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Equilibria revision

1. Methanol can be produced by direct combination of carbon monoxide and hydrogen according
to the equation below
CO(g) + !

(g) C!
"
O!(g) H # $%& '( mol
$&
)ide reactions can also produce unwanted by*products+

(a) Explain why a low temperature and a high pressure favour a high yield of methanol in
this reaction+
Low temperature ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
High pressure +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
(4)

(b) ,he industrial manufacture of methanol using this reaction is carried out at a compromise
temperature of -.. /C under a pressure of . M0a in the presence of a Cr

O
"
12nO
catalyst+
(i) (ustify the use of a compromise temperature+
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

(ii) 3hat effect4 other than on the yield4 does the use of high pressure have on the
reaction5
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

(iii) )uggest two reasons for using a catalyst in this method for producing methanol+
Reason 1 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Reason 2 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
(5)
(Total 9 marks)

Dr Bravo 1
Equilibria revision
1. (a) 6ow temperature
7eaction is exothermic (1)
6ow , reduces effect of heat evolved
or heat evolved opposes the change in temperature (1)
!igh pressure
" mol gas & mol gas (1)
!igh p favours fewer moles by lowering p
or forward reaction reduces volume and lowers p (1) -

(b) (i) !igh , gives a low yield (1)
but 6ow , gives a low rate compromise (1)
(ii) increases reaction rate1catalyst surface contact (1)

(iii) Reason 1 increases rate at lower temperature (1)
Reason 2 specific $ fewer unwanted by*products (1) 8
[9]

2. ,he industrial process for converting ammonia into nitric acid is carried out in three stages+
Stage 1 -9!
"
(g) + 8O

(g) -9O(g) + :!

O(g) ! # $%8. '( mol


$&
Stage 2 9O(g) + O

(g) 9O

(g) ! # $&&- '( mol


$&
Stage 3 "9O

(g) + !

O(l) !9O
"
(aq) + 9O(g) ! # $&&; '( mol
$&

(a) Consider the reaction in Stage 1 above+
(i) )tate how the temperature should be changed in order to increase the yield at
equilibrium in this reaction+ Explain your answer+
Temperature change+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Explanation+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Dr Bravo 2
Equilibria revision
(ii) )tate how the pressure should be changed in order to increase the yield at
equilibrium in this reaction+ Explain your answer+
Pressure change++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Explanation+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
(4)

(b) ,he Stage 1 reaction is carried out by passing ammonia and air over a platinum gau<e at a
temperature of %../C and a pressure of ;..'0a+
(i) 3hat are the advantages of using this temperature and this pressure5
Temperature++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Explanation+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
(ii) =ive two reasons why the catalyst is used in the form of a gau<e+
Reason 1++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Reason 2++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
(4)

(c) ,he reaction by which 9O is formed directly from nitrogen and oxygen is shown below+
9

(g) + O

(g) 9O(g) H # +&>. '( mol


$&
(i) =ive the name for the enthalpy change for this reaction+
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Dr Bravo 3
Equilibria revision
(ii) Explain fully the meaning of the symbol
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
(iii) )uggest why reactions between nitrogen and oxygen are often considered to be
environmentally unfriendly+
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

(iv) Explain why the decomposition of 9O into its elements is favoured by a low
temperature+
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
(7)

(d) ?y considering the reactions in Stage 2 and Stage 3, suggest how the overall yield of
nitric acid could be increased without altering either the temperature or the pressure
chosen for each of the three stages+
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
(2)
(Total 17 marks)

2. (a) (i) Temperature change decrease (1)
Explanation exothermic reaction (1)
(ii) Pressure change decrease (1)
Explanation fewer moles of gas on l+h+s (1) -

(b) (i) Temperature to increase reaction rate (1)
Pressure to increase reaction rate (1)
(ii) Reason 1 large surface area (1)
Reason 2 lower cost in expensive 0t (1) -

Dr Bravo 4
Equilibria revision
(c) (i) enthalpy of formation (1)
(ii) standard conditions (1)
& bar pressure and stated (fixed) temperature (1)
reactants and products in standard states (1)

(iii) 0ollutants (acid rain) $ 9O
@
produced by combustion engines
(iv) decomposition is exothermic (1)
6ow , reduces effect of heat evolved (1) ;

(d) 9O produced in )tage " (1)
can be recycled to )tage (1)
[17]

3. (a) !ydrogen used in the !aber 0rocess is produced in the following dynamic equilibrium
reaction+
C!
-
(g) + !

O(g) CO(g) + "!

(g)

(i) An terms of rates and of concentrations4 what does the term dynamic equilibrium
mean5
Rates +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Concentrations ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

(ii) )tate how an increase in pressure will affect the equilibrium yield of hydrogen+
Explain your answer+
Equilibrium yield ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Explanation ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Dr Bravo 5
Equilibria revision
(iii) ,he equilibrium yield of hydrogen is reduced when the reaction is carried out at a
lower temperature+ 3hat can be deduced about the enthalpy change in this
reaction5
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

(iv) Explain why the equilibrium yield is unchanged when a catalyst is introduced+
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
(8)

(b) Bmmonia is produced in the !aber 0rocess according to the following equation+
9

(g) + "!

(g) 9!
"
(g) H
f
# $% '( mol
$&
,ypical operating conditions are -8. /C and . M0a (.. bar)+

(i) Explain why -8. /C is a compromise temperature+
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

(ii) Explain why . M0a is a compromise pressure+
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
(6)
(Total 14 marks)
Dr Bravo 6
Equilibria revision
3. (a) (i) Rates 7ates are equal4 forward and bac'ward (1)
Concentrations Concentrations are constant (1)
Q of L mark

(ii) Equilibrium yield Cecreases (1)
if wrong allow max 1 for a correct moles statement
Explanation More moles 1 molecules of product (or -) (1)
7eaction 1 equilibrium moves to left 1 reduce constraint (1)
NOT volume answers
llow one for !eaction favours fewer molecules

(iii) Enthalpy of reaction is positive 1 endothermic (1)

(iv) ?oth forward and bac'ward rates changed 1 increased (1)
by equal amount (same proportion) (1)
allow one for "a of forwar# an# $ackwar# reactions re#uce#
$% an e&ual amount
>

(b) (i) ,he reaction is exothermic (1)
!igh temperature gives a low equilibrium yield (1)
7ate of reaction higher at higher temperature (1)
n e&uili$rium statement nee#e# e'g' low tem( favours
t)e reaction
*o not allow answers $ase# on cost of )ig)er
tem(erature etc

(ii) !igher pressure gives a higher yield (1)
- moles of gaseous reactant form moles of gaseous product (1)
!igher pressure generation or equipment is expensive to produce (1)
"&uili$rium statement re&uire#
+ost factor
N',' NOT a safet% answer
:
[1-]
Dr Bravo 7
Equilibria revision
4. ,he equation for the formation of ammonia is shown below+
9

(g) + "!

(g) 9!
"
(g)
Experiment A was carried out starting with & mol of nitrogen and " mol of hydrogen at a
constant temperature and a pressure of . M0a+
Curve A shows how the number of moles of ammonia present changed with time+
Curves B4 C and D refer to similar experiments4 starting with & mol of nitrogen and " mol of
hydrogen+ An each experiment different conditions were used+
M o l e s o f
a m m o n i a
, i m e
C
B
A
D

(a) On curve A4 mar' the point that represents the time at which equilibrium is first reached+
6abel this point X+
(1)

(b) )tate 6e ChatelierDs principle+
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
(1)
Dr Bravo 8
Equilibria revision
(c) Ese 6e ChatelierDs principle to identify which one of the curves B4 C or D represents an
experiment carried out at the same temperature as experiment A but at a higher pressure+
Explain why this curve is different from curve A+
Cur!e +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Explanation +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
(4)

(d) Adentify which one of the curves B4 C or D represents an experiment in which the
conditions are the same as in experiment A except that a catalyst is added to the reaction
mixture+ Explain your choice of curve+
Cur!e +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Explanation +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
(3)
(Total 9 marks)

4. (a) mar' labelled X on curve A where curve C Foins AG &

(b) equilibrium opposes a changeG &
"# o$ L mar%&

(c) B &
more ammonia is produced (or yield increases)G &
fewer moles (of gas) on right ( or - mol goes to mol)G &
equilibrium moves to oppose increase in pressure (or oppose change)G &

(d) C &
amount of ammonia (or yield or equilibrium) unchangedG &
reaction is fasterG &
[9]
Dr Bravo 9