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GENERAL ENGINEERING & APPLIED SCIENCES
CHAPTER 3 Engineering Mechanics
GEAS
GEAS
ENGINEERING
MECHANICS
EngineeringMechanics is a branch of the physical sciences that is concerned
with the state of rest or motion of bodies subjected to the action of forces.

STATICS is concerned with the equilibrium of a body that is either at rest or in
motion with constant velocity.

DYNAMICS deals with the accelerated motion of the body.

KINEMATICS is a branch of dynamics, which treats only the geometric aspect of
the motion, while KINETICS is the analysis of the forces causing the motion.

STATICS
I. THE STATIC FORCE SYSTEM
Concurrent Forces are forces whose lines of action all pass through a
common point.
Coplanar Forces are forces lying in one plane.

Equilibrium is defined as the condition in which the resultant of all
forces acting on a body is zero.

Torque (or moment) about an axis, due to a force, is a measure of the
effectiveness of the force in producing rotation about
that axis.

Weight of an object is the force with which gravity pulls
downward upon it.

Center of gravity of an object is the point at which the entire weight of
the object is concentrated.
ENGINEERING
MECHANICS
STATICS DYNAMICS
KINETICS KINEMATICS

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II. RESULTANT OF TWO OR MORE COPLANAR, CONCURRENT FORCES
O Parallelogram Method: (for two coplanar, concurrent forces)
Cosine Law:

2 2 2
1 2 1 2
R F F 2FF cos = +

Sine Law:

2
F R
sin sin
=

O For more than 2 forces: (Use the Component Method)

( ) ( )
2 2
x y
y 1
x
R F F
F
tan
F

= +

=

III. FORCES IN EQUILIBRIUM
+ TYPES OF EQUILIBRIUM
Static equilibrium is the condition of a body at rest and remains at rest
under the action of concurrent forces.
Translational equilibrium is the condition of a body in motion with
constant velocity.
+ THE TWO CONDITIONS FOR EQUILIBRIUM
First or the Force Condition
The vector sum of all forces acting on the body must be zero..

x y
F 0 F 0 = =

Second or the Torque Condition
The sum of all the torques acting on the body must be zero

0 =

2
F
1
F
R

1
F
2
F

3
F

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GENERAL ENGINEERING & APPLIED SCIENCES
CHAPTER 3 -MECHANICS
GEAS
GEAS
CABLES

I. PARABOLIC CABLES

Taking summation of moment at A:

( )
L
H d
2 4
=

=

Thus,

Where:
T = tension at the support
H = tension at the lowest point
d = sag
= weight per unit length
L = span or distance between supports

2
Tension at the lowest point :
L
H
8d

=

2
2
Tension at the support :
L
T H
2

= +

2 4
3
Approximate lenght of cable :
8d 32d
S L
L 5L
= +

d
L
L/ 2 L/ 2
(N/ m)
T
T
H
W
L/ 2
L/ 2
(N/ m)
T
T
L/ 4 L/ 4
W
H

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II. CATENARY
(For Symmetrical & Unsymmetrical Supports)

Where:
T = tension at the support
H = tension at the lowest point
= weight per unit length
y = height of the support
= c minimum clearance from the ground

1 2
S & S are half lengths of the cable
L = span or distance between supports

d
L
x x
2
T
1
T
H
S S
2
y
1
y
c
1
1 1
Tension at the support T :
T y =

2
2 2
Tension at the support T :
T y =

( )
1
2
2
1 1
Tension at the support T :
T H S = +

( ) ( )
2
2 2
2 2
Tension at the support T :
T H S = +

1 1
1
Distance Between supports :
S y
x cln
c
+
=

2 2
2
Distance Between supports :
S y
x cln
c
+
=

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 1
Relationship among S, y &c :
S y c =

( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2
Relationship among S, y &c :
S y c =

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CHAPTER 3 -MECHANICS
GEAS
GEAS
FRICTION
O FRICTION ON BLOCK

F N
F
tan
N
=
= =

O MAXIMUM ANGLE OF INCLINE WITHOUT CAUSING THE BODY TO SLIDE DOWN:

1
tan

= =

Where, in O & O :

F frictional force
N normal force
P the applied force
R total surface reaction
coefficient of friction
angle of friction
angle of the incline
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

O BELT FRICTION

1 1
2 2
T T
e ln
T T

= =

Where:
= the coefficient of friction
= angle of contact in radians

1
T = tension in the tight side

2
T = tension in the slack side

N
W

P
f
F N =
N
W
1
T
2
T

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CHAPTER 3 Engineering Mechanics
o
V
f
V
s
DYNAMICS
I. RECTILINEAR MOTION - (Motion in a Straight Line)

+ Uniform Motion - (constant speed / zero acceleration)

s vt =

Where:
s = distance
v = uniform speed or velocity
t = time

+ Uniformly Accelerated Motion - (velocity increases uniformly)
Equations of Motion:

2
o
1
s v t at
2
=

f o
v v at =

2 2
f o
v v 2as =

Where:
s = distance traveled or displacement

o
v = original velocity ; (
o
v 0, if from rest = )

f
v = final velocity ;
f
(v 0,if to stop) =
a = acceleration (
2 2
m/ s or ft / s )
t = time, (seconds)
v v
o f
v v v = =
s
o
v
f
v
s
Use ( ) + if :
f o
(v v ) >
Use ( ) if :
f o
(v v ) <

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GENERAL ENGINEERING & APPLIED SCIENCES
CHAPTER 3 -MECHANICS
GEAS
GEAS
II. FREE-FALLING BODY - (Motion Under gravity)

Important Equations:

2
o
1
h v t gt
2
=

f o
v v gt =

2 2
f o
v v 2gh =
Where:
h = height

o
v = original velocity

f
v = final velocity
g = acceleration due to gravity

2 2 2
m ft cm
9.81 32.2 981
s s s
= = =
t = time

> Note:
Use ( ) + for g going down Use ( ) for g going up

Maximum Height Attained by a Body if projected straight upward:

( )
2
o
max
v
h
2g
=
Time taken to reach the highest point if projected vertically upward:

o
v
t
g
=

O Time taken to reach the ground if dropped from a height h:

2h
t
g
= ; ( )
o
v 0 =

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CHAPTER 3 Engineering Mechanics
Time of flight in going to the maximum height and falling back to the point
where it was projected:

o
2v
T
g
=
III. PROJECTILE MOTION

For problems involving projectile motion, resolve the initial velocity (
o
v )
into two perpendicular components as follows:

Horizontal velocity :
ox o
v v cos =
Vertical velocity :
oy o
v v sin =

Then, apply formulas for kinematics in one dimension.

AT ANY TIME, t:
Horizontal motion: (
x
a 0 = )

( )
ox o
d v t v cos t = =
Vertical motion: (
y
2
m
a g 9.81
s
= = )

( )
2 2
oy o
1 1
h v gt v sin t gt
2 2
= =
x
v
y
v
oy
v
ox
v
o
v
v
R
Point of
impact
Projectile @
max
h
max
h
d

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CHAPTER 3 -MECHANICS
GEAS
GEAS
TIME TAKEN TO REACH THE HIGEST POINT, t:

o
v sin
t
g

=

TIME OF FLIGHT, T:
The time of flight is the time taken by the projectile to return to the
original horizontal level.

o
2v sin
T 2t
g

= =

RANGE, R:
Range is the distance covered in the horizontal direction in the total
time of its flight.

( )
2
o
o
v sin2
R v cos T
g

= =

AT MAXIMUM HEIGHT,
max
h : (
y
v 0 = )
At the highest point, the vertical velocity of the projectile is zero (as
in the case of a body thrown vertically upwards), its velocity is only
in the horizontal direction.

( )
2
o
max
v sin
h
2g

=

VELOCITY AT ANY POINT, V:
The velocity of a projectile at any point of its path is given by the
resultant of its vertical and horizontal velocities at that point.

( ) ( )
2
2
x y
v v v = +

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CHAPTER 3 Engineering Mechanics

+ GENERAL EQUATION OF PROJECTILE

( )
2
2
o
gd
h dtan
2 v cos
=

> Note:
Use (+), if the point of impact is above the point of release.
Use (-), if the point of impact is below the point of release.

CASE I - Point of Impact is Above the Point of Release

CASE 2 - Point of Impact is Below the Point of Release

y

y

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CHAPTER 3 -MECHANICS
GEAS
GEAS
IV. ROTARY MOTION

- Important Notation:
= angular acceleration
t = time

E Uniform Angular Motion:

t =

E Uniformly Accelerated Angular Motion:

2
o
1
t t
2
=

f o
t =

( ) ( )
2 2
f o
2 =

E Relationship Between Angular and Tangential Quantities:

s r
v r
a r
=
=
=

Provided, , , and are in radians.
v

r r

s
r
r

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CHAPTER 3 Engineering Mechanics
REF P
a
f

V. NEWTONS LAWS OF MOTION
First Law: The Law of Inertia
Newtons first law of motion states that if the body is at rest, it will remain
at rest, if it is in motion, it will remain in motion with constant speed in a
straight line unless there is a net force acting upon it.

net
F 0 =

Second Law: The Law of Acceleration
If a net force F acting on the body of mass m is not zero, the body
accelerates in the direction of the force. The acceleration a is
proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass of the
body.

F
a or F ma
m
= =
Third Law: The Law of Action and Reaction
To every action there is always an equal and opposite reaction.

E DAlemberts Principle: (Jean le Rond dAlemberts)

The resultant of the external forces applied to a body (rigid or non-rigid)
and reversed effective force (REF) is equal to zero.

Equations:

W
REF P f 0 or REF a ma
g
= = =
Where:
m mass W weight a acceleration = = =
>Note:
Reversed Effective Force (REF) is always opposite in the direction of
acceleration.

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GENERAL ENGINEERING & APPLIED SCIENCES
CHAPTER 3 -MECHANICS
GEAS
GEAS
Before Impact
1
m
2
m
2
v
1
v
After Impact
'
2
v
'
1
v
1
m
2
m
VI. IMPULSE AND MOMENTUM

O Impulse
Impulse is the product of force and the time it acts.

I Ft =

O Momentum
Momentum is the product of the mass and the velocity of the body.

P mv =

O Impulse - Momentum Theorem
Impulse is equal to the change in momentum.

2 1
Ft mv mv =

O The Law of Conservation of Momentum
When two bodies of masses m
1
and m
2
collide, the total momentum
before impact is equal to the total momentum after impact.

Equation:

before impact after impact
' '
1 1 2 2 1 1 2 2
P P
m v m v m v m v
=
+ = +

v
m
F
t

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O Types of Collision
Collision refers to the mutual action of the molecules, atoms, and
etc., whenever they encounter one another.
1. Elastic collision is a collision which conserves kinetic energy
2. Inelastic collision is a collision which does not conserve
energy.
3. Perfectly inelastic collision is the collision which the object
sticks together afterward. In such collisions the KE loss is
maximum.

O Coefficient of Restitution, e:

' '
2 1
1 2
v v Relative velocity of recession
e
Relative velocity of approach v v

= =

Where:
e 0 = for perfectly inelastic collision
e 1 = for perfectly elastic collision
O Special Cases:
If a ball is dropped from a height h
o
upon a floor and rebounds to a
height of h
r
, the coefficient of restitution between the ball and
the floor is:

r
o
h
e
h
=
Where:

r
h = height of rebound

o
h = original height

If a ball is thrown at an angle
1
with the normal to a smooth surface
and rebounds at an angle
2
:

1
2
tan
e
tan

o
h
r
h
1

2

N
o
r
m
a
l

l
i
n
e

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GENERAL ENGINEERING & APPLIED SCIENCES
CHAPTER 3 -MECHANICS
GEAS
GEAS
VII. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION

O Centripetal Force

2
2
C
mv
F mr
r
= =

O Centripetal acceleration

2
2
C
v
a r
r
= =

> Note:
Centripetal force must be directed toward the center of the circular
path.

O The Conical Pendulum

2 2
max
CF r v
tan
W g gr
Tension in the cord:
W
T
cos
Period, t :
h
t 2
g
for t : L h

= = =
=

=
=

Where:
CF = centrifugal reaction
T = tension of the cord
r = radius of the circular path
h = height
L length of the cord =

r
h

T
C
F
W
CF

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CHAPTER 3 Engineering Mechanics
VIII. BANKING OF CURVES

O Ideal Angle of Banking

2
1
v
tan
gr

=

O For maximum velocity, v of the car without skidding

( )
2
v
tan
gr
+ =

Where:
= angle of banking
= angle of friction
r = radius of the curve
v velocity =

For Horizontal Rotating Flat form:

2 2
r v
tan
g gr

= = =

Also:

v r g =

Where:
= angle of friction
v = velocity
g = acceleration due to gravity
CF
C
F
r

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CHAPTER 3 -MECHANICS
GEAS
GEAS
IX. ROTATION OF RIGID BODIES

2
r
r
T r t
2 2
T
t
The Kinetic Energy of Rotation :
1
KE I
2
KE Kinetic energy of rotation
I moment of inertia
Total Kinetic Energy :
KE KE KE
1 1
KE I mv
2 2
KE Kinetic energy of translation
where:
Where:
=
=
=
=
= +
= +
=

X. NEWTONS LAW OF UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION

1 2
2
mm
F G
R
=

Where:
G = Gravitational constant

11 2 2
G 6.67 10 N m / kg

=
m mass =
R = center-to-center distance between two masses

R
M1
M2

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TEST - 3

1. A collision in which the total Kinetic energy after collision is less than
before collision is called

A. off center collision
B. inelastic collision
C. straight line collision
D. elastic collision

2. Whenever a net force acts on a body, it produces acceleration in the
direction of the resultant force, an acceleration that is directly
proportional to the mass of the body. This theory is popularly known as

A. Newtons Second Law of Motion
B. Newtons First Law of Motion
C. Hookes Law of Equilibrium

3. To maximize the horizontal range of the projectile, which of the following
applies?

A. Maximize velocity
B. Maximize the angle elevation and velocity
C. Maximize the angle of elevation
D. The tangent function of the angle of trajectory must be equal to one

4. The moment of inertia of a plane figure, ____.

A. increases as distance of the axis moves farther from the centroid
B. is maximum at the centroidal axis
C. is zero at the centroidal axis
D. decreases as the distance of the axis moves farther from the
centroid

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GEAS
5. A measure of a resistance of the body it offers to any change in its
angular velocity, determined by its mass and distribution of its mass
about the axis rotation is known as ________.

A. moment of inertia
B. friction
C. torsion
D. angular acceleration
6. Momentum is the product of mass and ______.

A. acceleration
B. velocity
C. force
D. time

7. Centrifugal force is __________ .

A. directly proportional to the radius of the curvature
B. directly proportional to the square of the tangential velocity
C. inversely proportional to the square of the tangential velocity
D. directly proportional to the square of the weight of the object

8. According to this law, The force between two charges varies directly as
the magnitude of each charge and inversely as the square of the
distance between them.

A. Law of Universal Gravitation
B. Coulombs Law
C. Newtons Law
D. Inverse Square Law

9. When the total kinetic energy of a system is the same as before and after
collision of two bodies, it is called

A. Plastic collision
B. Inelastic collision
C. Elastic collision
D. Static collision

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10. In a polar coordinate system, the length of the ray segment from a fixed
origin is known as ______.

A. amplitude
C. hypotenuse
D. minimum point

11. Momentum is a property related to the objects ______.

A. motion and mass
B. mass and acceleration
C. motion and weight
D. weight and velocity

12. The study of motion without reference to the force that causes the motion
is known as ______.

A. statics
B. dynamics
C. kinetics
D. kinematics

13. Varignons theorem is used to determine ______.

A. location of centroid
B. moment of inertia
C. mass moment of inertia
D. moment of area

14. The periodic oscillations either up or down or back and fourth motion in
the straight line is known as_______.

A. transverse harmonic motion
B. resonance
C. rotational harmonic motion
D. translational harmonic motion

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GEAS
15. A freely falling body is a body in rectilinear motion and with
constant_____.

A. velocity
B. speed
C. deceleration
D. acceleration

16. When the total kinetic energy of the system is the same as before and
after the collision of two bodies, it is called
A. Static collision
B. Elastic collision
C. Inelastic collision
D. Plastic collision
17. What is the charge in the gravitational attraction between an orbiting
object and the earth if the distance between them is doubled?

A. no change
C. one half
B. double
D. one fourth

18. With reference to the thermodynamic diagram of temperature entropy
(TS), what is represented by the area under the diagram?

A. work done
B. enthalpy
C. temperature difference
D. heat transferred

19. What is the standard acceleration due to gravitational force?

A. 32 ft/sec/sec
B. 980 ft/sec/sec
C. 32 m/sec/sec
D. 98 ft/sec/sec

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20. Which of the following collisions is an elastic collision?

A. Two bodies move towards each other, collide and then move away
from each other. There is a rise in temperature
B. Two bodies collide and the sound of collision is heard by a blind
man
C. Two steel balls collide such that their kinetic energy is conserved
D. A man jumps on to a moving cart

21. A mass is revolving in a circle which is in the plane of paper. The
direction of centripetal acceleration is along the radius:

A. away from the center radius
B. toward the center
C. at right angle to angular velocity
D. none of the above

22. When a mass is rotating in a plane about a fixed point, its angular
momentum is directed along:

C. a line at an angle of 45o to the plane of the rotation
B. the tangent to orbit
D. the axis of rotation

23. A solid iron sphere A rolls down an inclined plane, while an identical
hollow sphere B slides down the plane in a frictionless manner. At the
bottom of the inclined plane, the total kinetic energy of sphere A is:

A. less than that of B
C. more than that of B
B. equal to that of B
D. sometime more and sometimes less

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GEAS
24. Which of the following has the highest moment of inertia when each of
them has the same mass and the same radius?

A. A hollow sphere about one of its diameters.
B. A solid sphere about one of its diameters.
C. A disc about its central axis perpendicular to the plane of the disc
D. All of the above have the same moment of inertia

25. When a planet moves around the sun,
A. the angular momentum remains conserved
B. the angular speed remains constant
C. the linear velocity remains constant
D. the linear momentum remains constant

26. What keeps an earth satellite moving on its orbit?

A. Gravitational attraction between satellite and earth
B. Ejection gases from the exhaust of the satellite
C. burning of fuel
D. Gravitational attraction of sun

27. The value of universal gravitational constant G depends upon:

A. nature of material of two bodies
B. heat content of two bodies
C. acceleration of two bodies
D. None of these
28. If the mass of an object could be doubled, then its inertia would be

A. halved
B. doubled
C. unchanged

29. It shows the forces acting on an isolated object.

A. force diagram
B. schematic diagram
C. free body diagram
D. force polygon

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30. A wagon is uniformly accelerating from rest. The net force acting on the
wagon is
A. zero
B. increasing
C. constant
D. decreasing

31. If the mass of an object were doubled, its acceleration due to gravity
would be

A. doubled also
B. unchanged
C. halved
D. fivefold
32. Which of the following is not a vector quantity?

A. force
B. energy
C. weight
D. velocity

33. Which of the following is not a scalar quantity?

A. time
B. work
C. temperature
D. displacement

34. The resultant of two concurrent forces is minimum when the angle
between them is

A. 0 degree
B. 90 degrees
C. 45 degrees
D. 180 degrees

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GEAS
35. As the angle between two concurrent forces decreases from 180
o
, their
resultant

A. decreases
B. increases
C. unchanged
D. cannot be determined

36. The maximum number of components that a single force may be
resolved into is

A. one
B. two
C. three
D. four

37. The momentum of an object is the product of its

A. mass and displacement
B. mass and velocity
C. force and displacement
D. force and time

38. If the direction of an objects momentum is west, the direction of the
velocity of the object is

A. east
B. west
C. north
D. south

39. The direction of an objects momentum is always the same as the
direction of the objects

A. inertia
B. mass
C. weight
D. velocity

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40. The moment of inertia of a triangle with respect to the base how many
time its moment of inertia with respect to its centroidal axis

A. 1/2
B. 3
C. 1/4
D. 5

41. When to objects collide, which of the following is always true?

A. the velocity of each object does not change
B. there is no change in the displacement of each object
C. there is no net change in the kinetic energy of each object
D. there is no net change in the total momentum of the objects

42. The study of motion with reference to the force that causes the motion is

A. ballistics
B. kinematics
C. kinetics
D. dynamics

43. What is the moment of inertia of a circle of radius r?
A. r
4
/4
B. r
4
/12
C. r
4
/15
D. r
4
/16

44. The moment of inertia of a rectangle with respect to the base is how
many times its moment of inertia with respect to the centroidal axis?

A. 2
B. 3
C. 4
D. 5

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GEAS
45. The moment of inertia of a triangle with respect to its base b is

A. b
2
h
2
/12
B. bh
3
/6
C. bh
3
/12
D. bh
3
/3

46. The moment of inertia of a circle with respect to its tangent is how many
times its moment of inertia with respect to its centroidal axis?

A. 2
B. 3
C. 4
D. 5

47. Moment of inertia is also called

A. Moment of mass
B. Moment of center
C. second moment of area
D. moment of volume

48. One newton is equivalent to

A. kg-m/s
B. kg m/m/s
C. kg m/s/s
D. m/s
2
per kilogram

49. These are forces whose lines of action all pass through a common point.

A. collinear forces
B. couple
C. coplanar forces
D. concurrent forces

50. The radial distance from the axis to the point of application of the force is
called

B. lever arm
C. normal
D. displacement

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1. A mango falls from a branch 5 meters above the ground. With what
speed in meters per second does it strike the ground? g=10m/s
2

Solution:
From:
( ) ( )
2 2
f o
v v 2gh = +
Where:

o
v 0 (free fall) =
Substitute:

( ) ( )
f
f
v 2gh 2 10 5
v 10 m/ s
= =
=

2. An automobile accelerates at a constant rate of 15mi/hr to 45 mi/hr in 15
seconds while traveling in a straight line. What is the average
acceleration?
Solution:
From:
f o
v v
a
t

=
Where:

f
o
mi 5280 ft 1hr
v 45 66 ft / s
hr mi 3600s
mi 5280 ft 1hr
v 15 22 ft / s
hr mi 3600s

= =

= =

Then,

2
66 22
a 2.93 ft / s
15

= =
Solved Problems
In Mechanics

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GEAS

3. A 50-kilogram block of wood rests on the top of the smooth plane whose
length is 3m and whose altitude is 0.8 m. How long will it take for the
block to slide to the bottom of the plane when released?

Solution:

Given:

o
v 0
m 50 kg
s 3 m
h 0.8 m
=
=
=
=

Solving for the acceleration of the box:

Take summation of forces along the incline equal to zero:

2
mgsin ma
a gsin
0.8
a 9.81
3
a 2.62 m/ s
=
=

=

=

Solving for time, t:
( )
2
o
2
1
s v t at
2
1
3 0 2.62 t
2
t 1.51 sec.
= +
= +
=

mgsin

N
3 m
0.8 m
W
o
v 0 (from rest) =

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4. A baseball is thrown from a horizontal plane following a parabolic path
with an initial velocity of 100m/s at an angle of 30 above the horizontal.
How far from the throwing point will the ball attain its original level?

Solution:

Given:

o
v 100 m/ s
30
=
=

From:

( )
( ) ( )
2
o
2
v sin2
R
g
100 sin 2 30
R
9.81
R 883 m

=

=
=

5. A block weighing 500 KN rests on a ramp inclined at 25 degrees with the
horizontal. The force tending to move the block down the ramp is

Solution:

Given:

W 500 kN
25
=
=

Let:
F = the force along the incline that tends
to move the block down the ramp
Then,

F Wsin
F 500sin25
F 211 kN
=
=
=

W
25
F Wsin =

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GEAS

6. How far does an automobile move while its speed increases uniformly
from 15 kph to 45 kph in 20 sec?

Solution:

o
f
15km 1000m 1hr
v 4.17 m/ s
hr km 3600s
45km 1000m 1hr
v 12.5 m/ s
hr km 3600s

= =

= =

From:
( )
f o
v v
S vt t
2
4.17 12.5
S 20
2
S 166.7 m
+
= =

+
=

=

7. A rotating wheel has a radius of 2 feet and 6 inches. A point on the rim of
the wheel moves 30 feet in 2 seconds. Find the angular velocity of the
wheel.

Solution:

Solving for the tangential velocity:
v s t = tangential velocity

30
v 15 ft / s
2
= =
From:

v r
15 2.5
=
=
=

o
v 15 kph =
S
f
v 45 kph =

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( )
1 2
m m +
c
v
Before Impact
1
m
2
m
2
v
1
v
After Impact

8. A 16 gm mass is moving at 30 cm/sec., while a 4gm mass is moving in
an opposite direction at 50 cm/sec. They collide head on and stick
together. Their velocity after collision is

Solution:
Let:

c
v = combined velocity after collision

From the Law of Conservation of Momentum:
Momentum Before Impact = Momentum After Impact

( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 2 2 1 2 c
c
c
m v m v m m v
16 0.30 4 0.50 16 4 v
v 0.14 m/ s
+ = +
+ = +
=

9. A ball is dropped from a building 100 m high. If the mass of the ball is 10
gm, after what time will the ball strike the earth?

Solution:
( ) ( )
2
o
2
1
h v t gt
2
1
100 0 t 9.81 t
2
t 4.52 sec.
= +
= +
=

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GEAS

10. Determine the angle of super elevation for a 200 m highway curve so
that there will be no side thrust at a speed of 90 kph.
Solution:
From:

2
v
tan banking angle fromula
gr
=
Substitute given and solve for :

[ ]( )
2
90km 1000m 1hr
hr km 3600s
tan
9.81 m/ s 200m
17.67

=
=

11. A 50,000 N car traveling with a speed of 150 km/hr rounds a curve
whose radius is 150 m. Find the centrifugal force.

Solution:

2
mv
CF
r
=

Where:

km 1000m 1hr
v 150
hr 1km 3600s
v 41.67 m/ s

=

=

Thus, solving for F
C
:

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
50,000 41.67
CF
9.81 150
CF 59 kN
=
=

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12. A 40 gm rifle with a speed of 300 m/s is fired into a ballistic pendulum of
mass 5 kg suspended from a chord 1 m long. Compute the vertical
height through which the pendulum rises.
Solution:
Let:

b
m = mass of the bullet ;
B
m = mass of the block

c
v = combined velocity of the block
and the bullet

c b B
m m m
combined mass of the block
and the bullet
= +
=
Using the Law of Conservation of Momentum:

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
b b B B c c
c
c
m v m v m v
0.04 300 5 0 0.4 5 v
v 2.38 m/ s
+ =
+ = +
=

From the law of conservation of energy:

( )
( ) ( )
( )
bottom top
2
c c c
2 2
c
KE PE
1
m v m gh
2
v 2.38
h
2g 2 9.81
h 0.2887 m or 28.87 cm
=
=
= =
=

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GEAS
13. A projectile is thrown with a speed of 100 ft/sec in a direction 30
o
above
the horizontal. Determine the highest point to which it rises.

Solution:
At maximum height,
fy
v 0 = :

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
fy oy max
2
2
oy o
max
2
max
max
v v 2gh
v v sin
h
2g 2g
100sin30
h
2(32.2)
h 38.81m
=

= =
=
=

14. A missile is fired with a speed of 100 fps in a direction 30 degrees above
the horizontal. Determine the maximum height to which it rises?

Solution:

( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
o
max
2 2
max
max
v sin
h
2g
100 sin30
h
2 32.2
h 38.8
39 ft.

=
=
=

15. A golf ball weighs 1.6 ounces. If its velocity immediately after being
driven is 225 fps, what was the impulse of the blow in slug-feet/sec?

Solution:

1lb
W 1.6oz 0.1lb
16oz

= =

From:

( )
( )
f o
Impulse change in momentum
I m v v
0.1
I 225 0
32
I 0.703 slugs ft / s
=
=
=
=

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16. A car accelerates from rest and reached a speed of 90 kph in 30
seconds. What is the acceleration in meter per second per second?

Solution:

o
f
f
v 0 (from rest)
1000m 1hr
v 90kph
km 3600s
v 25 m/ s
=

=

=

From:

f o
v v at =
Substitute and solve for a:

2
25 0 a(30)
a 0.833 m/ s
=
=

17. A stone is thrown vertically upward at the rate of 20 m/s. It will return to
the ground after how many seconds?

Solution:

From:

f o
o
v v gt
v 20
t
g 9.81
t 2.04 sec.
=

= =

=

Total time of flight:
( )
T 2t
2 2.04
4.08 sec.
=
=
=

o
v 20 m/ s =
f
v 0 (@maximum height) =

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GEAS
18. A car accelerates uniformly from standstill to 80 mi/hr in 5 seconds. What
is its acceleration?
Solution:

o
f
f
v 0 (from rest)
5280ft 1hr
v 80mph
mi 3600s
v 117.33 ft / s
=

=

=

From:

f o
v v at =
Substitute and solve for a:

2
117.33 0 a(5)
a 23.47 ft / s
=
=

19. A DC-9 jet with a takeoff mass of 120 tons has two engines producing
average force of 80,000 N during takeoff. Determine the planes
acceleration down the runway if the takeoff time is 10 seconds.
Solution:
Formula:

F
a
m
=
Substitute:

( )
2
2 80,000
a
120,000
a 1.33 m/ s
=
=

20. What is the acceleration of a point on a rim of a flywheel 0.8 m in
diameter turning at the rate of 1400 rad/min?
Solution:

2
v
a
r
=
But:
v r =
Substitute to equation O :

( )
( )
2 2
2 2
a r 0.4 1400 217.77 m/ s
r min 60s

= = = =

> Note:
1 ton 1000kg =

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21. A bullet is fired vertically upward with a mass of 3 grams. If it reaches an
altitude of 100 m, what is its initial velocity?

Solution:
From:
( ) ( )
2 2
f o
v v 2gh =
Note:
Use + , for going up
Use - , for going down

Substitute values: @ maximum height,
f
v 0 =

( )
2
o
o
0 v 2(9.81)100
v 44.29 m/ s
=
=

22. A flywheel of radius 14 inches is rotating at the rate of 1000 rpm. How
fast does a point on the rim travel in ft/sec?

Solution:

Converting to common units:

1000rpm
rev 60s

=

=

Also,

1ft
r 14in 1.167 ft
12in

= =

Solving for v:
( )
v r
v 122.2 ft / s
=
=
=

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GEAS
23. A ball was thrown upward with an initial velocity of 50ft/s. How high does
it go?

Solution:
From:
( ) ( )
2 2
f o
v v 2gh =
Where:

f
v 0; at maximum height =
Substitute:

( ) ( )
2
0 50 2 32 h
h 39 ft
=
=

24. A projectile is fired upward with muzzle velocity of 200 m/sec at an angle
of 30 degrees with the level ground. With what velocity will it hit the
ground in m/sec?
Solution:
Solving for the time of flight to reach
max
h :

o
v sin
t
g
200sin30
t
9.81
t 10.19 sec

=
=
=

Considering free - fall from
max
h :

fy oy oy
fy
fy
v v gt ;(v 0)
v 9.81(10.19)
v 100
= =
=
=

Solving for
fx
v :

fx o
fx
fx
v v cos
v 200cos30
v 173.2
=
=
=

Thus,

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
fy fx
v v v 100 173.2
v 200 m/ s
= + = +
=

max
h
o
v
f
v 0 =
fx
v
fy
v
f
v
30
t t
2t

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25. A 40 kg block rests at the top of an inclined smooth plane whose length
is 4 m and whose height is 0.5 m. How long will it take for the block to
slide to the bottom of the plane when released?

Solution:
Given:

o
v 0
m 40 kg
s 4 m
h 0.5 m
=
=
=
=

Solving for the acceleration of the box:

net
2
F ma
mgsin ma
a gsin
0.5
a 9.81
4
a 1.23 m/ s
=
=
=

=

=

Solving for time, t:
( )
2
o
2
1
s v t at
2
1
4 0 1.23 t
2
t 2.55 sec
= +
= +
=

mgsin

N
4 m
0.5 m
W
o
v 0 (from rest) =

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GEAS
26. A block weighing 500 kN rests on a ramp inclined at 39 degrees with the
horizontal. What is the force that tends to move the block down the
ramp?

Solution:
Given:

W 500 kN
39
=
=

Let:

F = the force along the incline that tends
to move the block down the ramp

Then,

F Wsin
F 500sin39
F 314.6 kN
=
=
=

27. A golf ball after being struck by a golf club at ground level, departs at an
angle of 45 deg with the horizontal fairway with a velocity of 100 fps.
How far (in yards) will the ball lands from the point of departure?

Solution:

Formula:

( )
2
o
2
v sin2
R
g
100 sin90
R
32.2
1yd
R 310.6ft
3ft
R 103.5 yd

=
=

=

=

W
25
F Wsin =
45 =
R

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28. An absentminded driver traveling at 75 mph suddenly sees a checkpoint
0.75 second delay. After the brakes are applied, the car decelerates at
4.2 m/sec
2
. Determine the stopping distance.
Solution:

1.609km 1000m 1hr
v 75mph
mi km 3600sec
v 33.52 m/ s

=

=

Solving for
1
s : (distance travelled by the car at constant speed )

1
1
1
s vt
s 33.52(.75)
s 25.14 m
=
=
=

Solving for
2
s : distance travelled with constant deceleration)

( ) ( )
( )
( )
2 2
f o 2
2
2
2
v v 2as
33.52
s
2 4.2
s 133.76
=

=

Thus, the total distance travelled is:

1 2
S s s
25.14 133.76
158.9 m
= +
= +
=

1
s
2
s
v 75 mph = v 75 mph = v 0 =

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GEAS

29. A compact disk 125 mm in diameter is rotating at 50 rpm. If it takes 10
complete revolutions before slowing to a stop, how fast is it decelerating?

Solution:
Given:

d 125 mm ; 50 rpm 5.236 rad/ s
rev 60s
rev

= = =

= =

From:

( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
f o
2 2
f o
2
2
=

=

Substitute values:

( )
( )
2
2
0 5.236
2 62.83

= =

30. A man driving a car at 45 mph suddenly saw a stalled vehicle on the
road 100 ft ahead. What constant deceleration is required to stop the car
10 ft before the stalled vehicle? (Answer in ft per sec per sec).

Solution:

5280ft 1hr
v 45mph
1mi 3600s
v 66 ft / s

=

=

From:

( )
( )
2 2
f o
2 2
f o
2
2
v v 2as
v v
a
2s
0 66
a
2 90
a 24.20 ft / s
=

=
=

o
v 66 ft / s =
a
f
v 0 (stop) =
90 10

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31. A wheel revolving at 300 rpm decelerates at 5 rad/sec^2. How long
before the wheel stops?

Solution:

o
o
300rpm
rev 60s

=

=

From:

f o
f
t
0 31.42
t
5
t 6.28 sec
=

= =

=

32. An automobile tire is 30 inches in diameter. How fast in rpm does the
wheel turn on the axle when the automobile maintains a speed of 50
mph?

Solution:
Given:

1ft
d 30 in 2.5 ft
12in
5280ft 1hr
v 50 mph 73.33 ft / s
mi 3600s

= =

= =

From:

v r
v 73.33
2.5
r
2
1rev 60s
560.2 rpm
=
= =

=

=

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33. A grenade is fired from a launcher with a velocity of 50 m/s at an angle of
30 degrees with the horizontal. Determine the maximum height that it
could reach in meters.

Solution:

( )
( ) ( )
( )
2
2
o
max
2 2
max
max
v sin
h formula for maximum height
2g
50 sin30
h
2 9.81
h 31.85 m

=
=
=

34. A 5g bullet is fired from a 5 kg gun with a speed of 400 m/sec. What is
the speed of recoil of the gun?

Solution:
Given:

b b
g r
m 5g 0.005kg v 400m/ s
m 5kg v ?
= = =
= =

From the law of conservation of momentum:

Total momentum before = Total momentum after

Before explosion, the velocity of the gun and the bullet is zero, thus the
total momentum before explosion is zero.

b b g r
b b
r
g
r
0 m v m v
m v 0.005(400)
v
m 5
v 0.40 m/ s
= +

= =
=