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http://archive.org/details/bindingmaterials19yohe
M. 19
SEE L
ILLINOIS
STATE
GEOLOGICAL
SURVEY
JohnC. Frye,
Chief
Urbana,
Illinois
November,
1964
NDUSTRIAL
MINERALS
NOTES

No. 19
BINDING
MATERIALS
USED IN
MAKING
PELLETS AND
BRIQUETS
G. R.
YOHE
ABSTRACT
This compilation of information about materials that have been used
as binders in making pellets, briquets, or other products shaped from powdered
or granular substances was prepared for use in the Illinois State Geological
Survey laboratories. Although it is not an exhaustive report, other workers
also may find it useful.
Information from about 200 abstracts selected from Chemical Abstracts
for 1937 through 1963 is Included. Both organic and inorganic binding materials
are discussed.
The original reference and the Chemical Abstracts citation are given
in the list of references. The report is indexed.
In connection
with work in progress at the
Illinois State
Geological
Survey, a need arose for a
compilation
of information
about
materials that had
found application as binders in the
making of pellets,
briquets, or other
articles formed from powdered or granular
material.
Although this report is by no means
exhaustive,
it may be of interest
and value to workers in other
laboratories.
The decision was therefore made
to distribute it as an Industrial
Minerals Note.
According to Webster's New
International
Dictionary (2nd edition),
a binder is "anything that causes cohesion in loosely assembled
substances!
as tar, asphalt, or crushed stone in a road."
This definition is somewhat too broad for the present discussion,
for it would include such things as water
(which serves as a temporary binder
for sand as children build their castles at the beach) or mucilage with which
we fasten a postage stamp to an envelope. In the broad sense, anything that
serves as an adhesive might be called a binder.
This discussion is restricted to substances that can be mixed with
powdered or granular solids for the purpose of forming pellets or briquets
having reasonably good resistance to weathering and a fair degree of stability
in handling. Even with this limitation, it is scarcely possible to assemble
complete information, as there are many kinds of materials to be bound, many
potential binders, and many purposes for using binders.
Indexes to Chemical Abstract s for
1957
through
1963 were used, but
only selected references were examined. For example, under "Binders" only
those entries deemed pertinent were looked up, and under headings' that refer
to materials being bonded, "binders for" references were selected. Numerous
topics, including adhesives, cements, fibers, inks, lacquers, lime, mortar,
paints, plaster, resins, and rubbers were excluded.
In this review, binders are divided into two categories, inorganic
and organic. Under each of these headings, the various binding materials are
listed in alphabetical order. This is not completely satisfactory, as many
mixtures have been described, some comprising inorganic, some organic, and
some both inorganic and organic materials. However, this arrangement is con-
sidered preferable to one in which the key words are derived from the materials
being bonded, as many binders have been described without reference to the
kinds of materials with which they may suitably be used. The index lists
binders, materials bonded, and other items such as additives and solvents.
The forces that enable materials to serve as binders are not all
of the same nature. Most organic binders function essentially as "glues" or
sticky types of adhesive that' wet the surfaces of the particles being bonded
and thus cement them together. Some such binders are applied as hot liquids
and become solid when cool, and others may remain in a more or less viscous
liquid state. Some inorganic binders (fusible metals, for example) also
function in this manner.
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2
-
Other binders are solids of very small particle size. Because
of their high surface energy these particles adhere firmly to other sur-
faces, and thus may serve as bonding agents between neighboring particles
of the material being bonded. Most binders that function in this manner
are inorganic materials; clays, colloidal alumina, and colloidal silica
are examples.
Some binding action may involve both of these principles. An
ore pellet might possess sufficient "green" or "dry" strength because of
surface energy forces, and then be permanently bonded by being heated to
a partial fusion stage wherein forces of the first described type come
into play.
Acknowledgment . The assistance of Mr. Touradj Adl in search-
ing Chemical Abstracts is gratefully acknowledged.
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3
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INORGANIC
BINDERS
ALUMINA
A U. S. patent issued in 1961 to John Bugosh and assigned to the
du Pont Company* describes the preparation and use of fibrous boehmite, a
hydrated alumina (A100H). This material, which can carry a positive charge,
is used to coat surfaces (e.g., glass, paper) that have been given a negative
charge. The coating can then serve to anchor a top coat of other desired
material by virtue of its OH groups, its electrical charge, or its fibrous
physical nature.
Another publication issued by the du Pont Company
2
describes the
binding action of this same material (but calls it "Baymal Colloidal Alumina")
and indicates that the boehmite fibrils are approximately 50 angstrom units in
diameter and several hundred angstroms long. If an aqueous suspension of these
fibrils is applied to a material such as asbestos that is made up of larger
fibers or to one composed of spherical or granular particles, the evaporation
of water leaves a gel first and then a mat or "felt" of the boehmite fibrils.
At points of contact of the fibers or particles, this mat bonds the material
together.
ALUMINATES
A Hungarian patent
3
describes the use of alkali aluminates, or
aluminates of Zn, Sn, Sb, and Cr which do not contain much free alkali, mixed
in a ratio of 1.7:6.0 with neutral or almost neutral solutions of alkali sili-
cates or alkali fluosilicates. After the product is pressed or centrifuged and
dried below
100
C, it is subjected to a hydrolytic treatment with water prior
to use.
ALUMINUM
Aluminum nitride (A1N), which is useful as a refractory material for
contact with liquid or gaseous aluminum, has such a high sintering temperature
that common binders are not suitable for bonding it.
A French patent
4
describes the use of powdered metallic aluminum,
which is added to the A1N powder with gum arable, sodium silicate, or ceresin
prior to shaping and compressing the pieces. A mixture containing 20, 15, 1,
and 58 percent of 25 to
50, 50 to 100, 100 to 200, and -200 mesh aluminum,
respectively, is recommended.
-
k
-
ALUMINUM PHOSPHATE AND PHOSPHORIC ACID
Making castable refractories by bonding alumina, zirconia, mullite,
beryllium oxide, or silicon carbide with phosphoric acid or aluminum phosphate
has been described.
5
A complex amine was used as an inhibitor, and the addi-
tion of ammonium fluoride accelerated the setting of the refractory.
ANHYDRITE (See Calcium Sulfate.)
ATTAPULGITE
Zoelitic molecular sieves, described in a German patent,
6
were made
by mixing zeolites with 1 to 40 percent of attapulgite (a hydrous magnesium
aluminum silicate characterized by a distinctive rodlike particle shape) and
waher, drying the mixture for two hours at
90
C, and firing the shaped arti-
cles at
650
C.
BORATE GLASSES
In the manufacture of abrasive discs, 7 borate glass has been used
as a bonding material. The mechanical properties of the abrasives depend
upon the percentage of a colorless, needlelike mineral at the contact of the
corundum grains with the bond.
8
The amount of this mineral varied with the
amount of B2O3 in the bond, and its composition was 3Al203B20
3
.
A French patent
9
describes the use of alkali metal borosilicates
that soften below
1100
C, together with a plastic clay to improve molding
qualities, for forming articles from oxides of Al, Zr, and Ti, from diamond,
and from carbides of Si, B, U, and Ta. After being molded, the objects are
heated to about
1100 C.
CALCIUM CHR0MITES
Calcium chromites, prepared by heating mixtures of CaO and Cr20
3
in the presence of air, have been shown to possess hydraulic binding proper-
ties.
10
CALCIUM FLUORIDE
Fluorspar (CaFg) has been used as a binder in making abrasive arti-
cles and high-temperature bricks.
195
CALCIUM GERMANATE
,0
Heating a mixture of 2CaO and Ge02 for three hours at 1250 C forms
Ca
2
Ge0
4
(calcium orthogermanate
)
, which has "a significant degree of mechan-
ical strength, and may be used as a binder.
nl1
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5
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CALCIUM OXIDE
Abrasives containing Si0
2
and A1
2 3
with the addition of trass (a
light-colored volcanic tuff occurring especially along the lover Rhine) have
been formed with calcium oxide as the binding agent.
12
CALCIUM AND SODIUM ALUMINATES
A U. S. patent
13
describes the use of mixtures of calcium aluminate
and sodium aluminate for bonding firebrick and refractory aggregates of fused
silica, alumina, and kaolin. Such mixtures also bond insulating materials con-
taining asbestos, diatomaceous earth, vermiculite, insulating firebrick, and
graphite. The amounts of the mixture of calcium aluminate and sodium aluminate
used vary from 10 to 60 percent, and the unfired strength of the objects is
better than when calcium aluminate alone is used.
CALCIUM SULFATE
A study of the reactions of anhydrite (calcium sulfate) when used as
a binder for building materials has been published.
14
CEMENT P* JS CLAY
A French patent
15
describes the admixture of clay with such binders
as cement in making shaped articles for which mechanical resistance is rela-
tively unimportant. The clay, which should have a grain size below that of the
binder and should contain at least
15
percent AI2O3 and 40 percent Si0
2
,
may
compose up to 50 percent of the weight of the mixture.
CHROMIUM COMPOUNDS
A U. S. patent
16
refers to the use of chromium ore or chromium com-
pounds as binders for dead-burned magnesite, but is concerned primarily with
the use of alkali metal tartrates for improving the quality and strength of
such materials. (See Tartrates under Organic Binders.)
CLAY
The effect of clay binders on the oxidation of sintered silicon car-
bide objects has been compared with the effect of silica gel. The clay binder
failed to prevent oxidation below 12^0 C.
17
Clay minerals or gels of Al(0H)
3
have been used to make abrasion-
resistant microspherical molecular sieve catalysts from synthetic zeolites.
18
A German patent
19
describes the pelletizing of fine ores with a bind-
ing mixture consisting of clay and chalk with aqueous ferrous sulfate, starch,
and aqueous sodium hydroxide.
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6
-
FULLER'S EARTH
Fuller's earth ("florigel") kneaded with water to form a sticky,
plastic mass has been used as a binder for catalysts and absorbents used in
the petroleum industry.
GLASS PLUS METAL
The binding of diamond abrasives by a mixture composed of a special
glass (softening point
2000
to 2350 F) and a metallic portion containing
tungsten carbide, iron carbonyl, copper, and small amounts of manganese and
graphite is described in a U. S. patent.
21
IRON HUMATE
According to a Japanese patent,
22
a binder for fuel briquets is
prepared by extracting humic acids from peat or coalite with aqueous sodium
carbonate and treating the extract with ferrous acetate to get a mixture con-
taining iron humate.
IRON OXIDE PLUS CALCIUM OXIDE
The use of 4:1 to 2:1 mixtures of FeO and CaO in the manufacture of
high-silica refractories ("Dinas")
23
from crystalline quartzites produces
bricks of better and more uniform quality and higher compressive strength than
these made with lower proportions of iron oxide in the binder.
LIME
The production of fine-grained lime from coarse limestone by a pro-
^si
patent.'
cess of simultaneous heating and tumbling has been described in a German
24
The use of a mixture of calcium oxide and gypsum as a binder has
been demonstrated.
25
MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE
In the use of dolomite for hearth lining in a 5-ton basic electric
furnace, magnesium chloride was found to be a better binder than either sodium
silicate or tar.
26
MAGNESIUM OXIDE
The preparation of magnesium oxide by precipitating with lime water
and subsequent calcining at 300
to
400
C is described in a Russian patent.
27
Magnesium oxide prepared by firing magnesite has about twice the
strength of that from firing dolomite, and the strength is greater when the
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7
-
magnesite is fired at lower temperatures (65O to 700
c) than at higher and
when fired short rather than long times.
28
A U. S. patent
29
describes the manufacture of a refractory bond-
forming material for nonacid refractory aggregates by firing a mixture of
finely divided MgO and Si0
2
(20 to 60 percent of the latter) for half an
hour at 1100
C.
MAGNESIUM SULFATE
The change in form that occurs when a dehydrated inorganic salt is
converted to the hydrated crystal form is the basis for the recommendation that
a partially dehydrated magnesium sulfate be used industrially as a binding
material. Setting begins in
3 minutes and is complete in 6 minutes.
30
METALS
A U. S. patent
31
describes the forming of objects from powdered
graphite that had been mixed with a diffusionable binder, such as Zr, Nb,
Mo, Ti, Cr, Si, or compounds of these which decompose to form the metals.
For example, graphite containing k percent ZrH
4
was pressed in a die at 1)000
lb/sq in. while being heated to l600 C in a reducing atmosphere and gave a
strong, compact object of low porosity.
Titanium carbide articles have been formed with fusible metals as
binders.
32
Chromium and silicon adhered to TiC after cooling below the melting
point, but nickel and cobalt surrounded the TiC particles more thoroughly.
Other metals tried were Al, Be, Nb, Au, Fe, Pb, Mg, Mn, Pt, Ti, and W.
The use of low-melting metals or alloys to bond powdered magnetic
metals, such as alnico, has been patented in the United States.
33
The mixture
of powder, fusible metal (melting point belox^
i+50
c), and ZnCl
2
as a flux is
heated to coat the alnico grains, then pressed into a mold at a temperature
above the melting point of the binder, and cooled.
METAL CARBIDES
A U. S. patent
34
describes the carbide-bonding of graphite articles.
A thermosetting synthetic resin is first used to bind the graphite particles
into the desired shape. After the resin is cured, the object is heated in a
neutral or reducing atmosphere in the presence of carbide-forming elements
(Hf, Zr, Ti, V, Ta, Cr, Mo, W, Th, U, B, or Si, or a mixture thereof) to enable
the elements to penetrate the object and react to form carbides in situ.
METAL CARBONYLS
This process, the subject of a Russian patent,
35
involves bonding
metal carbide or nitride powders by treating them with solutions of the carbon-
yls of the same metals, so that decomposition, presumably at an elevated temper-
ature, results in deposition of the metal that serves as the actual binder.
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-
METAL PLUS GLASS
A French patent
36
describes the agglomeration of diamond powder with
a mixture of 80 percent fine metal powder
(85
percent Cu, 10 percent Sn,
5
percent Ag) and 20 percent fine glass
(72
percent Si0
2 ,
11 percent Na
20, 5
percent AI2O3, and 12 percent B2O3). The mixture is fritted in a reducing
atmosphere at
700
to 76O C under pressure of 1 to 4 tons/sq cm.
PE0SPH0R0NITRILE DICHLORIDE POLYMERS
According to a German patent,
37
polymeric phosphoronitrile dichlo-
ride (PNCl
2 )
n
is used as a hinder for abrasives forming abrasive wheels. It
is prepared by refluxing
5.3 g
NH
4
C1 and 20.8
g
PC1
5
in 100 cc C
2
H
2
C1
4
,
filter-
ing when evolution of HC1 has ceased, recrystallizing the product from C
2
H
4
C1
2 ,
and heating it to 36G. A water-soluble resin was made by heating 11
g
hydro-
quinone, 11
g
resorcinol, and 18.6
g
H3BO3 to
280
C. Thirty-eight grams of
this powdered resin, 2
g
of hexamethylenetetramine, and 8
g
of (PNCl
2 )
n
were
mixed with carborundum and formed into a wheel at 175 C.
PHOSPHORUS ACIDS PLUS METAL OXIDES
Equal parts of H3PO4 and H
2
P
2 7
were mixed with a dry metallic oxide
(MgO and Fe
3 4
are not suitable, but most others are) in a ratio of 1:3 to 3:1
and heated
5
to 60 minutes at
250 to
400
F; then 2 to
5
percent of a dusting
powder such as MgO or MgC0
3
was added and the mixture ground to the desired
size. This material, described in a U. S. patent,
38
can be used as a binder
or as a molding composition.
PICKLING LIQUORS
Neutralization of sulfuric acid waste pickling liquors and subse-
quent production of FeS0
4
leaves a residue containing CaS0
4
. A possible use
for this residue is as a binder.
39
PORTLAND CEMENT
A Russian patent
40
describes the use of portland cement or alumina
cement, with or without the addition of sodium silicate, as a binder for abra-
sive wheels of quartz, corundum, carborundum, and like materials.
POTASSIUM SILICATE PLUS Zn OR Ca COMPOUNDS
41
A U. S. patent on the bonding of abrasives indicates that a stable,
heat-resistant binder that is self-setting at room temperature and resistant
to discoloration in moist climates consists of a mixture of about 350 parts of
a high-ratio potassium silicate (Si0p>/K
2
less than
2),
about 100 parts of ZnO,
ZnC0
3 ,
or CaC0
3
,
and 1.5 to 2 parts of a wetting agent such as sulfonated
castor oil.
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9
-
SALT HYDRATES
According to a German patent,
42
ores may be pelleted by mixing them
with a binder that consists of a supersaturated solution or melt of a hydrated
salt, of which the liquidus temperature is above room temperature.
SILICA
The preparation of colloidal silica sols in vhich the silica is of
very small particle size has been described in a U. S. patent.
43
The use of
such sols, with gelation promoted by an acid or a "latent acid" (such as form-
amide, which yields formic acid and ammonia on hydrolysis), has been recom-
mended for the binding of ore pellets,
44
and may be of particular interest in
pelletizing calcium fluoride for use in the steel industry.
SILICATES (See also Sodium Silicate.)
Granular lead oxides are prepared, according to a German patent,
45
by mixing FbO or FD3O4 with
5 to 15 percent of a wetting, binding, and harden-
ing agent and heating the mixture to 300
C with a vibratory motion. Sodium
or potassium silicates are among the suitable agents listed.
SILICIDES
Carbon articles such as electrodes can be bonded together by appli-
cation of a collodion-acetone suspension of Si and/or one or more of such sui-
cides as those of Mo, W, Ti, Zr, Ta, and Cr and heating to 1900 to
2100
C in
an argon atmosphere.
46
SILICON CARBIDE
Carbon articles were made by mixing amorphous carbon with SiC or an
inorganic carbide, molding, and heating to above the temperature of decomposi-
tion of the carbide.
47
SODIUM SILICATE (See also Silicates.)
A German patent
48
describes a process of preparing granular super-
phosphates from powder by adding 1 percent of water-free sodium silicate and
5
percent 7-hexachlorocvclohexane in the presence of 2 to
3
percent water end
mixing well in a granulating apparatus. The drying and setting process is
fairly rapid. The use of sodium metasilicate or other alkali silicates is also
described in a Spanish patent.
49
Sodium silicate has also been used with a variety of other materials
as additives. For example, a Japanese patent
50
calls for the use of a mixture
of 30 kg of commercial Na
2
Si0
3
,
1 kg of carnauba wax, 10 kg of water, 15
kg of
kieselguhr, 22 kg of CaCl
2, 17 kg of K
2
S0
4
,
and 20 kg of talc powder. The mix-
ture is ground to -100 mesh. Use of 30 kg of this mixture with 200 kg of sand
and a suitable amount of water gives a molded product that does not freeze in
winter and is waterproof and fireproof.
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10
-
A U. S. patent
51
referring to the agglomeration of iron ores in the
blast furnace describes the use of sodium silicate alone or mixed with molasses
or glucose as a cementing agent to decrease the formation of flue dust in the
blast furnace, and states that as little as 0.1 percent of
40
Be water glass
makes a measurable difference in flue dust formation.
For making fuel briquets, a German patent
52
describes the use of
sodium silicate containing citric acid.
A U. S. patent describes the binding of organic and inorganic mate-
rials, including refractories.
53
This is done by dissolving tartaric, citric,
or lactic acid in water to give a pH of about 2.5 and adding 1000 cc of this
solution to 20 to 30 cc of a solution of a polyhydric alcohol and 30 cc of a
glucose sirup. This mixture is then added to 33*5 to 67.5 Be sodium sili-
cate until a pH of 10 to 12 is obtained. Other binder compositions of a
similar nature also are described. The aggregate and binder are mixed, com-
pressed, solidified at about
150
C, and fired at
1000
to I85O C. The
articles possess good storage characteristics and are insensitive to frost.
W0LIAST0NITE
This native calcium metasilicate (CaSi0
3
)
was used in making abra-
sive wheels.
54
The materials were heated to various temperatures, quenched,
pulverized as needed, shaped under pressure, and sintered at
800
C. Decreas-
ing the particle size and increasing the shaping pressure gave stronger
articles, but the compressive strength was decreased if the temperatures used
prior to quenching were increased from
1200
to l800 C.
ZINC SULFATE HYDRATE
Rapid setting and intense hardness were observed for binders con-
sisting of anhydrous ZnS0
4
and water, but strength was lost completely under
conditions that permitted the subsequent loss of water and reversion to the
anhydrous salt.
55
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-
ORGANIC
BINDERS
ALGINIC ACID
A German patent
56
on the manufacture of fuel briquets indicates that
the molding properties of bituminous coals or petroleum or pitch semicoke can
be improved by the addition of alginic acid or its salts or gels. It can be
applied in the form of an emulsion with organic agglutinants such as tar, pitch,
or anthracene oil, and the addition of milled soft pitch is recommended with
lover volatile fuels.
ALKALI CELLULOSE
A German patent
57
describes the preparation of weather-resistant
briquets by treating coal, coke, or wood charcoal with a 2 percent solution of
sulfided alkali cellulose, heating at
50
C, adding some water if necessary,
and then pressing.
AMINES
According to a U. S. patent,
58
solid particles such as coal, fly ash,
or ceramic materials that contain "digestible matter" may be bonded by mixing
them with amines such as RNH2, where R is aliphatic and contains not more than
12 carbon atoms, or EsN(CE2)
n
Wi2t
where n is not more than 6.
ANTHRACENE-SULFUR
When anthracene oil was heated for 5 to 7 minutes at
280
to 290
C
with
3
percent of sulfur, a binder suitable for use in making coal briquets was
obtained.
5'-'
When 0.1 to
3
percent of this binder was added to the coal charge,
briquets having improved strength and water resistance were obtained.
ARALDITE
The physical and chemical properties of Araldites (epoxy resins) as
binders have been discussed in two reports.
60
*
61
ASPHALT
Because of a scarcity of tar in France, experiments on the use of
asphalt as a binder for briquetting fine coal dust have been carried out.
62
A French patent
63
describes in detail the preparation from a Kuwait
crude oil of an asphaltic bitumen that is suitable for use as a binder for coal
fines.
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12
-
The modification of petroleum asphalts by air oxidation at
2J5
to
280
C to increase their viscosity and adhesiveness has been described in two
Russian articles;
64
*
65
such products are used in making coal briquets.
Asphalts with various additives have been used as binders. For
example, a British patent
66
calls for powdered casein and magnesium silicate
to be stirred into melted asphalt ic material. Salt and sugar may also be
added. The resultant binder is suitable for use with rock aggregates for
pavements.
A liquid binder, capable of coating damp or unheated aggregates,
was made by blending 10 to 50 percent of a viscous, nonvolatile hydrocarbon
oil with 20 to 60 percent of a volatile petroleum distillate and mixing the
blend with 15 to kO percent of a powdered, hard asphalt; this is the subject
of U. S. patents.
67
Another U. S. patent
68
deals with the admixture of phenolic com-
pounds and a metal oxide such as PbO with asphalt in the manufacture of binders
useful in road construction.
Oleylamiee in amounts of approximately
2.5 percent added to asphalt
improves binding action, especially for acidic or moist aggregates.
69
The use of 0.1 to
5
percent of a substituted tetrahydropyrimidine
(i.e., 2-heptadecyl-4,6,6-trimethyl-3,^,5>6-tetrahydropyrimidine) to improve
the binding characteristics of asphalt also has been patented in the United
States,
70
Still another U. S. patent
71
involves the addition of a solvent to
asphalt. The solvent is of the paraffinic hydrocarbon type, b.p.
50
to
200
C, and the solvent action is increased by admixture of small amounts of oxy-
genated solvents of the ether, ester, or ketone type.
BITUMENS
Numerous articles have been published on the use of various bitumi-
nous materials as binders. Some of these deal with general features of bind-
ing action, while others cite specific mixtures and applications. In one of
the former type,
72
water resistance is discussed in terms of adhesion between
the mineral aggregate and the binder. Adhesion is defined as the resultant
of the interfacial tensions of water and the binder relative to the aggregate.
Negative values indicate that water tends to displace the binder, as it does
when the aggregate is hydrophilic. With positive values, the aggregate is
hydrophobic and the binder is not displaced readily by water. Chemical inter-
action between binder and aggregate is an important factor; the hydrophobic
character accompanying good adhesion is enhanced by reaction between basic
oxides of the aggregate and acidic groups of the binder to give water- insoluble
compounds.
In using bitumens instead of pitches as binders for fuel briquets,
it is important to develop procedures that work best for the particular bitu-
men used.
73
A Nagylenglyl crude oil bitumen,
74
although inferior to coal tar
pitch for binding coal briquets, could be used satisfactorily, especially when
applied in the molten state by spraying.
-
13
-
According to a German patent,
75
ores, coal, lime, or mixtures thereof
are briquetted with a distilled bitumen having a penetration (depth of penetra-
tion of a needle of specified shape under controlled conditions of load, tem-
perature, and time. See ASTM. Designation D5-52) of 20 to 30 at
25
C. The
powdered material is wet, mixed with the hot liquid bitumen, and homogenized
before pressing.
Several shale bitumens were studied as possible binders for coal
briquets; those of lower density (about 1.1) and softening temperature (46
to
$0 C) vere not satisfactory, but one with a density of 1.17 and softening
temperature of
87 C produced briquets of high heat- and water-resistance that
were superior in mechanical strength to those made with coal tar pitch. Another
study of shale bitumens
77
showed that those of high softening temperatures
could be used directly, while those of lower softening
temperatures could
advantageously be applied as pastes with lime.
Bitumen emulsions also have been much used as binders. Coal fines,
for example, have been briquetted satisfactorily after being sprayed with an
emulsion of petroleum bitumen, water, and an emulsifier;
78
pressing was at
250 kg/sq cm while the material was hot, and the effects of varying the part-
icle size, moisture content, amount of binder, and other factors were studied.
A U. S. patent
79
deals with the use of a quick-breaking oil-in-water
type of emulsion of bitumen for binding mineral aggregates. The bitumen is
emulsified in combination with NaOH and an alkali metal phosphate. A similar
type of emulsion used for bonding hydrophilic aggregates and incorporating 0.05
to 0.5 percent of sodium dichromate is said to form a particularly strong bond
with the aggregate.
80
Another U. S. patent
81
involves adding Na
3
P0
4
to a low-viscosity,
quick-breaking, clay- free bituminous emulsion to slow down the breaking to
allow sufficient time for mixing with the aggregate, fibrous filler, and other
materials, while a French patent
82
describes the use of such emulsions with
the addition of an emulsion-breaking agent to give controlled breaking at the
desired time, A general theoretical discussion of the adhesion of bitumens to
rock aggregates and the use of emulsifying agents has been published.
83
Bitumens have been modified by the incorporation of various types of
additives. A German patent
84
claims improved adhesion of bituminous binders
to aggregates by the addition of small amounts (0.01 to 1.0 kg/1000 kg of
aggregate) of an aqueous dispersion containing, preferably, 10 to 15 percent
of a water- insoluble amine or amide. For example, an especially useful dis-
persion contained
75
percent water, 10 percent long-chain amine, and
15
percent
of a 21 percent alkyl sulfate solution.
A French patent
85
also calls for the admixture of amines to improve
the adherence of bitumen binders, citing RNH
2 ,
RR'NH, and RR'R" N, where R, R
1
,
and R" are hydrocarbon radicals of at least 13 carbon atoms.
Two French patents
86
'
87
claim to improve the adhesiveness of bitumi-
nous binders by the addition of 0.2 to
5
percent of salts of primary or sec-
ondary amines that do not decompose on heating, or 0.1 to
5
percent of reaction
products of polyamines with mineral or organic acids. These salts may be added
as such or formed in situ by incorporating the acid and base separately into
the bitumen solution.
-
Ill
-
A German patent
88
specifies as a binder for making coal or coke
briquets a mixture of bituminous hydrocarbons, sulfidic benzene derivatives,
sulfidic benzene homologs, and aliphatic halohydrocarbons. The components
were mixed and heated in an autoclave while being stirred rapidly.
A blend of petroleum bitumen and a fraction from Ladkin asphaltite
was said to be thermally and chemically a more stable binding material than
coal tar pitch.
89
The addition of calcium phenolates to avoid the undesirable effects
of naphthenic acids in bitumens has been cited by a German patent.
90
Thus
51
kg of CaO was dissolved in 8.5 metric tons of boiling commercial creosote oil
with simultaneous removal of 25 kg of water (and a small amount of oil) by
distillation. After cooling, the oil was added to 4l.5 tons of bitumen "B-80"
and stirred at
150
C. Adhesives of the amine type were then added.
A French patent
91
describes the preparation of bituminous binders
having good adhesion toward mineral aggregates and metals. In the process,
0.5 to 2.0 percent of heavy metal soaps of high molecular weight organic acids,
such as Fe or Fb oleates or naphthenates, was added to the bitumen. This
binder was used as a preliminary coating; a further quantity of binder not
containing such soap was then added.
The addition of unslaked lime to bitumen to produce a slow- setting
binder is described in a U. S. patent.
92
Another U. S. patent
93
covers the
use of a heavy bitumen to which an organic nitro compound has been added for
making carbon electrodes.
The improvement of adhesiveness of bituminous binding agents by the
addition of organic silicon compounds, such as (CH3)
x
(CH
3
0)ySi, where x +
y
= k,
is claimed in a German patent.
94
The silane may be applied to the rock aggre-
gate prior to addition of the binder, or it may be mixed with the bitumen.
BUTADIENE- CHL0R0PRENE
The bonding of abrasive articles by the use of polymerized chloro-
prene mixed with a butadiene monomer and an unsaturated ketone has been claimed
in a U. Sr patent.
95
CARBOHYDRATES (See also Cellulose Derivatives and Starch.)
The preparation of carbohydrate ethers or esters for use as binders
has been described in a U. S. patent,
96
and carubin (locust bean gum), which
is about two-thirds mannose and one-third galactose and almost completely
water-soluble, has found application as a binder in the ceramic and mining
industries.
97
CASEIN
A mixture of casein with 30 percent by weight of portland cement has
been patented in Russia as a binder for making abrasive wheels.
98
-15-
CASSAVA FLOUR (See Manioc Flour; Sulfite Liquor, and reference
177.)
CELLULOSE DERIVATIVES
A German patent" describes the preparation of a polysaccharide bind-
ing agent, suitable for use in textiles,
papers, and paints, from inorganic
reactants and cellulose derivatives. For example,
25 parts of sodium carboxy-
methylcellulose, 10 parts of A1
2
(S0
4 ) 3, and
5
parts of Ca(0H)
2
or
3
parts of
MgO form a useful dispersion when added to water and stirred.
COAL PLUS AMINES (See also Amines; reference
58.)
A mixture of coal and amines has been patented in the U. S.
100
as a
binder for ceramic materials. It i6 hardened by heating it to a temperature
below the decomposition temperature of the coal used.
COAL HYDROGENATION PRODUCTS
According to a Russian patent* *
the product obtained by hydrogenating
a humus coal at 350 to 380 C and 50 to 100 kg/sq cm may be used as a binder
for briquetting coal.
DRYING OILS PLUS ADDITIVES
A British patent
102
mentions a number of drying oils (for example,
linseed, soybean) which may be mixed with about
15 percent Isano or Boleko oil,
heated to the desired viscosity (5000 cp at
20
C, for example), treated with
0.1 percent Co and
0.3 percent Fb driers, and used in about 2 percent amounts
with quartz sand to make foundry cores.
EPOXY RESINS (See also Araldite.)
A German patent
103
claims that resins made by curing epoxy alkyl
esters of polybasic aromatic acids with polycyclic aromatic amines can be used
as bonding agents for metals and other materials. For example, 100
g
of di-
glycidyl terephthalate melted with 25 g
of benzidine was heated at
90
to
100
C and degassed for 5 minutes at 5 to 20 mm, poured into molds, and cured at
1^0
C for 60 minutes.
Another patent
104
describes a cement for abrasives that is made by
the condensation of vinylcyclohexene dioxide wdtto pyrome11itic anhydride.
A U. S. patent
105
describes a binding mixture of
5
parts by weight of
an epoxy resin prepared by the reaction of 2,2-bis(4-hydroxy-3-allylphenyl)pro-
pane and epichlorohydrin,
3
parts of a high molecular weight (3,000
to 10,000)
polyamide prepared by the reaction of dilinoleic acid and ethylenediamine, and
1 part of a liquid polysulfide prepared by the reaction of bis(2-chloroethyl)~
formal and Na
2Sx
cured for 10 to 12 seconds at l80 C. This had excellent
strength and good resistance to water and ethylene glycol.
-
16
-
FURAN DERIVATIVES
A U. S. patent
106
claims that molding sands or abrasive granules may-
be bonded with k percent of a mixture such as
75
parts of furfuryl alcohol,
25
parts of maleic anhydride,
5
parts of urea, and
0.5 part of NH4CI. The
resulting mix was cured in an oven at 300
F.
GLYCEROL
A German patent already cited
45
describes the preparation of granular
lead oxides by mixing the oxide (FbO or Fb
3 4
or both) with
5 to
15
percent of
a wetting, binding, and hardening agent and heating them to 300
C with a vi-
bratory motion. Glycerol, as well as dispersions of high polymers (e.g., pol-
yvinyl chloride in acrylic acid or polystyrene, sulfite liquor or molasses
wastes), is listed as a suitable additive, Glycerol also may be used as a
binder in refractories and ceramic-bonded abrasive compositions.
107
GLYCOL ESTER DERIVATIVES
A binder for uniform, very hard, dense, abrasive forms is made from
an unsaturated polymer of a glycol and an unsaturated polybasic acid, copolym-
erized with a vinyl monomer and styrene in the presence of benzoyl peroxide
(U. S. patent).
108
GUMS, NATURAL (See Shellac.)
HUMIC ACID AND HUMATES
A Russian patent
109
describes a binder for coal briquets that is
obtained by treating brown coal ground to 0.5 mm particle size with a 0.1
percent solution of NaOH or NH
4
0H. This is similar to the preparation des-
cribed
15
years later as "new'
;
a sodium humate made by fine grinding of coal
in an alkali;
77
the amount of this used in briquetting xras kept below
1.5
per-
cent to avoid tackiness on the press.
Other experiments on the use of humates as fuel briquet binders
110
indicate that the crushing strength of the pro:.:ct depends upon the cation
accompanying the humate ion; with Na a mar-rimum of
i+0
kg/sq cm is attained,
but with Al, NH
4
,
Fe, and Ca it is 20 kg/cq cm or less. Optimum amounts of
the binder are
3
to 6 percent.
EYDR0XYAMINE DERIVATIVES
A British patent
111
describes binding agents for tar and bitumen
that are made by treating (H0C
2
H4NHC2H4)
2
NC2H
4
0H with stearic or oleic acid
at
140
to
160
C.
-
17
-
LIGNOSULFONATES
A study of the variation of properties of lignosulfonates with vary-
ing molecular weights showed that with increasing molecular weight their bind-
ing strength in iron ore pellets increased.
112
LUPINES
A Hungarian patent
113
specifies that if seeds of lupines or soybeans
are steeped in an acid solution for 8 to 12 hours, separated from the liquid,
disintegrated, partly freed (if desired) of their oil content, and added to pow-
dered coal in amounts of 1.5 to k percent, suitable binding action is achieved.
MANIOC FLOUR PLUS MOLASSES
A French patent
114
describes the binding of charcoal briquets with a
mixture of 560 g
of manioc flour,
I+33
g
of molasses, k
g of 30 percent NaOH
solution, and
3 g
of 30 percent formaldehyde solution.
MOLASSES
A French patent
115
dealing with coal briquets describes as the binder
used a hardened product obtained by dehydration of molasses or other sugar res-
idues followed by polymerization at an elevated temperature in the presence of
a catalyst. The brittle product is then ground to a powder, which may be used
alone or mixed with tars, bitumens, resins, or with a fermentation inhibitor.
NITROPHENOLS
Although the nitrophenols are apparently not used alone as binders, a
Japanese patent
116
claims that the addition of a "phenylnitrophenol compound"
to a binder for the manufacture of molded products of carbon and graphite im-
proves their hardness and bending strength.
ORGANOSILICONS
A U S. patent
117
claims polymers of siliconols, alkoxysilicons, sil-
iconacylates and other organosilicons as binders for abrasives. They may be
used with or without nonsilicon resins.
PETROLEUM OXIDATION PRODUCTS
Binders that have kerosene or white spirit oxidation products as their
base are prepared by the oxidation of hydroxy acids with xylitol or its anhy-
dride in the presence of H2S0
4
,
NaHS0
4
,
or a sulfonic acid to thicken the pro-
duct. Drying of the esterification product is hastened by dissolving it in
solvent naphtha containing 1 to 2 percent litharge (Russian patent).
118
-
18
-
PETROLEUM PITCH
A binder described in a French patent
119
is composed of a mixture of
petroleum pitch and coal tar stabilized with bituminous shale pitch.
A British patent
120
describes a petroleum pitch suitable for making
coal briquets. The pitch is made by air oxidation of a residue from the vacuum
distillation of petroleum (or a bitumen obtained by deasphalting such a residue)
at
3^0
to
400
C and atmospheric pressure. Steam injection is used to control
the temperature, sweep out volatile substances, and prevent the deposition of
coke. .
-.;.
A U. S. patent
121
deals with binders for carbon electrodes; these
binders (softening point
70
to
120
C, specific gravity 1.2 to
1.3,
and H/c
ratio less than l) are prepared by mixing a cracked petroleum fraction, con-
taining at least 50 percent by weight aromatic compounds and having a min-
imum boiling point of
650
F, with a partially hydrogenated cracked fraction
also containing at least 50 percent aromatic compounds and having a minimum
boiling point of
700
F. The mixture is then thermally and noncatalytically
cracked at 100 to 2500 lb/sq in. gage and 800
a
to
1000
F, and the product
stripped at less than 525 F and 20 mm pressure to produce the binder.
Binders useful as substitutes for tar in the manufacture of solid
fuels are described in a French patent;
122
they are made by mixing coal dust
of 0.5 to 1 mm particle size with petroleum pitch and, optionally, oil tar,
Al2(S0
4 ) 3
,
and an oxidic mineral containing 8 percent carbon, 6 percent Fe20
3 ,
31 percent A1
2 3
,
48 percent Si02, and
7
percent
IfeO.
PHENOL-ALDEHYDE RESINS
In the preparation of phenol-aldehyde resin binders, various phenolic
compounds or crude phenol-containing mixtures and various aldehydes have been
used.

An example of the application of a crude mixture is seen in a French
patent.
1
'
To 1000 kg of a crude wood tar containing
3*5
percent acetic acid,
ammonia was added in sufficient amount that 10 to 15 kg of acetic acid remained
unneutralized. This provided a mixture of acetic acid and its ammonium salt
to serve as a catalyst for the condensation reaction. Then 70 kg of acetal-
dehyde was added slowly, with stirring, under an atmosphere of nitrogen, the
temperature was raised slowly to
70
C and maintained at that point, with
stirring, for 5
hours. A slow stream of air was then passed through the mass
and the temperatuz-e raised to about
110
C. After 14 to 16 hours, a product
was obtained that softened at about
60
C, melted at
71
C, and was useful as
a binder for coal dust.
A binder for charcoal briquets described in a Japanese patent
124
was
made by heating a mixture of 100 parts crude phenol, 100 parts formalin, and
2 parts H2SO4 for 1 hour at
60
C, washing with an equal amount of water,
allowing the residue to stand 2 hours with 100 parts of methanol and
5
parts
of 38 percent NH
4
0H and then overnight with 10 percent NaOH in methanol.
A British patent
125
involves the use of formaldehyde with a coal tar
acid fraction containing phenol (phenol: formaldehyde ratio of 1:1.5 to 1:2.2)
and condensation in aqueous NaOH. Lignin, starch, cellulosic material or other
carbohydrates may be used as extenders, and the coal briquets are cured by
heating to
1^0
to
160
C. The briquets are weather- resistant.
-
19
-
A modified phenol- formaldehyde
resin, containing about 10 percent of
o-chlorophenol, is claimed as a binder for abrasives in a U. S. patent.
126
A British patent
127
claims that the bonding of such materials as glass
fibers by means of a phenol-aldehyde resin can be greatly strengthened by in-
corporating 0.1 to
0.5 percent of an organosilicon
compound of the formula
%SiX
4
.
n
,
where R is an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl radical containing one or
more OH or Wis groups reactive with the resin, X is alkoxy, aryloxy, OH, or a
halogen, and n is 1, 2, or 3.
A Russian patent
128
relates to the use of a mixture of powdered phenol-
formaldehyde resin and rubber for bonding grains in making abrasive articles,
and a U. S. patent
1 9
describes the bonding of metal oxides or magnetic com-
positions by the use of a 2:1 mixture of phenol- formaldehyde and urea-formal-
dehyde resins along with Ca, Zn, or Bu stearate, carbowax plasticizer, and a
little water.
PHENOL BORATES AND PHOSPHATES
The bonding of abrasive grains in making grinding wheels may be accom-
plished, according to a U. S. patent,
130
by means of boric and phosphoric acid
esters of various phenols. In one example a resin was made from 12.1 parts of
monophenyl phosphate, 11 parts each of resorcinol and hydroquinone, and li.3
parts of boric acid. The mixture was refluxed to drive off water, and the tem-
perature was gradually increased to 200
C within an hour to yield a brown,
somewhat pliable, sticky resin. The resin was mixed with 2 percent hexa-
methylenetetramine, and carborundum grains added until the resin was 10 percent
of the mixture. This was formed into a wheel, cured 1 hour at 175
C and then
at
200
C.
PITCH (See also Petroleum Pitch.)
Various pitches and pitch combinations have found extensive use as
binders, probably because of the ready availability and low cost of the pitch
as well as its desirable physical and chemical properties. Although a majority
of these applications seems to be in the realm of making fuel briquets, the use
of pitch as a binder is by no means restricted to these materials.
According to a British patent,
131
a binder is produced by oiling back
a pitch, removing water and part of the oils by distillation, extracting with a
solvent to remove certain undesirable constituents, and distilling off the sol-
vent .
High-boiling fractions from pitches and tars, together with the sec-
ond anthracene fraction obtained in pitch rectification (softening temperatures
69
to 83 C, 19 to
33
percent insoluble in toluene, and 71 to
77
percent vol-
atile) show promise as bonding agents for coal briquets.
132
Average softening
temperatures of such pitches rose from 79 +-0 101
C during 12 months, while
the volatile contents dropped slightly, frcn 73.3
to 71.4 percent. Briquets
bonded with 12 percent of pitch at
150
C and pressed at 95 C and ^00 kg/sq cm
possessed high mechanical and water resistance and were not tacky.
-
20
-
A German patent
133
specifies a mixture of hot pitch, dispersible
clay, water separated during the purification of gas, and 0.5 to k- percent
naphthalene, anthracene, or phenanthrene , as a suitable binder to be triturated
with coal in making briquets.
Another patent
134
describes the briquetting of wet coal sludge by-
mixing it with
5
percent of a liquid pitch-coal product obtained by heating
fluxed hard pitch and powdered coal up to
300
C,
The use of wash oil or lignite tar oil and pitch in briquetting solid
fuels is claimed in another German patent.
135
Still another
136
applies to the
use of tar-pitch melts as binders for fuels that are not easily coked, and are
moist and fine grained.
Lignite pitch as a binder for the briquetting of crushed solid fuels
is specified in another German patent.
137
A discussion of the optimum properties of pitches, the addition of
20 to 30 percent pitch distillate to promote better covering of the coal par-
ticles, the use of pitch emulsions and of air-blown pitch distillate has been
published.
138
Laboratory experiments have shown it possible to prepare sat-
isfactory briquets by adding 8 percent or more of coal tar residue with a
melting point of
95
C to coal fines.
139
A German patent
140
describes the use of tars and pitches from the
low-temperature carbonization of brown coal as binders for briquetting coal
and other solid carbonaceous fuels.
The influence of the chemical and physical properties of pitch on
its binding characteristics has been studied,
141
with special attention to
the role of the gj,
P,
and 7 constituents, (Note: the a fraction is that
portion insoluble in pyridine; the
P
fraction is soluble in pyridine but in-
soluble in chloroform; and the 7 fraction is soluble in both pyridine and
chloroform-G*RY.) The content of the

and 7 components should be about 80
percent and their ratio 1:1. Low-quality pitch contains high amounts of a and
7 components. In this study, the ductility of the pitch was stressed.
A technique has been developed whereby the pitch binder in a coal
briquet can be made visible and the amount used can be estimated by micro-
scopic examination.
142
A study of medium- soft pitches from coke oven, horizontal retort,
vertical retort, and low-temperature tars has been made, using infrared anal-
yses, solvent extraction, and chemical analyses. Physical properties were
related to viscosity, and specifications for pitch as a binder for briquets
and carbon electrodes were reviewed.
143
A further study of binders by a viscosity measurement (the torque
required to rotate a platinum disc dipped into the molten sample) at temper-
atures between
40*
and
1^0
C has included hard pitches.
144
Agglomerating
properties were evaluated by determining the compression strengths of pitch
-
coke briquets made with the binders. Values obtained with the pitches were
about as might be expected on the basis of industrial experience.
- 21
-
Various additives have been used with pitches in the preparation of
binders. A U. S. patent
145
relating to the making of carbon or graphite elec-
trodes specifies the use of less than
5
percent of an additive with pitch, or
with a tar which is subsequently distilled until an
80
C softening point
is attained. Suitable additives listed are MnCl
3 ,
CrCl
3
, FeCl
3
, nitrobenzene
sulfonyl chloride, p-toluene sulfonyl chloride, or nitronaphthalene sulfonyl
chloride.
A Japanese patent
146
mentions the use of coal-tar pitch and resin in
fish oil or mineral oil, dispersed by means of an alkaline solution of cellulose,
as a briquet binder.
Making refractories of calcined dolomite and a binder of 65 to 70
percent coal-tar pitch and 30 to
35
percent anthracene oil and pressing at more
than 500 kg/sq cm has been described.
147
A German patent
148
describes bonding carbon articles together or to
metals with a mixture made up of one-third pitch, one-third electrode graphite,
and one-third graphitic acid.
A German patent
149
involves mixing tar oils and wood or lignin with
pitch to obtain binders with a wide plasticity range. For example, 1000 kg of
tar pitch was heated until the softening point rose to above
100
C, and then
85O kg of anthracene oil and 300 kg of lignin were added. Heating was continued
3 to h hours to decrease the point of fracture.
Hard spherical coal pellets for subsequent activation with steam at
1750 F were described in a U. S. patent;
150
they were made by mixing the pul-
verized coal with 20 to 30 parts of core pitch and tumbling the pellets with
k-0 cc per 100
g
of powder of a molasses solution of specific gravity 1.10 to
1.15.
A German patent
151
describes the use of an emulsion or suspension of
pitch, prepared with the aid of such an emulsifying agent as concentrated sul-
fite liquor, as a binder for briquetting carbonaceous fuels; a Japanese patent
152
claims what appears to be a similar mixture made up of 25.5
parts of coal tar,
U8.3 parts of coal tar pitch, 25.4 parts of water,
5
parts of
30
Be waste pulp
liquor, and 0.1 part of NaOH mixed together at 95 C.
POLYACKYLAMIDE
Polyacrylamide is a water-soluble, nonionic powder made by the polym-
erization of acrylamide. In aqueous solutions it is compatible with most natu-
ral and synthetic water-soluble gums, latex systems, and many salts; it is a
good thickening agent, protective colloid, and binder.
153
POLYALKYLENE GLYCOL-POLYETHYLENE OXIDE
The binding of precious- stone abrasives with a polyalkylene glycol-
ethylene oxide polymer is described in a U. S. patent.
154
For example, 20
g
of
diamond or sapphire powder was dispersed with $k
g
of polyalkylene glycol and
agitated while 26
g
of ethylene oxide was added; heating and stirring were con-
tinued until a uniform consistency was obtained. The polymer had a molecular
weight of 4000 and melted at
50 C.
-
22
-
POLYAMIDES
Magnetic cores, described in a French patent,
155
were made by emul-
sifying a superpolyamide with 80 percent ethanol in an autoclave at 1 kg/sq cm
pressure and
120
C, mixing with a magnetic powder such as iron, homogenizing
in a heated mixer, coagulating with cold water, and homogenizing again.
POLYESTER RESINS
A U. S. patent
156
describes a binder that may be used for abrasives
and other materials. A mixture of k.k parts of ethylene glycol, Ml.
7
parts
of commercial pentaerythritol, 21.5 parts of a diallyl ether mixture of
pentaerythritol, 22.3^ parts of maleic anhydride,
2.3 parts of boric acid,
and 18.6 parts of water was heated under
COs and stirred at
170
to
190
C
for
3
hours. The product had an acid number of 17 .^; it was diluted with
water to
75
percent solids prior to use.
POLYMERS OF HYDROCARBONS
A Dutch patent
157
describes the use of various polymers and/or
copolymers of olefinic hydrocarbons, their mixtures, and their mixtures with
pitch. Monomers listed as suitable starting materials are ethene, propene,
butene, butadiene, and styrene. The binders were used in making fuel briquets.
POLYURETHANES
A U. S. patent
158
gives the details of preparing elastic grinding
articles. In an example, 600
g
of AI2O3 was moistened with a solution of
10 percent of hfk
1
,
V-tri-isocyanatotriphenylmethane in CH2CI2, the solvent
evaporated and the A1
2 3
added to a molten, castable polyurethane polymer,
stirred vigorously for 30 seconds, and the mixture placed in molds for 2k
hours. The polyurethane was prepared by adding 70 g
of 1,4-butanediol to the
reaction product of 1000
g
of linear polyesters containing aliphatic OH groups
and 300 g
of 1,5-naphthalene diisocyanate and stirring for 30 seconds.
POLYVINYL ACETAL
A bonding composition for magnetic metal described in a U. S. pat-
ent
159
consists of ^2.5 percent of polyvinyl acetal (obtained by the reaction
of 70 percent hydrolyzed polyvinyl acetate with acetaldehyde), ^2.5 percent
of polyvinyl acetate, and
15
percent of a B-stage condensate of cresylic acid
and formaldehyde.
PRICKLY PEAR LATEX
A latex can be obtained by pressing prickly pears; when mixed with
sulfur and heated under pressure this forms a binder. It is not water-
resistant.
160
-
23
-
RESINS
v ;, Si
US
?
of

8ynthetlc re ?ins as binders for magnetic granules has been


described,
161
and a German patent"*
deals with the use of such resins in bind-
ing fuel briquets.
Another German patent
163
describes
water-resistant
binders, useful for
abrasives, which were made from
novolak-hexamethylenamine
and coal tar pitch
that had been modified by blowing.
SAWDUST
An Austrian patent
164
claims that briquets can be made from coal which
alone is not amenable to briquetting (e.g., brown coals) by mixing it with 20 to
50 percent of sawdust or similar wood waste and pressing at 1200 to 3000 atmos-
pheres.
SHALE BITUMEN
Heating Baltic shales up to about 380
C converts much of their or-
ganic matter to an extractable form, called pyrobitumens . These pyrobitumens
showed good binding properties when used for the briquetting of fine coal.
165
SHELLAC
The use of shellac for binding abrasive articles has been patented in
the United States.
166
SOYBEANS (See Lupines and reference 113.)
STARCH
Various starch preparations, derivatives, and mixtures have found
numerous applications as binding agents. As a binder for fuel briquets, a U. S.
patent
167
claims a solution of 100 grams of potato starch dextrin in 1 liter of
water which was heated while 100 ml of glacial acetic acid was added. Other
organic acids may also be used. A rather similar procedure is given in a Dutch
patent,
168
which claims that this binder permits the use of much lower pressures
for briquetting than those permitted by pitch binders.
Another U. S. patent
169
gives a process that calls for further addi-
tives. Twenty kg of potato starch was mixed gradually with 2.7 kg of 80 percent
acetic acid and the mixture heated to 175 C. A mixture of 2 kg of polyvinyl
acetate and 2.5 kg of 80 percent acetic acid heated to about
60
C was added to
the first mixture, and 0.6 kg of paraffin also was added. This mixture was
carefully and thoroughly mixed with 1000 kg of coal dust containing 11 percent
H2O, the temperature raised to
90
C by steam injection, and the briquets pressed
and air dried. They were resistant to outdoor storage and did not disintegrate
during burning.
-
2k
-
The use of starch in the presence of alkalis also has been applied
to making fuel briquets. A British patent
170
dealing with the making of
briquets from peat that had been treated with alkali does not, however, claim
the starch as a binder, but says that a small quantity of starch is incor-
porated before, during, or after the alkali treatment in amount insufficient
to act as a binder but sufficient to replace the lost colloidal substances
of the peat.
Another British patent
171
says that a binder for fuel briquets was
prepared by mixing starch, water, and an alkali such as Na2C0
3
or WaOH and
heating the mixture to
220
to 350 F to produce a heavy, viscous, sticky
fluid. A U. S. patent
172
claims the production of a material suitable for
use as an adhesive or a binding agent from potato starch, sodium chloroacetate,
and barium hydroxide.
A Belgian patent
173
specifies as a binder a product obtained by
esterifying starch at
60
to 300
C with 1 to 20 percent of an inorganic acid
in the presence of
5
to 50
percent of urea and treating it with
5
to 50
percent
of an aldehyde at a pH of 6 to 9 Curing may be done at
20
to
200
C.
A U. S. patent
174
describes the preparation of a binder for various
materials. Five hundred parts by volume of a 40 percent solution of formal-
dehyde was diluted with an equal volume of water containing 20 parts by volume
of 80 percent acetic acid; 500 parts by weight of potato starch was suspended
therein and the mixture maintained at room temperature several hours prior to
use.
STYRENE POLYMERS
A German patent already cited
45
(see Glycerol) mentions the use of
polystyrene.
A copolymer of styrene and linseed oil is described in another
German patent
175
as a suitable binder for coating formulations. A mixture of
900 g
of styrene, l8
g
of di-tertiary butyl peroxide, and 1.8
g
of sulfurized
dipentene was added over a period of 2 hours to 1100
g
of stirred linseed oil
at l80 to
200
C. The sulfurized dipentene was obtained by heating 100
g
of
dipentene and
5 g
of sulfur at
150
to
250
C.
SULFITE LIQUOR
The reclamation of dust from the abrasion of lignite briquets is
the subject of an East German patent.
176
The dust was mixed with 2 to
5
per-
cent sulfite waste liquor (31 Be) at
50
C and processed on a conventional
extruder. The resulting briquets had strengths up to 80 kg/sq cm.
Low-temperature carbonization of coal briquets for which h to 6
percent of beech wood sulfite liquor or 1.9 to
3
percent cassava flour was
used as the binder has been described.
177
A Russian patent
178
on the briquetting of coal describes a binder
consisting of sulfite liquor and
3
to
5
percent of oxidized petrolatum, and
a German patent
179
claims the use of sulfite liquors added to the fuel before
-
25
-
or simultaneously with a tar-pitch melt to give briquets that may be rendered
weather- re sist ant by heating at 150
to
200
C.
TAR
Tars of various kinds, like bitumens and pitches, find many applica-
tions as binders. Often there is no clear-cut distinction between these mate-
rials.
In one study, a horizontal retort tar was brushed on various test
pieces of rock. After an hour these were immersed in Na
2
C0
3
solutions of known
concentrations. The concentration of Na
2
C0
3
required to strip the tar from the
test piece in 24 hours at room temperature was a measure of the adhesion. The
following qualitative estimates of adhesion to each rock type are given: ortho-
clase - bad; hornblende - bad; biotite -
poor; quartz -
poor; labradorite
-
poor; augite -
good; Olivine -
excellent.
Low-temperature tars from peat and brown coal generators, low in aro-
matic s content, were blown with oxygen at
200
C for 2 to 7 hours to raise the
softening points; when used in amounts up to
7
percent of the dry fuel they
were satisfactory binders for briquetting bituminous and anthracitic coal
fines.
181
A wide variety of tars and tar mixtures was studied in a search for
binders for anthracite fines.
182
These included petroleum residues, hydrogen-
ation residues, coal tar, generator tar, wood tar, and others; over 100 exper-
iments were carried out.
A German patent
183
describes the modification of tar by heating it to
150 to 350 C with oxygen-producing substances that leave no undesirable impu-
rities, e.g., (M
4
)2S20
8
(ammonium peroxydi sulfate) or activated carbon, prior
to use as a binder for coal. This treatment is claimed to increase the content
of pyridine- and benzene-soluble components and thus increase the adhesive power
of the tar.
A review of the physical and chemical properties of tars and pitches
and their effects on binder performance has been published.
184
A study of the effects of water in tar binders has shown that binder
consumption may be reduced by determining the optimum water content, by lowering
the surface tension of the water by adding such agents as benzyl alcohol or
soap, and by using water-tar emulsions.
185
A Japanese patent
186
claims good binding properties (for fuel briquets)
for a binder consisting of an emulsion of 50 percent of a mixture of 1 part
minus 60 mesh coal and h parts coal tar heated 2 hours at
300
C, 15
percent
coal tar, 8 percent
30
Be' waste pulp liquor, and 27 percent water, mixed and
applied at
90
C.
Tar mixtures, useful in binding rock aggregate such as that used in
road building, are specified in a French patent
187
as 40 to U5 parts of tar and
60 to
45 parts of a
300
to 36O C anthracene oil fraction.
- 26
-
Lime-treated tars are used in making binders for road surfacing
materials and for briquetting some coals, and a study of the physical changes
that accompany the addition of the lime has been published.
188
Making calcium
carbide briquets with 20 to
23
percent of a binder containing U5 percent coal
tar and
55
percent coal tar pitch is more satisfactory than using pitch alone.
189
The use of wood tar from wood chemical plants as a binder for making
charcoal briquets has been described.
130
The charcoal and wood tar were ground
together, heated to
110
to
120
C, pressed at 65 to 300 kg/sq cm, and baked at
^20
to
450
C for
35
to h0 minutes.
TARTRATES
In using chromium compounds in the binding of dead-burned magnesite,
a strong, dense, crack-free mass is obtained by adding 0.25 to
2.5
percent of
an alkali metal tartrate and firing the mixture at
2800
to 2910
F. (See
also Chromium Compounds under Inorganic Binders, and reference 16.)
UREA-FORMALDEHYDE RESINS
Modified urea- formaldehyde or phenol- formaldehyde resins with im-
proved bonding strength characteristics are produced by making a precondensate
with a predetermined methylol content and treating it with a mixture of fur-
fural and furfuryl alcohol in the monomeric or semipolymerized state.
191
The
viscous resin so obtained is useful in making abrasive articles.
VINYL POLYMERS (See also Glycerol, reference
^5;
Glycol Ester Derivatives,
reference 108.)
A U. S. patent
192
deals with the use of latex materials for binding
abrasives. These latexes were made by the emulsion polymerization of a vinyl
chloride-vinylidene chloride mixture, or a styrene-butadiene mixture. One
latex, for example, contained
75
percent vinyl chloride and
25
percent vinyl-
idene chloride. The latex was added to the grit, such as SiC, mixed, and the
water evaporated to leave free-flowing granules that were then placed in molds,
pressed, and heated at
600
C for
J>6
hours to form the abrasive articles.
A French patent
193
specifies the bonding of abrasives with one or
more polymerized vinyl compounds that contain sufficient OH groups to be
soluble or dispersible in water. This may be a polyvinyl alcohol, a partly
hydrolyzed polyvinyl compound, or a polymerized vinyl ester of a hydroxy acid.
ZAHLIT
Zahlit-D is an unsaturated hydrocarbon fraction with a specific
gravity about 1 and Engler viscosity of 1300 at
50
C and
12.5 at
125
C.
It is used, according to a Belgian patent,
194
as a binder for mineral fibers,
for mica and asbestos to form insulators, or for lead salts to form bricks
for radiation protection.
27
REFERENCES
(Abbreviations of publications in these references are those
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4
.
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-
28
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14. Ottemann, Joachim, Solution and hydration of anhydrite. Anhydrite as a
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23
16-*.
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58,
331e.
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5
.
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7744d.
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55, 26386b.
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-
29
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29. Austin, L. W., and Hicks, J. C. Refractory bonding material. U. S.
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203 70i.
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3
.
42. Dietrich, Alfred. Pellets from finely ground materials, especially ores.
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1669h.
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1964.
-
30
-
45. Evers, Dietrich. Granular lead oxides. German patent 1,013,273,
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3, 1960 (to Morgan Crucible Co., Ltd.);
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Nov. 20, 1956; C. A. 51, 2514i.
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7, 1958;
C. A.
53,
1666a.
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.
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.
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.
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-
32
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76. Popov, V. L. A study of shale bitumens as bonding agents in the
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,
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5634b.
80. Mertens, E. W. , and McCoy, P. E. Quick-breaking bituminous emulsions.
U. S. patent 2,862,830, Dec.
2, 1958 (to California Research Corp.);
C. A. 53, 5633d.
81. Boneysteele, P. L. , and McKercher, M. L. Bituminous emulsions suitable
for use as coatings, binders, etc. U. S, patent 2,135,866, Nov.
8,
1938; C. A. 33,
1468
2
.
82. Woodall-Duckham (1920) Ltd. Covering mineral aggregates with bituminous
binders. French patent 850,907, Dec. 29, 1939; C. A. 36, 2111
9
.
83. Ariano, Raffaele. Adhesion of bitumen to rock materials. Ricerche
e studi ist. sper. stradale C.T.I, e R.A.C.I., v.
5, p.
111-121
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C. A. 42, 734b.
84. Lhorty, M. L. Improving the adhesion of bituminous and other hydro-
carbon binders, German patent 1,103,223, appl. Feb. 15, 1955 (to
Bataafse Petroleum Maatschappij N. V.); C. A. 56, 6265e.
85. Holmes, August, and Hemmer, Lucien. Improving the adherence of bitumen.
French patent 847,829, Oct. 17, 1939 (to Standard franchise des pe'troles);
C. A.
35, 6029
3
.
86. Hemmer, Lucien, and Jouandet, C. Binders of improved adhesiveness.
French patent 1,007,202,
May
5, 1952 (to Standard franchise des pe'troles);
C. A. 51, 10893g.
87. Hemmer, Lucien, Flavigny, R., and Leveuf, M. Binders of improved
adhesiveness. French patent 1,007,203, May 5, 1952 (to Standard
franqaise des pe'troles); C. A. 51, 10893h.
88. Friedrich, Paul. Binder for briquetting coal and coke. German patent
732,413, Feb.
4, 1943; C. A. 38, 852
7
.
89. Klimkova, A. F. High-melting bituminous compositions, Korroziya i
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3, p.
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37, 423
7
1
.
-sa-
go. Havestadt, Ludwig. Bitumens and bituminous binders for building
materials. German patent 1,071,569, appl. Nov. 12, 1956 (to Th.
Goldsmidt A.-G.); C. A. 56, 6267c.
91. Hemmer, Lucien. Adhesive bitumens. French patent 826,788,
Apr. 8, 1938 (to Standard francaise des pe'troles); C. A. 32, 8131
1
.
92. Halbach, Karl. Binding material suitable for uniform slow setting.
U. S. patent 2,210,367, Aug.
6, 1940; C. A. 35, 296
4
.
93. Shea, F. L. , Jr., and Juel, L, H. Use of organic nitro compounds in
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Lakes Carbon Corp.); C. A.
45, 336d.
94. Havestadt, Ludwig, and Arens, Hugo. Improvement of adhesiveness of
bituminous binding agents and coating compounds. German patent 800,685,
Nov. 27, 1950 (to Th. Goldschmidfc A.-G., Chemische Fabrieken); C. A. 45,
3142e.
95. Woodell, C. C. , Van Nimwegen, Garrett, and Hager, E. T. Abrasive
article. U. S. patent 2,577,060, Dec. 4, 1961 (to Carborundum Co.);
C. A. 46, 2260a.
96. Lolkema, Jan, and Kool, C. M. H. Insoluble layers from carbohydrates.
U. S. patent 2,541,773,
Feb. 13, 1951 (to N. V. W. A. Scholten's
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97. Lukaszczyk, A. Carubin and Guaran as binders and thickeners.
Textil -Rundschau, v.
15, p.
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98. Petrovich, G. G. Cement for abrasives. U.S.S.R. patent 69,412,
Oct. 31, 1947; C. A. 43,
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99. Mayer, Erwin, and Bolin, E. A. F. Binding agents, German
patent 928,725,
June 10, 1955 (to Uddeholms Aktiebolag); C. A. 52,
5888b.
100. Dryden, I. G. C, and McKee, J. H. Binder for solid particles. U. S.
patent 2,652,354,
Sept. 15, 1953 (to C.U.R.A. Patents, Ltd.); C. A. 48,
4196g.
101. Taits, E. M. , Bronovets , T. M. , and Andreeva, I. A. Binder,
especially for briquetting coal. U.S.S.R.
patent 150,483,
Oct. 11, 1962;
C. A. 58, 8825b.
102. Reichhold Chemie A.-G. Air-setting
binders for foundry sand. British
patent 911,173, Nov. 21, 1962; C. A. 58,
3190d.
. Pietsch, Helmut. Curing
epoxyesters with
polycyclic aromatic amines.
German patent 1,070,372,
Dec. 3, 1959 (to Henkel and Cie., G. m. b. H.);
103
C. A. 55, 10967g.
104. Doenhoff, Carl v.
Adhesives for abrasives. German patent 1,135,168,
Aug. 23, 1962 (to The
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105. Hart, D. P. Bonding
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Dec. 29,
1959
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-
34
-
106, Treat, L. H., and Shaffer, R. C Aqueous she
11
-molding compositions for
metals from maleic acid, furfuryl alcohol, and urea, U, S, patent
2,999,829,
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107. Lesser, M. A, Glycerol in ceramics and enamels, Ceram, Age, v,
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108, Robie, N. P., and Mahlman, 0. L, Abrasive articles. U. S. patent
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.
109. Zhikharev, S. A. Binders for coal briquet3. U.3.S.R. patent 64,461,
Apr. 30, 1945; C. A. 40, 5228
2
.
1X0. Volkov, G. M. The role of humic acids in the briquetting of solid
fuels. laves t. Akad. Nauk S.S.S.R., Otdel Tekh. Nauk, Met. i Toplivo,
1959, no.
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111, Badische Anilin and Soda Fabrik. (Trihydroxyalkyl)dialkylenetriamines,
their hydrohalide salts, and condensation products. British patent
680,688, Oct.
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112. Benko, Joseph, Measurement of the relative molecular weight of
lignosulfonates by diffusion. III, The effect of molecular size on
surface -active and other properties of lignosulfonates, Tappi, v. 44,
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849-854 (1961); C, A. 56, 13133b.
113. Kovats , Lajos. Binder for coal briquets. Hungarian patent 121,424,
Sept.
1, 1939; C. A. 34,
1466".
114, Carbofor. Cement for wood charcoal. French patent 861,930, Feb. 21,
1941; C. A. 42, 6092b.
115* Carabasse, Joseph, Choquereau, Hector, and Chaix, Raymond. Coal
briquets. French patent
1,177,359, Apr. 23, 1959 (to Houilleres du
Bassin-du-Nord et du Pas-de-Calais); C. A, 55, 949c.
116. Yamada, Keihiko. Molded products from high-density carbon and graphite.
Japanese patent 3959(1961) (to Tokai Electrode Mfg. Co., Ltd.);
C. A. 56, 3746i.
117. Hessel, F. A., and Rust, J. B. Abrasive bodies. U. S, patent
2,559,122, July 3, 1951 (to Montclair Research Corp.); C. A.
45,
8733a.
118. Gel'ts, Vo E., and Adamskaya, R, I. Binding material. U.S.S.R,
patent
110,491,
June 25, 1958; C. A. 52, 14225c.
119. Vichnevetzky, Leon, and Manson, Izak. Hydrocarbon binder. French
patent 843,063, June 26, 1939; C. A. 34, 6390
9
.
120. Champagnat, Alfred, Molet, Louis, and Stern, Robert. Petroleum pitch
for coal-briquet manufacture^ British patent 876,191,
appl. Feb.
29,
1960 (to British Petroleum Co., Ltd.); C. A.
56, 5028b.
121. Dunkel, W. L, , McAteer, J, H., and Stewart, Joseph, Binders for carbon
electrodes from petroleum, U, S. patent 2,772,219, Nov. 27, 1956 (to
Esso Research and Eng, Co.); C A. 51, 4690h.
-
35
122. Laboure, Maurice, and Malzac,
Albert.
Carbonaceous
binders for
solid fuels. French patent
1,000,699, Feb.
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3117e.
'
/
123. Societe industrielle de produits chimiques.
Bituminous binders. French
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1,002,247, Mar.
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51, 4606i.
124. Onozawa, Tstsugoro. Molding agent for solid fuel. Japanese patent
3680, May
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51, 10875f.
125. Evans, J. I. Coal briquets. British patent
881,878, appl. Mar.
18,
1959 (to Monsanto Chemicals, Ltd.); C. A.
56, 7620i.
126. Webber, C. S. Adhesives for coated abrasives.
U. S. patent
2,876,087,
Mar.
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127. Aktiebolaget Hoganasmetoder. Modified resin binders for siliceous
materials. British patent
876,033, appl. Oct. 1, 1958; C. A. 56, 4974i.
128. Kazakova, K. S., Brodskii, G. Sh., and Rabits, S. M. Abrasives.
U.S.S.R. patent 123,056, Oct. 10, 1959; C. A.
54, 8024c.
129. Crowley, H. L. Binder for agglomeration of finely divided materials.
U. S. patent 2,775,566, Dec. 25, 1956 (to Aerovox); C. A. 51, 4606h.
130. Redfarn, C. A. Abrasive articles, U. S. patent
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July 28, 1959; C. A. 53, 20742d.
131. Parkes, D. W. Tar binders. British patent 538,308, July 29, 1941
(to Midland Tar Distillers, Ltd.); C. A. 36, 1470
5
.
132. Stepanenko, M. A., Matusyak, N. I., and Gogoleva, T. Ya. Pitch
distillate as a bonding material for briquetting coal. Koks i Khim.,
1957, no.
1, p.
32-35; C. A. 51, 8408e.
133. Eisenhut, Franz, Gobiet, Viktor, and Siegl, Adolf. Binders for
briquetting coal. German patent 957,753, Feb. 7, 1957 (to
Gelsenkirchener Bergwerks Akt.-Ges.); C. A. 53, 1071Qf.
134. Eisenhut, Franz, Gobiet, Viktor, and Siegl, Adolf. Binders for
briquetting coal. German patent 958,554, Feb. 21, 1957 (to
Gelsenkirchener Bergwerks Akt.-Ges.); C. A. 53, 107l0g.
135. Eisenhut, Franz, Gobiet, Viktor, and Siegl, Adolf. Binder for
briquetting solid fuels. German patent 1,011,851, July 11, 1957 (to
Gelsenkirchener Bergwerks Akt.-Ges.); C. A. 54, 8036g.
136. Eisenberg, Albrecht, Eisenhut, Franz, Gobiet, Viktor, and Siegl,
Adolf. Tar-pitch melts as binders. German patent 1,025,829,
Mar. 13, 1958 (to Gelsenkirchener Bergwerks Akt.-Ges.); C. A. 54,
11445h.
137. Eisenhut, Franz, Gobiet, Viktor, and Siegl, Adolf. Binder dispersion
for the briquetting of fuels. German patent 1,007,736, May 9,
1957
(to Gelsenkirchener Bergwerks Akt.-Ges.); C. A. 54,
9257e.
-
36
-
138. Tcarev, M. N. , Shpakhler, A. G., Korchagin, L. V., Pluzhnik, V. I.,
Zel'din, B. B. , and Bul'shtein, B. M. Pitch and pitch distillates as
binding agents for briquetting coal fines. Koks i Khim., 1959, no.
9,
p.
45-49; C. A. 54,
7107i.
139. Golovanov, N. G. Coal-tar residues as binders in the briquetting of
coal fines. Trudy Nauch.-Issledovatel. Inst. Mestn, i Toplivn. Prom.,
1958, no.
12, p.
108-116; C. A.
55, 5913g.
140. Brandes, C E. Briquets. German patent 807,275, Sept. 10, 1951;
C. A. 46, 8832e.
141. Wiszmiowski, Kazimierz. Pitch for briquetting. Koks, Sraola, Gaz,
v.
2, p.
77-81
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142. Frishmelt, Erich. Microscopic observation of pitch in hard-coal
briquets. Brennstoff-Chem. , v.
38, p.
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143. McNeil, D. , and Wood, L. J. Coal-tar pitch as an electrode binder.
Ind. Carbon and Graphite Papers Conf., London,
1957, p.
162-172
(pub, 1958); C. A.
53,
10709b

144. Tadenuma, Hachiro. Effective components as binding material for carbon
powder in coal-tar pitch, J. Chem. Soc. Japan, Ind. Chem. Sec, v. 56,
p.
516-519
(1953); C. A. 48, 11759c.
145. Croy, Friedrich. Electrode pitch. U. S. patent 2,864,760, Dec. 15,
1958; C. A. 53,
7563a.
146. Marukawa, Hideo, Briquet binder. Japanese patent 177,015, Nov, 26,
1948; C. A.
45,
5392f.
147. Dolkart, F. Z. The properties of refractories of calcined dolomite
with a pitch binder. Ogneupory, v.
26, p.
329-335
(1961); C. A.
55,
27825g.
148. Gemmi, Angiolo. Bonding carbon- or graphite -molded bodies together or
with metal parts, German patent 1,107,578, appl. Nov. 21, 1958 (to
Elettrocarbonium S.
p.
A. Mailand); C. A. 56, 7620h.
149. Bauerfeld, Franz, and Richter, Friedrich. Binders from coal tar pitch.
German patent 968,357, Feb. 6, 1958 (to Gesell, fur Teerverwertung
m. b. H.); C. A. 54, 9259f.
150. Rodman, Hugh, Jr. Activated carbon. U. S. patent 2,648,637, Aug.
11,
1953 (to Rodman Chemical Co.); C. A. 47, 10828c.
151. Grosskinsky, Otto, Meyer, Hermann, and Umbach, Helmut. Briquets.
German patent 807,513, June 28, 1951 (to Bergwerksverband zur
Verwertung von Schutzrechten der Kohlentechnik G. m. b. H.);
C. A. 46, 8832e.
152. Matsunami, Hidetoshi. Binder for solid fuel. Japanese patent
6138(1954), Sept.
25; C. A.
50, 555a.
-
37
-
153. Swift, A. M. Polyacrylamide
a new synthetic water-soluble gum.
Tappi, v.
40, no.
9, p. 224A-227A
(1957); C. A.
52, 6837f.
154. Morton, J. S. Abrasive compositions.
U. S. patent
2,980,524, Apr.
18,
1961 (Engis Equipment Co.); C. A.
55, 27836h.
155. Hatte, P. L. M. Magnetic cores. French patent
1,003,831, Mar. 24,
1952; C. A. 51, 6912f.
156. Silver, R. P. Polyester resins in aqueous solutions. U. S. patent
2,884,394, Apr.
28, 1959 (to Hercules Powder Co.); C. A. 53, 136621.
157. Stamicarbon N. V. Fuel briquets. Netherlands patent 99,175, appl.
Feb. 20, 1959; C. A.
56, 1692h.
158. Reuter, F. G. Elastic binders for abrasive articles. German patent
1,010,732, June 19, 1957 (to Lemfb'rder Metallwaren G. m. b. H.);
C. A. 53, 22816a,
159. Ford, J. G. Bonding composition for magnetic metal. U. S. patent
2,372,074, Mar. 20, 1945 (to Westinghouse Electric Corp.); C. A. 39,
5562
3
.
160. Ariano, Raffaele. Binder from prickly pears. Ricerche e studl ist.
sper. stradale C.T.I, e R.A.C.I. , v.
6, p.
18-19
(1942); C. A. 42,
734c.
161. Dehler, H. Strength and economy of compacted magnets having a
synthetic binder. Elektrotech. Z. , v. 65, p.
93-95
(1944); C. A. 41,
6179h.
162. Kurth, Herbert, and Oelenheinz, Theodor. Binder for cementing fuel
briquets. German patent 718,469, Feb. 19, 1942; C. A. 38, 2478
2
.
163. Wille, Hans, Jellinek, Karl, and Stanke, Helmut. Water-resistant
binders for abrasives. German patent 1,116,392, appl. Dec. 7, 1957
(to Gesellschaft fur Teerverwertung m. b. H.); C. A. 56, 4392b.
164. Gadolla, Eugen, and Pruscha, Hans. Fuel briquets. Austrian patent
179,771, Oct. 11, 1954; C. A. 48, 14164h.
165. Zvenigorodskii, G. Z., and Antonova, T. N. Utilization of shales in
coal briquetting. Sbornik Inform, po Gbogashch. i Briketir. Uglei, 1957,
no.
3, p.
23-28; C. A. 55, 4921g.
166. Goepfert, G. J., and Spilsbury, W. A. Shellac -bonded abrasive
articles. U. S. patent 2,709,647, May 31, 1955 (to Carborundum Co.);
C. A. 49, 14290e.
167. Dohmen, Heinrich. Air hardening material from starch and cellulose
ethers. U. S. patent 2,835,610,
May 20, 1958 (to N. V. Eldeka);
C. A. 52, 19199c.
168. Briko N. V. Binder for fuel briquets. Dutch patent 97,828, May 15,
1961; C. A. 55, 20393h.
-
38
-
169. Dohraen, Heinrich. Briquet binder. U. S. patent
2,890,945, June 16,
1959 (to N. V. Briko); C. A. 53, 22342b.
170. Squire, L. R. L. Binders for aggregates such as fuel briquets.
British patent 502,619, Mar. 22, 1939; C. A. 33, 7994
6
.
171. Erickson, J. A. Solid fuel briquets. British patent 566,001, Dec.
8,
1944; C. A.
40, 5549
1
.
172. Mo'ller, F. A., and Lolkema, Jan
4 Starch compositions capable of
forming water-soluble derivatives. U. S. patent
2,451,686, Oct.
19,
1948 (N. V. W. A. 'Scholten's Chemiache Fabrieken); C. A. 43, 1590d.
173. Moes, G., and Zijderveld, A. H Application of a water-insoluble layer
on a support. Belgian patent
613,242, Feb. 15, 1962 (to N. V. W. A.
Scholten's Chemische Fabrieken); C, A. 53, 1625b.
174. Lolkema, Jan, and van der Meer, W, A. Starch solutions. U. S. patent
2,575,423, Nov. 20, 1961 (to N. V. W. A. Scholten's Chemische
Fabrieken); C. A. 46, 2324d.
175. Weithbner, Richard, and Brockhausen, Karl, Preparing copolymers of a
vinyl monomer of the styrene group and drying or semi-drying oil.
German patent 929,448, June 27, 1955 (to Glasurit-Werke, M. Winkelmann
A.-G.); G A. 52, 6849d.
176. Bartke, W.tlhelm. Briquetting the dust of lignite briquets by means of
sulfite waste liquor as a binder. East German patent 18,372, Apr.
1,
1960; C. A.
55,
10852f.
177* Ledent, P., and Marcourt, M. Low-temperature carbonization of coal
briquets containing sulfite liquor or cassava flour as binder. Inst,
natl. ind. charbonniere, Bull. tech. Houille et derives, no. 20,
p.
579-588
(1960); C. A. 55, 2059d.
178. Reznik, L. Ya. Binder for briquetting small coal. U.S.S.R. patent
93,879, July 20, 1962; C. A.
58, 2300g.
179. Eisenhut, Franz, Gobiet, Viktor, and Siegl, Adolf. Binders for briquets.
German patent 1,017,592, Oct. 17, 1957 (to Gelsenkirchener Bergwerks
Akt.-Ges.); C. A. 54, 11445tu
180. Douglas, J. F. Adhesion between binders and individual rock-forming
minerals. J. Soc. Chem. Ind., v.
65, p.
377-379
(1946); C. A. 41,
2S71a.
181. Levin, I. S., and Kharlampovich, G. D. New types of bonding agents
for briquetting fuels. Ugol
1
,
v. 37, no.
9, p.
48-52
(1962); C. A.
58,
384c.
182. Nyvlt, N. Substitute binders for briquets from anthracite powder.
Paliva, v.
37, p.
375-380
(1957); C. A. 52, 8505e.
J83. Lahr, Georg. Oxidizing additions to binder agents for coal briquets.
German patent 967,066, Sept.
26, 1957 (to Vereinigte Aluminum-Werke
Akt.-Ges.); C. A. 54, 6093i.
-
39
-
184. Gandusio, G. , and Strocchi, P. M. Tar and pitch as binders. Riv.
combustibili, v. 12, p.
562-580
(1958); C. A. 53, 4712g.
185. Nadziakiewicz, J., and Rulikowski, G. Ways of reducing the
consumption of binding materials in the briquetting of semicoke . Koks
,
Smola, Gaz, v. 3, no.
5, p.
180-184
(1958); C. A. 55, 20601.
186. Wataru, Shinjiro, and Yuiki, Nakaharu. Binders for fuel briquets.
Japanese patent 2479(1958), Apr. 10 (to Bureau of Industrial Technics);
C. A. 53, 3665h.
187. Lacau, R. J. Adhesive binder. French patent 1,006,740, Apr. 28, 1952;
C. A. 51, 9132e.
188. Sarkar, A. K. Physicochemical study of the action of lime on coal tar.
Kolloid Z., v. 132, p.
24-30 (1953)(in English); C. A. 48, 346f.
189. Shvarts, I. D. Obtaining compressed calcium carbide from carbide dust.
J. Chem. Ind. (U.S.S.R.), v. 18, no.
7, p.
17-23
(1941); C. A. 38,
2473
5
.
190. Uvarov, I. P., Gordon, L. V., and Gusakov, V. N. Wood tar as adhesive
for charcoal briquets, Gidroliz. i Lesokhim. Prom., v. 10, no. 4,
p.
10-11
(1957); C. A. 51, 15123a.
191. Nagarajan, V., and Thampy, R. T. Bonding agents for abrasive articles.
Research Ind. (New Delhi), v.
6, p.
311-313 (1961); C. A. 56, 2570i.
192. Rupprecht, W. E. F. Binders for abrasives. U. S. patent 2,965,464,
Dec. 20, 1960 (to Dow Chemical Co.); C. A. 55,
11795b.
193* The Carborundum Co. Abrasives. French patent 815,704, July 21, 1937;
C. A.
32,
1890*.
194, Sauvage, E. J. A. Binder for powdered, granular, or fibrous substances.
Belgian patent 558,266, June 29, 1957; C. A. 53,
22620a.
195. Finger, G. C, , Risser, H. E., and Bradbury, J. C. Illinois fluorspar.
Illinois Geol. Surv. Circ. 296, p.
26 (1960).
- 1+0
-
INDEX
Abrasives 4,5,6,7,8,10,11)- ,15,
16,1TA9,21,22,23,26
Absorbents 6
Absorption oils 20
Acetaldehyde 18,22
Acetic acid l8,2J,2U
Acetone
9
Acids, aromatic 15
Acids, hydroxy 17,26
Acids, naphthenic Ik
Acids, polybasic unsaturated 16
Acrylamide, poly- 21
Acrylic acid l6
Activated carbon (See carbon,
activated)
Adhesion 12,25
Aggregates, mineral or rock 12,
13,1^25
Alcohols, polyhydric 10
Aldehydes 2k
Alginic acid 11
Alkali cellulose (See cellulose,
alkali)
Alkoxysilicons 1^,17
Alkyl sulfates . 13
Alloys
7
Alnico
7
Alpha . component 20
Alumina (See also aluminum
oxide, boehmite, corundum)
3,
if,
5,8,22
Alumina cement 8
Aluminates
3
Aluminum
3,7
Aluminum borate k
Aluminum humate 16
Aluminum hydroxide
5
Aluminum ion 16
Aluminum nitride
3
Aluminum oxide (See also
alumina, boehmite) 4,8, 18
Aluminum phosphate k
Aluminum sulfate
15,
18
Amides
13
Amides, poly-
15,22
Amines k,
11,13,14,15
Amine s , hydroxy-
Ammonia
Ammonium acetate
Ammonium chloride
Ammonium fluoride
Ammonium humate
Ammonium hydroxide
Ammonium ion
16
9,18
18
8,16
k
16
16,18
16
Ammonium peroxydi sulfate 25
Anhydrite (See calcium sulfate)
Anthracene 11,19,20
Anthracene oil 11,19,21,25
Anthracite (See coal, anthra-
cite)
Antimony aluminate
3
Araldite
.
11
Argon
9
Aromatic acids (See acids, aro-
matic
)
Asbestos
3,5,26
Ash, fly 11
Asphalt 11,12
Asphaltite Ik
Attapulgite k
Augite
25
Barium hydroxide 2k
Baymal
3
Benzenesulfonyl chloride, nitro-
21
Benzidine
15
Benzoyl peroxide 16
Benzyl alcohol
25
Beryllium
7
Beryllium oxide k
Beta component 20
Biotite 25
Bis
(
2
- chloroethyl) formal poly-
sulfide (See sulfides, poly-^
2,2-Bis(4-hydroxy-3-allylphenyl)-
propane (See phenol,
4,4'--
isopropylidenebis -2- allyl-)
Bitumens (See also pyrobitumens)
11,12,13,1^,16,17,
18
Bitumen, shale
23
Boehmite
3
41
-
Boleka oil (See oil, Boleka)
Borate glass (See glass,
borate)
Boric acid
8,19,22
Boron
7
Boron aluminate 4
Boron carbide
4,7
Boron oxide, B
2 3
4
,8
Borosilicates 4
Bricks, fire
^,5,6
Bricks, lead- containing 26
Briquets, fuel 6,10,11,12,13,
15,16,17,18,19,20,21,22,23,24,
25,26
Brown coal (See coal, brown)
1,3-Butadiene 14,22,26
1,4-Butanediol 22
Butene 22
tert -Butyl peroxide 24
Butyl stearate 19
Calcium aluminate
5
Calcium carbide 26
Calcium carbonate (See also
limestone) 8
Calcium chloride
9
Calcium chromite 4
Calcium fluoride
4,9
Calcium germanate 4
Calcium humate 16
Calcium hydroxide 6,15
Calcium ion 16
Calcium oxide (See also lime) 4,
5,6,14
Calcium phenolates 14
Calcium phosphate (See super-
phosphates)
Calcium silicate (See wollas-
tonite)
Calcium stearate 19
Calcium sulfate (See also
gypsum) 5,8
Carbides (See also names of
various metals)
7,9
Carbohydrates (See also cellu-
lose) galactose) molasses;
polysaccharides; starch;
sugar
)
14 , 18
Carbon 9, 14, 17, 18,21,25
Carbon, activated 21,25
Carbonyls (See metal carbonyls,
and various metals, e.g.., iron)
Carborundum (See silicon car-
bide)
Carbowax
19
Carnauba wax
9
Carob bean (locust bean) gum 14
Carubin
14
Casein
12, 14
Cassava flour
15,17,24
Castor oil, sulfonated 8
Catalysts
5,6,17,18
Cellulose 21
Cellulose, alkali 11
Cellulose, carboxymethyl ether,
sodium salt (See sodium car-
boxymethyl cellulose)
Cellulose derivatives 15,18,21
Cement (See also portland
cement)
5
Cement, alumina (See alumina
cement
)
Ceramic materials 11, 14, 15,
16
Ceresin
3
Chalk
5
Charcoal 11,17,18,26
o-Chlorophenol (See phenol,
o-chloro-)
Chloroprene 14
Chromium
7
Chromium aluminate
3
Chromium carbide
7
Chromium chloride, CrCl
3
21
Chromium compounds 5,26
Chromium ore
5
Chromium oxide, Cr
2 3
4
Chromium silicide
9
Citric acid 10
Clay 4,5,20
Coal 10,11,12,13,14,15,16.17,
18,19,20,21,22,23,24,25,26
Coal, anthracite 25
Coal, brown (See also lignite)
16,20,23,25
Coal, hydrogenation products
of 15
Coalite 6
Cobalt 7,15
Coke
11,14
Coke, petroleum 11
Coke, pitch 11,20
Collodion 9
Colloid, protective 21
Copper 6,8
Corundum 4,8
Creosote oil
14
Cresylic acid (cresols) 22
-
42
Cyclohexane, 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexa-
chloro-
9
Dextrin 23
Diamond 4,6,8,21
Diatomaceous earth (See also
kieselguhr)
5
Dichloroethane (See ethane, di-
chloro-)
Diglycidyl terephthalate (See
terephthalic acid, diglycidyl
ester)
Dilinoleic acid (See linoleic
acid, dimer)
Dinas 6
Dipentene
24
Dolomite 6,21
Drying oils (See oils, drying)
Electric charge
3
Electric furnace (See furnace,
electric)
Electrodes (carbon) 9,14,18,20,21
Emulsions 13,20,21,22,25,26
Epichlorohydrin 15
Epoxy resins (See also Araldite)
11,15
Esters 12,14,19,22,24
Esters, poly- 22
Ethane, dichloro- .
8
Ethane, tetrachloro- 8
Ethanol 22
Ethene (See ethylene)
Ether, allyl 22
Ethers 12,
14
Ethylene 22
Ethylenediamine 15
Ethylene, 1,1-dichloro- (See
vinylidene chloride)
Ethylene glycol 15,22
Ethylene oxide 21
Ethylene oxide polymers 21
Ferric ion (See iron)
Ferrous acetate (See iron ace-
tate)
Ferrous sulfate (See iron sul-
fate)
Fibers (See also asbestos;
glass) 3>26
Fibrils
3
Firebrick (See bricks, fire)
5,6
Fish oil (See oils, fish)
Florigel (See fuller's earth)
Flue dust, blast furnace 10
Fluorspar (See calcium fluoride)
Fluosilicates, alkali
3
Fly ash (See ash, fly)
Formal, bis( 2-chloroethyl)- 15
Formaldehyde 17,18,19,22,24
Formalin (See formaldehyde)
Foraamide
9
Formic acid
9
Foundry cores (See molds)
Fuel briquets (See briquets,
fuel)
Fuller's earth 6
2-Furaldehyde 26
Furan derivatives 16
Furfural (See 2-furaldehyde)
Furfuryl alcohol 16,26
Furnace, electric 6
Galactose 14
Gamma component 20
Generator tar (See tar, gener-
ator)
Germanium oxide 4
Glass 3, 6,8
Glass, borate 4
Glass fibers 19
Glucose 10
Glycerol
16
Glycol esters 16
Glycol, polyalkylene 21
Gold T
Graphite 5,6,7,17,21
Graphitic acid 21
Gum arabic
3
Gums (See also shellac
;
carob
bean gum) 16,21
Gypsum 6
Hafnium 7
Hafnium carbide
7
Hearth lining 6
Hexachlorocyclohexane (See
cyclohexane,
1,2,3,4, 5,
6-hexa-
chloro-)
Hexamethyleneamine (See hexa-
methylenetetramine
)
Hexamethylenetetramine 8,19,23
Horizontal retort pitch (See
pitch, horizontal retort)
Hornblende 25
Humates
16
*3
Humic acids 6,l6
Hydrates, crystal
7,9,10
Hydrocarbons, aromatic, deriva-
tives lk
Hydrocarbons, olefinic 22,26
Hydrocarbons, paraffinic 12
Hydroquinone 8
,
19
Hydroxy acids (See acids,
hydroxy-
)
Hydroxy amines (See amines,
hydroxy-
)
Inhibitors 4,17
Insulators 5,26
Iron 7,22
Iron acetate, Fe(OAc)
2
6
Iron carbony
1
6
Iron chloride, FeCl
3 ^
21
Iron humate 6,16
Iron ion (III) 16
Iron naphthenate lk
Iron oleate
lk
Iron ore 10,17
Iron oxide, FeO 6
Iron oxide, Fe
3
C>4 8
Iron oxide, Fe
2 3
18
Iron sulfate, FeS0
4
5,8
Isano oil (See oil, Isano)
Kaolin 5
Kerosene 17
Ketones
12,1k
Kieselguhr 5,9
Labradorite 25
Lactic acid 10
Latex (See also prickly pear
latex) 21,22,26
Lead 7,15
Lead naphthenate
lk
Lead oleate
lk
Lead oxides 9,12,16,17
Lead salts
26
Lignin
18,21
Lignite (See also coal, brown)
2k
Lignite pitch (See pitch, lig-
nite)
Lignite tar (See tar, lignite)
Lignosulfonates 17
Lime 4,5,6,13,1^,26
Limestone
6
Lime water (See calcium hy-
droxide
)
Linoleic acid, dimer
15
Linseed oil
15, 24
Litharge (See lead oxides)
Locust bean gum (See carob bean
gum)
Low-temperature tar (See tar,
low-temperature
)
Lupines 17
Magnesite
5,6,7,26
Magnesium
7
Magnesium aluminum silicate (See
attapulgite
)
Magnesium carbonate 8
Magnesium chloride 6
Magnesium oxide
6,7,8,15
Magnesium silicate 12
Magnesium sulfate
7
Magnets
7,19,22,23
Maleic anhydride 16,22
Manganese 6,7
Manganese chloride, MnCl
3
21
Manioc flour (See cassava flour)
Mannose Ik
Metal carbides 7
Metal carbonyls
7
Metal nitrides
7
Metal oxides 8,19
Metals 6, 7,
8,
Ik, 15, 21
Methane, dichloro- 22
Methane , triphenyl , k ,k
'
,k
'

-tri
-
isocyanato- 22
Methanol
18
Methylol 26
Mica
26
Mineral aggregates (See aggre-
gates)
Mineral fibers (See fibers)
Mineral oil 21
Molasses
10, l6, 17,
21
Molding composition
8
Molding sand (See sand, molding)
Molecular sieves 4,5
Molds
15
Molybdenum 7
Molybdenum carbide 7
Molybdenum silicide 9
Mullite
k
Naphtha
17
Naphthalene
20
Naphthalene,
1,5-diisocyanato- 22
Naphthalenesulfonyl chloride,
nitro-
21
-
kk
-
Nickel 7
Niobium 7
Nitrides, metal (See also alum-
inum nitride
)
7
Nitrobenzenesulfonyl chloride
(See benzenesulfonyl chloride,
nitro-
)
Nitro compounds Ik
Nitronaphthalenesulfonyl chloride
(See
naphthalenesulfonyl chlo-
ride, nitro-)
Nitrophenols (See phenols,
nitro-)
Novolak 23
Oil, Boleko 15
Oil, Isano 15
Oils, drying 15
Oils, fish 21
Olefins 22,26
Oleic acid 16
Oleylamine 12
Olivine 25
Ores
5,9;
,10,13,17
Organosilicons (See silicones,
organosilicons
)
Orthoclase 25
Paint 15
Paper
3A5
Paraffin wax 23
Paving (pavement) 12,25,26
Peat 6,24,25
Pentaerythritol 22
Petrolatum 2k
Petroleum 6,11,12,13,18,25
Petroleum coke (See coke, petro-
leum)
Petroleum oxidation products
17,
18
Petroleum pitch (See pitch, pe-
troleum)
Phenanthrene 20
Phenol 18
Phenol, o-chloro- 19
Phenol, U,4'-isopropylidenebis-
2-allyl- 15
Phenol-aldehyde resins (See also
novolak) 18,19,22,26
Phenol borates 19
Phenol- formaldehyde resin (See
phenol-aldehyde resins)
Phenol phosphates
19
Phenols (See also phenol-alde-
hyde
resins) 12,19
Phenols, nitro- 17
Phenyl phosphate, mono- 19
Phosphoric acid 4,8,19
Phosphoronitrile dichloride 8
Phosphorus pentachloride 8
Pickling wastes (liquors) 8
Pitch (See also next six en-
tries) 11,13,14,19,20,21,22,
23,25,26
Pitch coke (See coke, pitch)
Pitch, horizontal retort 20,25
Pitch, lignite 20
Pitch, petroleum 18,25
Pitch, shale 18
Pitch, vertical retort 20
Platinum
7
Polyacrylamide (See acrylamide,
poly-
)
Polyalkylene glycol (See glycol,
polyalkylene
)
Polyamides (See amides, poly-)
Polyester resins (See esters,
poly-
)
Polyethylene oxide (See ethyl-
ene oxide polymers)
Polysaccharides 15
Polystyrene (See styrene poly-
mers)
Polyurethanes (See urethanes,
poly-
)
Polyvinyl acetal (See vinyl ace-
tal polymer)
Polyvinyl acetate (See vinyl
acetate polymer)
Polyvinyl alcohol (See vinyl al-
cohol polymer)
Polyvinyl chloride (See vinyl
chloride polymer)
Portland cement 8,14
Potassium silicate
8,9
Potassium sulfate
9
Potato starch (See starch, pota-
to)
Prickly pear latex 22
Propene 22
Pulp liquor (See sulfite liquor)
Pyrimidines, tetrahydro- 12
Pyrobitumens 23
Pyromellitic anhydride 15
Quartz 8,15,25
45
Quartz it
e
6
Radiation, protection against 26
Refractories 3,4 ,5,6,1,10,16,21
Resins (See also epoxy resins;
phenol-aldehyde; urea-formal-
dehyde) 7,8,17,19,21,23,26
Resorcinol 8,19
Roads 12,25,26
Rock 25
Rock aggregate (See aggregates)
Rubber 19
Salt (See sodium chloride)
Salt hydrates (See hydrates,
crystal)
Sand 9,15
Sand, molding 15, 16
Sapphire 21
Sawdust 23
Shale 13,23
Shale pitch (See pitch, shale)
Shellac 23
Silanes (See also alkoxysili-
cons; siliconacylates; sili-
cones; siliconols) 14
Silica (silicon dioxide, Si0
2)
(See also quartz)
5,6,7,8,9
Silica, colloidal
5,9
Silica gel
5
Silicates, alkali (See also
sodium silicate; potassium
silicate)
"
Silicides
Silicon
Siliconacylates
Silicon carbide
Silicon dioxide
ca)
Silicones (organosilicons)
Siliconols
Silicons, alkoxy
silicons)
Silver
Soaps
Sodium aluminate
Sodium bisulfate
Sodium carbonate
Sodium carboxymethylcellulose
Sodium chloride
12
Sodium chloroacetate
24
Sodium dichromate 13
Sodium humate
16
3 3,9
9
7,9
IT
>*.,
5,7,8,9,19,26
(See also sili-
5,7,8,18
17,19
17
(See alkoxy-
8
It, 25
5
17
6,24,25
15
Sodium hydroxide
21,24
Sodium ion
Sodium oxide
Sodium phosphate
Sodium silicate
Sodium sulfide, poly
Soybean oil
Soybeans
Starch
Starch, potato
Stearic acid
Styrene
Styrene polymers
Sugar
5,13,16,17,18,
16
8
13
3,6,8,9,10
15
15
17,23
5,l8,23,2U
23,24
16
16,22,24,26
16,24,26
12,17
Sulfides, poly-, of bis(2-chloro-
15
15,16,21,2^,25
17
11,22,24
8,17,18
9
25
ethyl ) formal
Sulfite liquor
Sulfonic acids
Sulfur
Sulfuric acid
Superphosphates
Surface tension
Talc
Tantalum
Tantalum carbide
Tantalum silicide
Tar 6,11,12,13,16,17
21,25,26
Tar acids
Tar, generator
Tar, horizontal retort
Tar, lignite
Tar, low-temperature
Tar oils
Tar, wood
Tartaric acid
Tartrates
Terephthalic acid, dig
ester
Tetrachloroethane (Se
tetrachloro-)
Textiles
Thickening agent
Thorium
Thorium carbide
Tin
Tin aluminate
Titanium
Titanium carbide
Titanium oxide
Titanium
silicide
9
7
M
9
,18,19,20,
18
25
25
20
20,25
21
18,25,26
10
5,26
lycidyl
15
e ethane,
15
21
7
7
8
3
7
7
4
9
U6
p-Toluenesulfonyl chloride 21
Trass 5
Tr
i
( hydroxyalkyl )dialkylenetri
-
amines
16
k.
f
k

,k
' '
-Tri-isocyanatotriphenyl-
methane (See methane, tri-
phenyl-
)
Tuff, volcanic (See trass)
Tungsten 7
Tungsten carbide
^>6,7
Tungsten silicide
9
Uranium
Uranium carbide
Urea
Urea-formaldehyde resins
Urethanes, poly-
Vanadium
Vanadium carbide
Vermiculite
Vertical retort pitch (See
pitch, vertical retort)
Vinyl acetal polymer
Vinyl acetate polymer
Vinyl alcohol polymer
Vinyl chloride
Vinyl chloride polymer
Vinyl cyclohexene dioxide
Vinyl esters
Vinylidene chloride
Vinyl polymers
Viscosity
26
16,26
20
Wash oil (See absorption oils)
Water glass (See sodium sili-
cate)
Wetting agents
8,9
White spirit 17
Wollastonite 10
Wood 21,23
Wood tar (See tar, wood)
7
7
16,24
Xylitol 17
19,26
22 Zahlit-D 26
Zeolite
M
7
Zinc aluminate
3
7
Zinc carbonate 8
5
Zinc chloride
7
Zinc oxide 8
Zinc stearate
19
22 Zinc sulfate 10
22,23 Zirconia (zirconium oxide) k
26 Zirconium
7
26 Zirconium carbide
7
16,26 Zirconium hydride
7
15 Zirconium oxide k
26 Zirconium silicide
9