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The Effect of Cylinder and Hub Creep on the Load Relaxation in Bolted Flanged Joints

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Ph.D. Student

e-mail: anechache@mec.etsmtl.ca

Abdel-Hakim Bouzid

Professor

e-mail: hakim.bouzid@etsmtl.ca

Ecole de Technologie Superieure,

1100 Notre-Dame Ouest,

Montreal, QC, H3C 1K3, Canada

Creep on the Load Relaxation in

Bolted Flanged Joints

The leakage tightness behavior of bolted flange joints is compromised due to the high

temperature effects and, in particular, when creep of the materials of the different components of the bolted flanged joint takes place. The relaxation of bolted flanged joints is

often estimated from the creep of the gasket and the bolts. The creep behavior of the

flange ring, the hub, and the cylinder is often neglected. Apart from an acknowledgement

of relaxation due to the creep, the designer has no specific tools to accurately assess this

effect on the bolt load relaxation. The objective of this paper is to present an analytical

approach capable of predicting the bolt load relaxation due to the creep of the flange

ring, hub, and cylinder. The proposed approach is compared to the 3D finite element

models of different size flanges. An emphasis will be put toward the importance of including creep of the hub and cylinder in high temperature flange designs.

DOI: 10.1115/1.2937739

Introduction

Bolted flanged joints are widely used as a means of connection

between pressure equipments such as those found in oil refineries,

chemical, and power plants. A major problem encountered with

this type of connection is its inability to remain tight over a long

period of time. The load relaxation in high temperature applications is the major contributing factor and is due partially to the

creep of the different joint members. Other than an acknowledgement of this effect, the actual ASME Code flange design 1 does

not give a methodological assessment of the load relaxation and

its impact on the actual joint tightness 2. With the new strict

environmental protection regulations and the ever-increasing

safety and hazard requirements, some code design procedures

35 are being revised to include this effect. In addition, however, these code designs incorporate the load loss due to the thermal expansion difference of the joint members that is recognized

to cause a major sealing problem in some high temperature applications 6,7. Other than the mechanical loads, the ASME Code

flange design does not give a specific calculation procedure to

account for the relaxation of the bolt load due to the creep. In

some applications, it was found that creep has induced a loss of

gasket load of more than half of its initial preloading value.

Due to the unavailability of a more complete design procedure,

the designer is often required to make decisions on the basis of

incomplete information and takes a considerable amount of judgment gained from experience and codes of practice. As an aid to

decision making, rational analysis, which attempts to take into

account the most important features of the problem, is an essential

part of the design process.

Although recognized, the long-term creep relaxation in bolted

gasketed joints remains a subject with little research. In the literature, very few papers address analytically the effect of creep to

help engineers estimate accurately the load relaxation in bolted

joints. Creep analyses of bolted flange connections were presented

in Refs. 810. Steady creep was assumed for the flange and

bolts. The stiffening effects of the hub and the cylindrical shell

portion together with gasket creep were ignored. The paper preContributed by the Pressure Vessel and Piping Division of ASME for publication

in the JOURNAL OF PRESSURE VESSEL TECHNOLOGY. Manuscript received April 22, 2006;

final manuscript received January 4, 2007; published online August 7, 2008. Review

conducted by William Koves. Paper presented at the 2005 ASME Pressure Vessels

and Piping Conference PVP2005, Denver, CO, July 17-21, 2005.

using the strain-hardening rule to estimate the bolt load loss due to

the flange creep. However, the flexibility of the gasket and attached structural components of the joint assembly was not taken

into account. Finally, a model based on the elastic interaction of

all joint elements presented in Refs. 12,13 accurately predicts

load relaxation due to the gasket creep only. A previous paper 14

presents an extended work by considering the creep of bolts and

flange ring in the axial direction only. The present paper deals

with multiaxial creep behavior of the shell, the hub, and the

flange. The analysis of creep is investigated at a uniform temperature. In this study, the effect thermal expansion difference due to

the temperature on the load relaxation is not accounted for since

this was the subject of previous papers 15,16.

Theoretical Analysis

The current ASME Code flange design rules are based on a

rigid model and do not account for the flexibility of the different

elements of the joint. Figure 1 shows the proposed model used

that is based on a previous work 15,16. The flexibility of the

flange ring, the cylinder, the hub, the gasket, and the bolts and

their mechanical interaction is considered. To this model, strainhardening creep law is applied to the flange ring, the cylinder, and

the hub. The bolt and gasket creep is not considered as this was

the subject of the previous paper 16. The theoretical calculation

procedure that considers this effect is presented in detail here

after.

Multiaxial Creep Model. The BaileyNorton equation representing the uniaxial creep law of the steel materials is given by the

following equation:

c = A c mt n

The value of m is greater than 1; n is usually a fraction. This law

is intended to model only the primary and secondary creeps. This

equation can be extended to the multiaxial case by introducing the

effective quantities as

n

ce = Acm

et

Downloaded 06 Oct 2008 to 129.5.16.227. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright; see http://www.asme.org/terms/Terms_Use.cfm

Sz = 3 2z r

The above creep model is applied to the flange ring, the cylinder,

and the hub.

Flange Creep Analysis. For large diameter flanges, ring theory

is applied to the flange annular ring section. The ring is subjected

to the tangential and radial stresses caused by the pressure and the

rotation of the flange. It should be noted that the axial and shear

stresses are neglected.

z = r = rz = z = 0

r =

du f 1

= r + rc

dr E

uf 1

= r + c

r E

z =

r + + zc

E

the radial displacement of the flange is given as follows:

u f = u fr + f z

and f is the flange ring rotation. Therefore, the radial and tangential stresses are given by

r =

E

1 2

E

=

1 2

uf

du f

rc + c

+

r

dr

10

du f

uf

c + rc

+

dr

r

follows:

A/2

M=

t f /2

B/2

t f /2

zdzdr

e =

r + z + z r

2

2 1/2

ce =

rc c 2 + c zc2 + zc rc21/2

B/2

t f /2

t f /2

E

1 2

du f

uf

rc + c

+

dr

r

E f t3f lnA/B

E

121 2

1 2

A/2

B/2

t f /2

t f /2

c + rczdzdr

3

m/n1 c n1/n

rc = 2 SrA1/n

e

c ne

3

m/n1 c n1/n

zc = rc + c = 2 SzA1/n

e

c ne

13

5

interval T so that the variation of M is not significant, the increment of rotation f can then be obtained:

f =

with

1

Sr = 3 2r z

1

S = 3 2 r z

031211-2 / Vol. 130, AUGUST 2008

zdzdr

f is independent of r and z and u fr is independent of z give

M=

3

m/n1 c n1/n

c = 2 SA1/n

e

c ne

12

A/2

M=

11

12t

t3f lnA/B

A/2

B/2

t f /2

t f /2

c + rczdzdr

14

displacement of the flange ring at the bolt circle relative to gasket

reaction location is therefore obtained:

Transactions of the ASME

Downloaded 06 Oct 2008 to 129.5.16.227. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright; see http://www.asme.org/terms/Terms_Use.cfm

w fc =

CG

f

2

15

Eq. 8 into consideration:

uf =

r

r + rc = u fe + rc

E

Et3c d2uc

= M z M + Ec

12 dz2

M = M z E

17

creep radial displacement increment of the flange ring is given as

follows:

u f = r c t

zexdx +

tc/2

1

=

E

tc/2

tc/2

tc/2

tc/2

tc/2

1

uc

xdx =

R

E

tc/2

xdx +

tc/2

tc/2

xdx

E

t /2

c

tc/2

21

tc/2

N E

pR

+

Eze =

tc tc

2tc

and

uc N

pR E

=

+

R

2tc tc

tc

Equation 23 gives

N =

pR

Euc

E

tc +

2

R

tc/2

tc/2

zcdx

22

12

t4c

d2zc

2 xdx

dz

tc/2

tc/2

tc/2

tc/2

tc/2

tc/2

tc/2

tc/2

d2zc

xdx +

dz2

d2c

xdx

dz2

tc/2

tc/2

d2c

xdx dx

dz2

31 2

and

R2t2c

Dc =

t3c E

121 2

d 4u c

4

1 p

4 + 4 uc =

dz

Dc

2

uc =

29

2 pR2

e z

+ 3 P1 cos z + M 1cos z sin z

2Etc

2 Dc

30

0, the differential equation 28 becomes

121 2

d4uc

4

4 + 4 uc =

dz

Rt3c

c dx

23

12

t3c

12

t4c

tc/2

tc/2

tc/2

tc/2

c dx

d2 zc

xdx +

dz2

tc/2

tc/2

tc/2

tc/2

tc/2

tc/2

d2 zc

xdx +

dz2

d2 c

xdx

dz2

tc/2

tc/2

d2 c

xdx dx

dz2

31

tc/2

tc/2

c dx

24

1 2pR

uc

ze =

+

R tc

2Ectc

t3c

tc/2

tc/2

12

tc/2

c dx

At time t = 0, the creep effect does not start, and the creep strain

terms vanish so that Eq. 28 becomes the differential equation of

a shell subjected to pressure p and edge loads P1 and M 1:

tc/2

tc/2

c xdx

and bending moment M in terms of and Nz and M z in terms of

z and noting that Nz = pR / 2 gives

zcxdx

tc/2

zxdx +

27

tc/2

tc/2

c xdx

where

d 2u c

x 2 xdx

dz

zxdx

E

t /2

c

tc/2

28

20

ze and a bending strain. Equations 19 and 20 are multiplied by

dx and integrated over the shell thickness. The resulting equations

are then multiplied by xdx and integrated over the shell thickness

to give

tc/2

uc 1

= z + c

R E

26

tc/2

thin-walled cylinders subjected to internal pressure and edge loads

developed at the junction with the hub. Neglecting the radial

stress, the stress-strain equations from Ref. 18 are used with the

creep components as follows:

1

121 2

d 4u c

4

1 p+

4 + 4 uc =

dz

Dc

2

Rt3c

19

zcxdx

tc/2

manipulation, the following differential equation is obtained:

18

d 2u 1

z = ze x 2 = z + zc

dz

E

tc/2

and

16

r

du f

= r c + r

dt

E

tc/2

1

c dx +

t

c

t /2

c

tc/2

zcdx

d2uc

dz2

=

z=0

25

tc/2

Journal of Pressure Vessel Technology

12

M

1

Dc t3c

12

t4c

tc/2

zcxdx +

tc/2

tc/2

tc/2

zcxdx +

tc/2

tc/2

tc/2

tc/2

c xdx

z=0

c xdx dx

z=0

Downloaded 06 Oct 2008 to 129.5.16.227. Redistribution subject to ASME license or copyright; see http://www.asme.org/terms/Terms_Use.cfm

d3uc

dz3

tc/2

P1 12

=

Dc t3c

z=0

tc/2

tc/2

tc/2

12

t4c

tc/2

tc/2

d zc

tc/2

d c

tc/2

d zc

xdx +

dz

dz

dz

tc/2

tc/2

d c

xdx

dz

At time t 0, introducing the effect of creep Eq. 36 becomes

z=0

121 2

d2 3 d2uh

4

z

+

zu

=

h

dz2

dz2

a h 3

xdx

32

xdx dx

Equation 31 has no known analytical solution and is solved using finite difference method. However, it is necessary to know the

stresses to be able to calculate the strain rates.

Due to the redistribution of load as a result of creep of the shell

material, the stress after each time increment is

z = ze +

= e +

t

z

33

pR

Ex d uc

2tc 1 2 dz2

34

Ex d uc

pR Euc

+

tc

R

1 2 dz2

Ex d2uc

E

c + c

z =

2

2

1 dz

1 2 z

+

E

1 2 tc

tc/2

tc/2

c dx +

1

tc

tc/2

zcdx

tc/2

Euc Ex d2uc

E

c + zc

2

2

R 1 dz

1 2

+

2

E

1 2 tc

tc/2

tc/2

c dx +

tc

tc/2

zcdx

tc/2

121 2

d 2 2 d 2u h

4

z

+

zu

=

p 1

h

2

2

3

dz

dz

E h

2

where

121 2

2a2b

12

M

1,2

Dh

3z 3

z/2

12

4z 4

z/2

z/2

d2 c

xdx

dz2

zcxdx

c xdx dx

38

zcxdx +

z/2

z/2

z/2

z/2

z/2

12

4z 4

z/2

z/2

d c

xdx dx

dz

c xdx dx

z=z1=z2

39

z=z1,z2

z/2

z=z1,z2

z/2

z/2

z/2

c xdx

z/2

z/2

z/2

zcxdx +

z/2

z/2

d zc

xdx +

dz

d zc

dz

z/2

d c

xdx

dz

z/2

z=z1,z2

xdx

z=z1,z2

creep of the hub material after each time increment are given by

36

z = ze +

= e +

40

where

1/4

ze =

coordinate z, with its reference taken starting from the point where

the thickness of the flange is zero, is given as 15

37

where = 2z. Equation 37 represents the radial displacement

of the hub at any position. The thickness of the hub at any axial

position is given by th = z, C1, C2, C3, C4 are the integration

constants, which are given from the boundary conditions. ber and

bei are, respectively, the real and imaginary derivative parts of

J0ze3i/4, ker and kei are, respectively, the real and imaginary

pah

Ex d2uh

2z 1 2 dz2

41

Ex d2uh

pah Euh

e =

+

z

ah 1 2 dz2

z/2

z/2

12

P1,2

Dh

3z 3

z/2

z/2

z=z1,z2

the differential equation of the radial displacement uh of the hub

considered as a cylindrical shell with a linear variation of thickness through the axial position can be obtained 19:

d 3 d2uh

z

dz

dz2

35

z/2

and

d2 zc

xdx +

dz2

z/2

e =

z/2

12 d2 1

4 dz2 z

d2uh

dz2

c dx

z/2

where

ze =

z/2

z/2

z/2

12

3

z=0

and

z =

d2uh

E

Eh

+

2 x

1 dz2 1 2 z

1

z

z/2

z/2

zcdx

z/2

z/2

c dx

E

c + c

1 2 z

Transactions of the ASME

Ex d2uh

Euh

E

c + zc

R

1 2 dz2 1 2

2

E

1 2 z

z/2

z/2

c dx +

z/2

zcdx

z/2

f =

42

Compatibility and Elastic Interaction. The radial displacement and the rotation due to the creep, calculated at the flange to

hub and hub to cylinder junctions, are added to those given by the

elastic effect. The total radial displacement and rotation are introduced on the flexibility model to determine the redistribution of

the edge loads at each junction of the hub and the cylinder. Finally, the new bolt load and subsequently the new gasket contact

stress are evaluated after each time interval.

Radial Displacements, Rotations, and Edge Loads. The radial displacement, the rotation, and the edge loads of the individual bolted joint components of Fig. 1 needs to be considered in

the flexibility analysis in order to determine the bolt load relaxation. It is to be noted that the creep terms are added for the total

displacements and rotations.

The radial displacement and the rotation of the cylindrical shell

at the hub junction are

1

1

2 R

P1 + 2 M 1 +

p + ucc

3

2 Dc

2 Dc

2Ectc

2

uc =

c =

1

1

P1

M 1 + cc

2

2 Dc

Dc

43

44

the shear force at any axial position are given by the following

equations:

uh = z1/2C1ber + C2bei + C3ker + C4kei

+

pa2h

2 h + uch

2Ehz

45

+

Mh =

2 hpa2h

+ ch

2Ehz2

Eh3z1/2

481 2h

+

Ph =

46

2 hpa2h2

47

121 2h

Eh32z1/2

241 2h

48

14. The radial displacement and the rotation of the flange ring

are given in terms of the applied loading such that

uf =

B

P2

P

2E

tf

K2 + 1

tf

+ + f + ucf

2

2

K 1

49

M f + cf

50

Mf =

equations 31 and 38 of the cylinder and hub, respectively. In

order to achieve a good convergence, it is important to choose the

appropriate finite difference time step especially in the stage of

primary creep because of the high strain rates. The time step is

adjusted according to two conditions. The amount of stress relaxation cannot be greater than 500 psi and the time step cannot be

greater than 500 h. Typically, a starting time step of 0.01 h is used

and increased gradually until 500 h after only a few hours when

secondary creep is reached.

6B

Et3f lnA/B

C G

G B 2

B

Bt f

M2

P2 +

Fb +

G + B2p

Do

2Do

2Do

16Do

51

considering the compatibility of displacement, rotation, and edge

load between the shell, the hub, and the flange ring is statically

indeterminate. To solve the system, an additional equation that

considers the axial displacements is required. This is called the

relation of axial compatibility and is obtained by considering the

axial displacement of the nut. It represents the number of turns

carried out by the nut during initial tightening. This displacement

remains unchanged during operation and any other working condition. It is calculated by the sum of all axial displacements of the

joint individual elements 15,16.

n =

w =w =w

i

e

p

e

52

c

e

53

with

we =

Fe

Ke

Fib Fig

C G i Fcb Fcg

CG

+

+2

f =

+

+2

Kb Kg

2

Kb Kg

2

cf +

c

f

54

where Kb is the bolt stiffness and Kg is the gasket stiffness that

depends on the level of stress reached during bolt-up and is obtained by linear interpolation of unloading curves as described in

Ref. 20. Finally, at each interval of time, a system of 13 equations is formed to solve for the 13 unknowns, namely, C1, C2, C3,

C4, P1, M 1, P2, M 2, uc, c, uh, f , and Fb 15.

To validate the analytical model that estimates the relaxation of

the bolt load, the result from three-dimensional numerical finite

element FE modeling of four bolted gasketed joints with different sizes used in pair were compared. Because of symmetry with

respect to a plane that passes through the gasket midthickness as

well as the geometry and loading, it is possible to model only an

angular portion that includes half of the bolt and half of gasket

thickness, as shown in Fig. 2. The program developed using ANSYS 8.1 22 was used to treat a 36 in., a 52 in., and a 120 in. heat

exchanger welding neck flange and NPS3 slip-on class 150 flange.

The geometrical dimensions of the flanges are given in Table 1

while the material creep constants are given in Table 2. These

creep properties are taken from Refs. 11,21 for which the temperature is 1200 F in one case and not known in the other case.

The material creep properties are beyond the ratings of the flange

examples and exaggerate the creep effect for the purpose of comparison between the developed analytical model and the FE results. Other material characteristics used are Youngs modulus of

30 106 psi and Poissons ratio of 0.3 in the elastic range and are

supposed not to vary with temperature for simplicity.

The bolts are made of A-193 B7 material. The loading is applied in three stages. The initial bolt-up is first achieved by applying an axial displacement to the bolt to produce the initial target

bolt stress of 30 ksi to the 36 and 120 in flanges and 40 ksi to the

3 and 52 in flanges. The pressure is then applied. The hydrostatic

end thrust is simulated by an equivalent longitudinal stress applied

to the shell. Finally, the last stage, which is of the most interest in

AUGUST 2008, Vol. 130 / 031211-5

Fig. 2 3D FE model

this study, is the application of creep and the relaxation of the bolt

load over time is evaluated. It is to be noted that for the case of the

120 in heat exchanger flange creep was considered with no pressure applied. To quantify the effect of creep and the contribution

of each element of the bolted joint, the shell, the hub, and the

flange ring were subjected to creep individually and simultaneously together. To emphasize the importance of the creep be-

Dimension

B in.

A in.

tc in.

th in.

Hub lengh in.

t f in.

C in.

G in.

Bolt nominal diameter in.

No. of bolt

NPS 3 slip-on

36 in.

HE

52 in.

HE

120 in.

HE

3.138

7.5

0.216

0.216

1

0.8775

6

4.5

0.625

4

35

48.525

1.5625

1.8125

2.491

6.625

44.562

36.75

2

28

51

58.375

0.625

0.823

1.25

5.625

56.25

52.625

1

76

120.25

127

0.625

1.125

3.125

2.9375

124.5

122.5

1

84

Creep constants

m

n

T F

Flanges

Material

Ac

36 in. HE

52 in. HE

NPS 3 cl 150

slip-on

120 in HE

SS316

SS316

Forged

steel

Forged

steel

1.04 1026

1.04 1026

9.36 1029

5.35

5.35

5.5

0.22

0.22

1

1292

1292

9.36 1029

5.5

gasket and bolt were purposely not considered as these were the

subject of previous papers 12,13.

Two types of gaskets were used: corrugated metal sheets

CMSs for the 52 in. and NPS3 class 150 flanges and compressed

asbestos fiber CAF for the 36 in. and 120 in. flanges. The mechanical behavior of the gasket is represented by nonlinear curves

of gasket contact stress versus axial displacement. These curves

are obtained from load-compression tests conducted on rigid platens. Figure 3 presents the room temperature test data of the two

types of gasket used in the analysis.

The results obtained from the proposed analytical approach are

compared to those of FE models for the four different flange sizes

using the creep properties of Table 2. Again as stated in the finite

element model FEM section, the creep properties were selected

to exaggerate creep deflections and compare both the analytical

and FEMs and may not be representative of the actual long-term

creep behavior. Figures 4 and 5 show the distribution of tangential

stress across the flange ring thickness at the flange OD and its

variation with time when only the flange ring creeps. These graphs

indicate that, in general, the analytical and FEA stresses of the

36 in. and 52 in. HE flanges are in good agreement. The higher

difference is observed with the linear stress distributions present

before the creep takes place and is due to the flange ring behaving

more like a plate. There is approximately 15% difference between

an annular plate and a compact ring.

To illustrate the influence of the creep of the hub and shell,

Figs. 69 show the bolt stress relaxation caused by the creep of

the flange ring, the shell, and the hub taken separately as well

combined for the four flanges. It can be stated that in general the

results between FEM and the proposed analytical model compare

well for the larger diameter flanges. The general trend of load

relaxation compares well. Table 3 summarizes the results by giving the percentage of load relaxation of the two methods after a

total creep time of 10,000 h. This is just a little bit over a year but

is not only enough to illustrate the potential effect of including the

creep of the flange hub and shell in the analysis but also sufficient

to validate the analytical model. Up to 50% difference in load

relaxation is obtained with the NPS 3 class 150 flange. It is observed that although the shell creep causes 36% of load drop as

compared to 1450% when the creep of all members takes place,

this represents 1225% of the relaxed load after 10,000 h. 58%

Transactions of the ASME

flanged joint elements

Percent bolt relaxation

due to creep

Cylinder

Hub

Ring

Ring, cylinder and hub

slip-on

HE

HE

HE

FEA

Analytical

FEA

Analytical

FEA

Analytical

FEA

Analytical

5.88

7.40

47.20

29.80

51.60

38.03

3.70

2.96

5.70

5.08

9.20

10.10

14.80

14.40

3.69

2.43

5.66

4.84

11.70

12.80

20.54

22.03

4.46

3.33

8.15

7.62

23.20

18.98

27.80

29.70

of load drop is obtained when only the hub creeps. This represents

2633% of the relaxed load. Therefore, the total contribution to

load relaxation when considering the shell and hub to creep represents about 3060% of the total combined creep.

In addition, Figs. 10 and 11 show the average axial gasket stress

variation over time caused by the creep effect of the different

elements that compose the flange. Those elements are made to

creep individually or attached to the structure and combined to-

of the gasket. These results can obviously be used to assess the

leakage tightness of the joint assembly. Nevertheless, the results

obtained from the proposed analytical method are shown to match

reasonably well with those found by finite element analysis

FEA. Table 3 summarizes the results of the relaxation of the two

methods after 10,000 h. It is observed that the creep of the hub

and the cylinder causes 15%, 24%, 30% and 50% relaxations of

the average gasket contact stress, respectively, for the 36 in.,

52 in., 120 in., and NPS 3 class 150 flanges.

It is to be noted that after 10,000 h, 30% difference is found

between the FE model and the proposed analytical theory when

only the flange ring creep is considered in the case of the NPS 3

class 150. This difference is attributed to the fact the ring theory

was used for this case instead of plate theory, which is recommended for small diameter flanges. In fact, creep analysis used in

conjunction with plate theory should give good results for small

diameter flanges as well as bolted joints used with blind cover

plates that are not treated in this paper.

Finally, this study emphasizes the importance of including the

creep of the hub and the cylinder in the analysis of the bolt load

relaxation and subsequently the gasket load relaxation in comparison to the gasket and bolt creep that were investigated in Refs.

12,13.

Conclusion

A study on the importance of including the shell and hub in the

creep analysis of bolted joints has been conducted. An analytical

model was developed to evaluate the bolt load relaxation over

time. It was found that the shell and hub contribute to up to 60%

of the total relaxed load for the examples presented in this paper.

Creep of these elements including the flange ring has been

coupled to the axial deflection compatibility equations to determine the resulting gasket and bolt load relaxations. The proposed

analytical approach based on the flexibility of the joint components has potential for possible incorporation in flange designs

once simplified.

The developed analytical models were compared to the more

accurate 3D FEA on three different size flanges. The results of the

flange ring, the bolt, and gasket stresses and their relaxation over

time compare reasonably well to those of FEA.

Nomenclature

Fig. 10 Gasket stress relaxation

t

f

Ac, m, n

ah

A

B

C

C1 C12

D

Do

E

Kb

Ke

Kg

Fb

strain

strain rate

dimensionless position on hub

Poissons ratio

hub flexural rigidity in.1

stress of joint element lb/ in.2

stress rate

shearing stress lb/ in.2

time increment, h

flange rotation rad

creep constants of joint elements

hub mean radius in.

outer diameter of flange in.

inner diameter of flange in.

bolt circle diameter in.

hub constants

flexural rigidity lb in.

diameter to flange centroid in.

Youngs modulus psi

bolt uniaxial stiffness lb/in.

stiffness of joint element

gasket uniaxial stiffness lb/in.

bolt force lb

Transactions of the ASME

Fe

Fg

G

M

Mf

M1

M2

N

P1

P2

p

R

r

S

S1 S12

T

tf

tc

th

u

u

w

w

x

gasket force lb

gasket reaction force diameter in.

bending moment on shell in. lb/in.

flange moment in. lb/in.

hub to cylinder discontinuity moment

in. lb/in.

flange to hub discontinuity moment in. lb/in.

membrane force on shell lb/in.

hub to cylinder discontinuity force lb/in.

flange to hub discontinuity force lb/in.

internal pressure lb/ in.2

shell radius in.

radial position on flange ring in.

stress deviator, lb/ in.2

function depending on ber, ker, bei, kei, ber,

ker, bei, kei

exposure time h

thickness of the flange in.

thickness of the cylinder in.

thickness of the hub in.

radial displacement of the joint element in.

rate of radial displacement in./h

axial displacement of joint element in.

rate of axial displacement in./h

coordinate through the thickness of shell or

hub in.

axial coordinate in.

Superscript

c refers to creep

f refers to final state

i refers to initial state

Subscript

1

2

b

c

e

f

g

r

refers

refers

refers

refers

refers

refers

refers

refers

refers

to

to

to

to

to

to

to

to

to

flange to hub junction

circumferential

bolt

creep and cylinder

effective

flange

gasket

radial

References

1 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, 2001, Section VIII, Division 2, Appendix 2, Rules for Bolted Flange Connections with Ring Type Gaskets.

2 Payne, J. R, 1985, PVRC Flanged Joint Users Survey, Weld. Res. Counc.

Bull., 306, pp. 139.

3 EN 1591-1:2001 E, Flanges and their jointsDesign rules for gasketed circular flange connections Part 1: Calculation method.

4 EN 1591-2:2001 E, Flanges and their jointsDesign rules for gasketed circular flange connections Part 2: Gasket parameters.

5 EN 13555 2001, Flanges and their jointsGasket parameters and test procedures relevant to the design rules for gasketed circular flange connections.

6 Nechache, A., and Bouzid, A., 2002, The Redistribution of Load in Bolted

Gasketed Joints Subjected to Steady State Thermal Loading, Proceedings of

the Tenth International Conference on Nuclear Engineering-ICONE 10, Arlington, VA, ICONE10-22194, pp. 19.

7 Nechache, A., and Bouzid, A., 2003, The Determination of the Load Changes

in Bolted Gasketed Joints Subjected to Elevated Temperatures, Proceedings

of the 2003 ASME-PVP Conference, PVP-Vol.457, Analysis of Bolted Joints,

Cleveland, OH, Paper No. PVP2003-1883, pp. 139148.

8 Bailey, R. W, 1933, Flanged Pipe Joints for High Pressure and Temperatures, Engineering, 1453771, pp. 674676.

9 Marin, J., 1938, Stresses and Deformations in Pipe Flanges subjected to

Creep at High Temperature, J. Franklin Inst., 226, pp. 645657.

10 Waters, E. O, 1938, Analysis of Bolted Joints at High Temperatures, Trans.

ASME, 60, pp. 8386.

11 Kraus, H., and Rosenkrans, W., 1984, Creep of Bolted Flanged Connections,

Weld. Res. Counc. Bull., 294, pp. 28.

12 Bouzid, A., Chaaban, A., and Bazergui, A., 1995, The Effect of Creep Relaxation on the Leakage Tightness of Bolted Flanged Joints, ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 117, pp. 7178.

13 Bouzid, A., and Chaaban, A., 1997, An accurate Method for Evaluating Relaxation in Bolted Flanged Connections, ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol.,

119, pp. 1017.

14 Bouzid, A., and Nechache, A., 2004, Creep Modeling of Bolted Flange

Joints, Proceedings of the 2004 ASME-PVP Conference, PVP-Vol.478, San

Diego, CA, Paper No. PVP2004-2621, pp. 4956.

15 Bouzid, A., and Nechache, A., 2005, Thermally Induced Deflections in

Bolted Flanged Connections, ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 127, pp.

394401.

16 Bouzid, A., and Nechache, A., 2005, An Analytical Solution for Evaluating

Gasket Stress Change in Bolted Flange Connections Subjected to High Temperature Loading, ASME J. Pressure Vessel Technol., 127, pp. 414427.

17 Kraus, H., 1980, Creep Analysis, Wiley, New York.

18 Burgreen, D., 1979, Pressure Vessel Analysis, C.P., Jamaica, NY.

19 Timoshenko, S. P., 1930, Theory of Plate and Shells, Wiley, New York.

20 Bouzid, A., and Champliaud, H., 2004, Contact Stress Evaluation of NonLinear Gaskets Using Dual Kriging Interpolation, ASME J. Pressure Vessel

Technol., 126, pp. 445450.

21 Betten, J., 2002, Creep Mechanics, Springer, Berlin.

22 ANSYS, 2004, ANSYS, VERSION 8.1

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