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MODEL TESTS OF THE MOTIONS OF A


CATAMARAN HULL IN WAVES

C. Guedes Soares
1

N. Fonseca
P. Santos
A. Marn
2





1
Unit of Marine Engineering and Technology, Technical University of Lisbon,Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal
2
Canal de Experiencias Hidrodinmicas de El Pardo, calle Sierra, El Pardo, 28042 Madrid, Spain
SUMMARY

The paper describes the results of model tests of a catamaran in
regular waves. The program concentrated on the heave, pitch
and roll behavior of the catamaran and considered the effects of
speed and heading on the motion behavior. Some derived
responses were also investigated such as the vertical
accelerations and relative motions and the mean added
resistance in waves. The tests were carried out for several wave
headings and Froude numbers and for a wide range of wave
frequencies.

INTRODUCTION

The seakeeping behavior of catamarans in waves have been
studied since the seventies when there was the successful
implementation of strip theory to seakeeping problems. However
the amount of work applied to this ship type is much smaller
than for monohulls. This is especially true for the published
experimental data, which is essential for the validation of
numerical models. Some of the earlier work is discussed here
so as to point out the main features that have been covered in
the experimental work.

A comprehensive set of sea motions and loads experiments
have been conducted at the Naval Ship Research and
Development Center (NSRDC) by Wahab et al (1971) for an
ASR catamaran model advancing in waves. The ASR
catamaran was intended to service the deep sea rescue vehicle
and she has asymmetric forebodies and symmetric aftbodies.

The heave, pitch, roll and the relative motions at the bow were
measured for 5 hull separations, several forward speeds and 13
headings between head and following regular waves. The hull
separations varied from H/B = 0.70 to H/B = 2.11, where H is
the hull separation and B is the beam at he waterline of each
hull. Froude numbers varied from 0.0 to 0.41. In addition to the
motions, five components of the wave induced loads at the
centre-line of the cross-deck structure were measured for the 5
hull separations and several forward speeds in beam, bow and
head regular waves. Some tests were also carried out in
irregular waves.

Lee et al (1973) studied numerically and experimentally the
motions of two catamarans in head seas and the loads in beam
seas. The tests were conducted at the NSRDC in order to
obtain the response amplitude operators (RAOs) of the induced
motions. The most extensive experimental work was carried out
with a model of the ASR catamaran. One hull spacing was
used, corresponding to H/B = 1.58. Three groups of tests were
carried out, namely: forced oscillation tests to obtain the added
mass and damping coefficients, restrained model tests to obtain
the wave-exciting force and moment and tests in regular waves
to obtain the heave and pitch motions. For the motion tests the
model was self-propelled and free to oscillate in all six modes of
motion. Four Froude numbers were used between 0. and 0.414,
and a range of head regular wavelength-to-shiplength between
0.5 and 3.5. The experimental heave and pitch results are
presented only for the Froude number 0.104 and head waves.
Additional heave and roll data are also presented for zero speed
condition and beam regular waves.

A model of the CVA catamaran was also tested at zero Froude
number and beam regular waves. The CVA is a conventional
catamaran of large beam, shallow draft and symmetric hulls.
Measurements are presented of the heave and roll motions and
also of the bending moment and vertical shear force acting on
the crossbeam structure.

Faltinsen et al (1992) conducted a series of self propelled tests
at the Ocean Environment Laboratory of MARINTEK with a
catamaran model, in order to measure the induced motions and
loads on the cross deck structure induced by regular waves.
The objective was to obtain data to validate a 2 1/2 -
dimensional linear method. The model has symmetric hulls, with
deep V-shape at the bow, a relation H/B of 2.44. Heave, roll and
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pitch results are presented for beam and bow waves and a
Froude number of 0.49. Loads were measured at a longitudinal
cross section close to the centre-line include the vertical shear
force, vertical bending moment and pitch connecting moment.

Kashiwagi (1993) compared experimental data from a
catamaran with a Wigley demi-hull with numerical predictions
from unified slender body theory. The experiments were carry
out in head regular waves and Froude numbers of 0.15 and 0.30
in order to measure the heave and pitch responses.

Van't Veer and Siregar (1995) presented experimental results
for a Wigley catamaran model at forward speed in head regular
waves. The tests were carried out at the towing tank of the Delft
Ship Hydrodynamic Laboratory with the objective of validating a
strip theory program. In fact the results were obtained using a
Wigley monohull towed in the vicinity of the tank wall, thus
simulating a Wigley catamaran by using the tank wall as the
symmetry plane of the vessel.

The experiments consisted of forced heave oscillation tests with
a segmented model, restrained model tests and motion tests.
The tests were carried out with three different hull spacing,
corresponding to H/B = 1.04, 2.10 and 3.14, where H is the hull
separation and B is the beam at the waterline of each hull. For
each hull spacing three Froude numbers were used, 0.15, 0.30
and 0.45. van't Veer and Siregar (1995) paper presents only
part of the experimental data. Siregar (1995) publishes the
complete set of experimental data in a report.

Hermundstad et al (1995,1999) validated a linear method for
hydroelastic analysis of high-speed vessels with test data from a
high-speed catamaran model in regular waves. The experiments
were carried out at MARINTEK, with a hinged model where
each hull consists of three separate rigid segments that are
connected by elastic hinges. The model with a relation H/B =
2.82, was self propelled and used an autopilot system.

The relevant measured quantities were the heave, roll and pitch
motions and the vertical shear force and vertical bending
moment at each hinge. Two speeds were tested corresponding
to Froude numbers of 0.47 and 0.63. In regular waves three
headings were used, namely: head waves (0), bow waves (30)
and beam waves (90). Tests were also performed in calm
water, in impulsive waves and in two long-crested irregular
seastates. Only the results in regular waves are present in
Hermundstad et al (1995,1999). Complete information on the
tests can be found in Hermundstad (1995).

They compared numerical predictions from linear and quasi-
nonlinear strip methods with experimental results from three
catamarans in head regular waves. Two of the catamarans were
tested by other authors, namely the ASR catamaran from
Wahab et al (1971) and the MARINTEK catamaran from
Faltinsen et al. (1992).

A catamaran was tested by Fang et al. (1996,1997) at the
Hydrodynamic Laboratory of the University of Glasgow. The
catamaran had a high-speed hard-shine hull form with V-type
cross sections on the forebody and a cut-off transom stern.
Details of the catamaran and additional motion results can be
found in Incecik et al (1991). A vertical post towed the model
and it was free to heave and pitch around the centre of gravity.
One of the objectives of these tests was to assess the
nonlinearity of the heave and pitch RAOs with the wave height.
For this reason the RAOs were obtained for three different wave
amplitudes and three Froude numbers (Fn = 0.0, 0.226 and
0.677).

They compared numerical predictions from linear and quasi-
nonlinear strip methods with experimental results from three
catamarans in head regular waves. Two of the catamarans were
tested by other authors, namely the ASR catamaran from
Wahab et al (1971) and the MARINTEK catamaran from
Faltinsen et al. (1992).

More recently Centeno et al (1999) presented the results of an
experimental program carried out at the Hydrodynamic
Laboratory of the University of Glasgow, with a hard-chine
catamaran model in head regular waves. The demi-hull is the
same as used by Fang et al. (1996,1997) and Incecik et al
(1991), but with two different hull spacings corresponding to H/B
of 2.53 and 3.80, where H is the hull spacing and B is the beam
at the waterline of the demi-hull. The heave and pitch RAOs
were obtained for four different Froude numbers: 0.0, 0.25,
0.625 and 0.75.

From the review of published experimental data on wave
induced motions and loads on catamarans, one may conclude
that the amount of experimental data is not large and great part
of the results are for head waves only. In fact only a few authors
present results for bow and beam waves and there seems to be
no results for quartering and following seas. In addition
important results like the relative motions at the bow and vertical
accelerations seem to be not published also. Concerning the
wave induced loads at the cross deck structure, which are of
primary importance for the design of medium to large size
catamarans, such data is presented only for a few hull forms
and speed / heading conditions. Finally, one of the seakeeping
characteristics that naval architects are most interested is the
added resistance in waves. Again it was found that there are no
published experimental data of the added resistance in waves
for catamarans.

In the present experimental program data was obtained for a
new catamaran model, covering some of the aspects where
there seems to exist no data published.

EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM AND SETUP

Facilities

The experimental programme was carried out at the Laboratory
of Ship Dynamics of El Pardo Model Basin in Madrid. The
laboratory is made up of three basic facilities: the tank, the wave
generator and associated power plant and the computerized
planar motion carriage. The lay out and main characteristics of the
testing facilities are shown in figure 1.

The snake-type wave generator is formed by sixty elements. By
adjusting the phase of the almost sinusoidal motion of each of the
elements, the direction of the waves can be adjusted at will within
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certain limits. Each element is of the flap type, hinged at two
meters from the tank bottom.

Figure 1 Layout of testing facilities


Figure 2 Catamaran body lines

The Computerized Planar Motion Carriage (CPMC) can follow any
path in the horizontal plane either towing a captive model, as in the
present case, or tracking a free-running, self-propelled model. It is
used both for seakeeping and manoeuvring studies.

The tank has a depth of five meters, which makes any bottom
effects negligible for typical model sizes. A pit with a total depth of
ten meters allows the testing of deep-water structures. The
dimensions of the basin are adequate for testing models of about 4
to 6 meters in length.

Model characteristics and instrumentation

The tests were carried out with a model of a catamaran
passenger ferry designed to operate in sea environment. The
main characteristics of the catamaran and model are given in
Table 1 and Figure 2 presents the bodylines.

The model was constructed in FRP at a scale of 1:10. In the
preparation of the model checks were made for the
displacement, draft and trim. The model weight was obtained
from the scale. The drafts were observed with the model on the
water against draft marks previously painted on the model.
Transparent windows allowed the observation of draft marks
from below reducing the effect of meniscus as much as
possible.
























An inclination test was made with a lateral displacement of a 10
Kg with the model in the water in order to determine the vertical
position of the center of gravity.

The longitudinal and transversal radius of inertia were adjusted
to the value of 0.267 Lpp and 0.443 B respectively by
measuring the natural period of oscillation of the model on an
inertia table designed for such purpose. This table consists of a
platform that can rotate about a horizontal axis. The table is
maintained horizontally by means of calibrated springs on each
axis. The oscillation period is related to the inertia of the table
itself, which is known, the inertia of the model and the constant
of the springs, which is also known. Therefore the measurement
of this period allows the calculation of the inertia of the model
itself. The period was measured by means of an inclinometer
whose electric signal is fed to the data acquisition system of a
PC that performs the necessary computations.

Instrumentation

Figure 3 is a sketch of the model instrumentation. The model
was towed at the required speed by means of two vertical bars
connected to the carriage. These bars were free to move
vertically along a low friction linear guide allowing the model to
heave. The forward bar was allowed to rotate in the longitudinal
plane to compensate the small variations in the longitudinal
distance when pitching. The bars were connected to the model
through a double axis hinge allowing free pitch and roll.

The list of measured quantities and related instrumentation is:

The heave, pitch and roll motions were measured by a non-
contact optical tracking system.

Ship Model
Scale 1 1:10
Length overall (m) 43.5 4.35
Length between pp (m) 43.0 4.3
Beam overall (m) 11.4 1.14
Demi-hull beam at wl (m) 2.70 0.27
Ship depth (m) 4.55 0.45
Draft (m) 1.354 0.14
Trim (m) 0. 0.
Hull spacing (m) 8.6 0.86
LCG aft of midship (m) 3.38 0.3
VCG from baseline (m) 3.71 0.371
Displacement (Kg) 184110 184.1
Roll radius of gyration (m) 0.267Lpp
Pitch radius of gyration (m) 0.443Boa
Table 1 Main characteristics of the catamaran
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Five accelerometers were fitted to measure vertical
accelerations and one for transversal acceleration.

Two load cells at the towing bar allowed the measurement
of added resistance.

A capacitative wave probe was installed forward of the
model to measure the incoming wave elevation and four
others close to the bow (two on each hull).

Two pressure transducers at the central hull.


Figure 3 Instrumentation of the model

All signals were digitized at 20 Hz, corresponding to 6.3 Hz at
full scale. The time series were recorded on a data acquisition
PC while another PC connected through a local area network
allows to observe graphically the time traces of all the signals in
real time. This allows a quick check and quality control of the
instrumentation.

Experimental program

The testing program in regular waves includes four Froude
numbers between 0.0 and 0.6, and several headings for each
speed of advance. For each of these conditions a range of wave
frequencies was used corresponding to a ratio wave-length to
ship-length from 0.5 to 4.0.

The objective of the tests was to determine experimentally the
linear responses of the model, in order to validate linear
procedures. For this reason the waves selected had to be in one
hand of small amplitude and on the other hand they had to
generate responses suitable for accurate measurements.
Having this in mind, the wave height (at full scale) varied from
0.43m for short waves, to 0.50m for medium length waves and
0.70m for long waves. These correspond to wave slopes k
a

(k is the wave number and
a
the wave amplitude) of 0.06 for
short waves and 0.01 for long waves. Around the vertical
motions resonance frequency, the wave slope was about 0.04.







The majority of the tests were performed with the third bow
installed in the model. Those conditions in which impact
pressures were measured at the third bow, were repeated
without the third bow. Part of the experimental results are
presented here, namely the responses for Froude number 0.4,
for head and bow waves and the responses for head waves and
all four Froude numbers.

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

Figures 4 to 8 show several responses of the catamaran model
in regular waves and advancing with a Froude number of 0.4.
Three different headings are considered, namely: head waves
(180) and two bow wave conditions (165 and 150). The
results are presented in an x-axis scale of nondimensional wave
frequencies, where ?0 represents the wave frequency, L is the
length between perpendiculars and g is the acceleration of
gravity. The symbols represent experimental points. In order to
better understand the tendencies of the responses, a "smooth"
line connects the experimental points. However it should be
noted that the line does not necessarily represents the real
experimental curve, since a limited number of discrete points
have been tested.

Each response is represented by its response amplitude
operator (RAO) and phase angle. The RAO is defined by the
first harmonic of the response divided by the first harmonic of
the incident wave elevation. Other terms beside the wave
elevation may be used to nondimensionalise the responses.
The phase angles represent the delay of the response (first
harmonic) with respect to the maximum wave elevation at the
center of gravity of the model.

Figure 4 represents the heave amplitudes (
3
) divided by the
wave amplitudes (
a
) and respective phase angles. One
resonance peak can be observed approximately at the
nondimensional frequency of 2.5, which corresponds to a
relation wave length - ship length of 1. The peak is higher for
head waves than for bow waves. It is possible that the true
resonance peak is not accurately captured by the experiments
because of the frequency separation between experimental
points. The ideal would be to test more points around the
nondimensional frequency 2.5. As expected, the phase angles
for the three headings are similar for long waves and start to
deviate for shorter waves.

The pitch linear response is shown in figure 5. The amplitudes
are nondimensionalised by the wave slope ( k
a
). A resonance
peak is now identified for the nondimensional frequency around
2.1, which corresponds to a wave length to ship length ratio of
1.4. The amplitudes tend to decrease from head to bow waves,
following the decrease of effective wave slope.
- 5 -
Heave motion - RAO
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

0
sqrt(L/g)
3
/
a
150
165
180
Heave motion - phase angle
-50
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

0
sqrt(L/g)
p
h
a
s
e

(
d
e
g
)
150
165
180

Figure 4 Heave motion response for Froude number 0.4


Pitch motion - RAO
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
1.2
1.4
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

0
sqrt(L/g)
5
/
k
a
150
165
180
Pitch motion - phase angle
0
60
120
180
240
300
360
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

0
sqrt(L/g)
p
h
a
s
e

(
d
e
g
)
150
165
180

Figure 5 Pitch motion response for Froude number 0.4
Figure 6 represents the roll response in bow waves. The
amplitudes are also dimensionalised by the wave slope. One
can say that the roll amplitudes of the catamaran model are very
small in bow waves, reaching to a maximum value of only 60%
of the wave slope for 150 heading.

More interesting are the vertical accelerations measured on the
model. Figure 7 presents the vertical acceleration responses
measured at the bow of the weather hull. The longitudinal
position is 15.3m forward of midship. The amplitudes are shown
in two vertical axis. One represents nondimensional values,
zL/ag, being z the vertical acceleration and g the acceleration
of gravity. The other represents acceleration amplitudes per unit
wave amplitude, divided by the acceleration of gravity. One can
observe the presence of a large peak of around 2g, for wave
lengths similar to the ship length. This is mainly related to the
high encounter frequency, which occurs simultaneously with
relatively large amplitude of the vertical motions. Also the
"adverse" effects of heave and pitch on the vertical
accelerations tend to sum up for this condition.

The relative vertical motions between the ship and the waves
was measured at the two bows, and at each bow inside and
outside. The longitudinal position is 16.1m forward of midship
for the inside sensors and 17.3m for the outside sensors. The
response curves showed that for head and bow waves there are
small differences in the relative motions inside and outside of
the hulls. For this reason results are presented only for the
outside of the weather hull. Figure 8 shows the relative motion
amplitudes divided by the wave amplitudes and the related
phase angles. The peak of the transfer function is about 3.5 for
waves of the same length as the ship.
Roll motion - RAO
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

0
sqrt(L/g)
4
/
k
a
150
165
Roll motion - phase angle
0
100
200
300
400
500
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

0
sqrt(L/g)
p
h
a
s
e

(
d
e
g
)
150
165

Figure 6 Roll motion response for Froude number 0.4
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Vertical acceleration at the bow - RAO
0
20
40
60
80
100
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

0
sqrt(L/g)
(
z
L
)
/
(
a
g
)
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
z
/
a
g

[
m
-
1
]
150
165
180
Vertical acceleration at the bow - phase angle
50
100
150
200
250
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

0
sqrt(L/g)
p
h
a
s
e

(
d
e
g
)
150
165
180

Figure 7 Vertical acceleration at the bow for Froude number 0.4

Relative Motion at the Bow - RAO
0
1
2
3
4
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

0
sqrt(L/g)
r
/
a
150
165
180
Relative Motion at the Bow - phase angle
0
50
100
150
200
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5

0
sqrt(L/g)
p
h
a
s
e

(
d
e
g
)
150
165
180

Figure 8 Relative motion at the bow for Froude number 0.4
Figures 9 and 10 represent the magnitudes of several
responses of the catamaran in head waves and for four Froude
numbers, respectively 0.0, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.6. Figure 9 shows the
heave and pitch nondimensional amplitudes. As expected, one
can observe that the resonance peak increases very much with
the the Froude number. Although the entire justification is not
straight forward due to the complexity of the phenomena
envolved, this increase of the resonance peak with the Froude
number is mainly due to the shift of the resonance frequency to
the longer wave lengths where the exciting forces are of higher
amplitude.

The increase of the vertical motions with the Froude number is
followed by the other related vertical responses, namelly the
vertical acceleration at the bow and relative motion at the bow
(figure 10).

Heave motion - RAO
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

0
sqrt(L/g)
3
/
a
Fn = 0.0
Fn = 0.2
Fn = 0.4
Fn = 0.6
Pitch motion - RAO
0.0
0.4
0.8
1.2
1.6
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

0
sqrt(L/g)
5
/
k
a
Fn = 0.0
Fn = 0.2
Fn = 0.4
Fn = 0.6

Figure 9 Heave and pitch nondimensional amplitudes in head
waves


Finally the mean added resistance in waves is presented in
figure 11. The left side graph shows the mean added resistance
in head and bow waves for Froude number 0.4. The right side
graph shows the same response in head waves for four Froude
numbers between 0.0 and 0.6. The amplitudes are
nondimensionalised by g B L
a
2 2
/ , where the term
represents the mass density of the water and B is the beam
overall at the waterline.
- 7 -
Vertical Acceleration at the Bow - RAO
0
20
40
60
80
100
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

0
sqrt(L/g)
z
L
/
a
g
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
z
/
a
g
Fn = 0.0
Fn = 0.2
Fn = 0.4
Fn = 0.6
Relative Motion at the Bow - RAO
0.0
1.0
2.0
3.0
4.0
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

0
sqrt(L/g)
r
/
a
Fn = 0.0
Fn = 0.2
Fn = 0.4

Figure 10 Vertical acceleration and relative motions
amplitudes in head waves



The procedure to obtain the mean added resistance forces is
the following. Firstly, the total towing force is measured using
two load cells with the model at speed in waves. This is an
oscillatory force. Secondly, the mean value of the towing force is
calculated. Finally, the mean added resistance in waves is the
difference between the mean towing force in waves and the
resistance to the advance in still water. The later was measured
at the initial stage of the tests.

The mean added resistance in waves is a second order quantity
proportional to the square of the wave amplitude, and with a
magnitude much smaller than the first order forces. For these
reason a high degree of accuracy is needed in the experiments.
The small degree of dispersion of the experimental points in
figure 11 suggest that these forces were measured accurately.
The results in figure 11 show a large peak for the
nondimensional frequency of 2.5, which is mainly related with
the energy spent with the large vertical relative motions at the
bow.
Mean added resistance in waves
0
2
4
6
8
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

0
sqrt(L/g)
R
w
a
/
(
g
a
2
B
2
/
L
)
150
165
180
Mean added resistance in waves
0
2
4
6
8
10
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0

0
sqrt(L/g)
R
w
a
g
a
L
Fn = 0.0
Fn = 0.2
Fn = 0.4
Fn = 0.6

Figure 11 Mean added resistance in head waves.
Head and bow waves at Fn =0.4 (left side).
Head waves at several Froude numbers (right side).


COMPARISON WITH OTHER EXPERIMENTAL DATA

The hull form considered in this work is different from the ones
considered in other experimental studies and thus a direct
comparison is not possible. However some qualitative checks
will allow conclusions about the consistency of data and general
trends of the results.

The heave and pitch results from Hermundstad et al. (1999) in
head waves at Fn = 0.47, show resonance peaks for both
responses about 10% higher than the results presented here for
Fn = 0.40. However Hermundstad results of vertical motions in
head waves for Fn = 0.47 and 0.63 do not differ much in terms
of amplitudes, while the results present here show a large
increase of resonance peaks between Fn = 0.4 and 0.6. His
heave peaks for the two Froude numbers are approximately the
same and the pitch peak is even around 20% lower for the
higher speed. In the case of the present results between Fn =
0.4 and Fn = 0.6, the heave and pitch resonance increase
respectively 60% and 20%.

- 8 -
It is possible that the different behavior between the two hulls is
partly related with the different stern geometry. Both catamarans
have transom sterns, however Hermundstad's catamaran has a
tunnel stern, while the other has a conventional transom stern.

While the former two sets of results agree relatively well, the
results from Wahab (1971) show much larger resonance peaks
for heave and pitch motions, for head and bow waves at similar
Froude numbers (Fn around 0.4). Wahab's heave peaks are
about two times larger than those presented here and the pitch
peaks around 40% higher. It is believed that the difference is
mainly due to the lower relation Bdh/T, which is 2.0 for the
present catamaran and 1.33 for the ASR catamaran (Bdh is the
demi-hull beam at the waterline and T is the draft). In general,
this lower relation results in smaller damping as percentage of
critical damping, thus larger resonance peaks. Another
consequence is the shift of natural frequencies to longer waves
where excitation forces and moments are higher. This can also
be observed in the graphs: while the present catamaran has the
resonance peak for L L
w pp
/ . =10 , the ASR has for
L L
w pp
/ . = 12 .

Another characteristic which is believed to have some effect on
the vertical motion resonance amplitudes is the stern geometry.
For higher Froude numbers the transom stern generates lifting
effects which may have an influence on the heave and pitch
responses. The ASR has a conventional stern while the present
catamaran has a transom stern.

When the heave response from Fang et al (1996) in head waves
at Fn = 0.667 is compared with the same response of the
present catamaran at Fn = 0.6, one find a resonance peak
about 30% lower. The pitch peak is around 10% lower. The
relation Bdh/T for the V-1 is 2.3 , thus a little higher than for the
model studied here. In addition the hulls have a hard-chine
below the water-line along a large part of the length, thus it is
probable that viscous damping effects occur during the vertical
motion due to flow separation. These two characteristics of the
hulls result in relatively low resonance heave peaks. Comparing
different Froude numbers in Fang's heave and pitch data (Fn=
0.23 and 0.68), it is seen that only the higher speed shows
peaks of the transfer functions above 1.

Experimental results of the vertical motions are also presented
by Kashiwagi (1993) for a Wigley twin-hull in head waves. This
hull configuration does not have a transom stern, and it is
interesting to see that the vertical motions are quite resonant
even for a relatively small Froude number of 0.3. Similar results
were obtained by van't Veer and Sireger (1995) with another
Wigley twin-hull model.

CONCLUSIONS

The paper describes the results of model tests of a catamaran in
regular waves. The measured quantities are the heave, pitch
and roll motions, the relative motions at the bow, the vertical
accelerations and the mean added resistance in waves. The
influence of the heading and of the Froude number on the
catamaran behavior was investigated. Concerning the influence
of the heading, it was found that the vertical responses tend to
be slightly higher for head waves than for bow waves but the
differences are small. On the other hand, the vertical responses
are very sensitive to the Froude number, increasing with the
Froude number.

The comparison of experimental data presented here with other
published by other authors, shows that the results agree with
each other and the differences may be attributed to the different
hull configurations.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The experimental work was developed in the project
Experimental Study of Motions on Catamarans which has
been funded by the Commission of the European Communities,
through the Spanwave Project under contract ERB FMGE CT95
0074.

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