hull Only @ 11.5 m Draft, Bare Hull, Stem Bow
SHIP MODEL
LENGTH 926.18 FT (282.3 M) 17.15 FT (5.228 M)
WETTED SURFACE 98633.0 FT
2
(9163.0 M
2
) 33.82 FT
2
(3.14 M
2
)
DISPLACEMENT 46938.TONS (47689. T) 0.29 TONS (0.29 T)
RHO 1.9905 (31.885 N S
2
/M
4
) 1.9367 (31.023 N S
2
/M
4
)
NU (E+5) 1.2816 (0.11906 M
2
/SEC) 1.9905 (0.18493 M
2
/SEC)
LINEAR RATIO 54.000
ITTC FRICTION LINE
CORRELATION ALLOWANCE (CA) 0.00000
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
VS PE FRICTIONAL POWER FN V-L 1000CR
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
KNOTS M/S HP KW HP KW
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.0 5.14 1590.6 1186.1 1281.7 955.7 0.098 0.329 0.360
12.0 6.17 2699.9 2013.3 2166.1 1615.2 0.117 0.394 0.360
14.0 7.20 4249.8 3169.1 3376.3 2517.7 0.137 0.460 0.371
15.0 7.72 5294.3 3948.0 4118.4 3071.1 0.147 0.493 0.406
16.0 8.23 6562.7 4893.8 4959.9 3698.6 0.156 0.526 0.456
18.0 9.26 9596.4 7156.0 6964.0 5193.0 0.176 0.591 0.526
20.0 10.29 13402.8 9994.5 9434.8 7035.5 0.196 0.657 0.578
22.0 11.32 17882.4 13334.9 12418.2 9260.2 0.215 0.723 0.598
24.0 12.35 23302.5 17376.7 15959.4 11900.9 0.235 0.789 0.619
25.0 12.86 26655.2 19876.8 17953.3 13387.7 0.244 0.821 0.649
26.0 13.38 30661.1 22864.0 20103.4 14991.1 0.254 0.854 0.700
28.0 14.40 43543.9 32470.6 24894.5 18563.9 0.274 0.920 0.990
30.0 15.43 65872.8 49121.3 30377.1 22652.2 0.293 0.986 1.532
32.0 16.46 84397.5 62935.2 36594.8 27288.7 0.313 1.051 1.700
34.0 17.49 100591.5 75011.0 43591.2 32505.9 0.332 1.117 1.690
35.0 18.01 108985.3 81270.3 47394.9 35342.4 0.342 1.150 1.674
36.0 18.52 119031.9 88762.1 51409.5 38336.1 0.352 1.183 1.689
38.0 19.55 148240.3 110542.8 60092.8 44811.2 0.372 1.249 1.872
40.0 20.58 194627.6 145133.8 69683.7 51963.1 0.391 1.314 2.275
42.0 21.61 254744.2 189962.7 80224.8 59823.6 0.411 1.380 2.745
44.0 22.64 324798.0 242201.9 91758.4 68424.2 0.430 1.446 3.188
45.0 23.15 360731.1 268997.1 97910.4 73011.8 0.440 1.479 3.361
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
117
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
EHP RESULTS FROM EXPERIMENT NUMBER = 3
DTRC MODEL NUMBER = 5651
MODEL CONDITION = HALSS: Center Hull Only @ 11.5 m Draft, with Skeg, Bow Bulb
SHIP MODEL
LENGTH 950.82 FT (289.8 M) 17.61 FT (5.367 M)
WETTED SURFACE 112911.0 FT
2
(10490.0 M
2
) 38.72 FT
2
(3.60 M
2
)
DISPLACEMENT 50088.TONS (50889. T) 0.32 TONS (0.32 T)
RHO 1.9905 (31.885 N S
2
/M
4
) 1.9367 (31.023 N S
2
/M
4
)
NU (E+5) 1.2816 (0.11906 M
2
/SEC) 1.9905 (0.18493 M
2
/SEC)
LINEAR RATIO 54.000
ITTC FRICTION LINE
CORRELATION ALLOWANCE (CA) 0.00000
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
VS PE FRICTIONAL POWER FN V-L 1000CR
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
KNOTS M/S HP KW HP KW
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.0 5.14 1934.0 1442.2 1462.5 1090.6 0.096 0.324 0.480
12.0 6.17 3286.6 2450.8 2471.8 1843.2 0.116 0.389 0.480
14.0 7.20 5146.7 3837.9 3852.8 2873.1 0.135 0.454 0.480
15.0 7.72 6291.3 4691.4 4699.9 3504.7 0.145 0.486 0.480
16.0 8.23 7651.9 5706.0 5660.2 4220.8 0.154 0.519 0.495
18.0 9.26 11172.9 8331.6 7947.4 5926.4 0.174 0.584 0.563
20.0 10.29 16111.4 12014.2 10767.4 8029.2 0.193 0.649 0.680
22.0 11.32 22571.8 16831.8 14172.3 10568.3 0.212 0.713 0.803
24.0 12.35 30952.2 23081.0 18214.1 13582.2 0.232 0.778 0.938
25.0 12.86 35931.1 26793.8 20489.7 15279.2 0.241 0.811 1.006
26.0 13.38 41331.9 30821.2 22943.7 17109.2 0.251 0.843 1.065
28.0 14.40 54462.3 40612.5 28412.2 21187.0 0.270 0.908 1.208
30.0 15.43 80476.1 60011.0 34669.9 25853.3 0.289 0.973 1.727
32.0 16.46 113228.1 84434.2 41766.7 31145.4 0.309 1.038 2.220
34.0 17.49 133459.9 99521.0 49752.4 37100.4 0.328 1.103 2.168
35.0 18.01 141574.1 105571.8 54094.1 40337.9 0.338 1.135 2.077
36.0 18.52 150937.7 112554.2 58676.4 43755.0 0.347 1.167 2.013
38.0 19.55 177742.9 132542.8 68587.7 51145.8 0.367 1.232 2.025
40.0 20.58 221057.1 164842.2 79535.1 59309.3 0.386 1.297 2.251
42.0 21.61 280797.0 209390.3 91567.2 68281.6 0.405 1.362 2.600
44.0 22.64 354101.3 264053.3 104732.2 78098.8 0.425 1.427 2.980
45.0 23.15 394628.4 294274.4 111754.5 83335.3 0.434 1.459 3.160
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
118
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
EHP RESULTS FROM EXPERIMENT NUMBER = 4
DTRC MODEL NUMBER = 5651
MODEL CONDITION = HALSS: Center Hull Only @ 12.0 m Draft, with Skeg, Bow Bulb
SHIP MODEL
LENGTH 984.02 FT (299.9 M) 18.22 FT (5.554 M)
WETTED SURFACE 116876.0 FT
2
(10858.0 M
2
) 40.08 FT
2
(3.72 M
2
)
DISPLACEMENT 52942.TONS (53789. T) 0.34 TONS (0.34 T)
RHO 1.9905 (31.885 N S
2
/M
4
) 1.9367 (31.023 N S
2
/M
4
)
NU (E+5) 1.2816 (0.11906 M
2
/SEC) 1.9905 (0.18493 M
2
/SEC)
LINEAR RATIO 54.000
ITTC FRICTION LINE
CORRELATION ALLOWANCE (CA) 0.00000
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
VS PE FRICTIONAL POWER FN V-L 1000CR
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
KNOTS M/S HP KW HP KW
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10.0 5.14 2046.5 1526.0 1507.5 1124.2 0.095 0.319 0.530
12.0 6.17 3479.2 2594.5 2548.0 1900.0 0.114 0.383 0.530
14.0 7.20 5450.6 4064.5 3971.8 2961.8 0.133 0.446 0.530
15.0 7.72 6663.9 4969.3 4845.0 3612.9 0.142 0.478 0.530
16.0 8.23 8105.1 6043.9 5835.1 4351.2 0.152 0.510 0.545
18.0 9.26 11828.5 8820.5 8193.2 6109.7 0.171 0.574 0.613
20.0 10.29 17039.1 12706.1 11100.7 8277.8 0.190 0.638 0.730
22.0 11.32 23847.2 17782.9 14611.4 10895.7 0.209 0.701 0.853
24.0 12.35 32667.0 24359.8 18778.8 14003.3 0.228 0.765 0.988
25.0 12.86 37903.2 28264.4 21125.2 15753.0 0.237 0.797 1.056
26.0 13.38 43583.0 32499.9 23655.5 17639.9 0.247 0.829 1.115
28.0 14.40 57375.2 42784.6 29294.1 21844.6 0.266 0.893 1.258
30.0 15.43 84534.2 63037.1 35746.6 26656.2 0.285 0.956 1.777
32.0 16.46 119467.8 89087.1 43064.5 32113.2 0.304 1.020 2.293
34.0 17.49 139944.4 104356.5 51299.0 38253.7 0.323 1.084 2.218
35.0 18.01 148508.0 110742.4 55775.9 41592.1 0.332 1.116 2.127
36.0 18.52 158374.5 118099.9 60501.1 45115.7 0.341 1.148 2.063
38.0 19.55 186499.8 139072.9 70721.5 52737.0 0.360 1.211 2.075
40.0 20.58 231756.2 172820.6 82010.4 61155.1 0.379 1.275 2.301
42.0 21.61 294059.9 219280.4 94417.9 70407.4 0.398 1.339 2.650
44.0 22.64 370451.2 276245.4 107993.8 80531.0 0.417 1.403 3.030
45.0 23.15 412676.3 307732.7 115235.5 85931.1 0.427 1.435 3.210
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
119
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
EHP RESULTS FROM EXPERIMENT NUMBER = 5
DTRC MODEL NUMBER = 5651
MODEL
CONDITION
= HALSS: Center Hull @ 11.5 m Draft. Side Hulls @ 7.5 m Draft, Middle
Longitudinal Location, and Inboard Transverse Location.
SHIP MODEL
LENGTH 950.83 FT (289.8 M) WETTED SURFACE 172,524.0
FT2(16,028.0 M2)
17.61 FT (5.367 M) 59.16 FT2(5.50 M2)
DISPLACEMENT 59,393.0 TONS (60,343.0 T) RHO 1.9905
(31.885 N S2/M4) NU (E+5) 1.2816 (0.11906 M2/SEC)
0.37 TONS (0.37 T) 1.9367 (31.023 N S2/M4)
1.9905 (0.18493 M2/SEC)
LINEAR RATIO 54.000
ITTC FRICTION LINE
CORRELATION ALLOWANCE (CA) 0.00000
------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------
VS PE FRICTIONAL POWER FN V-L 1000CR
--------------- -------------------- --------------------- ---------- ---------- ----------
KNOTS M/S HP KW HP KW
------- -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------- ---------- ---------- ----------
10.0 5.14 3105.3 2315.6 2234.7 1666.4 0.096 0.324 0.580
12.0 6.17 5281.2 3938.2 3776.8 2816.3 0.116 0.389 0.580
14.0 7.20 8275.9 6171.4 5887.0 4390.0 0.135 0.454 0.580
16.0 8.23 12460.5 9291.8 8648.6 6449.3 0.154 0.519 0.620
18.0 9.26 18533.8 13820.6 12143.4 9055.3 0.174 0.584 0.730
20.0 10.29 26358.9 19655.8 16452.2 12268.4 0.193 0.649 0.825
22.0 11.32 36518.9 27232.2 21654.9 16148.1 0.212 0.713 0.930
24.0 12.35 48995.6 36536.0 27830.6 20753.2 0.232 0.778 1.020
26.0 13.38 61966.9 46208.7 35057.4 26142.3 0.251 0.843 1.020
28.0 14.40 74715.8 55715.6 43413.1 32373.1 0.270 0.908 0.950
30.0 15.43 92691.4 69120.0 52974.6 39503.2 0.289 0.973 0.980
32.0 16.46 113003.6 84266.8 63818.4 47589.4 0.309 1.038 1.000
34.0 17.49 135016.1 100681.5 76020.4 56688.4 0.328 1.103 1.000
36.0 18.52 168090.9 125345.4 89655.9 66856.4 0.347 1.167 1.120
38.0 19.55 226698.2 169048.9 104800.1 78149.4 0.367 1.232 1.480
40.0 20.58 311735.9 232461.4 121527.5 90623.0 0.386 1.297 1.980
42.0 21.61 423490.1 315796.5 139912.1 104332.4 0.405 1.362 2.550
44.0 22.64 563433.4 420152.2 160027.9 119332.8 0.425 1.427 3.155
45.0 23.15 635809.1 474122.8 170757.8 127334.1 0.434 1.459 3.400
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
120
EHP RESULTS FROM EXPERIMENT NUMBER = 6
DTRC MODEL NUMBER = 5651
MODEL
CONDITION
= HALSS: Center Hull @ 11.5 m Draft. Side Hulls @ 7.5 m Draft, Middle
Longitudinal Location, Middle Transverse Location.
SHIP MODEL
LENGTH 950.83 FT (289.8 M) WETTED SURFACE 172,524.0
FT2(16,028.0 M2)
17.61 FT (5.367 M) 59.16 FT2(5.50 M2)
DISPLACEMENT 59,393.0
TONRHO 1.9905 (NU (E+5) 1.2816 (
S (60,343.0 T) 31.885 N
S2/M4) 0.11906
M2/SEC)
0.37
TON1.9367
(311.9905 (0.
S (0.37 T).023 N S2/M4)
18493 M2/SEC)
LINEAR RATIO 54.000
ITTC FRICTION LINE
CORRELATION ALLOWANCE (CA) 0.00000
------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------
VS PE FRICTIONAL POWER FN V-L 1000CR
--------------- -------------------- --------------- ------ ---------- ---------- ----------
KNOTS M/S HP KW HP KW
------- -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------- ---------- ---------- ----------
10.0 5.14 3105.3 2315.6 2234.7 1666.4 0.096 0.324 0.580
12.0 6.17 5281.2 3938.2 3776.8 2816.3 0.116 0.389 0.580
14.0 7.20 8275.9 6171.4 5887.0 4390.0 0.135 0.454 0.580
16.0 8.23 12460.5 9291.8 8648.6 6449.3 0.154 0.519 0.620
18.0 9.26 18271.1 13624.8 12143.4 9055.3 0.174 0.584 0.700
20.0 10.29 25698.5 19163.3 16452.2 12268.4 0.193 0.649 0.770
22.0 11.32 34441.2 25682.8 21654.9 16148.1 0.212 0.713 0.800
24.0 12.35 44430.6 33131.9 27830.6 20753.2 0.232 0.778 0.800
26.0 13.38 56162.8 41880.6 35057.4 26142.3 0.251 0.843 0.800
28.0 14.40 73727.3 54978.4 43413.1 32373.1 0.270 0.908 0.920
30.0 15.43 92691.4 69120.0 52974.6 39503.2 0.289 0.973 0.980
32.0 16.46 113003.6 84266.8 63818.4 47589.4 0.309 1.038 1.000
34.0 17.49 151535.0 112999.6 76020.4 56688.4 0.328 1.103 1.280
36.0 18.52 203806.9 151978.8 89655.9 66856.4 0.347 1.167 1.630
38.0 19.55 273645.5 204057.4 104800.1 78149.4 0.367 1.232 2.050
40.0 20.58 350161.8 261115.6 121527.5 90623.0 0.386 1.297 2.380
42.0 21.61 440171.2 328235.6 139912.1 104332.4 0.405 1.362 2.700
44.0 22.64 560876.1 418245.2 160027.9 119332.8 0.425 1.427 3.135
45.0 23.15 626234.5 466983.0 170757.8 127334.1 0.434 1.459 3.330
121
EHP RESULTS FROM EXPERIMENT NUMBER = 7
DTRC MODEL NUMBER = 5651
MODEL
CONDITION
= HALSS: Center Hull @ 11.5 m Draft. Side Hulls @ 7.5 m Draft, Middle
Longitudinal Location, Outboard Transverse Location.
SHIP MODEL
LENGTH 950.83 FT (289.8 M) WETTED SURFACE 172,524.0
FT2(16,028.0 M2)
17.61 FT (5.367 M) 59.16 FT2(5.50 M2)
DISPLACEMENT 59,393.0 TONS (60,343.0 T) RHO 1.9905
(31.885 N S2/M4) NU (E+5) 1.2816 (0.11906 M2/SEC)
0.37 TONS (0.37 T) 1.9367 (31.023 N S2/M4)
1.9905 (0.18493 M2/SEC)
LINEAR RATIO 54.000
ITTC FRICTION LINE
CORRELATION ALLOWANCE (CA) 0.00000
------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------
VS PE FRICTIONAL POWER FN V-L 1000CR
--------------- -------------------- --------------------- ---------- ---------- ----------
KNOTS M/S HP KW HP KW
------- -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------- ---------- ---------- ----------
10.0 5.14 3225.3 2405.1 2234.7 1666.4 0.096 0.324 0.660
12.0 6.17 5488.7 4092.9 3776.8 2816.3 0.116 0.389 0.660
14.0 7.20 8605.4 6417.1 5887.0 4390.0 0.135 0.454 0.660
16.0 8.23 12706.4 9475.2 8648.6 6449.3 0.154 0.519 0.660
18.0 9.26 18096.1 13494.2 12143.4 9055.3 0.174 0.584 0.680
20.0 10.29 24857.9 18536.5 16452.2 12268.4 0.193 0.649 0.700
22.0 11.32 34601.0 25802.0 21654.9 16148.1 0.212 0.713 0.810
24.0 12.35 45260.6 33750.8 27830.6 20753.2 0.232 0.778 0.840
26.0 13.38 57350.0 42765.9 35057.4 26142.3 0.251 0.843 0.845
28.0 14.40 74056.8 55224.2 43413.1 32373.1 0.270 0.908 0.930
30.0 15.43 92691.4 69120.0 52974.6 39503.2 0.289 0.973 0.980
32.0 16.46 113003.6 84266.8 63818.4 47589.4 0.309 1.038 1.000
34.0 17.49 135016.1 100681.5 76020.4 56688.4 0.328 1.103 1.000
36.0 18.52 175794.4 131089.8 89655.9 66856.4 0.347 1.167 1.230
38.0 19.55 246465.5 183789.3 104800.1 78149.4 0.367 1.232 1.720
40.0 20.58 344397.9 256817.5 121527.5 90623.0 0.386 1.297 2.320
42.0 21.61 462412.6 344821.0 139912.1 104332.4 0.405 1.362 2.900
44.0 22.64 584530.7 435884.5 160027.9 119332.8 0.425 1.427 3.320
45.0 23.15 648119.3 483302.5 170757.8 127334.1 0.434 1.459 3.490
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
122
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
EHP RESULTS FROM EXPERIMENT NUMBER = 8
DTRC MODEL NUMBER = 5651
MODEL
CONDITION
= HALSS: Center Hull @ 11.5 m Draft. Side Hulls @ 7.5 m Draft, Forward
Longitudinal Location, Inboard Transverse Location.
SHIP MODEL
LENGTH 950.83 FT (289.8 M) WETTED SURFACE 172,524.0
FT2(16,028.0 M2)
17.61 FT (5.367 M) 59.16 FT2(5.50 M2)
DISPLACEMENT 59,393.0 TONS (60,343.0 T) RHO 1.9905
(31.885 N S2/M4) NU (E+5) 1.2816 (0.11906 M2/SEC)
0.37 TONS (0.37 T) 1.9367 (31.023 N S2/M4)
1.9905 (0.18493 M2/SEC)
LINEAR RATIO 54.000
ITTC FRICTION LINE
CORRELATION ALLOWANCE (CA) 0.00000
------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------
VS PE FRICTIONAL POWER FN V-L 1000CR
--------------- -------------------- --------------------- ---------- ---------- ----------
KNOTS M/S HP KW HP KW
------- -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------- ---------- ---------- ----------
10.0 5.14 3360.4 2505.9 2234.7 1666.4 0.096 0.324 0.750
12.0 6.17 5722.1 4267.0 3776.8 2816.3 0.116 0.389 0.750
14.0 7.20 8976.1 6693.5 5887.0 4390.0 0.135 0.454 0.750
16.0 8.23 13259.7 9887.8 8648.6 6449.3 0.154 0.519 0.750
18.0 9.26 19146.5 14277.6 12143.4 9055.3 0.174 0.584 0.800
20.0 10.29 27619.8 20596.1 16452.2 12268.4 0.193 0.649 0.930
22.0 11.32 38117.2 28424.0 21654.9 16148.1 0.212 0.713 1.030
24.0 12.35 50655.6 37773.9 27830.6 20753.2 0.232 0.778 1.100
26.0 13.38 68034.7 50733.4 35057.4 26142.3 0.251 0.843 1.250
28.0 14.40 96133.5 71686.7 43413.1 32373.1 0.270 0.908 1.600
30.0 15.43 139297.8 103874.4 52974.6 39503.2 0.289 0.973 2.130
32.0 16.46 190716.2 142217.0 63818.4 47589.4 0.309 1.038 2.580
34.0 17.49 247108.2 184268.5 76020.4 56688.4 0.328 1.103 2.900
36.0 18.52 313055.6 233445.5 89655.9 66856.4 0.347 1.167 3.190
38.0 19.55 390601.8 291271.7 104800.1 78149.4 0.367 1.232 3.470
40.0 20.58 481770.6 359256.3 121527.5 90623.0 0.386 1.297 3.750
42.0 21.61 579180.0 431894.5 139912.1 104332.4 0.405 1.362 3.950
44.0 22.64 690656.4 515022.4 160027.9 119332.8 0.425 1.427 4.150
45.0 23.15 750704.1 559799.9 170757.8 127334.1 0.434 1.459 4.240
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
123
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
EHP RESULTS FROM EXPERIMENT NUMBER = 9
DTRC MODEL NUMBER = 5651
MODEL
CONDITION
= HALSS: Center Hull @ 11.5 m Draft. Side Hulls @ 7.5 m Draft, Aft
Longitudinal Location, Inboard Transverse Location.
SHIP MODEL
LENGTH 950.83 FT (289.8 M) WETTED SURFACE 172,524.0
FT2(16,028.0 M2)
17.61 FT (5.367 M) 59.16 FT2(5.50 M2)
DISPLACEMENT 59,393.0 TONS (60,343.0 T) RHO 1.9905
(31.885 N S2/M4) NU (E+5) 1.2816 (0.11906 M2/SEC)
0.37 TONS (0.37 T) 1.9367 (31.023 N S2/M4)
1.9905 (0.18493 M2/SEC)
LINEAR RATIO 54.000
ITTC FRICTION LINE
CORRELATION ALLOWANCE (CA) 0.00000
------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------
VS PE FRICTIONAL POWER FN V-L 1000CR
--------------- -------------------- --------------------- ---------- ---------- ----------
KNOTS M/S HP KW HP KW
------- -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------- ---------- ---------- ----------
10.0 5.14 3480.5 2595.4 2234.7 1666.4 0.096 0.324 0.830
12.0 6.17 5929.6 4421.7 3776.8 2816.3 0.116 0.389 0.830
14.0 7.20 9305.6 6939.2 5887.0 4390.0 0.135 0.454 0.830
16.0 8.23 13751.6 10254.6 8648.6 6449.3 0.154 0.519 0.830
18.0 9.26 19496.7 14538.7 12143.4 9055.3 0.174 0.584 0.840
20.0 10.29 27019.4 20148.3 16452.2 12268.4 0.193 0.649 0.880
22.0 11.32 39236.0 29258.3 21654.9 16148.1 0.212 0.713 1.100
24.0 12.35 56258.1 41951.6 27830.6 20753.2 0.232 0.778 1.370
26.0 13.38 70409.0 52504.0 35057.4 26142.3 0.251 0.843 1.340
28.0 14.40 93497.4 69721.0 43413.1 32373.1 0.270 0.908 1.520
30.0 15.43 134434.6 100247.8 52974.6 39503.2 0.289 0.973 2.010
32.0 16.46 192683.6 143684.1 63818.4 47589.4 0.309 1.038 2.620
34.0 17.49 255367.6 190427.6 76020.4 56688.4 0.328 1.103 3.040
36.0 18.52 319358.4 238145.5 89655.9 66856.4 0.347 1.167 3.280
38.0 19.55 384836.3 286972.4 104800.1 78149.4 0.367 1.232 3.400
40.0 20.58 465439.6 347078.2 121527.5 90623.0 0.386 1.297 3.580
42.0 21.61 556938.6 415309.0 139912.1 104332.4 0.405 1.362 3.750
44.0 22.64 658690.8 491185.7 160027.9 119332.8 0.425 1.427 3.900
45.0 23.15 715141.3 533280.8 170757.8 127334.1 0.434 1.459 3.980
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
124
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
EHP RESULTS FROM EXPERIMENT NUMBER = 10
DTRC MODEL NUMBER = 5651
MODEL
CONDITION
= HALSS: Center Hull @ 11.5 m Draft. Side Hulls @ 7.5 m Draft, Aft
Longitudinal Location, Middle Transverse Location.
SHIP MODEL
LENGTH 950.83 FT (289.8 M) WETTED SURFACE 172,524.0
FT2(16,028.0 M2)
17.61 FT (5.367 M) 59.16 FT2(5.50 M2)
DISPLACEMENT 59,393.0 TONS (60,343.0 T) RHO 1.9905
(31.885 N S2/M4) NU (E+5) 1.2816 (0.11906 M2/SEC)
0.37 TONS (0.37 T) 1.9367 (31.023 N S2/M4)
1.9905 (0.18493 M2/SEC)
LINEAR RATIO 54.000
ITTC FRICTION LINE
CORRELATION ALLOWANCE (CA) 0.00000
------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------
VS PE FRICTIONAL POWER FN V-L 1000CR
--------------- -------------------- --------------------- ---------- ---------- ----------
KNOTS M/S HP KW HP KW
------- -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------- ---------- ---------- ----------
10.0 5.14 3360.4 2505.9 2234.7 1666.4 0.096 0.324 0.750
12.0 6.17 5722.1 4267.0 3776.8 2816.3 0.116 0.389 0.750
14.0 7.20 8976.1 6693.5 5887.0 4390.0 0.135 0.454 0.750
16.0 8.23 13259.7 9887.8 8648.6 6449.3 0.154 0.519 0.750
18.0 9.26 18883.9 14081.7 12143.4 9055.3 0.174 0.584 0.770
20.0 10.29 26298.9 19611.1 16452.2 12268.4 0.193 0.649 0.820
22.0 11.32 39236.0 29258.3 21654.9 16148.1 0.212 0.713 1.100
24.0 12.35 53456.8 39862.7 27830.6 20753.2 0.232 0.778 1.235
26.0 13.38 65396.5 48766.1 35057.4 26142.3 0.251 0.843 1.150
28.0 14.40 86248.4 64315.4 43413.1 32373.1 0.270 0.908 1.300
30.0 15.43 134434.6 100247.8 52974.6 39503.2 0.289 0.973 2.010
32.0 16.46 201045.1 149919.3 63818.4 47589.4 0.309 1.038 2.790
34.0 17.49 264806.9 197466.5 76020.4 56688.4 0.328 1.103 3.200
36.0 18.52 310254.3 231356.6 89655.9 66856.4 0.347 1.167 3.150
38.0 19.55 357656.3 266704.3 104800.1 78149.4 0.367 1.232 3.070
40.0 20.58 420289.1 313409.5 121527.5 90623.0 0.386 1.297 3.110
42.0 21.61 499110.9 372186.9 139912.1 104332.4 0.405 1.362 3.230
44.0 22.64 594759.6 443512.2 160027.9 119332.8 0.425 1.427 3.400
45.0 23.15 645383.7 481262.5 170757.8 127334.1 0.434 1.459 3.470
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
125
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
EHP RESULTS FROM EXPERIMENT NUMBER = 11
DTRC MODEL NUMBER = 5651
MODEL
CONDITION
= HALSS: Center Hull @ 11.5 m Draft. Side Hulls @ 9.5 m Draft, Middle
Longitudinal Location, Inboard Transverse Location.
SHIP MODEL
LENGTH 950.83 FT (289.8 M) WETTED SURFACE 186,259.0
FT2(17,304.0 M2)
17.61 FT (5.367 M) 63.87 FT2(5.93 M2)
DISPLACEMENT 61,011.0 TONS (61,987.0 T) RHO 1.9905
(31.885 N S2/M4) NU (E+5) 1.2816 (0.11906 M2/SEC)
0.38 TONS (0.38 T) 1.9367 (31.023 N S2/M4)
1.9905 (0.18493 M2/SEC)
LINEAR RATIO 54.000
ITTC FRICTION LINE
CORRELATION ALLOWANCE (CA) 0.00000
------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------
VS PE FRICTIONAL POWER FN V-L 1000CR
--------------- -------------------- --------------------- ---------- ---------- ----------
KNOTS M/S HP KW HP KW
------- -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------- ---------- ---------- ----------
10.0 5.14 3709.0 2765.8 2412.6 1799.1 0.096 0.324 0.800
12.0 6.17 6317.6 4711.1 4077.4 3040.5 0.116 0.389 0.800
14.0 7.20 9913.0 7392.1 6355.7 4739.4 0.135 0.454 0.800
16.0 8.23 14647.2 10922.4 9337.1 6962.7 0.154 0.519 0.800
18.0 9.26 20670.7 15414.2 13110.1 9776.2 0.174 0.584 0.800
20.0 10.29 28133.2 20978.9 17761.9 13245.1 0.193 0.649 0.800
22.0 11.32 40634.0 30300.8 23378.8 17433.6 0.212 0.713 1.000
24.0 12.35 53568.1 39945.7 30046.1 22405.4 0.232 0.778 1.050
26.0 13.38 65333.4 48719.1 37848.3 28223.4 0.251 0.843 0.965
28.0 14.40 82086.7 61212.1 46869.1 34950.3 0.270 0.908 0.990
30.0 15.43 104664.5 78048.3 57191.8 42647.9 0.289 0.973 1.085
32.0 16.46 126778.6 94538.8 68898.9 51377.9 0.309 1.038 1.090
34.0 17.49 152133.7 113446.1 82072.2 61201.2 0.328 1.103 1.100
36.0 18.52 189032.9 140961.8 96793.2 72178.7 0.347 1.167 1.220
38.0 19.55 255415.7 190463.4 113143.0 84370.8 0.367 1.232 1.600
40.0 20.58 348997.9 260247.7 131202.0 97837.3 0.386 1.297 2.100
42.0 21.61 471610.4 351679.8 151050.2 112638.1 0.405 1.362 2.670
44.0 22.64 625542.2 466466.8 172767.3 128832.6 0.425 1.427 3.280
45.0 23.15 704144.7 525080.6 184351.5 137470.9 0.434 1.459 3.520
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
126
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
EHP RESULTS FROM EXPERIMENT NUMBER = 12
DTRC MODEL NUMBER = 5651
MODEL
CONDITION
= HALSS: Center Hull @ 12.0 m Draft. Side Hulls @ 10.0 m Draft, Middle
Longitudinal Location, Inboard Transverse Location.
SHIP MODEL
LENGTH 984.02 FT (299.93 M) WETTED SURFACE 193,664.0
FT2(17,992.0 M2)
18.22 FT (5.55 M) 66.41 FT2(6.17 M2)
DISPLACEMENT 64,272.0 TONS (65,300.0 T) RHO 1.9905
(31.885 N S2/M4) NU (E+5) 1.2816 (0.11906 M2/SEC)
0.40 TONS (0.40 T) 1.9367 (31.023 N S2/M4)
1.9905 (0.18493 M2/SEC)
LINEAR RATIO 54.000
ITTC FRICTION LINE
CORRELATION ALLOWANCE (CA) 0.00000
------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------
VS PE FRICTIONAL POWER FN V-L 1000CR
--------------- -------------------- --------------------- ---------- ---------- ----------
KNOTS M/S HP KW HP KW
------- -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------- ---------- ---------- ----------
10.0 5.14 3930.2 2930.7 2498.0 1862.7 0.095 0.319 0.850
12.0 6.17 6696.8 4993.8 4222.0 3148.3 0.114 0.383 0.850
14.0 7.20 10511.2 7838.2 6581.2 4907.6 0.133 0.446 0.850
16.0 8.23 15535.0 11584.5 9668.8 7210.0 0.152 0.510 0.850
18.0 9.26 21928.7 16352.3 13576.2 10123.8 0.171 0.574 0.850
20.0 10.29 29851.4 22260.2 18393.9 13716.3 0.190 0.638 0.850
22.0 11.32 43946.4 32770.8 24211.1 18054.2 0.209 0.701 1.100
24.0 12.35 57669.8 43004.4 31116.4 23203.5 0.228 0.765 1.140
26.0 13.38 69107.7 51533.6 39197.2 29229.4 0.247 0.829 1.010
28.0 14.40 86637.6 64605.6 48540.4 36196.6 0.266 0.893 1.030
30.0 15.43 110866.8 82673.3 59232.1 44169.4 0.285 0.956 1.135
32.0 16.46 135127.4 100764.5 71357.8 53211.5 0.304 1.020 1.155
34.0 17.49 161822.8 120671.2 85002.4 63386.3 0.323 1.084 1.160
36.0 18.52 201660.0 150377.8 100250.4 74756.7 0.341 1.148 1.290
38.0 19.55 266963.4 199074.6 117185.5 87385.2 0.360 1.211 1.620
40.0 20.58 373668.5 278644.6 135891.2 101334.1 0.379 1.275 2.205
42.0 21.61 507231.4 378242.4 156450.5 116665.1 0.398 1.339 2.810
44.0 22.64 664074.1 495200.0 178945.8 133439.9 0.417 1.403 3.380
45.0 23.15 748292.5 558001.6 190945.2 142387.8 0.427 1.435 3.630
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
127
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
EHP RESULTS FROM EXPERIMENT NUMBER = 13
DTRC MODEL NUMBER = 5651
MODEL
CONDITION
= HALSS: Center Hull @ 11.5 m Draft.
Longitudinal Location, Inboard Transverse Location.
SHIP MODEL
LENGTH 950.83 FT (289.8 M) WETTED SURFACE 200,747.0
FT2(18,650.0 M2)
17.61 FT (5.367 M) 68.85 FT2(6.40 M2)
DISPLACEMENT 62,686.0 TONS (63,689.0 T) RHO 1.9905
(31.885 N S2/M4) NU (E+5) 1.2816 (0.11906 M2/SEC)
0.39 TONS (0.39 T) 1.9367 (31.023 N S2/M4)
1.9905 (0.18493 M2/SEC)
LINEAR RATIO 54.000
ITTC FRICTION LINE
CORRELATION ALLOWANCE (CA) 0.00000
------------------------------------------------- -------------------------------------
VS PE FRICTIONAL POWER FN V-L 1000CR
--------------- -------------------- --------------------- ---------- ---------- ----------
KNOTS M/S HP KW HP KW
------- -------- ---------- ---------- ---------- ----------- ---------- ---------- ----------
10.0 5.14 3875.2 2889.7 2600.2 1939.0 0.096 0.324 0.730
12.0 6.17 6597.7 4919.9 4394.6 3277.0 0.116 0.389 0.730
14.0 7.20 10348.6 7716.9 6850.0 5108.1 0.135 0.454 0.730
16.0 8.23 15285.6 11398.5 10063.3 7504.2 0.154 0.519 0.730
18.0 9.26 21565.4 16081.3 14129.8 10536.6 0.174 0.584 0.730
20.0 10.29 29622.7 22089.6 19143.4 14275.2 0.193 0.649 0.750
22.0 11.32 42864.5 31964.1 25197.2 18789.5 0.212 0.713 0.950
24.0 12.35 56527.2 42152.3 32383.0 24148.0 0.232 0.778 1.000
26.0 13.38 68419.5 51020.4 40792.0 30418.6 0.251 0.843 0.900
28.0 14.40 85787.4 63971.6 50514.5 37668.6 0.270 0.908 0.920
30.0 15.43 111154.5 82887.9 61640.0 45964.9 0.289 0.973 1.050
32.0 16.46 136639.1 101891.8 74257.6 55373.9 0.309 1.038 1.090
34.0 17.49 163966.2 122269.6 88455.5 65961.3 0.328 1.103 1.100
36.0 18.52 203735.3 151925.4 104321.5 77792.5 0.347 1.167 1.220
38.0 19.55 275281.1 205277.1 121943.0 90932.9 0.367 1.232 1.600
40.0 20.58 376141.9 280489.0 141406.5 105446.8 0.386 1.297 2.100
42.0 21.61 508290.9 379032.4 162798.4 121398.8 0.405 1.362 2.670
44.0 22.64 674195.0 502747.1 186204.6 138852.8 0.425 1.427 3.280
45.0 23.15 758910.9 565919.8 198689.8 148162.9 0.434 1.459 3.520
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
128
APPENDIX F: Seakeeping Assessment for HALSS
REFERENCES:
1. Human Performance Factors and Measures in Hull Form Selection, NATO RTO-AVT-
110 Paper 34 (2004) J. H. Pattison and D.J. Sheridan
2. Common Procedures for Seakeeping in the Ship Design Process NATO STANAG
4154, Edition 3, 1997
3. Water Wave Mechanics for Engineers and Scientists, R G Dean & R A Dalrymple
4. Simulating Ocean Water, Jerry Tessendorf (1999-2001)
5. Determination of Wave Loads for Ship Structural Analysis, B. P. Phelps Maritime
Platform Division Aeronautical and Marine Research Laboratory
6. Introduction to Naval Architecture, Thomas C. Gillmer and Bruce Johnson
7. The Frank Close-Fit Ship Motion Computer Program, W. Frank and N. Salvesen
8. DNV Software
9. SAGA Software
10. Trials to Measure the Hydrodynamic Performance of RV Triton, Martin Renilson,
Bob Scrace, Mike Johnson, and Chris Richardsen, QinetiQ, UK
11. ABCD Working Group on Human Performance at Sea, "Generating and Using Human
Performance Simulation Data to Guide Designers and Operators of Navy Ships: Two
Large Multinational Programs," Royal Institute of Naval Architects, International
Conference on Seakeeping and Weather, London, UK (Feb/Mar 1995).
12. Comstock, E.N. and R.G. Keane, Jr. (1980): "Seakeeping by Design," American
Society of Naval Engineers Naval Engineers Journal, v. 92, n. 2 (1980), pp. 157-178.
13. Comstock, E.N., S.L. Bales, and D.M. Gentile (1982): "Seakeeping Performance
Comparison of Air Capable Ships," American Society of Naval Engineers Naval
Engineers Journal, v. 94, n. 2 (1982), pp. 101-117.
14. Graham, R., "Motion-Induced Interruptions as Ship Operability Criteria (1990):
"American Society of Naval Engineers Naval Engineers Journal, v. 102, n. 2 (1990).
15. Graham, R., A.E. Baitis and W.G. Meyers (1992): "On the Development of Seakeeping
Criteria," American Society of Naval Engineers Naval Engineers Journal, v. 104, n. 3
(1992).
16. Lain, H., S.J. Daugard, C.A. Tomassoni, J.J. Guilfoyle (1979): "Motion Induced
Degradation of Ship Subsystems," NAVSEA Report 3213-79-24 (Sep 79)
17. Pattison, J.H. and R.R. Bushway (1991): "Deck Motion Criteria for Aircraft
Operations," NATO Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development AGARD
Conference Proceedings 509 (Nov 1991), Paper No. 3.
18. Smith, T.C. and W.L. Thomas III, (1989): "A Survey and Comparison of Criteria for
Naval Missions," David Taylor Research Center Report No. DTRC/SHD-1312-91 (Oct
89).
CONTENT
1. NOMENCLATURE FOR SEAKEEPING AND HALSS STRUCTURAL LOADS ASSESSMENT 113
1.1 COMMON PROCEDURES FOR SEAKEEPING IN THE SHIP DESIGN PROCESS. 113
1.2 ADVANCES IN SEAKEEPING EVALUATION METHODOLOGY 115
129
2. HUMAN PERFORMANCE FACTORS AND MEASURES IN HULL FORMSELECTION 117
3. TRIMARAN ANALYSIS PROCEDURE 118
3.1 PROCEDURE 118
3.2 LOAD DEVELOPMENT 120
3.3 ANALYSIS METHODS 120
3.4 HYDRODYNAMIC PANEL MODELS 121
4. CRITERIA 123
4. LOITERING CRITERIA 123
4.1.1 Roll Criteria 124
4.1.2 Pitch Criteria 125
4.1.3 Vertical Displacement Criteria 125
4.1.4 Lateral Displacement Criteria 125
4.1.5 Vertical Velocity Criteria 125
4.1.5Relative Wind Speed Envelope 125
4.2 OPERATIONAL CASES USED FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE LOITERING CRITERIA 126
4.3 TRANSIT CRITERIA 127
4.4 OPERATIONAL CASES USED FOR THE EVALUATION OF THE TRANSIT CRITERIA 128
APPENDIX F-1: Results of the HALSS Time Domain Simulations 128
1. NOMENCLATURE FOR SEAKEEPING AND HALSS STRUCTURAL LOADS ASSESSMENT
1.1 COMMON PROCEDURES FOR SEAKEEPING IN THE SHIP DESIGN PROCESS.
(EXCERPT FROM NATOSTANAG4154 (EDITION 3)
SEAKEEPING CRITERIA FOR GENERAL APPLICATION
General limits are presented under which ships may operate with little or no degradation
due to ship motions. Referring to the discussion of degradation functions, the criteria listed in
this chapter are single limit values. If the particular motion does not exceed the limit that motion
either does not interfere with shipboard tasks or does not degrade task execution to an agreed
upon acceptable level. In addition, the limits for different motions are taken as independent. If
one limit is exceeded, the system is considered inoperable. Development and application of
degradation functions for various ship subsystems is discussed on the future of seakeeping in
ship design.
Beyond the limits for normal operation, ships are typically designed and built to national
standards for strength, stability and reserve buoyancy such that they are able to survive extreme
environmental conditions with minimal damage. In moderate seas, ships must have the mobility
to patrol and to transit to specific operating areas in order to accomplish specific missions. And,
ships must be able to be replenished while they are transiting to or operating on station.
The primary source for the limit values is a compilation by Lain, Daugard, Tomassoni
and Guilfoyle (1979), which is summarized in the more widely available Smith and Thomas
(1989). A typical organization of the limit values by subsystem and subsystem function was
130
presented by Comstock, Bales and Gentile (1982). In later work, some of the numbers presented
in these two sources have been refined. Thus the numbers presented below are taken from
several sources, which are listed as references.
PERSONNEL
Limits on personnel performance are set to account for crew safety and effectiveness.
For a long time, the limits have been specified in terms of roll, pitch, and vertical and lateral
accelerations. However, recent work was undertaken to improve personnel criteria, and has been
reported by Baitis, Applebee and McNamara (1984), Graham (1990) and Graham, Baitis and
Meyers (1992). So far, this work has yielded algorithms to calculate motion sickness incidence
(MSI) and motion induced interruptions (MII). These algorithms may be used with the modified
strip theory. Thus limits on MSI and MII are offered below as alternative criteria. The MSI limit
replaces that for vertical acceleration, which was derived as a single number independent of the
frequency of the motion. The MSI algorithm takes into account the human sensitivity to
different frequencies of motion, but does not take into account habituation. A value of 20 percent
of the crew in a four-hour exposure is chosen as reasonable. This is based on tests on subjects
with no prior exposure to the motion. A crew who has acclimated after a few days at sea would
experience lower levels of motion sickness.
The MII limit is based on tests and analysis of simple shipboard tasks where the human
subject was standing in various orientations to the axis of the ship or walking across the deck.
The number of MII per unit time is derived from a ratio of the acceleration parallel to the deck to
vertical acceleration normal to the deck. When this ratio reaches a certain level, the crew
member begins to tip or slip. This level may be characterized as either a tipping coefficient or a
friction coefficient. Different coefficient values may be associated with different tasks. Until
coefficients are determined for a variety of tasks, a reasonable default value is 0.25, which was
measured for lateral tipping of a person standing facing aft. MII are counted as a number of
times the coefficient is exceeded. With care, the limit may be applied to a variety of shipboard
tasks. The number of MII may be increased when the condition of the deck is poor and when
there are other environmental stressors such as wind, rain, snow and ice. The number of MII
may be decreased when the crew member takes corrective action, such as bending the knees or
changing the stance. Different values of MII which are associated with different levels of risk. A
value of 1 per minute is chosen because it represents a reasonable level of risk for many
shipboard tasks. The MII limit replaces those for roll, pitch and lateral acceleration. In any case,
the deck accelerations contain algebraic combinations of the three motions with heave and the
distance away from the center of motion. A relative wind limit is also listed for crew to support
aircraft operations on a flight deck. This is taken from the USS MIDWAY Motion Improvement
Program criteria reported by Pattison and Bushway (1991) for crew on a flight deck. If the
algorithms for MSI and MII are not available, then the roll, pitch and acceleration limits may be
used as alternates. The RMS values for these limits are also listed in Table below.
131
Application Performance Limitations
Motion Limit* Location
Recommended Criteria Motion Sickness
Incidence (MSI)
20% of crew @
4 hrs
Task Location
Motion Induced
Interruption (MII)
1/min Task Location
Relative Wind 35 kts Task Location if on
Weather Deck
Default Criteria Roll 4
Pitch 1.5
Vertical Acceleration 0.2g Bridge
Lateral Acceleration 0.1g Bridge
Relative Wind 35 kts Flight deck
*Note: Roll, pitch and acceleration limits are given in terms of root-mean-square amplitude.
FUTURE SEAKEEPING CRITERIA
In introducing the future ship design process, Tibbits and Keane (1995) noted that rapidly
advancing computer technology is already making it possible to make more informed decisions
in the early stages of ship design. The payoff is that the early decisions can have a large
influence on the final design because 70 percent or more of the ultimate cost and performance of
a ship are "locked in" in the early stages of design.
Ships are expected to carry out a variety of missions in a range of weather conditions. On
the other hand, dwindling budgets mean fewer, smaller ships to accomplish the same missions.
Thus seakeeping will play an increasingly important role in the ship design process. With the
common procedures and supporting technology it is possible to do a fair comparison of the
seakeeping performance capabilities of different ship designs. However, a further examination
of seakeeping in the ship design process will show where enhancements can be made to
seakeeping technology in order to most cost effectively attain the specified seakeeping
performance. And a discussion of the future ship design process will provide a context for
balancing seakeeping performance with other design considerations.
1.2 ADVANCES IN SEAKEEPING EVALUATION METHODOLOGY
The beginnings of a new approach to seakeeping in the ship design process grew out of
discussions in the 37th meeting of NATO IEG/6 (now NG/6) Subgroup 5 on Seakeeping. The
new approach, shown in Figure B-1, acknowledges the importance of the man/machine
performance models, and the limiting ship motion design criteria for each of the models, as the
links between the ship motion and operability calculations.
132
133
SEAKEEPING IN THE SHIP DESIGN PROCESS
MAN-MACHINE SYSTEMPERFORMANCE MODELS/DESIGN CRITERIA.
Ship motion and wind limits, with various levels of accuracy, do exist for a number of
aircraft/ship combinations and for various weapons systems and support equipment. These are
referred to papers by Comstock and Keane (1980); Comstock, Bales and Gentile (1982); Lloyd
(1991); Pattison and Bushway (1991); and Smith and Thomas (1989).
For the operability calculations, the criteria are commonly applied as single values for
each motion parameter, independent of the other parameters. When the limit for one of the
motions is exceeded, that defines the limit of operability. Anything beyond that point is
considered as being totally inoperable. Anything below that point is treated as zero degradation
of the mission.
A significant improvement could be made in the operability calculation through incorporation
of the following:
a. Weighting of individual criteria. This involves determining the most critical motions for each
mission, and assigning weighting factors for each. For instance, MIIs or accelerations at a
critical location may be much more important than the roll or pitch.
b. Degrees of failure. If a criteria, for example roll = 6 was used, the ship which rolls 1 should
not be considered equal to the ship which rolls 5. The current approach to operability
assessment would consider the two ships equal since they both pass the 6 limit. Different
limit values for different degrees of operability would point up the differences between the
two ships.
MISSION
REQUIREMENTS
REQUIRED OPERATING
CAPABILITIES HUMAN
EQUIPMENT
HULL
CONFIGURATION
SYSTEM
PERFORMANCE
MODELS
SHIP MOTION
CALCULATIONS
DESIGN
CRITERIA
WIND & WAVE
ENVIRONMENT
OPERABILITY
CULATIONS
(STATUS OF
CREW & EQUIP)
CAL
c. Combining of individual criteria. For a mission where roll and pitch are important, for
example, a ship which only rolls 4 or which pitches 2 should not be considered equal to a
ship which rolls 4 while pitching 2. In another example, if the criteria for pitch and roll
were 1.5 and 5 respectively, the ship which pitches 1.6 and rolls 2 would be considered
inoperable while a ship which pitches 1.4 and rolls 4.9 would be considered operable and
thus the better ship. This conclusion may be flawed. Thus to improve the approach, it is
important to develop the limiting surfaces for combinations of criteria which are critical for
each mission.
d. The number of criteria exceeded. In some cases, different motions act independently to limit
the operation of different mission systems. In these cases the number of criteria exceeded
should be considered. For example, if both the dome emergence and flight deck MII criteria
limts are exceeded, this is worse than if only one of these criteria are exceeded.
But before the combinations can be addressed, more work needs to be done on individual
criteria.
Tipping and sliding limits, which depend in accelerations parallel and perpendicular to
the deck, need to be defined for deck equipment. To relate the two accelerations, Graham (1990)
introduced the general lateral force estimator which could be applied at any location aboard ship.
Recent sea trial experience suggests that the critical parameter for helicopter recovery is
vertical acceleration of the flight deck, though the landing systems engineer has to rely upon roll
and pitch readings from the ship's gyro. The true limiting parameters need to be identified for
other mission systems and subsystems as well. Limits need to be defined for launch and
recovery of boats, towed sensors, decoys, targets and minesweeping gear. Limits need to be
defined for ship towing operations.
Weakest may be the performance models and criteria for the human operator. The first
steps have been taken toward better definition of human performance. Initial models have been
developed for motion induced interruptions of shipboard tasks. These models are described by
Graham (1990) and Graham, Baitis and Meyers (1992). And the ABCD Working Group on
Human Performance at Sea (1995) reported on work being done to define the effects of ship
motion on cognitive performance, including decision making. Clearly, progress is being made
on the characterization of shipboard tasks by the human abilities required to accomplish them.
These range from the purely mechanical to the fine motor (psychomotor) to the visual to the
purely cognitive. Ship motion effects may be characterized and modeled by overlaying the
effects of motion sickness, habituation, motivation and fatigue on motion induced interruptions
of mechanical and fine motor abilities and the performance of cognitive tasks. Then
performance limits for each of the abilities may be reassembled to characterize the performance
of specific shipboard tasks; and to develop ship motion criteria for design evaluation.
2. HUMAN PERFORMANCE FACTORS AND MEASURES IN HULL FORMSELECTION
EXCERPT FROM PATTISON, J.H. AND D. J. SHERIDAN, , NATORTO-AVT-110 PAPER 34 (2004).
The NATO standard approach to seakeeping in the ship design process is shown. One of
the missions of the generic Navy ship was assumed to be Transit and Patrol. The Required
Operating Capabilities for this mission were used to derive the seakeeping criteria.
134
Parameter
Comments
MII and accelerations bridge at CL
MII and accelerations helm (on bridge)
MII and accelerations hangar top
MII and accelerations flight deck
Deck wetness 0.10 L
PP
aft FP
Bottom Slamming 0.15 L
PP
aft FP
Propeller Emergence 25% emergence
Parameter Limit Value
Roll Angle 4.0 RMS deg
Pitch Angle 1.5 RMS deg
Vertical acceleration 0.2 RMS g
Lateral acceleration 0.1 RMS g
Tipping MII 1.0 per minute
Deck Wetness Index 30 per hour
Bottom Slamming Index 20 per hour
Propeller Emergence Index 90 per hour
3. TRIMARAN ANALYSIS PROCEDURE
3.1 General
The hull form and hydrostatic conditions have been developed with the program
FASTSHIP. The hydrodynamic analysis has been performed with the Wasim software. Wasim is
a hydrodynamic program for computing global responses and local loading on displacement
vessels moving at any forward speed. The simulations are carried out in the time domain, and
allows for results to be transformed to the frequency domain using Fourier transformations. The
WASIM code is developed and supported by Det Norske Veritas (DNV Software), and is based
on the SWAN (Ship Wave Analysis, Sclavounos, Nakos, et. al.) motions prediction code
developed at MIT.
The Wasim hydrodynamic software is capable of both linear and non-linear time domain
simulations. However, it has been assumed that the non-linear hydrostatic effects of the trimaran
hullform are negligible, and the motions analysis has been performed with a linear simulation.
This assumption is considered reasonable since the water plane area does not change
significantly for wave height variations around the static waterline.
The hull lines from the FASTSHIP program (see CCDOTT FY05 Task 6.1, Deliverable
#1 & 2 Technical report) are exported as an AutoCAD DXF File, which is then converted to the
required PLN format by Viking Systems proprietary software SAGA. The PLN File is then read
into the WASIM Manager where the user can use the built-in meshing techniques to produce an
MxN mesh of each hull part and the free surface to ensure that the mesh can be analyzed
properly in WASIM.
3.2 Load Development
The wave-induced loads have been developed to approximate the environmental conditions
associated with the standard Sea State definitions. The sea-states that are simulated in this
analysis are shown in Table 3.2.1
135
TABLE 3.2.1 ANNUAL SEA STATES IN THE OPEN OCEAN, NORTHERN HEMISPHERE (SEE REFERENCE)
Sea-State
Number
H
s
(m)
Peak Period
(sec)
Peak Period
Range
(sec)
Sustained
Wind Speed
(m/s)
Percentage
Probability
0 - 1 0.27 - - 0.0 - 3.1 0
2 0.69 7 3 -15 3.6 - 5.1 5.7
3 1.30 8 5 - 15.5 5.7 - 8.2 19.7
4 2.08 9 6 16 8.7 - 10.8 28.3
5 2.97 10 7 - 16.5 11.3 - 13.9 19.5
6 5.18 12 9 17 14.4 - 24.2 17.5
7 9.91 14 10 - 18 24.7 - 28.3 7.6
8 16.00 17 13 - 19 28.8 - 32.4 1.7
> 8 25.91 20 18 - 24 > 32.4 < 0.1
The sea state data is taken from References 7 and 8.
The irregular sea surface elevation used to approximate the sea states shown in the above
table are defined by a series of regular sine waves. A series of 200 regular cosine waves are
defined with SAGA through the used of a wave spectrum. The wave spectrum used for this
analysis is a Pierson-Moskowitz wave spectrum, which corresponds the wave energy density
present in the open ocean for fully developed seas.
The Pierson-Moskowitz wave spectrum is defined by the equation:
( )
|
.
|

\
|
=
4 5
exp
e e
e
B A
S
PM
Where:
A is Philips constant, and is given by the formula: A = 0.0081 * g
2
4
4
74 . 0
wind
U
g
B =
The input parameter for the Pierson-Moskowitz wave spectrum is the sustained wind
speed. For this analysis, we have iterated on the input wind speed until the wave spectrum has
produced the desired significant wave height. Thus the values obtained from the use of the
Pierson- Moskowitz sea spectrum are as shown in Table 3.2.1 and figure 3.2.1.
136
TABLE 3.2.1 SEA STATE PARAMETERS USED FOR THE MOTIONS ANALYSIS
Sea-State
Number
Significant
Wave
Height
H
s
- (m)
Peak
Period
T
p
- (sec)
Sustained Wind
Speed
U
wind
(m/s)
2 0.69 4.1 5.66
3 1.30 5.7 7.78
4 2.08 7.2 9.86
5 2.97 8.6 11.78
6 5.18 11.4 15.56
7 9.91 15.7 21.51
FIGURE 13.2.1 THE ENERGY DENSITY SPECTRA FOR SEA STATES 2 THOUGH 7
3.3 Analysis Methods
Wasim is a hydrodynamic program for computing global responses and local loading on
displacement vessels moving at any forward speed. The numerical simulations are carried out in
the time domain, and the time domain results may be transformed into the frequency domain
using Fourier transformations.
Time Domain Analysis
A time domain simulation has been carried out to evaluate the response of the vessel to a long
crested irregular sea state. A time domain simulation has been carried out over a ten (10) minute
period to evaluate the vessel response. The time domain analyses have been performed for Sea
States 4 through 7, and have been run for a 10-minute sample duration. A sample plot showing
137
the wave elevation, as well as the pitch and heave response for head seas in Sea State 7 are
shown in figures 3.3.1 and 3.3.2.
FIGURE 3.3.1 WAVE SURFACE ELEVATION FOR SEA STATE 7 10 MINUTE TIME DURATION
FIGURE 3.3.2 HEAVE AND PITCH DISPLACEMENT AT 35 KNOTS SEA STATE 7 HEAD SEA
The output responses from the time domain analysis have been processed by SAGA to
calculate the single amplitude root mean square (RMS) and significant response values for the
time signal.
The relative motion between the vessel and the free surface of the water has been recorded for
a series of locations along the length of the vessel. The time signal for the relative motion has
been processed with SAGA to record the number of occurrences of bottom slamming, wing deck
slamming, and propeller emergence. The time domain simulations have been used to evaluate
the performance this specific vessel against the acceptance criteria outlined in Section 2 of this
report. As such the slamming criteria is based on exceeding an allowed occurrence per hour
criteria and does not include a criteria for an actual slamming pressure.
3.4 Hydrodynamic Panel Models
The Wasim program solves the fully 3-dimensional radiation/diffraction hydrodynamic problem
by a Rankine panel method. For these methods panel models are required for both the vessel hull
and the free water surface.
138
Table 30: HALSS TRIMARAN CONCEPT MAIN PARTICULARS
Length
(Overall)
300.0 m
Length (Waterline) 290.1 m
Beam
54.86 m
Draft 11.5 m
Displacement 60,495 mT
Figure 55: PANEL MODEL FOR HALLS TRIMARAN CONCEPT (TOP VIEW)
Figure 56: PANEL MODEL FOR HALLS TRIMARAN CONCEPT (BOTTOMVIEW)
139
140
The Rankine panel method also requires a panel model for the free surface of the water.
The free surface model for the HALSS Trimaran concept is shown in Figure 3.4.4 below for
reference.
FIGURE 3.4.4 HALSS TRIMARAN PANEL MODEL WITH FREE SURFACE MESH
4 Criteria
The displacements, velocities, accelerations and dynamic loads have been assessed for
this vessel against two specific sets of criteria. The mission statement calls for the ability to
transit safely at high speed and to conduct fixed wing aircraft operations while loitering on site.
The vessel has been analyzed against separate criteria specific to each mission. The criteria used
to evaluate the vessel motions are shown in the following sections.
4.1 Loitering Criteria
One of the primary functions of the vessel while loitering on site is to launch and retrieve
fixed wing aircraft. Therefore, the acceptance criteria for the vessel while loitering on site and
performing naval air operations are defined in the document NATO STANAG 4154, Common
Procedures for Seakeeping in the Ship Design Process (Edition 3, 1997), Reference 2 The limits
for conventional takeoff and landing (CTOL) of fixed wing aircraft from aircraft carriers are
listed in Table 4.1.1 as single amplitude RMS values of roll displacement, pitch displacement,
vertical and lateral displacement, vertical velocity, and relative wind.
141
Table 31: LOITERING CRITERIA
Performance Limitations
Governing Factors
Motion Limit Location
Aircraft Handling Roll See roll criteria in Figure 2.1
Sink off bow and
OLS limits
Pitch See pitch criteria in Figure 2.2
Ramp Clearance
Vertical
Displacement
0.8 m
Stern Ramp at
Flight Deck
Landing Line-up
Lateral
Displacement
2.3 m
Stern Ramp at
Flight Deck
Landing Gear Vertical Velocity 0.7 m/sec Touchdown Point
Crosswinds and
Landing loads
Relative Wind
35 to 40 knots envelope, +/- 15 degrees
from the bow
4.1.1 Roll Criteria
The limit for roll displacement is dependent upon the roll period of the vessel. Longer roll
periods are more easily predicted and compensated for by the personnel operating on the flight
deck. Therefore, greater roll amplitude is allowed for roll periods exceeding 20 seconds. The roll
displacement criteria is shown in Figure 4.1.2
Figure 57: ROLL LIMITS FOR FIXED WING AIRCRAFT HANDLING (REFERENCE 2)
4.1.2 Pitch Criteria
The pitch displacement of the vessel is critical to limit the sink of aircraft off the bow during
launch as well as the stabilization limits of the optical landing system (OLS). The limit for pitch
142
displacement is also dependent on the pitch period of the vessel. Longer pitch periods are more
easily predicted and compensated for when launching aircraft. Therefore, greater pitch amplitude
is allowed for pitch periods exceeding 10 seconds. The pitch displacement criteria is shown in
Figure 4.1.3.
Figure 58: PITCH LIMITS FOR FIXED WING AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS (REFERENCE 2)
4.1.3 Vertical Displacement Criteria
In conjunction with the pitch angle criteria also specifies a limit on the maximum vertical
displacement of the aft end of the flight deck. The vertical displacement criteria of 0.8 m is
intended to avoid ramp strikes during aircraft recovery operations. This criteria is also
implemented in this analysis.
4.1.4 Lateral Displacement Criteria
The lateral displacement criteria of 2.3 m at the aft end of the flight deck is intended to prevent
off center or out of alignment landings on the flight deck.
4.1.5 Vertical Velocity Criteria
The limit on vertical velocity at the touchdown point on the flight deck is intended to minimize
the impact loads on the landing gear of the aircraft at touchdown.
.
4.1.6 Relative Wind Speed Envelope
While carrying out aircraft operations, the vessel is intended to operated within a very narrow
relative wind envelope. The C-130 aircraft will require a minimum wind speed over deck of 35
knots in order to land or take off, while the function of the crewmembers and personnel working
on the flight deck will be limited in relative wind speeds above 40 knots. The relative wind
direction is also limited to +/- 15 degrees off of the bow. Launch and recovery operations while
the relative wind angle is outside of the criteria envelope results in unacceptable crosswinds or
turbulence for safe and efficient operations.
4.2 Operational Cases used for the Evaluation of the Loitering Criteria
143
The limited relative wind speed envelope necessary to conduct fixed wing aircraft operations
defines the operational cases used for the evaluation of the vessel motions to the loitering
criteria. The vessel has been evaluated from sea states 2 through 6, with forward speed required
to maintain 40 knots of relative wind speed over the deck.
A plot of vessel speed vs. sea state is shown in Figure 4.2.1 below.
Wind Speed Over Deck for Flight Operations
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Sea State
W
i
n
d

S
p
e
e
d

(
K
n
o
Wind Speed
Minimum Required Speed Over Deck
Maximum Required Speed Over Deck
Figure 59: WIND SPEED FOR THE SEA STATE DEFINITIONS
The curve in the data represents the actual wind speed associated with the sea states used in the
analysis. The horizontal requirement lines represent the range of acceptable wind speeds over
deck for aircraft operations. The difference between the horizontal requirement lines and the
actual wind speed curve defines the vessel speed required to obtain apparent wind speed for
aircraft operations. Assuming that a minimum vessel speed of 10 knots is required to maintain
maneuverability, the upper limit of aircraft operations is reached when the actual wind speed
reaches 30 knots. As such, it can be seen in Figure 4.2.1 that aircraft operations are feasible in
sea states up to approximately sea state 5.5.
144
Table 32: VESSEL SPEED FOR EACH SEA STATE
Wind Speed
Minimum Vessel
Speed
Maximum Vessel
Speed
(Knots) (Knots) (Knots)
0 0.0 35.0 40.0
1 3.0 32.0 37.0
2 8.5 26.5 31.5
3 13.5 21.5 26.5
4 19.0 16.0 21.0
5 24.5 10.5 15.5
5.5 30.0 5.0 10.0
6 37.5 -2.5 2.5
7 51.5 -16.5 -11.5
Head Sea Cases used for Analysis
Insufficient Forward Speed to Maintain Maneuverability
Sea State
For this analysis, it has been assumed that increased speed will result in increased motions.
Therefore, the vessel has been evaluated with the maximum vessel speed possible in sea states 2
through 5.5 that will maintain no more than 40 knots of wind speed over the deck. The minimum
vessel speed column in Table 4.2.1 is presented for reference only.
4.3 Transit Criteria
The motion and seakeeping criteria for the vessel while under transit conditions have been
derived from the seakeeping criteria for the transit and patrol mission for a NATO Generic
Frigate (Reference 1). The limits for the transit condition are listed in Table 4.3 as single
amplitude RMS values of roll displacement (angle), pitch displacement (angle), vertical and
lateral acceleration, bottom slamming and propeller emergence.
Table 33: TRANSIT CRITERIA
Parameter Limit Value
Roll Angle 4.0 deg
Pitch Angle 1.5 deg
Vertical Acceleration 0.2 g
Lateral Acceleration 0.1 g
Bottom Slamming Index 20 occurrences per hour
Propeller Emergence Index 90 occurrences per hour
The roll displacement (angle) criterion for the transit condition is independent of the roll period.
The pitch displacement (angle) criterion is independent of the pitch period of the vessel. The
transit criteria are shown in further detail in Section 2 of this report.
4.4 Operational Cases used for the Evaluation of the Transit Criteria
145
The HALLS trimaran has been evaluated for a matrix of Sea States, Wave Headings, and
forward Vessel Speeds. The load cases that have been used to evaluate the motions criteria of the
vessel are shown in Table 4.4 below.
Table 34: PARAMETERS FOR TRANSIT OPERATIONAL CASES
Sea State Vessel Speeds Wave Headings
4 15, 25, 35 Knots 0, 45, 90, 135, 180 degrees from Head Sea
5 15, 25, 35 Knots 0, 45, 90, 135, 180 degrees from Head Sea
6 15, 25, 35 Knots 0, 45, 90, 135, 180 degrees from Head Sea
7 15, 25, 35 Knots 0, 45, 90, 135, 180 degrees from Head Sea
146
APPENDIX F-1: Results of the HALSS Time Domain Simulations
15 Knot Vertical Acceleration
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Head Sea
45
90
135
Following Sea
225
270
315
SS7 - Bow
SS6 - Bow
SS5 - Bow
SS4 - Bow
Criteria
SS7 - MidShips
SS7 - Stern
SS6 - MidShips
SS6 - Stern
SS5 - MidShips
SS5 - Stern
SS4 - MidShips
SS4 - Stern
SS7 - Bow
SS7 - MidShips
SS7 - Stern
SS6 - Bow
SS6 - MidShips
SS6 - Stern
SS5 - Bow
SS5 - MidShips
SS5 - Stern
SS4 - Bow
SS4 - MidShips
SS4 - Stern
Acceleration
at CL
Acceleration at
Max Beam
Vertical
Acceleration
Criteria
Figure 60: RMS VERTICAL ACCELERATION FOR THE TRANSIT ANALYSIS
25 Knot Vertical Acceleration
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Head Sea
45
90
135
Following Sea
225
270
315
SS7 - Bow
SS6 - Bow
SS5 - Bow
SS4 - Bow
Criteria
SS7 - MidShips
SS7 - Stern
SS6 - MidShips
SS6 - Stern
SS5 - MidShips
SS5 - Stern
SS4 - MidShips
SS4 - Stern
SS7 - Bow
SS7 - MidShips
SS7 - Stern
SS6 - Bow
SS6 - MidShips
SS6 - Stern
SS5 - Bow
SS5 - MidShips
SS5 - Stern
SS4 - Bow
SS4 - MidShips
SS4 - Stern
Acceleration
at CL
Acceleration at
Max Beam
Vertical
Acceleration
Criteria
Figure 61 RMS VERTICAL ACCELERATION FOR THE TRANSIT ANALYSIS
147
35 Knot Vertical Acceleration
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Head Sea
45
90
135
Following Sea
225
270
315
SS7 - Bow
SS6 - Bow
SS5 - Bow
SS4 - Bow
Criteria
SS7 - MidShips
SS7 - Stern
SS6 - MidShips
SS6 - Stern
SS5 - MidShips
SS5 - Stern
SS4 - MidShips
SS4 - Stern
SS7 - Bow
SS7 - MidShips
SS7 - Stern
SS6 - Bow
SS6 - MidShips
SS6 - Stern
SS5 - Bow
SS5 - MidShips
SS5 - Stern
SS4 - Bow
SS4 - MidShips
SS4 - Stern
Acceleration
at CL
Acceleration at
Max Beam
Vertical
Acceleration
Criteria
Figure 62: RMS VERTICAL ACCELERATION FOR THE TRANSIT ANALYSIS
15 Knot Horizontal Acceleration
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Head Sea
45
90
135
Following Sea
225
270
315
SS7 - Bow
SS6 - Bow
SS5 - Bow
SS4 - Bow
Criteria
SS7 - MidShips
SS7 - Stern
SS6 - MidShips
SS6 - Stern
SS5 - MidShips
SS5 - Stern
SS4 - MidShips
SS4 - Stern
SS7 - Bow
SS7 - MidShips
SS7 - Stern
SS6 - Bow
SS6 - MidShips
SS6 - Stern
SS5 - Bow
SS5 - MidShips
SS5 - Stern
SS4 - Bow
SS4 - MidShips
SS4 - Stern
Acceleration
at CL
Acceleration at
Max Beam
Horizontal
Acceleration
Figure 63: RMS HORIZONTAL ACCELERATION FOR THE TRANSIT ANALYSIS
148
25 Knot Horizontal Acceleration
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Head Sea
45
90
135
Following Sea
225
270
315
SS7 - Bow
SS6 - Bow
SS5 - Bow
SS4 - Bow
Criteria
SS7 - MidShips
SS7 - Stern
SS6 - MidShips
SS6 - Stern
SS5 - MidShips
SS5 - Stern
SS4 - MidShips
SS4 - Stern
SS7 - Bow
SS7 - MidShips
SS7 - Stern
SS6 - Bow
SS6 - MidShips
SS6 - Stern
SS5 - Bow
SS5 - MidShips
SS5 - Stern
SS4 - Bow
SS4 - MidShips
SS4 - Stern
Acceleration
at CL
Acceleration at
Max Beam
Horizontal
Figure 64: RMS HORIZONTAL ACCELERATION FOR THE TRANSIT ANALYSIS
35 Knot Horizontal Acceleration
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
Head Sea
45
90
135
Following Sea
225
270
315
SS7 - Bow
SS6 - Bow
SS5 - Bow
SS4 - Bow
Criteria
SS7 - MidShips
SS7 - Stern
SS6 - MidShips
SS6 - Stern
SS5 - MidShips
SS5 - Stern
SS4 - MidShips
SS4 - Stern
SS7 - Bow
SS7 - MidShips
SS7 - Stern
SS6 - Bow
SS6 - MidShips
SS6 - Stern
SS5 - Bow
SS5 - MidShips
SS5 - Stern
SS4 - Bow
SS4 - MidShips
SS4 - Stern
Acceleration
at CL
Acceleration at
Max Beam
Horizontal
Acceleration
Figure 65: RMS HORIZONTAL ACCELERATION FOR THE TRANSIT ANALYSIS
149
APPENDIX G: Comments for Industry Experts
Comments by a Major Engineering and Construction Company
The Herbert Engineering Corp./SPAR Associates shipbuilding model for its commercial yard
is not a traditional U.S. new ship construction yard. Its physical facilities, organizational
structure, staffing, processes and procedures and approach to detail design and construction are
different from the long established American shipyards. This model is conceived to avoid the
legacy shipbuilding infrastructure, business practices and mode of operation of many of the
existing US yards that build large ships. This is because the performance of these shipyards has
been degraded by decades of being responsive to US government contract requirements and
military ship program acquisition rules, regulations and business procedures. Instead a non-
traditional, more modern shipbuilding model has been developed using different business
practices including a strong overall program management organization and substantial out
sourcing of major pre-outfitted hull modules to qualified mid-tier shipyards, fabricators and
marine system suppliers as described in this report.
A $300 million annual revenue construction company called Cianbro located in Pittsfield, Maine
has reviewed our commercial ship design and construction approach and our resulting cost
estimates using the knowledge gained from many years of very successful large construction
project experience. Cianbro evaluated the non-traditional, more modern shipbuilding model
described in this report and agreed that it is sound. They believe that a diverse, innovative
company with strong project management capability, like Cianbro, could do it. A company like
Cianbro capable of managing and building diverse, technically complex projects on a tight
budget and schedule could apply the same means and methods to build a ship. They know it
works because they have done it on their marine projects.
Cianbro does major construction projects in New England and the Middle Atlantic States. They
are known for successfully completing large construction jobs ranging from relatively straight
forward big box store construction and highway bridges to uniquely challenging projects like
transmitting central power station electric power from state to state through under ocean
transmission lines and decommissioning obsolete nuclear power plants.
During the last five years Cianbro has expanded its construction market to include difficult
marine construction projects. Cianbro completed the semi-submersible drilling rigs partially
built by Friede & Goldman Halter before declaring bankruptcy and also completed a 120,000
Deadweight Ton ConocoPhillips Polar Tanker originally contracted to Northrop Grumman Ship
Systems Avondale Shipyard Operation. The challenge for Cianbro was, respectively, to
complete the large rig construction halted by a bankruptcy and to correct deficiencies and
complete tanker construction work not done by Avondale. Both these projects were successfully
completed in the early 2000s. Currently Cianbro is the prime contractor with support from Bath
Iron Works as a major subcontractor to convert two sulfur carriers into US Flagged, new
generation, 370 foot long multi-purpose offshore supply vessels. They will be the largest
MPSVs in the world.
Cianbro is familiar with Bethlehem Steel Companys former Sparrows Point Shipyard graving
dock facility. They are currently participating in the outfitting of a 146,000 barrel oil barge
being assembled in the dock under a subcontract to the barge owner. They are evaluating the
150
former Sparrows Point facility in combination with Cianbros steel fabrication plant across
Baltimore Harbor as a desirable site to establish a new shipbuilding capability in Baltimore,
Maryland.
Cianbro does not pretend to be a fully integrated shipbuilder. Although they have several steel
fabricating operations, Cianbro is not an integrated shipbuilding operation or even an
experienced ships structure fabricator. But they are a very successful project manager and
general constructor of large and technically challenging projects and are gaining marine project
management and construction experience. As such they are an excellent company model to use
in the HALSS production and cost analysis evaluation of a new and creative approach to
affordable shipbuilding in the USA.
Cianbro has reviewed the HALSS project build strategy and all three of the cost estimates
prepared for their evaluation (Commercial yard, Dual-use yard and Combatant yard estimates).
While not claiming to be a shipbuilder today, Cianbro believes that starting with a well
engineered contract design developed further into the first stage of the detail design (the
functional design) they could manage the completion of the detail design of HALSS using well
qualified design subcontractors and be the prime construction contractor using partnerships with
major shipyards to procure pre outfitted modules from other shipyards, steel fabricators and ship
machinery and outfit suppliers. This belief is based on four important conditions:
1. The Navy provides a well conceived and engineered contract design package as the basis
for a two phase design and acquisition program:
- Functional design and ship construction program plan (Phase 1)
- Final detail design and construction (Phase 2)
2. The starting point of the detail design and construction contract is a well engineered
functional design (or approved Classification Society Drawings package in commercial ship
construction terms) and a comprehensive program plan covering the final detail design and
construction phase. The functional design includes:
- all the final basic ship design engineering
- evaluation of all the significant ships systems and equipment alternatives
- preparation of detailed purchase specifications for and the selection and purchase of all
major ships equipment
- a detail test requirements evaluation and program plan
- and finally solicitation and evaluation of detail proposals from ship hull block
construction subcontractors and selection of and proforma subcontracts with the major
partners providing preoutfitted grand blocks
.
Functional engineering is a comprehensive engineering phase carried down to the point
just prior to initiating preparation of the detail construction drawings and instructions to
the yard, detailed bills of material, purchase specifications for non-major material, test
procedures and other detail design deliverables. This functional design and program plan
phase would be funded by the government on a cost plus fixed fee basis.
3. The detail design and construction phase (Phase 2) contract has a comprehensive
escalation clause that covers the prime contractor against special and unusual material
cost increases (like spikes in steel and copper prices) as well as normal inflationary
material and labor cost increases based on indices.
151
4. Final pricing of Phase 2 is done late in Phase 1 after major material suppliers and hull
block subcontractors are selected.
Cianbros VP level business development, engineering and estimating management and the
Cianbro special projects manager have all evaluated the HALSS project design and construction
approach and the cost estimates. Although not currently in a position to quantify the differences
cost element by cost element, they believe they could manage the design and construct the ship
at a lower cost than a dual-use shipyard. This is on the basis of the HALSS commercial ship
acquisition strategy operating as a construction contractor under commercial contract terms and
conditions, but under a Navy prime contract, and also with the four contracting provisions stated
above in place.
Comments by a Dual-use Shipyard
National Steel and Shipbuilding Company (NASSCO) was kind enough to review an earlier
estimate of the costs to design and build HALSS. These comments provided by the yards
Business Development management were compared to CER histories and rates for Dual-use
yards and updated adjustments made where appropriate. In general NASSCO considered the
ESTI-MATE created labor, overhead, material markup and profit rates to be reasonable. They
also said that joining one side hull to the other side hull and center hull in the water wont be
easy, but it can probably be done.
The bigger challenge is to float the HALSS center hull and one side hull out of their relatively
shallow graving dock. Using a float out draft of 15 7, which is less than the occasional
maximum tide value of 17 feet, nine inches, HEC has designed floatation barges and a ballasting
scheme that can float HALSS out of NASSCOs dock.
A major NASSCO comment was to reduce both the detail design and the construction time
periods, and this was done. Both the detail design and the construction time periods were
reduced by six months for a total reduction of detail design and contract time of one year. The
longer total contract period of seven years were retained for the commercial and the combatant
yards. Commercial yards being smaller need more time to organize for and do the detail design
and construction. Combatant yards just take more time to do design and construction.
Comments from NASSCO provided valuable updated information. The resulting final cost and
price estimates for the Dual-use baseline case as given in Section 11.2 are consequentially lower
than originally provided to NASSCO. In addition the HALSS study team developed a cost
model for what we call a Dual-use Yard Bid Price. This model evaluates the cost elements in
the baseline estimate as though a very knowledgeable senior management team lead by the yard
general manager knew the outside market pricing environment and the internal shipyard cost
performance improvement situation. This capable team pushed and stretched to reduce the
HALSS cost element values and the resulting bid price. In this bidding environment evaluation
the bid price was reduced over 13% for the first ship as shown in table 11.2 4.
Comments by Commercial Shipyards
As in the case of NASSCO, Bender Shipbuilding and Atlantic Marine Holding (Atlantic Marine
Alabama) both reviewed the commercial shipyard estimates sent to them. Their costing and
pricing categories and structure differ, but in the end analysis after correlating the differences
152
they concurred with and validated the PERCEPTION ESTI-MATE CERs, shipyard cost rates,
material markups and price estimates.
Bender Shipbuilding and Repair Company has extensive facilities in Mobile, Alabama and
control over the operations of Tampa Bay Shipyard (TBS) in Tampa, Florida. In combination
these two yards can build HALSS by building one side hull attached to the center hull in drydock
basin number 2 in TBS and joining the other side hull to these two hulls in the water.
Alternatively, it may be possible to modify/extend TBS drydock basins number 1 and 2 to build
HALSS in one piece in the combined dock. This needs further investigation.
Designing and building HALSS is a huge effort. It fits the Atlantic Marine business plan to be a
major subcontractor building preoutfitted units, grand block modules and even complete side
hulls in support of the HALSS program. Two side hulls could be built side by side, joined by the
outboard bridge deck structure, launched as a catamaran and towed or self powered to an
assemble site like the Sparrows Point graving dock, separated, floated into the dock and joined to
the center hull. Alternatively, after launching the side hulls could be separated and joined to the
center hull in the water.
All these commercial shipyard and many other alternatives are evaluated and costed in the
referenced HALSS-CLASS TRIMARAN Build Strategy Alternatives & Independent Cost
Estimate Report.