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CHAPTER 17

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CHAPTER SEVENTEEN - CEMHAHATAH IAABA
BON VOYAGE! - CHACTAHBOIO HYTH!
In Chapter Seventeen you will learn how to do the following:
1. to express the time of the day (a.m. / p.m.)
2. to tell the time more precisely
3. to understand train and plane timetables
4. to request and give information about travel
You will learn the following points of grammar:
1. reflexive verbs
2. numerals in oblique cases
3. unidirectional and multidirectional verbs of motion
4. compound verbs of motion
Activity One - Hepnoe saanne
Listening Listen to the dialogues and tick in the table below if the time of day
mentioned in each case is a.m. or p.m.
a.m. p.m.
1
2
3
4
5
6
Note: the 24-hour clock is often used in contexts such as rail and flight times, the radio, television, films
etc.; e.g. 20 nacon = 8 p.m. If a specific time is mentioned, use the Genitive case of the day; e.g. 8 nacon
y1a - 8 a.m., 8 nacon nenea - 8 p.m. In Russian the day is broken down as follows:
1, 2, 3 naca nonn 1, 2, 3 o`clock at night
4 naca ~ 11nacon y1 4 to 11 o`clock in the morning
12 nacon ~ 4 naca n 12 to 4 o`clock in the afternoon
5 nacon ~ 12 nacon nnea 5 to 12 o`clock in the evening
Remember to use the forms y1ox, nex, neneox, nonin if a specific time is not mentioned.
o1nan1ic (I) / to depart, leave, set off iex1nnxa local train
o1nann1ic (o1nannci, (for / to)
o1nannmic) na (+ acc)
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Activity Two - B1opoe saanne
Reading/Writing Read the train timetable given below and indicate whether the
following statements are True (H) or Ealse (H). Where you have put H write out the correct
version in Russian. The first one is done for you.
PACHHCAHHL ,BH2LHH HOL3,OB
HOL3, non. n1. c. n1. n1n. cy6. nocx. na1]oxa
Mocxna - 6. 00 - 23. 00 - 12. 00 6. 00 6. 00 1
C.-He1e6yi
Mocxna - - 5. 00 - 5. 00 - 9. 00 - 5
Knen
Mocxna - 9. 00 - - - 24. 00 - - 3
Pnia
Mocxna - 01. 00 - 15. 00 - - - - 2
Ienn
Note: in Russian a full stop is used in the 24-hour clock.
1. On Mondays, Saturdays and Sundays the train to Petersburg departs at 6 p.m. H
(He1, no noneeinnxax, cy66o1ax n nocxecenix noe: na
He1e6yi o1nane1c n 6 nacon y1a.)
2. On Wednesdays the train to Petersburg departs at 11 p.m.
()
3. On Tuesdays and Thursdays the train to Kiev departs at 5 a.m.
()
4. On Saturdays the train to Kiev departs at 9 p.m.
()
5. On Mondays the train to Riga departs at 9 a.m.
()
6. On Mondays the train to Berlin departs at 1 p.m.
()
Activity Three - Tpe1ne saanne
Speaking Pairwork. Take it in turns with your partner to make enquiries about train
departure times and platforms on various days of the week. Refer to Activity Two for the
necessary information, and use the model below as a guide.
A - Cxan1e, noaync1a, xoia o1nane1c noe: na He1e6yi
no noneeinnxax'
I - On o1nane1c n 6 nacon y1a.
A - A c xaxon na1]oxi'
I - C nenon na1]oxi.
na1]oxa platform nononi (f) midnight noeni (m) afternoon
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REFLEXIVE VERBS
You have already met reflexive verbs in Chapter Nine and Chapter Eifteen, in particular . You learned how
to conjugate them and how to form the past tense. Some common verbs only have a reflexive form; e.g.
nann1ic, :oona1ic, cxe1ic, yi6a1ic.
Many other verbs have reflexive and non-reflexive forms; e.g. o1nan1i/o1nan1ic, :axina1i/
:axina1ic, o1xina1i/o1xina1ic, etc. The particle -cn changes a transitive verb (one which
takes a direct object) into an intransitive verb (which does not take a direct object).
Compare: o1xi(a) nei I opened the door (transitive)
nei o1xiaci the door opened (intransitive)
Eor more details on the uses of reflexive verbs see the Grammar section.
Activity Four - He1np1oe saanne
Reading/Speaking Read the following text and fill in the gaps, choosing the
appropriate form of a reflexive or non-reflexive verb from the box below.
o1xina1i/o1xina1ic nannna1i/nannna1ic
:axina1i/:axina1ic :axannnna1i/:axannnna1ic
H1o xora pao1ae1 n Mocxne
Ioimnnc1no* xaia:nnon n Mocxne n 8 nn 9 nacon y1a n
n 8 nn 9 nacon nenea. Hexo1oie xaia:nni
na o6e c nacy o nyx nacon n.
Kynnie ec1oani o6inno na o6e c nenana1n o
ne1iex nacon n n no1ox o cexn nacon nenea. Onn cnona
cnon nen n 7 nacon nenea n nx n nononi.
Hon1a o6inno n 9 nacon y1a n n 6 nn 7
nacon nenea.
B xnno1ea1ax ]nixi noxa:inan1 neci eni. Henin ceanc
n 9 nacon y1a n n 12 nacon nonn.
Benenne cnex1axn n 1ea1ax o6inno n 19.30.
Me1o n 6 nacon y1a n n nac nonn.
Bon1en an1o6ycon n 1oen6ycon a6o1y n 6 nacon y1a
n a6onnn eni n nononi.
* The noun 6oimnnc1no is followed by a singular verb; e.g. 6oimnnc1no 6anxon o1xinae1c
n 9.30 y1a - the majority of banks open at 9.30 a.m.
xynnin large cnex1axi (m) performance (in the theatre)
ceanc showing (of a film) non1ei (m) driver
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Activity Five - Hn1oe saanne
Reading/Speaking Read the following newspaper cuttings which advertise various
services and then answer in Russian the questions which accompany each advertisement.
Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.
To read the opening times in each advertisement you will need to know the Genitive case of numerals
after the prepositions c (from) and o (until). Eor all numerals ending in -n simply remove the soft sign
and replace it with -n; e.g. n1i nacon - c n1n nacon (from five o`clock), nenana1i nacon - o
nenana1n nacon (until twelve o`clock). The Genitive forms of onn, na, 1n and ne1ie are as
follows: onoio, nyx, 1ex and ne1iex. In the phrase from one o`clock` the numeral is usually
omitted in colloquial Russian; e.g. c nacy. Eor more details on numerals in oblique cases see the Gram-
mar section.
I. JLHTP IOMLOHATHLCKOH
ML,HJHHL 1. 1o exaxnye1c n +1ox
o6rnennn'
2. B xaxox iooe naxon1c
nen1'
3. Koia on o1xinae1c n
:axinae1c no a6onnx nx'
4. Koia on o1xinae1c n
:axinae1c no cy66o1ax'
II. JLKTPOHHKA dHPML SONY 1. Kaxne 1onai exaxnye1
i1o1 xaia:nn'
2. Ie on acnooen'
3. Koia on o1xinae1c n
:axinae1c'
4. Koia xaia:nn :axinae1c na
o6e'
5. Ho xaxnx nx on a6o1ae1'
III. JLHTP AHIHHCKOIO 3LKA 1. 1o exaxnye1c n i1ox
o6rnennn'
2. Kax xono noynn1i
nn]oxannn'
3. Ho xaxnx nx a6o1ae1
i1o1 nen1'
4. Koia on o1xinae1c n
:axinae1c'
5. Koia nannnae1c n
:axannnnae1c neein na o6e'
ioxeona1nnecxne homeopathic cures iex1onnxa electrical appliances
nenaan1i ]nxennin xaia:nn shop (selling only one brand
exaxnona1i(c) (III) to (be) advertize(d) of goods)
(exaxnyn(ci), nixonon; nixonie day off; weekend
exaxnyemi(c)) no xaxnx nx ...' on which days .?
o6rnenne advertisement neein na o6e lunch break
1onai goods c ... no (n1nnny) from ... (through) to (Eriday)
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How to tell the time more precisely
1. In the first half-hour after the full hour, the time is expressed in Russian as five, ten, fifteen minutes`
etc. of the next hour; e.g. n1i xnny1 n1ooio - five past one (literally: five minutes of the second`).
Note that the ordinal numeral in the Genitive case is used for the hour:
ona xnny1a one
ne xnny1i two
n1i xnny1 five
ec1i xnny1 ten
n1nana1i xnny1/ne1ne1i
n1ooio
fifteen/quarter past
one
nana1i xnny1 twenty
nana1i n1i (xnny1) twenty-five
noonnna half
2. In the second half-hour after the full hour, the time is expressed as without five, ten, fifteen minutes`
etc. one, two, three (o'clock) etc.; e.g. 6e: n1n na - five to two (literally, without five minutes
two`). Note that the cardinal numeral in the Nominative case is used for the hour:
6e: nana1n n1n (xnny1) twenty-five (minutes) to
6e: nana1n (xnny1) twenty (minutes) to
6e: n1nana1n/6e: ne1ne1n quarter to
6e: ec1n (xnny1) na ten (minutes) to two
6e: n1n (xnny1) five (minutes) to
6e: nyx xnny1 two minutes to
6e: onon xnny1i one minute to
Note:
a) in colloquial Russian noonnna is often replaced by no-; e.g. non1ooio, no1e1ieio
b) xnny1 may be omitted in nana1i n1i (xnny1) n1ooio; in other phrases xnny1i/xnny1 must
be included; e.g. nana1i ne1ie xnny1i n1ooio; ec1i xnny1 n1ooio
c) to answer the question xoia ...' simply add n at the beginning of the phrase which indicates the time
between the hour and half hour; e.g. n ec1i xnny1 n1ooio - at ten past one. Do not forget to use
noonnna in the Prepositional case; e.g. n noonnne n1ooio - at half past one (but n non1ooio!).
The phrases which indicate the time after the half hour do not require n; e.g. 6e: ec1n na - at ten to
two.
Activity Six - Hec1oe saanne
Reading/Speaking/Listening Pairwork. Read the Russian TV guide below and
listen to the TV presenter reading the guide using the 24 hour clock. Ask your partner when
various programmes start and finish using the 12 hour clock. Take it in turns to ask questions,
using the model below as a guide.
HPOIPAMMA KAHAA TB6 MOCKBA
- Koia nannnae1c neeana Bec1i
nonoc1en?
- Ona nannnae1c n cexi nacon y1a.
- A xoia ona xonnae1c'
- Ona xonnae1c n ec1i xnny1
nocixoio.
17.35 HCK-kanan
7.00 Becrt nonocren 17.55 Tenemarasnn
7.10 HCK-kanan Cnacno sa nokynky!
7.40 Myntr|nntm ent 18.10 Anreka
poxennx 18.20 opoxntn nar-
8.10 opoxntn narpynt pynt
8.20 Penenrt or HEH- 18.35 uacrntn cnyuan
TEP 18.50 Cepnan IPEHC
8.25 Tenemarasnn Cna B OIHE II, 9-x -10-x
cno sa nokynky! cepnn
8.45 Anreka 19.55 Becrt nornocren
9.00 Becrt nonocren 20.05 Tok-moy Hpo-
9.10 Tenekonkperno |eccnx: rasonnk
9.20 Tenemarasnn Cna- 21.00 Becrt nonocren
cno sa nokynky! 21.15 Knnorearp TB 6
TB 6 Mockna
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Verbs of motion
You have already met two of these verbs in Chapter Three: n1n (to go on foot) and exa1i (to go by
transport). There are twelve more verbs which express different types of motion (therefore fourteen in all);
e.g. 6ea1i (to run), e1e1i (to fly), ni1i (to swim, float) etc. You will find the full list of verbs of
motion in the Grammar section.
Each of the fourteen types of motion is actually represented in Russian by two imperfective verbs, making
fourteen pairs in all; e.g. to go on foot` is expressed by the pair n1n/xon1i and to go by transport` is
expressed by the pair exa1i/e:n1i. In each pair the first verb expresses movement in one direction only
and is called a unidirectional verb. The second verb expresses movement in more than one direction and
is called a multidirectional verb.
Multidirectional verbs are used to express the following types of action:
1. action in various directions (backwards and forwards, up and down, to and fro, round and round,
and so on); e.g. xi xonx no naxy - we walk around the park
2. action performed more than once; e.g. xi xonx n nax xain eni - we go to the park every
day; e.g. oneni exo xoy n 1ea1 - I hardly ever go to the theatre
3. action in general and the capacity to perform it; e.g. e6enox ye xon1 - the child can already
walk .
xoy xi xonx
1i xonmi ni xon1e
on/ona/ono xon1 onn xo1
e:y xi e:nx
1i e:nmi ni e:n1e
on/ona/ono e:n1 onn e:1
Activity Seven - Cenuoe saanne
Reading/Writing/Listening Read the dialogue below and fill in the gaps choosing the
unidirectional verb exa1i or the multidirectional verb e:n1i. Use them in the appropriate
form. Listen to the tape to check your answers.
1-mn naccaanp - ,o6in eni.
2-mn naccaanp - 3anc1nyn1e. Mi c naxn cocen no xyne.
1-mn naccaanp - ,a, nax 6ye1 neceee _______________.
2-mn naccaanp - A ni xya _______________'
1-mn naccaanp - _______________ n Mocxny, ni 1oe'
2-mn naccaanp - He1, _______________ n Mnncx.
1-mn naccaanp - 3nann1, xi 6yex _______________ nxec1e 1oixo ne1ie naca.
2-mn naccaanp - Bi nac1o _______________ n Mocxny'
1-mn naccaanp - ,a, _______________ n Mocxny n1i-mec1i a: n io.
2-mn naccaanp - Tax nac1o' Bi, nanenoe, _______________ no eax'
1-mn naccaanp - ,a, _______________ n xoxannonxn. A ni nne1e n Mnncxe
nn 1oe _______________ n xoxannonxy'
2-mn naccaanp - 1oe ______________ n xoxannonxy. O6inno ______________
n Mocxny, no n i1ox ioy nama ]nxa o1xia ]nna n Mnncxe.
,yxan, n1o 1enei xne nyno 6ye1 nac1o ____________ n Mnncx.
1-mn naccaanp - C1anno, n1o n namex xyne ______________ 1oixo na neonexa.
Panime 1yno 6io xynn1i 6ne1 na i1o1 noe:, a 1enei
6ne1i ec1i nceia.
2-mn naccaanp - ,a, 1enei nn _______________ xao, 6ne1i oneni ooine.
cocen no xyne people who share a compartment no eax on business
(n indeclinable) (in a railway carriage) xoxannonxa business trip
nax 6ye1 neceee that will be nicer for us ]nna branch
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Activity Eight - Bocnuoe saanne
Listening/Speaking Listen to the dialogues and tick the boxes which show the usual
way of going to work and the actual method used today. In each case indicate the time taken
for the journey. Then reconstruct the dialogues with your partner using the information from
the table and the appropriate forms of the verbs chosen.
n1n - xon1i exa1i - e:n1i
naoi o6inno ceion nex o6inno ceion nex
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Activity Nine - enn1oe saanne
Reading/Speaking Look at the train timetable below and then answer the questions
in Russian.
PACHHCAHHL ,BH2LHH HOL3,OB
nananenne X noe:a nex nex nn neen
o1nanenn nn6i1n
Mocxna - Canx1- 651 24. 00 8. 30 eenenno
He1e6yi
Mocxna - Knen 303 12. 45 11. 25 non., c., n1.
Mocxna - Bninnc 526 23. 30 7. 40 eenenno
Mocxna - Bamana 260 9. 00 24. 00 n1., n1n., cy6.
1. Kax nac1o xon1* 651-in noe:'
2. Kya on xon1'
3. Koia on o1nane1c n nn6inae1'
4. Kya xon1 303-nn noe:'
5. Ho xaxnx nx on xon1'
6. Koia on o1nane1c n nn6inae1'
7. Ho xaxnx nx xon1 noe: na Bninnc'
8. Kaxon y neio noxe'
9. Koia on o1nane1c n nn6inae1'
10. Xon1 n noe: na Bamany no ceax'
11. Kaxon y neio noxe'
12. Koia on o1nane1c n nn6inae1'
* While the movement of people on vehicles is expressed by exa1i - e:n1i, the movement of the
vehicles themselves (trains, buses, trams, trolleybuses and cars) is normally expressed by n1n - xon1i.
Activity Ten - ecn1oe saanne
Reading Read the following Aeroflot advertisement and answer the questions given
below in English. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the next page to help you.
cxoixo nexenn :annxae1 how long does it nex nn6i1n arrival time
ooia na xamnne / nemxox' take by car / on foot? Bninnc Vilnius (capital of
nyecnin wonderful Lithuania)
nananenne destination Bamana Warsaw
nex o1nanenn departure time
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1. What new destinations are advertized?
2. Which of these is served by flight number SU 721?
3. On what days does this flight leave?
4. What is the flight number of the plane to St. Petersburg?
5. At what time does this flight arrive in St. Petersburg?
6. How often are there flights to Khabarovsk?
7. At what time does this flight leave Moscow?
8. Erom which of Moscow`s airports do all the flights depart?
9. What classes of seat are available on these flights?
10. Are there convenient connections with other flights?
11. What connecting destinations are mentioned in the advertisement?
12. Can you name any other sources of information about available flights?
noe1 flight o6cynnanne service
nny1n ( gen) inside nenin/6n:nec-/ first/business/economy
no:ymnoe coo6menne air communications ixonoxnnecxnn xacc class
nie1 departure (flying) neycxo1eni (pl) are provided for
nne1 arrival (flying) c1ixonxa connection
ninon1i(-c) (I) / to carry out, be carried n 1ox nnce including
ninonn1i(-c) (II) out c1ani Ia1nn the Baltic States
annaanne passenger aircraft 1yaienc1no travel agency
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HAHAR HORETL BHYTPH POCCHH.
HAEXHOE BO3YLHOE COOBEHHE CBR3ARO MOCKBY H POCCHHCKHE FOPOA:
HOBOCHBHPCK, XABAPOBCK, CAHKT-HETEPBYPF
Hanpaeneuue uu eLnefa N peca BLnef Hpunef uu eLnefa N peca BLnef Hpunef Cfouuocfu
us MockeL (uecfuoe e Mockey e USD
epeun)
HOBOCHEHPCK ef.,f.,cy. SU 721 08.15 15.30 ef.,f.,cy SU 722 17.10 18.30 of 186 po 340
XAEAPOBCK ef.,f.,eockp. SU 723 21.30 12.15+1 nu.,cp.,nnfu. SU 724 15.15 16.30 of 534 po 762
C.-HETEPEYPF ef.,f.,cy. SU 731 20.15 21.35 eepueeuo SU 732 22.25 23.40 of 89 po 127
eockp. c 15 ukun
c 15 ukun
PecL eLnonunkfcn us asponopfa Lepeuefueeo-1 ua coepeueuuLx
aeuanauepax c ocnyueauueu no nepeouy, -usuec u skououueckouy knaccau.
HpepycuofpeuL ypouLe cfLkoeku c uepyuapopuLuu pecauu e cfpauL Eanfuu.
Huqopuaun: e Mockee no fen.: (095) 155-50-45 u 926-62-78
e Hoeocuupcke no fen.: (383-2) 22-77-90
e Xaapoecke no fen.: (421-2) 24-62-89
a fake e kaccax Aspoqnofa unu e fypareufcfeax.
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Activity Eleven - Onnnana1oe saanne
Speaking Look at the advertisement from Activity Ten again and answer the
following questions in Russian.
1. Kya e1an1 nonie enci A+o]o1a'
2. Ho xaxnx nx e1ae1 caxoe1 n Honocn6ncx'
3. Lcn ceion nocxecenie, 1o xya ceion e1n1* caxoe1'
4. Lcn ceion n1onnx, 1o xya ceion e11 enci Su 721 n Su 731?
* You have already met the multidirectional verb e1a1i (to fly) in Chapter Eour. Its unidirectional pair
is e1e1i. The conjugation of this verb is as follows:
eny xi e1nx
1i e1nmi ni e1n1e
on/ona/ono e1n1 onn e11
Activity Twelve - nenana1oe saanne
Reading/Writing/Listening Read the dialogue below and fill in the gaps choosing
the appropriate form of either the unidirectional verb e1e1i or the multidirectional verb
e1a1i. Listen to the tape to check your answers.
Pasronop n sane nmne1a
A - Hoc1n1e, ni ne xoin 6i nncxo1e1i :a xonxn nemaxn' 1oixo xynn
ia:e1y n nenyci.
I - ,a, xonenno.
A - Cnacn6o nax 6oimoe.
I - He :a n1o.
A - Hy, no1 n nenyaci. Tenei ec1i, n1o nonn1a1i o nie1a.
I - A ni xya ____________________'
A - ____________________ n Conn. A ni'
I - ____________________ n He1e6yi, no 1oe xo1e 6i ____________________ n
Conn, na xoe. Tax cennac 1ax xoomo!
A - ,a, noioa 1ax cennac oneni axa. o6inno ____________________ 1ya n
cen16e, no n i1ox ioy o1nycx y xen n nne. A ni ____________________ n
He1e6yi n xoxannonxy'
I - ,a, n xoxannonxy. Mon o1nycx ye xonnnc.
A - A ie ni o1ixan'
I - Mi c enon ____________________ x y:ix n Hcnannn.
A - B Hcnannn' A n xaxox iooe ni 6in'
I - Mi ____________________ n Man.
A - yecnin ioo! 1oe n nomox ioy 6ia n Mane, ___________________
na xon]eennnn.
I - Hoc1n1e, xae1c, o6rnn1 nocaxy na xon enc.
A - ,o cnnann, cnac1nnoio ny1n!
I - Bax 1axe.
:a nie1a departure lounge 1enei ec1i, now I have
nncxa1nna1i (I) / to keep an eye n1o nonn1a1i something to read
nncxo1e1i (II) :a nemaxn on belongings o1nycx holiday, leave
no:nama1ic (I) / neny1ic to return xi c enon my wife and I
(nenyci, nenemic) o6rn1i (I) / o6rnn1i (II) to announce
ne :a n1o you`re welcome nocaxa boarding
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Activity Thirteen - Tpnnana1oe saanne
Speaking Role-play. You play the role of A and your partner plays the role of B,
then reverse the roles. Use the information given in Activity Ten.
You will need to know how to say in Russian to depart` and to arrive` when flying. Add the prefixes nm-
(to indicate departure) or npn- (to indicate arrival) to the appropriate verb e1e1i or e1a1i. The newly
formed verbs nie1a1i - nie1e1i, nne1a1i - nne1e1i are called compound verbs of motion.
Eor more details see the Grammar section.
At the information desk - B o1ene nnqopuannn
A B
1. Say good afternoon. Give an appropriate reply.
Ask on what days the plane flies to Khabarovsk. "
Ask at what time it departs from Moscow. "
Ask at what time it arrives in Khabarovsk. "
Ask the flight number. "
A B
2. Say good morning. Give an appropriate reply.
Ask on what days there is a plane to St. Petersburg. "
Ask at what time it departs from Moscow. "
Ask at what time it arrives in St. Petersburg. "
Ask for the flight number. "
The perfective forms of unidirectional verbs
The perfective infinitives of unidirectional verbs are formed with the prefix no-; e.g. n1n/non1n (to go),
exa1i/noexa1i (to travel), e1e1i/noe1e1i (to fly) etc.
Perfective forms either stress setting off or recent depature and possible arrival:
on noee1 n Mocxny nee: 1n n - he will be setting off for Moscow in three days
ona noma n xaia:nn - she has gone to the shop
onn noe1en na xon]eennnn - they have gone to the conference
Activity Fourteen - He1mpnana1oe saanne
Reading/Speaking Look at the tickets below and answer the following questions in
Russian. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the next page to help you.
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1. Kaxoio nnca xono
non1n n nnx'
2. Cxoixo c1on1 xain
6ne1'
3. Kaxoe xec1o n
yxa:ani n 6ne1ax'
4. Kaxoio nnca xono
non1n no ,noen cno1a'
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Activity Fifteen - Hn1nana1oe saanne
Reading/Writing Read the information on the train ticket and indicate whether the
following statements are True (H) or Ealse (H). Where you have written H, write out the
correct version in Russian. Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.
1. C i1nx 6ne1ox xono noexa1i n Cenac1onoi
()
2. Hoe: o1nane1c n 7. 55 y1a.
()
3. Hoe: o1nane1c nana1i 1e1ieio nnn.
()
4. 31o noe: noxe cexi.
()
5. Hoxe naiona - na.
()
6. Ine1 c1on1 cexico1 nana1i y6en, nocexiec1 xoneex.
()
7. Hoxe xec1a - coox ne1ie.
()
The perfective forms of multidirectional verbs
The perfective infinitives of multidirectional verbs are also formed with the prefix no-, i.e. xon1i/
noxon1i (to walk), e:n1i/noe:n1i (to travel), e1a1i/noe1a1i (to fly) etc.
These perfective forms express an action of short duration:
on noxon no xoxna1e n ce - he walked around the room for a while and then sat down
xi cnanaa noe:nn na neocnnee, a no1ox nomn n xnno - first we rode a bike for a bit and then
we went to the cinema
noen cno1a sports centre xec1o seat
iocyac1nennin state row
nnx circus yxa:ani are indicated
1n6yna stand (at sports events) cex1o section
naion carriage Cenac1onoi Sebastopol
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Activity Sixteen - Hec1nana1oe saanne
Writing Look at the pictures below. Complete the sentences beneath each picture
choosing the appropriate form of either xon1i/noxon1i or e:n1i/noe:n1i.
On oio _______________ no naxy. On nexnoio _______________ no naxy n
yme oxon.
Mi nexnoio _______________ na nonon Mi ye anno ne _______________ na
xamnne n noc1annn ee n ia. xamnne, ona coxaaci.
Activity Seventeen - Ceunana1oe saanne
Reading/Writing/Listening Listen to the tape twice and fill in the missing verbs of
motion which are given in the infinitive form in the box below. Then analyse the sentences and
justify the choice of the verbs.
exa1i noexa1i nin1n nie1e1i
e:n1i nnexa1i noxon1i nie1a1i
Kax n exan n a+ponop1
B nomox ioy ________________ n o1nycx n cen16e. B Mocxne noioa 6ia
onna n xoona, no+1oxy emna ________________ na ni, na enoe xoe.
Mon caxoe1 __________________ n 9 nacon y1a. Mne nyno 6io __________________
n a+ono1 :a na naca o nie1a, n 7 nacon y1a. emna __________________ n
a+ono1 an1o6ycox. An1o6yc ne1 o a+ono1a 2 naca, no+1oxy __________________
n: oxa n 5 nacon. oio xona no oc1anonxe n aa an1o6yc . Lio nce ne 6io,
n emna _________________ na 1axcn. Ho cno6onix 1axcn 1oe oio ne 6io.
oneni nennnnaa, nei ona:inaa na caxoe1. Haxonen xne yaoci nonxa1i
1axcn. oneni nocna 1axcnc1a __________________ xax xono 6ic1ee.
________________ n a+ono1 :a 30 xnny1 o nie1a, no nce-1axn ycnea na caxoe1!
On __________________ nonex, onno n 9 nacon y1a.
(c-)oxa1ic (I) to break down onn1i (onn, onnmi) / to catch
:a na naca o ( gen) two hours before nonxa1i (I)
(noo-)a1i (y, emi) to wait (no-)nocn1i (nomy, nocnmi) to ask
nennnna1i (I) (imp) to be anxious xax xono 6ic1ee as fast as possible
ona:ina1i (I) / ono:a1i (I) to be late for nce-1axn all the same, still
na ( acc) ycnena1i (I) / ycne1i (ycnen, to manage to catch
xne yaoci I managed ycneemi) na ( acc)
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Compound verbs of motion
You have already met some of the compound verbs of motion in Activity Thirteen and Activity Seven-
teen. They are formed by adding a prefix to a simple verb of motion, which then acquires a new meaning;
e.g. exa1i (to go by car, bus, train etc.) - nnexa1i (to arrive), niexa1i (to depart). A perfective verb
with a new meaning is formed by using the unidirectional verb with a prefix; e.g. nnexa1i (pf) -
nne:a1i (imp). An imperfective verb with the same new meaning is formed by using the multidirec-
tional verb with the same prefix.
Compounds with similar new meanings can be formed from all simple verbs of motion by adding a prefix;
e.g. e1e1i (to fly) - nne1e1i (to arrive by plane), nie1e1i (to depart be plane).
The most common prefixes used with verbs of motion are given below in combination with n1n -
xon1i. Eor the full list of prefixes refer to the Grammar section.
imperfective perfective preposition meaning
nxon1i non1n n (+ acc) to enter
yxon1i yn1n o1 (+ gen) to leave (a person)
n:/c (+ gen) to leave (a place)
nixon1i nin1n n: (+ gen) to go out of, to depart
oxon1i on1n o (+ gen) to go as far as, to reach
:axon1i :an1n n/na (+ acc) to call in at a place
x ( dat) to call on someone
neexon1i neen1n nee: (+ acc) to cross
- (+ acc)
nnxon1i nnn1n n/na (+ acc) to come, to arrive
x ( dat) to come to see a person
Activity Eighteen - Boceunana1oe saanne
Reading Read the following extract from a children`s poem and work out the
meaning of each compound verb of motion used in it. Complete the partial translation of the
poem.
,yi (H. Axnu)
,yi yexa aexo. My friend far away.
Mne 6e: yia neeixo. It is hard to be without a friend.
,eni nome. One day has .
Ho1ox nee. Then one week.
Tn neen noe1en. Three weeks have .
e1ox - oi. It rains in summer.
3nxon - ninia. There are snowstorms in winter.
Oneni cxynno xne 6e: yia. I have really missed my friend.
Activity Nineteen - enn1nana1oe saanne
Listening/Writing/Reading Listen to the dialogue (At the metro station`) and fill in
the gaps in the partial transcription below. Read the completed transcription in pairs.
Ha c1annnn ue1po
1-in naccan - Cxan1e, noaync1a, xax xne ______________ o c1annnn
Hencxnn nocnex1'
2-on naccan - Tax, xi c naxn cennac na c1annnn An1ono. 3nann1, nax
:nxon = :nxon in the winter ninia snowstorm
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nyno ______________ 1n oc1anonxn n ______________ na
c1annnn Texnooinnecxnn nnc1n1y1.
1-in naccan - Tax, xoomo, a no1ox xne, nanenoe, nyno 6ye1 cea1i
neecaxy'
2-on naccan - ,a, nax nyno 6ye1 ______________ na yiyn nnnn,
ona cnneio nne1a na cxexe xe1o, n neecec1i na yion
noe:. Ho1ox nax nyno 6ye1 ______________ nceio ony
oc1anonxy n ______________ na ceynmen c1annnn. 31o n
6ye1 Hencxnn nocnex1.
1-in naccan - Ioimoe cnacn6o.
2-on naccan - He :a n1o.
Activity Twenty - nana1oe saanne
Listening Listen to the tape again and indicate whether the following statements are
True (H) or Ealse (H). Where you have put H write out the correct version in Russian.
1. The first passenger would like to go to the metro station Avtovo.
()
2. She should go 4 stops and then change lines.
()
3. She should get off at the metro station Institute of Technology.
()
4. There she should change lines and take another train.
()
5. She should travel three more stops.
()
Activity Twenty-One - nana1n nepnoe saanne
Reading/Speaking Pairwork. Look at the St. Petersburg underground map on the
following page. Then act out the dialogue from Activity Nineteen using the starting point and
information given below. You should change roles each time.
1. You are at Kupchino station 4. You are at Devyatkino station
and would like to go to and would like to go to
Obukhovo station. Alexander Nevsky Square.
2. You are at Obukhovo station 5. You are at Alexander Nevsky
and would like to go to square station and would like to go
Sadovaya. to Pushkinskaya.
3. You are at Sadovaya station 6. You are at Pushkinskaya
and would like to go to station and would like to go to
Devyatkino. Obukhovo.
oc1anonxa st op cxexa xe1o map of the metro
nanenoe probably neecanna1ic (I) / to change (trains,
(c-)ea1i (I) to change (trains, neecec1i (neecy, buses etc.)
neecaxy buses etc.) neecemi) na ( acc)
nnn line
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Activity Twenty-Two - ,nana1i n1ooe :aanne
Reading Work out the meaning of the following words which can often be seen at
underground stations, public buildings and in car parks. Indicate with arrows all the boxes
relevant to each word.
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nxo
nixo
neexo
nre:
nie:
EXIT FROM CAR PARK
PEDESTRIAN CROSSING
ENTRANCE TO CAR PARK
ENTRANCE TO MUSEUM
CROSSING BETWEEN UNDERGROUND LINES
EXIT FROM CINEMA
ENTRANCE TO UNDERGROUND
ENTRANCE FOR DELIVERY VEHICLES
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GRAMMAR
REFLEXIVE VERBS
Reflexive verbs are used as follows:
1. Real` reflexives express an action which the subject performs on itself. This group
contains:
a) a number of verbs which relate to personal grooming. The following list of common reflexive verbs
may prove useful:
6n1ic/no6n1ic to shave (oneself)
xacn1ic/naxacn1ic to make up ones face
xyna1ic/ni-, ncxyna1ic to bathe (oneself)
xi1ic/no-, nixi1ic to wash (oneself)
o6yna1ic/o6y1ic to put on ones shoes
oena1ic/oe1ic to dress (oneself)
neeoena1ic/neeoe1ic to change (ones clothes)
nnnecina1ic/nnneca1ic to brush ones hair
nocina1ic/nocny1ic to wake up
nyn1ic/na-, nonyn1ic to powder ones face
a:ena1ic/a:e1ic to get undressed, to take off ones hat and coat
a:yna1ic/a:y1ic to take off ones shoes
yxina1ic/yxi1ic to wash ones hands and face
b) other common real` reflexives include the following:
:amnma1ic/:amn1n1ic to defend oneself
nonnxa1ic/non1ic to ascend
n1a1ic/cn1a1ic to hide (oneself)
cnycxa1ic/cnyc1n1ic to descend
ycanna1ic/ycec1ic to settle down
c) a number of real` reflexives are reflexive onlv in the imperfective:
on1ic/eni to lie down
neecanna1ic/neecec1i to change trains etc.
can1ic/cec1i to sit down
c1anonn1ic/c1a1i to (go and) stand, to become
Note: there is no reflexive verb in Russian to express to behave oneself`. The following phrase is
used instead: nec1n cen; e.g. on noxo ce6 nee1 - he behaves badly.
2. Reciprocal reflexives express reciprocal or joint action:
nne1ic/ynne1ic to see (each other)
nc1ena1ic/nc1e1n1ic to meet (each other)
en1ic/noen1ic to share
oionanna1ic/oionon1ic to agree
a1ic/noa1ic to fight (each other)
:oona1ic/no:oona1ic to say hello
:naxoxn1ic/no:naxoxn1ic to get acquainted (with each other)
xnn1ic/noxnn1ic to make it up
o6nnxa1ic/o6n1ic to embrace (each other)
noma1ic/noc1n1ic to say goodbye
cone1ona1ic/nocone1ona1ic to take advice
ccon1ic/noccon1ic to quarrel
neona1ic/noneona1ic to kiss (each other)
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Note: reflexive verbs of motion with the prefixes pas- and c- also express joint action; e.g.
acxon1ic/a:on1nci (to disperse), cxon1ic/con1nci (to gather).
3. Reflexive verbs with a passive meaning. Many ordinary imperfective transitive verbs
acquire passive meaning when -c is added to them. There is usually a third-person object in
the sentence; e.g. noana1i: xi noaex xnnin - we sell books; noana1ic: xnnin
noan1c emeno - the books are sold cheaply.
ionon1i - ionon1ic: i1o ne ronopn1cn ncyx - such things are not said aloud
ea1i - ea1ic: xax i1o enae1cn' - how is that done?
ncnon1i - ncnon1ic: i1a cnx]onn ncnonnne1cn nnenie - this symphony is
being performed for the first time
A number of reflexive passive verbs are used to express prohibition:
nocnema1i - nocnema1ic: xyn1i nocnpemae1cn - no smoking (literally: smoking is
prohibited)
onycxa1i - onycxa1ic: e1n o 16 e1 ne onycxam1cn - children under 16 are not
admitted
Note: only imperfective verbs function as reflexive passives.
4. Intransitive reflexives. A reflexive particle can transform a transitive verb into an
intransitive verb. While English uses many verbs both transitively and intransitively (e.g. he
stopped the clock / the clock stopped), Russian always distinguishes transitive from
intransitive by adding a reflexive particle to a transitive verb ( on oc1anonnn naci / naci
oc1anonnnncn).
transitive intransitive English
nannna1i/nana1i nannna1ic/nana1ic to begin, to start
xonna1i/xonnn1i xonna1ic/xonnn1ic to finish, to stop
nooa1i/noon1i nooa1ic/noon1ic to continue
o1xina1i/o1xi1i o1xina1ic/o1xi1ic to open
:axina1i/:axi1i :axina1ic/:axi1ic to close
oxa1i/coxa1i oxa1ic/coxa1ic to break
5. Reflexive verbs which express feelings:
a) some of them only have a reflexive form:
6o1ic ( gen) to fear
ion1ic ( instr) to be proud of
nae1ic na ( acc) to hope for, rely on
nacaa1ic ( instr) to enjoy
nann1ic/nonann1ic ( dat) to please
acnaxa1ic (pf only) to burst into tears
accxe1ic (pf only) to burst out laughing
cxe1ic/:acxe1ic na ( instr) to laugh at
coxnena1ic/ycoxnn1ic n ( prep) to express doubt about
yi6a1ic/yi6ny1ic ( dat) to smile at
b) some of them have both reflexive and non-reflexive forms:
6ecnoxon1i(c)/no6ecnoxon1i(c) to worry, (reflexive) to be worried
necen1i(c)/nonecen1i(c) to amuse, (reflexive) to enjoy oneself
nonona1i(c)/n:nonona1i(c) to excite, (reflexive) to get excited
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nocxnma1i(c)/nocxn1n1i(c) ( instr) to delight, (reflexive) to be delighted (with)
nn:nana1i(c)/nn:na1i(c) n ( prep) to acknowledge, (reflexive) to confess to
nyia1i(c)/ncnyia1i(c) ( gen) to frighten, (reflexive) to be frightened (of)
aona1i(c)/o6aona1i(c) ( dat) to gladden, (reflexive) to rejoice (at)
acc1anna1i(c)/acc1on1i(c) to upset, (reflexive) to get upset
cen1i(c)/accen1i(c) na ( acc) to anger, (reflexive) to get angry (at)
ynn1i(c)/ynnn1i(c) ( dat) to surprise, (reflexive) to be surprised (at)
xxyn1i(c)/naxxyn1i(c) to frown, to knit one`s brow
6. Reflexive verbs that express the potential to perform some action (usually harmful):
xyca1ic (co6axn xycan1c) to bite (dogs bite)
naan1ic (xomxn naanan1c) to scratch (cats scratch)
7. A number of reflexive verbs express out and out` completion of an action. These verbs
usually have the prefixes ni-, o- or na-:
nicina1ic/nicna1ic to have a good sleep
oyxina1ic/oyxa1ic to hit on an idea
naea1ic/naec1ic to eat ones fill
nannna1ic/nann1ic to slake ones thirst; get drunk
Activity Twenty-Three - nana1n 1pe1ne saanne
Reading Read the following rules printed on the back of a theatre ticket. Underline
all the reflexive verbs that you can find. Translate the rules into English using the vocabulary
list at the foot of the page.
1. Bxo n :n1einin :a noce 1e1ieio :nonxa :anemae1c.
2. Ha nenenne cnex1axn e1n xooe 16 e1 ne onycxan1c.
3. Ha y1ennne cnex1axn e1n onycxan1c c 7-xn e1 c o1einix 6ne1ox.
4. Bxo n :n1einin :a c no1]exn, cne1xaxn n n ioonnix y6oax ne a:emae1c.
5. Hn o1xene cnex1ax 6ne1i no:naman1c n xaccy 1ea1a o nanaa cnex1ax.
Activity Twenty-Four - nana1n ue1np1oe saanne
Writing Translate the following into Russian.
1. I usually wake up at 8 o`clock, but yesterday I woke up at 11 o`clock.
2. I do not shave on Sundays.
3. In the morning I always get up, wash my hands and face, then have a shower , brush my
hair, get dressed, put on my shoes and have breakfast.
4. We have not seen each other for a long time.
5. They agreed to meet by the entrance to Nevsky Prospekt station.
6. She is always smiling.
7. They never quarrel.
8. He got angry and frowned.
9. I did not have enough sleep.
10. I am proud of him.
:n1einin :a auditorium cne1ox package
:nonox bell ioonnon y6o headgear
o1einin separate; (here:) own nn o1xene in case of cancellation
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NUMERALS IN OBLIQUE CASES
The cardinal numerals decline as follows:
1. noi/nyi declines like a masculine soft-sign noun with stressed ending
Nom noi/nyi
Acc noi/nyi
Gen no/ny
Dat non/nyn
Instr noex/nyex
Prep o noe/nye
2. onn declines like i1o1 but with stressed ending
masculine feminine neuter plural
Nom onn ona ono onn*
Acc onn/onoio ony ono onn/onnx
Gen onoio onon onoio onnx
Dat onoxy onon onoxy onnx
Instr onnx onon onnx onnxn
Prep o6 onox o6 onon o6 onox o6 onnx
* Used with plural-only nouns; e.g. onn canxn (one sledge)
3. no1oa (m & n) / no1oi (f) one and a half ` are the Nominative and Accusative
forms. In all other cases use noy1oa.
4. na / ne
masculine/neuter feminine
Nom na ne
Acc na/nyx ne/nyx
Gen nyx nyx
Dat nyx nyx
Instr nyx nyx
Prep o nyx o nyx
5. n1i (and all other numerals ending in a soft sign)
Nom n1i mec1i cexi nocexi ec1i onnnana1i* nana1i
Acc n1i mec1i cexi nocexi ec1i onnnana1i nana1i
Gen n1n mec1n cexn nocixn ec1n onnnana1n nana1n
Dat n1n mec1n cexn nocixn ec1n onnnana1n nana1n
Instr n1in mec1in cexin nocxin ec1in onnnana1in nana1in
Prep o n1n o mec1n o cexn o nocixn o ec1n o6 onnnana1n o nana1n
*11 - 19 decline with medial stress, whereas 5-10, 20 and 30 have stressed ending in all oblique cases.
6. coox, ennoc1o, c1o
These numerals have only one oblique case ending: -a
Nom/Acc coox ennoc1o c1o
Gen/Dat/Instr/Prep (o) cooxa ennoc1a c1a
7. n1iec1, mec1iec1, cexiec1, nocexiec1
The component parts of these numerals decline separately like soft-sign feminine nouns.
The stress falls on the second syllable in oblique cases:
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Nom/Acc n1iec1 mec1iec1 cexiec1 nocexiec1
Gen/Dat n1nec1n mec1nec1n cexnec1n nocixnec1n
Instr n1inec1in mec1inec1in cexinec1in nocixinec1in
Prep o n1nec1n o mec1nec1n o cexnec1n o nocixnec1n
8. nec1n - en1ico1
The component parts of these numerals decline separately:
Nom/Acc nec1n 1nc1a n1ico1 en1ico1
Gen nyxco1 1exco1 n1nco1 en1nco1
Dat nyxc1ax 1exc1ax n1nc1ax en1nc1ax
Instr nyxc1axn 1exc1axn n1nc1axn en1nc1axn
Prep o nyxc1ax o 1exc1ax o n1nc1ax o en1nc1ax
9. 1icna declines like the feminine noun aua (Instrumental 1icnin or 1icnen)
xnnon, xnna decline like the masculine noun nenocnne
10. compound numerals
All parts of a compound numeral decline separately. In phrases thenoun agrees with
the last element of the compound:
Nom/Acc nana1i n1i
Gen/Dat/Prep (o) nana1n n1n
Instr nana1in n1in
11. o6a (m & n), o6e (f) both`
Nom o6a o6e
Gen o6onx o6enx
Dat o6onx o6enx
Acc o6a/o6onx o6e/o6enx
Instr o6onxn o6enxn
Prep o6 o6onx o6 o6enx
Activity Twenty-Five - nana1n nn1oe saanne
Writing Write out the the numbers below in their appropriate cases.
1. Mocxna 6ia ocnonana n 1147 ioy. 2. Ha 1en1onn conexennon Mocxni
n c1anny 6io 6oee 800 o:e n 6oo1, no1exao ne xenee 150 enex n
ynien. 3. Kacna nomai ne oneni nenxa: ee nna - 695 xe1on, a mnnna
- 130 xe1on. 4. Conexennoe na:nanne noman coxannoci c 17 nexa; cono
xacna o:nanae1 xacnna. 5. Conexennie xexencxne c1eni n 6amnn
c1onnci c 1485 no 1495 io. 6. Lcn non1n c Kacnon noman noi
Kpemnnckon c1eni, 1o xono ynne1i nce ee 20 6amen. 7. Caxa nicoxa n:
xexencxnx 6amen - Tonnxa, nico1a xo1oon oxoo 80 xe1on. 8. O6ma
no1ennoc1i Kexencxon c1eni - 2235 xe1on, a 1omnna o1 3 o 5 xe1on
nn nico1e o1 6 o 17 xe1on.
ocnonan(a) founded nex century
n c1anny in olden times o:nana1i (I) (imp) to mean
6oo1o marsh 6amn tower
enxa small river nico1a height
ynen stream o6ma no1ennoc1i (f) overall length
nna length 1omnna thickness
mnnna width o1 ( gen) o ( gen) from ... to ...
coxan1ic (I) / coxann1ic (II) to remain nn nico1e at a/the height
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Activity Twenty-Six - nana1n mec1oe saanne
Reading/Speaking Read the following text and answer the questions in Russian.
Use the vocabulary list at the foot of the page to help you.
3pun1aa
,a1on ocnonann 3xn1aa cnn1ae1c 1764 io, xoia n He1e6yi nn6io 225
xa1nn n: Ienna, xo1oie xynna yccxa nxnea1nna Lxa1enna II. K 1774 ioy
xoexnn 3xn1aa ye nxnnaa 6oee 2000 xa1nn. Ceion xa1nnna iaee
3xn1aa coc1on1 n: 50 :aon ]anny:cxoio ncxycc1na c XVIII no XX nex, 37 :aon
n1aincxoio ncxycc1na n xnoionncennix :aon ioancxon, ncnancxon, nexenxon
n yinx enonencxnx mxo. Jxn1a, xax yn, xy:en ynnxainin. Lcn ni non-
e1e no eio 353 :aax, ni cxoe1e nc1e1n1ic c nenxnxn meenaxn xnonoio
ncxycc1na. 3eci xan1c nax1nnxn ,enneio Linn1a, nnnnn:annn Hen1ainon
A:nn, Kn1a, meeni ennen Iennn, yccxon n enonencxon xyi1yi.
1. Koia 6i ocnonan Jxn1a'
2. Cxoixo xa1nn 6io n eio nenon xoexnnn'
3. Cxoixo xa1nn 6io n eio xoexnnn x 1774 ioy'
4. H: cxoixnx :aon coc1on1 xa1nnna iaee conexennoio Jxn1aa'
5. Honexy Jxn1a nac1o cannnnae1c c ynox'
6. Cxoixo nceio :aon n Jxn1ae'
Unidirectional and multidirectional verbs of motion
The fourteen pairs of verbs of motion are conjugated as follows:
1. n1n ny, nemi, ne1, nex, ne1e, ny1 to go on foot
xon1i xoy , xonmi, xon1, xonx, xon1e, xo1
2. exa1i ey, eemi, ee1, eex, ee1e, ey1 to go by
e:n1i e:y, e:nmi, e:n1, e:nx, e:n1e, e:1 transport
3. 6ea1i 6eiy, 6enmi, 6en1, 6enx, 6en1e, 6eiy1 to run
6eia1i 6eian, 6eiaemi, 6eiae1, 6eiaex, 6eiae1e, 6eian1
4. e1e1i eny, e1nmi, e1n1, e1nx, e1n1e, e11 to fly
e1a1i e1an, e1aemi, e1ae1, e1aex, e1ae1e, e1an1
5. ni1i niny, ninemi, nine1, ninex, nine1e, niny1 to swim,
nna1i nanan, nanaemi, nanae1, nanaex, nanae1e, nanan1 float
6. nec1n necy, necemi, nece1, necex, nece1e, necy1 to carry
nocn1i nomy, nocnmi, nocn1, nocnx, nocn1e, noc1
7. nec1n ney, neemi, nee1, neex, nee1e, ney1 to lead, drive
non1i noy, nonmi, non1, nonx, non1e, no1
8. ne:1n ne:y, ne:emi, ne:e1, ne:ex, ne:e1e, ne:y1 to transport
no:n1i noy, no:nmi, no:n1, no:nx, no:n1e, no:1
9. e:1i e:y, e:emi, e:e1, e:ex, e:e1e, e:y1 to climb
a:n1i ay, a:nmi, a:n1, a:nx, a:n1e, a:1
10. no:1n no:y, no:emi, no:e1, no:ex, no:e1e, no:y1 to crawl
no:a1i no:an, no:aemi, no:ae1, no:aex, no:ae1e, no:an1
11. 6ec1n 6ey, 6eemi, 6ee1, 6eex, 6ee1e, 6ey1 to wander,
6on1i 6oy, 6onmi, 6on1, 6onx, 6on1e, 6o1 walk slowly
12. 1amn1i 1amy, 1amnmi, 1amn1, 1amnx, 1amn1e, 1ama1 to drag
1acxa1i 1acxan, 1acxaemi, 1acxae1, 1acxaex, 1acxae1e, 1acxan1
13. xa1n1i xany, xa1nmi, xa1n1, xa1nx, xa1n1e, xa11 to roll
xa1a1i xa1an, xa1aemi, xa1ae1, xa1aex, xa1ae1e, xa1an1
14. ina1i ionn, ionnmi, ionn1, ionnx, ionn1e, ion1 to chase,
ion1i ionn, ionemi, ione1, ionex, ione1e, ionn1 drive fast
cnn1a1ic (I) (imp only) to be considered xann1ic (II) (imp only) to be kept
nxnea1nna empress ennnn ancient
nxnna1i (I) /nxnnn1i (II) to contain Ienn Greece
yn the Louvre nnnnn:ann civilisation
meen masterpiece coc1o1i (II) (imp only) n: ( gen) to consist of
Hen1aina A:n Central Asia ,ennnn Linne1 Ancient Egypt
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Note: the past tense of some of the above verbs is irregular:
nec1n nec, neca, neco, necn
nec1n ne, nea, neo, nen
ne:1n ne:, ne:a, ne:o, ne:n
e:1i e:, e:a, e:o, e:n
6ec1n 6e, 6ea, 6eo, 6en
Imperative forms of verbs of motion are formed according to the rules outlined in Chapter 16. Note: the
imperative of exa1i is noe:an/noe:an1e.
Activity Twenty-Seven - nana1n cenuoe saanne
Reading Read the following children`s poem (Song of the traveller`) and identify
the use of the unidirectional and multidirectional verbs of motion.
Hecenxa ny1emec1nennnxa (E. Canuenxo)
Hy1emec1nona1i, y:i, My friends,
Oneni nn1eecno! It is very interesting to travel!
3naex i1o 1i n , You and I, we know it,
J1o ncex n:nec1no! Everybody knows it!
Bo1 n eex xi ye And here we are already travelling
Ha neonox naee: With the help of the Prepositional case:
Mi eex na xamnne, we are travelling by car,
Mi eex na ne6ne, we are travelling by camel,
Mi eex-eex-eex we are travelling-travelling-travelling
Ha nex' Hn na xox' by what? or on what?
Ha noe:e xi eex We are travelling by train
H na neocnnee, and by bicycle,
A ecn xi ne eex, and if we are not travelling by transport,
To xi nex nemxox! we are walking!
Hy1emec1nona1i, y:i, My friends,
Oneni nn1eecno! It is very interesting to travel!
3naex i1o 1i n , You and I, we know it,
J1o ncex n:nec1no! Everybody knows it!
L:nx xi 1ya - cna, We are travelling backwards and forwards,
B c1ani, n cea, n iooa. to various countries, villages and towns.
Mi e:nn n Caxay, We have been to Samara,
Mi e:nn n Bamany, We have been to Warsaw,
B Bamany - :a iannny, We have been abroad,
B Bamany - :a y6e. to Warsaw - abroad.
B Caa1on xi noeex, We will go to Saratov,
B Kayiy xi noeex, We will go to Kaluga,
H n i1ox nax noxoe1 and the Accusative case
Bnnn1einin nae! will help us with it!
Activity Twenty-Eight - nana1n nocnuoe saanne
Writing Eill in the gaps choosing the appropriate form of the verb.
1. Bnea xi (n1n - xon1i) n 1ea1. 2. Hoe: X 136 (n1n - xon1i) no n1onnxax n
n1nnnax. 3. oneni n6n (ni1i - nana1i). 4. J1o1 naoxo (ni1i - nana1i) n
Hin-Hox. 5. B nomox ioy (e1e1i - e1a1i) n onon n1i a:. 6. Penc X 234
(e1e1i - e1a1i) n Canx1-He1e6yi 1n a:a n neen. 7. Hoc1n1e, i1o1 an1o6yc
(n1n - xon1i) n nen1' 8. Mon cin eme ne (n1n - xon1i), on 1oixo (no:1n -
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no:a1i), nei exy nceio mec1i xecnen. 9. O6inno e6enxa (nec1n - non1i) n e1cxnn
ca 6a6ymxa, no ceion eio (nec1n - non1i) xa1i. 10. (nec1n - nocn1i) xnniy n
6n6no1exy. 11. oneni n6n (6ec1n - 6on1i) no ynnax nenenen Mocxni. 12.
Ona ne (nec1n - non1i) xamnny. 13. (exa1i - e:n1i) na enoe xoe! 14. On ona:ina
n aiono1 n (ina1i - ion1i) xamnny na xaxcnxainon cxooc1n. 15. ,e1n, ne
myxn1e n ne (6ea1i - 6eia1i) no xoxna1e! 16. exoan 6i oneni 1eix, ne
xoia (nec1n - nocn1i) eio n noi1oxy (1amn1i - 1acxa1i) eio no noy.
Figurative uses of verbs of motion
Some verbs of motion have figurative meanings. Usually only one of a pair is used
figuratively, either the unidirectional or the multidirectional verb. The following figurative
expressions may prove useful:
I. Only unidirectional verbs are used in the following phrases:
n1n ne1 oi, cnei it is raining, snowing
naci ny1* the clock is working
i1o na1ie nax ne1 this dress suits you
i1o1 ]nix ne1 2 naca this film lasts 2 hours
ne1 ix:axen the examination is in progress
n1n no1nn cnoen non to go against one`s will
* In certain contexts it is possible to use multidirectional verb xon1i; e.g. i1n naci ye anno ne
xo1 - this clock has been broken for a long time; xon naci xo1 oneni xoomo - my watch works
really well.
e1e1i nex, nn, ioi e11 time, days, years fly past
6ea1i nex 6en1, nn, ioi 6eiy1 time, days, years fly past
nec1n nec1n nennnx to keep a diary
nec1n neenncxy to carry on a correspondence
nec1n neeionoi to conduct negotiations
nec1n co6anne, ncxyccnn to chair a meeting, a discussion
II. Only multidirectional verbs are used in the following phrases:
xon1i xo1 cyxn, a:ionoi rumours are rife
nocn1i nocn1i oey to wear clothes
nocn1i :nanne, nx to bear a title, a name
non1i non1i :a noc to lead up the garden path
Activity Twenty-Nine - nana1n enn1oe saanne
Reading Read the following children`s poem and underline the verb of motion which
is used figuratevly. Then complete the partial translation of the poem.
Hacm (B. Opnon)
Iono1: naci c1o1. They say: the clock is .
Iono1: naci cnema1. They say: the clock is .
Iono1: naci ny1, They say: the clock is ,
Ho nexnoxo o1c1an1. But it is a bit .
Mi cxo1en c Mnmxon nxec1e, Mishka and I watched it together,
Ho naci c1o1 na xec1e. But the clock is.
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COMPOUND VERBS OF MOTION
Compound verbs of motion are formed by adding different prefixes to simple verbs of
motion. Most compound verbs are linked to the following noun by a preposition. The
following is a list of compounds from xon1i - n1n:
imperfective perfective preposition English
nxon1i non1n n (+ acc) to enter, go in
nixon1i nin1n n: (+ gen) to leave, go out of
oxon1i on1n o (+ gen) to go up to
:axon1i :an1n x (+ dat) to call on (someone)
n/na (+ acc) to call in at (a place)
o6xon1i o6on1n noxyi (+ gen) to go round
( acc) to inspect; avoid
o1xon1i o1on1n o1 (+ gen) to leave, move away from
neexon1i neen1n nee: (+ acc) to cross
( acc)
noxon1i noon1n x (+ dat) to go towards
nnxon1i nnn1n x (+ dat) to come to see (a person)
n/na (+ acc) to arrive, come to (a place)
noxon1i non1n xnxo (+ gen) to pass
( acc) to cover a distance
acxon1ic a:on1nci no (+ dat) to disperse, go in different
directions
cxon1i con1n c (+ gen) to come down from, step off
cxon1ic con1nci c (+ instr) to get together (with)
yxon1i yn1n o1 (+ gen) to leave a person
n:/c (+ gen) to leave a place
Compounds with similar changes of meaning can be formed from all the other verbs of
motion listed on page 336 by adding a prefix; e.g. ye1e1i (to fly away), neeni1i (to
swim across), nono:1n (to crawl through) etc. Some verbs will change their stems when
a prefix is added to a simple verb of motion. These are indicated by the bold type below:
imperfective perfective
-xon1i -n1n
-e:a1i -exa1i
-6eia1i* -6ea1i
-nina1i -ni1i
-no:a1i* -no:1n
-xa1ina1i -xa1n1i
* The stems -6eia1i and -no:a1i differ from the simple verbs of motion stems only in stress.
When forming the compound verbs of motion remember to apply the following spelling rules:
1. o is inserted between a consonant and -n1n; e.g. non1n, o1on1n, con1n
2. a hard sign is inserted between a prefix ending in a consonant and all stems beginning
with e; e.g. nrexa1i, nre:a1i, crexa1i, cre:a1i.
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Figurative uses of compound verbs of motion
Many compound verbs of motion have figurative meanings. The following expressions may
prove useful:
1. compounds from xon1i - n1n
nxon1i/non1n n xoy to come into fashion
nixon1i/nin1n n: xoi to become old-fashioned
oxon1i/on1n o ce: to be reduced to tears
:axon1i/:an1n cnmxox aexo to go too far
neexon1i/neen1n x yion 1exe to switch to a different topic
neexon1i/neen1n nce iannni to overstep the limits
neexon1i/neen1n n: yx n yxn to pass through many hands
cxon1i/con1n c yxa to go mad
2. compounds from non1i - nec1n
ninon1i/ninec1n xoio-nn6yi n: 1enenn to exasperate someone
:anon1i/:anec1n naci to wind up a clock/watch
:anon1i/:anec1n xoio-nn6yi to wind someone up
neenon1i/neenec1n a:iono na yiyn 1exy to change the topic of conversation
nonon1i/nonec1n xoio-nn6yi to let someone down
nonon1i/nonec1n nex to spend time
a:non1ic/a:nec1nci to get divorced
3. compounds from nocn1i - nec1n
ninocn1i/ninec1n nniono to pass sentence
ninocn1i/ninec1n co n: n:6i to wash ones dirty linen in public
ne ninomy eio/ee I can`t stand him/her
onocn1i/onec1n na xoio-nn6yi to denounce someone
nnnocn1i/nnnec1n noi:y to be useful
Activity Thirty - Tpnna1oe saanne
Writing Complete the following sentences using a preposition if appropriate. Re-
member that the noun endings may change.
1. Mi nimn _______.(ox) n nomn _______ (nax). 2. Ia6ymxa noma _______.(nan).
3. On nome _______ () n ne no:oonac. 4. Mi neemn _______.(ynna) n nomn
_______ (xaia:nn). 5. Kain eni noxoy _______. (nen1aina nomai). 6.
An1o6yc noome _______ (oc1anonxa) n oc1anonnc. 7. Mi norexan._______
(1ea1) na 1axcn. 8. Ha xon]eennnn nnexan eeiannn _______.(a:nie c1ani).
9. Mamnna niexaa _______ (iaa), noexaa _______ (xe1on ec1i) n
oc1anonnaci. 10. Ho ooie na a6o1y :ame _______ (non1a) n xynn xaxn. 11.
Ona xeenno o6oma _______.(ca) n noma _______ (ox). 12. Mamnna crexaa
_______.(ooia) n oc1anonnaci y exn. 13. Mi ye1aex_______ (Mocxna) n cexi
nacon nenea.
Activity Thirty-One - Tpnna1n nepnoe saanne
Writing Eill in the gaps with the appropriate verbs of motion.
B nomox ioy xi _______________ n Mocxny na ixcxycnn. Cnanaa xi ne xoin
emn1i - _______________ noe:ox nn _______________ caxoe1ox. B xonne xonnon
xi emnn _______________ na caxoe1e, no1oxy n1o caxoe1
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nceio no1oa naca, a noe: _______________ nenana1i nacon. Mi _______________n
a+ono1 :a na naca o nie1a, :aeinc1nonan 6ne1i n 6aia n _______________
nocxo1e1i, n1o ec1i n :ae nie1a. Tax 6in xaia:nni, xa]e n 6a. Mi
_______________ n xa]e n :axa:an xo]e. Koia o]nnnan1xa _______________ xo]e,
xi yciman, n1o o6rne1c nocaxa na Mocxny. Ho i1o 6i ne nam enc, nam
caxoe1 _______________ nee: nac. Mi ycnen ninn1i xo]e n ae nexnoio
_______________ no xaia:nnax. Mi _______________ nonex n _______________ n
Mocxny n na naca n. Mi n:n 1axcn n _______________ n ioc1nnnny. Mi
_______________ oxoo naca, no1oxy n1o aiono1 naxon1c :a iooox. Haxonen
xi ynnen 6oimon :nax Mocxna, :nann1 xi ________________ n ioo. Mnny1
nee: n1nana1i xi _______________ x ioc1nnnne. Ho1ie noxoi nax
_______________ nexoani n noxa:a, ie naxon1c nam noxe. Mi nexnoio
o1oxnyn n _______________ cxo1e1i ioo. Mi _______________ n: ioc1nnnni n
ynnen, n1o Kacna nomai naxon1c neaexo. Mi _______________ o nee
nemxox, xeenno _______________ ee n _______________ n Kexi. Hoce Kex
xi _______________ na xe1o na A6a1. Ha i1on ynne xnoio xaia:nnon n xa]e.
Mi xynnn cynenni n 6ne1i n Ioimon 1ea1. Beneox xi _______________ n
1ea1 n ynnan n ec1oane. Ha ceynmnn eni xi _______________ non1n ncn
Mocxny na ixcxycnonnox an1o6yce n ynnen xnoio nn1eecnoio.
Activity Thirty-Two - Tpnna1n n1opoe saanne
Writing Translate the following into Russian.
1. Our plane departs at 7 p.m.
2. I left home at 9 a.m. and went to work by car. After work I went to see my friend.
3. My father brought the rare books from St. Petersburg for me.
4. Yesterday my sister brought an interesting book about London.
5. He entered the room, smiled and greeted us.
6. We drove round the square three times and still could not find the museum.
7. She came to see me when I was ill and brought me some nice cakes.
8. We went through the forest and came out by the river.
9. I went up to him and asked what he wanted.
10. The birds are flying, the dogs are running, the snakes are crawling and the fish
are swimming.
11. A car crossed the bridge and stopped.
12. We walked for about twenty minutes and arrived at mother `s house* at six o'clock.
* (we) arrived at mother's house - (xi) nnmn x xa1en
cnanaa at first naxonen at last
n xonne xonnon eventually :nann1 so
nceio in all; only no1ie (m indeclinable) porter, doorman
:a na naca o nie1a two hours before the flight na ceynmnn eni the next day
nonex on time +xcxycnonnin an1o6yc coach
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noc. Aasapencxoe