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SPE165089

Self-Diverting Acid for Effective Carbonate Stimulation Offshore Brazil: A


Successful History

A. T. Jardim Neto, C. A. M. Silva, R. S. Torres, R. L. Farias, F. G. M. Prata, L. A. M. Souza, Baker Hughes; and A.
Z. I. Pereira, A. Calderon, E. F. Sandes, Petrobras

Copyright 2013, Society of Petroleum Engineers


This paper was prepared for presentation at the SPE European Formation Damage Conference and Exhibition held in Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 57 June 2013.
This paper was selected for presentation by an SPE program committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper have not been
reviewed by the Society of Petroleum Engineers and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material does not necessarily reflect any position of the Society of Petroleum Engineers, its
officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper without the written consent of the Society of Petroleum Engineers is prohibited. Permission to
reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of SPE copyright.

Abstract
The stimulation history in offshore Brazil is undergoing into a deep transformation. The requirements of technology, before
focused on sandstone reservoirs demand, are being expanded by the need for techniques to stimulate carbonate reservoirs,
specially the pre-salt carbonates. In this scenario, a self-diverting acid system based on a viscoelastic surfactant (VES)
technology was introduced for carbonate reservoir stimulation.
The Self-Diverting VES (SD-VES) promotes viscosity development when the acid comes in contact with the carbonate
formation. The mechanism of viscosity development is simple: In concentrated acid, the system presents low viscosity, which
results in friction reduction while pumping; however, when the fluid reacts with the formation and the acid concentration
decreases, the micelle spherical structures combine, transforming into rod-like micelles that convert to a 3-D structure, which
increases the fluid viscosity. The high viscosity generates a temporary barrier across the high-injectivity zones, diverting the
subsequent fluid to treat other reservoir zones.
Generally the SD-VES is associated with several placement techniques that aid in achieving good treatment distribution
through the entire producer interval. Regardless of the placement technique applied, the SD-VES is generally used as the
main acid fluid and is bullheaded into the well. Because of its rheological behavior, the SD-VES is pumped as a single fluid
during bullheading, aiming to achieve formation stimulation and good treatment distribution throuth the entire productive
interval.
Since the SD-VES was introduced in 2009 to treat carbonate reservoirs in offshore Brazil, more than 40 wells have been
treated using the system in the various acid placement techniques presented in this paper. Three case histories are presented
to better illustrate the different scenarios where the SD-VES was applied.
1. Introduction
Despite Brazils history of carbonate reservoir development, the discovery of giant sandstone fields offshore Brazil
during the 1980s and 1990s led to technology developments focused more on sand control techniques and chemical
treatments for those reservoirs. After the discovery of the pre-salt carbonates during the 2000s the focus has been expanded to
dealing with the new challenges. The Brazilian pre-salt play is characterized by giant carbonate reservoirs with high
heterogeneities and generally localized in deep to ultradeep water depths. The exploration and development of these
reservoirs constitute the main focus of the local operator in offshore Brazil. The need for new stimulation technologies appear
among the different challenges. Selection and placement of the optimal stimulation fluid are crucial to maximize well
production after treatment and consequently increase reservoir recovery.
Matrix acidizing is frequently used to stimulate carbonate reservoirs offshore Brazil. In matrix treatments the acid is
injected into the formation below the fracturing rate and pressure. When the acid comes in contact with the formation, it will
follow the path of least flow resistance and enter zones with highest injectivitytypically the high-permemeability or less
damaged zones. The acid dissolves carbonate minerals as it enter the formation, creating high-conductivity flow channels
called wormholes, which further increase the injectivity. Subsequent acid will flow through the same wormhole, leaving
other zones of interest unstimulated, Taylor et al. (2003).

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Proper diversion technique is required in order to direct the treatment fluid to lower-permeability or more damaged
zones and ensure the treatment of the entire production interval. Several materials and methods have been applied to enhance
acid diversion across the treated interval. Each technique has some merits, and the basic goal of all is to temporarily shut-off
a higher-permeability zone, forcing the stimulation fluid into the lower-permeability zones. As with many situations however,
too much diversion can cause undesirable results.
The chemicals developed and used as diverting agents over the years include polymer gels, foams, oil-soluble resins,
and rock salt among others. In offshore Brazil polymer-based systems have been applied successfully over the years. Such
systems are easier to handle than particulates, and diversion is achieved via the formation of natural resistance to viscous
flow. Generally the treatment is divided in three phases: a regular 15 wt% HCl is pumped first, followed by a gelled 15 wt%
HCl, and finally by a pill of in situ crosslinked gelled 3 wt% HCl. Generally several stages are pumped, repeating the three
phases in order to cover the entire interval.
Despite the success with polymer systems, concerns about the potential damage to the formation provided an
impetus for the successful introduction of viscoelastic acid system in Brazil. The first matrix acidizing operation using
viscoelastic acid system was performed Brazil in 2009 to treat albian carbonates in the Campos Basin.
2. VES Diverting Agent
Surfactant-based acids constitute systems called viscoelastic (VES). These systems have been studied and extensively applied
over the last decade to overcome potential disadvantages of in situ crosslinked polymer-based systems (Chang et al. 2001; Qu
et al. 2002; Nars-El-Din et al 2003b; Fu and Chang 2005). The concerns related to such polymer systems include the
precipitation of the crosslinker [Fe(III)] in the formation and the permeability loss observed in core flow tests explained in
terms of polymer retention in the core (Lynn and Nars-El-Din, 2001; Nars-El-Din et al. 2002; Taylor and Nasr-El Din, 2002
and 2003). Unlike conventional crosslinked acids, VES fluids do not require a metallic crosslinker and were successfully
used in both matrix stimulation (Al-Mutawa et al. 2005; Nars-El-Din et al. 2006a; Lungwitz et al. 2007) and acid fracturing
(Al-Muhareb et al. 2003; Nars-El-Din et al. 2003a).
In most of the treatments performed outside of Brazil using VES, the system has been applied as a diversion pill, pumped
intercalated with conventional HCl acid. In some cases VES acid systems foamed with nitrogen have been successfully
applied in matrix acidizing treatments. Although those treatments produce good results, they create some operational issues
because of the multi-fluid combination; in the case of foamed VES, the operation requires nitrogen tanks and pumps.
The VES acid (SD-VES) introduced in Brazil in 2009 has been pumped as a self-diverting acid system, which means that a
single fluid is used to stimulate and to divert.In most of the applications the system is bullheaded as the main acid fluid, and
no other fluids are intercalated with the system. This approach has been applied in several wells, with very good results.

2.1 Self-Diverting VES Characteristics


Extensive laboratory testing has been done to better understand how VES works when applied in the field as described by
Nasr-El-Din et al. (2006). The diversion is achieved via the formations natural resistance to viscous flow, and the
rheological behavior is a complex function of surfactant type, concentration, additives, salinity, temperature, and shear rate.
The rheological properties of the SD-VES, when spent with calcium carbonate, indicate slight influence of the initial acid
concentration. Laboratory tests indicated that higher initial HCl concentration (equal or higher than 20 wt% HCl) tends to
create a viscosity spike when spent to 10-15 wt% HCl, while lower initial HCl concentration tends to result in a viscosity
spike when spent to lower concentrations. The self-diverting VES used in Brazil generally is pumped in acid concentrations
ranging from 15 to 17 wt% HCl; laboratory tests indicate that the viscosity spike occurs at a concentration of 5 10 wt% HCl
Temperature plays important role on acid viscosity and is directly affected by the pH. Fig. 1 illustrates the influence of
temperature on the apparent viscosity of partially spent acids in a range of pH = 1.2 to 4. There is no significant effect on
viscosity at pH greater than 4. Fig. 2 illustrates the effect of temperature on the apparent viscosity of various surfactant
concentrations. At temperatures higher than 250 F the apparent viscosity begins breaking down unless a stabilizer is added
to the system.

SPE 165089

Figure 1 Apparent Viscosity vs Temperature and


pH for spent 15 wt% HCl and 4 vol% surfactant.

Figure 2 Apparent Viscosity vs Temperature: 2-6 vol%


surfactant in spent 15 wt% HCl with corrosion inhibitor.

Regarding the shear rate effect on the apparent viscosity, was observed a power-law relationship with the viscosity
decreasing with the shear rate as illustrated by the Fig. 3. This behavior is important in minimizing friction losses during
placement, when the fluid is submitted to higher shear rate, resulting in lower viscosity. The shear rate decreases significantly
as the acid enters in the formation, and the injected acid will continue to gain viscosity as it spends, to achieve a maximum
value as the formations natural resistance causes the fluid to approach a static state.

Figure 3 Apparent Viscosity vs Shear rate for spent 15 wt% HCl with 4 vol% surfactant.

2.2 Coreflood Findings


Coreflood test were performed with pre-salt carbonate coreplugs to evaluate permeability regain and the possibility of the
SD-VES to damage the formation. Two coreplugs were used for evaluation as summarized in Table 1. The
stereomicroscopic examination characterized the coreplugs as re-crystallized, coarse-grained limestone classified as
grainstone.

SPE 165089

Table 1 Pre-salt coreplugs information.

Abundant amounts of primary and dissolution porosity were noted. The black and white coloration visible in the Fig. 4 is due
not only to the vugular nature of the limestone, but also due to the pores/vugs being lined by a black, solid hydrocarbon
residue (bitumen). The bitumen indicates that live oil which had migrated into this reservoir was cooked in place due to
elevated reservoir temperature. The lighter ends of the hydrocarbon were eventually discharged from the reservoir over
geologic time, and a second round of hydrocarbons was emplaced. An alternative explanation is that the oil in the reservoir
was deasphalted by the introduction of large amounts of natural gas.

Figure 4 Coreplug inlet and outlet / pre and post Self-Diverting VES injection.

A sub-sample from one coreplug was selected for mineralogical definition by x-ray diffration (XRD). Sub-samples were also
taken for acid solubility analysis. Immersion of the sample in 15 wt% HCl at room temperature yielded an immediate acid
reaction and digestion of most of the sample. Mineralogical analysis performed on an acid-insoluble residue, excluding
organic-based bitumen, indicates quartz as the dominant insoluble mineral with lesser amounts of potassium feldspar
(microcline). A significant amount of barium sulfate was also present, which is believed to have been sourced from the
drilling mud. The minerals and their relative percentages are shown in Table 2.

Table 2 Relative minerals percentages in coreplugs analysed.

SPE 165089

The coreflood test was conducted at 150 F and under 1500 psi of net pressure against 200 psi of backpressure. Testing was
conducted with 6 vol% of viscoelastic surfactant in 10 wt% HCl. Effective permeability to oil at irreducible water saturation
(KoSwi) was significantly improved by the acid treatment (500% improvement in K oSwi). Degradation of the sample endfaces,
particularly the injection endface, was minimal. No large cavernous connected pathways (wormholes) typically associated
with HCl systems in limestone was observed as shown in Fig. 4, and computed tomography images show enlargement of
existing pores as shown in Fig. 5.

Figure 5 Computed tomography image of the coreplug after the Self-Diverting VES acid injection.

2.3 Diversion Mechanism


The viscoelastic surfactant used in the SD-VES is amphoteric from the amine oxide family. In concentrated acid the system
presents low apparent viscosity with reduced friction during pumping. As the acid spends in the formation, the pH increases
and concentrations of divalent cations [Ca (II) and Mg (II)] increase in the spent acid. Both factors cause the surfactant
molecules to align and form long, rod-like micelles, Li at al. (2009). The entanglement of the rod-like micelles results in a 3D structure, which substantially increases the apparent viscosity at low rates.
The high viscosity will temporarily block the preferential injection zones, diverting additional acid into other zones. To break
the SD-VES viscosity, the rod-like micelles must be converted to spherical micelles, which can be achieved by contact with
hydrocarbon or by using external (mutual solvent) or internal breakers (Nelson et al. 2005; Crews 2005; Crews and Huang
2007). As the acid continues neutralizing in the formation after the viscous spike and the action of the internal breaker, the
fluids apparent viscosity will decrease, allowing futher injection in the zone before it is again blocked.
Fig. 6 presents the SD-VES apparent viscosity as the acid was spent with calcium carbonate at 180 F. The formulation
called for 6 vol% of surfactant based in 15 wt% HCl, 1 vol% of corrosion inhibitor, 0.6 vol% of emulsion preventer, 2% of
corrosion inhibitor intensifier and 0.3 vol% of an internal breaker. Such SD-VES composition is generally used in treatments
offshore Brazil.

Figure 6 Self-Diverting VES apparent viscosity vs HCl acid concentration (wt%)

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3. Acid Placement and Well Completion


For acid placement, distinct techniques have been applied depending on the well objective. Pereira et al. (2012), dicussed the
main placement techniques applied in offshore Brazil as summarized below:
1) Treatment for zones not isolated by a packer Two approaches have been used:
a)

Use coiled tubing to place a small


volume of acid in the lower part of
the perforations, creating a zone of
preferential injectivity. The main
treatment is bullheaded, generally
using the SD-VES. This procedure
has the main objective of forcing
the acid travel through the entire
perforated zone Fig. 7-Case a).
b) Run diverting washpipes to
perforate the interval and place a
small volume of acid to create
initial injectivity. Afterward the
SD-VES is generally bullheaded to
the formation and constitutes the
main treatment Figure 8-Case
b).

Figure 7 Placement techniques for well not isolated by packer: Cases


a) and b).

2) Treatment for zones isolated by packer


In the present completion approach the well is equipped with a sliding sleeve at the bottom of the perforations and another
one at the top of the interval. The treatment is performed using the following approaches:
a)

Same technique applied for case 1.a), a preferential injection zone is created using coiled tubing, placing a small
volume of acid through the sliding sleeve positioned in front of the zone with highest permeability. In sequence,
the main treatment is bullheaded through the slide sleeve positioned in front of the lowest-permeability interval,
generally using the SD-VES Fig.
8 Case a).
b) For a well completed in two zones,
the treatment can also be
bullheaded, without using coiled
tubing, keeping both slide sleeves
open. In this case, a lower zone
below the packers was already
treated and is used as a preferential
injection zone to direct the pre-flush
acid to the bottom of the packed
interval. When the main acid
reaches the upper interval, the lower
zone is mechanically isolated.
Generally the SD-VES is used as
the main acid Fig. 8 Case b).
Figure 8 Placement techniques for well isolated by packer:
Cases a) and b).
3) Horizontal well Two approaches have been used:
a) A combination of diverting liner and the creation of a preferential injection zone as mentioned on case 1.a).
After pumping a small volume of acid through coiled tubing, the main treatment is performed, generally
bullheading the SD-VES Fig. 9.
b) A combination of conventional perforated liner and diverting washpipes placed in front of the treated zone. The
main treatment generally is performed bullheading the SD-VES Fig. 10.

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Figure 9 Placement technique for a horizontal well using a diverting liner Case 3.a)

Figure 10 Placement technique for a horizontal well using diverting washpipes Case 3.b)

4. Case Histories
The first acidizing operation using the SD-VES was performed in Brazil in the middle of 2009. Due to ease of pumping a
single fluid to stimulate and chemically divert the treatment
and the good results obtained from post-treatment logging,
more than 40 jobs were performed using the system. Below
are presented three case histories of SD-VES applications
for different completion scenario and placement technique.
4.1 Case Histories #1 Well A
The placement approach used to treat Well A is the same
presented in Case 3a above.
The well was an oil producer with 4,959 ft of horizontal
length completed with a 7-in. uncemented diverting liner.
The formation was a calcarenite of the Albian with
permeability ranging from 1 to 100 mD and porosity of
12%. The well temperature was considered 226 F,
information obtained from an offset well. The formation
presented natural faults, and the oil viscosity ranged from
1.2 to 1.6 cP. Table 3 presents reservoir and completion
information for Well A.

Table 3 Well A, general well and reservoir data.

SPE 165089

4.1.1 Treatment Strategy


Before bullheading the SD-VES, coiled tubing was used to treat final portion of the horizontal interval (17,991 to 18,697 ft).
The main goal of this approach is to create a zone of preferential injectivity in the final portion of the horizontal extension,
forcing the subsequent bullheaded acid to treat the entire interval. The coiled tubing was equipped with a special tool to better
jet the formation walls, and 400 bbl of regular 15 wt% HCl and 200 bbl of a special gelled acid (15 wt% HCl with 2 vol% of
gelling agent) were pumped.
A step-rate test was performed after the coiled tubing acid treatment to determine the maximum initial rate to pump the
bullheading phase without fracturing the formation. A maximum initial rate of 17.3 bpm @ 1806 psi at surface was
determined as the limiting parameters for bullheading the SD-VES.
During the bullheading phase, 2,335 bbl of the SD-VES (17 wt% HCl with 6 vol% of viscoelastic surfactant) was pumped as
a single fluid to stimulate and divert treatment through the entire horizontal interval. The pump rate ranged from 12 to 17
bpm, and the acid volume was equivalent to approximately 20 gal/ft of well treated
4.1.2 Post-Treatment Results
The post-tratment skin for Well A calculated from production testing was 3.4. Table 4 presents some of the post-treatment
parameters obtained.

Table 4 Post acid treatment parameters from production test.

4.2 Case Histories #2 Well B


The placement approach used to treat Well B is the same
presented in Case 1a above.
The well was a vertical oil producer completed with 7-in.
perforated liner. The formation was a carbonate located in
a pre-salt play with permeability ranging from 1 to 20 mD
and porosity of 14%. The well temperature was 144 F.
Table 5 presents general well and reservoir data.
4.2.1 Treatment Strategy
Coiled tubing was used to treat the final portion of the
perforated interval (16,272 to 16,354 ft). The main goal of
this first treatment was to create a zone of preferential
injectivity, forcing the later bullheaded acid into the
bottom perforations. The coiled tubing was equipped with
a special rotating tool to better jet the perforations. A total
volume of 140 bbl of regular 15 wt% HCl was pumped
and injected into the formation.

Table 5 General well and reservoir data.

After the coiled tubing treatment, a total of 2,000 bbl of SD-VES (15 wt% HCl with 6 vol% of viscoelastic surfactant) was
pumped to treat the entire perforated interval. While bullheading, the pumping rate was increased at steps to 15 bpm. After
pumping 200 bbl of the SD-VES, the operations personnel began to launch water-soluble perforation ball sealers. These
organic-based balls slowly dissolve in all aqueous fluid. A total of 1,800 ball sealers were distributed during the treatment.

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4.2.2 Post Treatment Results


The Table 6 presents data from production tests performed before and after the acid treatment. The skin after the treatment
presented significantly reduction becomes a negative number, indicative of good stimulation. The permeability and
consequently the conductivity also presented significant improvement. The production index was increased almost ten times
and the damage ratio was reduced to a number less than 1.

Table 6 Post-treatment data from production test.

The PLT performed on the Well B after the acid treatment is presented in Fig. 11. The temperature log presented reduction in
the upper zone, indicating fluid production. The oil rate curve confirms the main production contribution from the upper,
higher-permeability zone (16,072 to 16,232 ft). The production from the lower zone (16,232 to 16,367 ft) was almost
insignificant. The high permeability contrast between the zones probably was responsible for the lower zones poor response
to treatment. For Well B, the placement technique presented in Case 1b could represent a better approach to direct the acid to
the lower zone.
In general terms the acidizing was successful, as confirmed by a six-month production test that indicates production of
12,578 bbl/day (2,000 m3/day) with a gas/oil ratio of about 250. No water production was observed during the test (water cut
less than 0.1%).
Cumulative Production
Contribution

Oil Rate
(m3/day)

Higher
Permeability
Zone

Temperature Log

Lower
Permeability
Zone

Figure 11 PLT after the acid treatment on Well B.

10

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4.3 Case Histories #3 Well C


The placement approach used to treat Well C is the
same presented in Case 1a above.
Well C was an oil-producing vertical well
completed with 7-in. perforated liner. The
formation was a pre-salt carbonate with large
heterogeneity presenting minerals as calcite
(predominant), dolomite (20-30%) and some
silicates. The permeability distribution is also
heterogenous, with the lower zone having higher
values. The well temperature was 255 F, so the
corrosion inhibitor concentration in the SD-VES
was increased from 1 to 2 vol%.

Table 7 General well and reservoir data.

4.3.1 Treatment Strategy


Coiled tubing was used to treat the final portion of the perforated interval (14,694 to 14,924 ft). The main goal of this first
treatment was to create a zone of preferential injectivity, forcing the subsequent bullheaded acid to reach the bottom of the
perforations. The coiled tubing was equipped with a special rotating tool to better jet the perforations. A total volume of 90
bbl of regular 15 wt% HCl and 100 bbl of a special gelled acid (17 wt% HCl with 2 vol% of gelling agent) was pumped and
injected into the formation while the coiled tubing was moved up and down in front of the treated interval.
During the bullheading treatment, a total volume of 2,450 bbl of SD-VES (15 wt% HCl with 6 vol% of viscoelastic
surfactant) was pumped to treat the entire perforated interval. During bullheading, the pumping rate was increased at steps to
20 bpm. After pumping 490 bbl of the SD-VES, operations personnel began to launch perforation ball sealers. A total of
1,400 ball sealers were distributed during the treatment.
4.3.2 Post-Treatment Results
The skin for Well C obtained from production test was determined as -3.4. Table 8 presents some of the post-treatment
parameters obtained from the production test. A resistivity log run after the acid treatment indicates water presence below
14,914 ft. A water cut of 1% was determined, and no gas presence was observed from optical logs. The temperature log
indicates production contribution from the entire perforated interval.

Table 8 Post-treatment data from production test.

The PLT run after the acid treatment indicates production through the lower 508-ft of perforations, which corresponds to
77.5% of the perforated interval. It is an impressive result, considering the high permeability contrast presented by the
perforated interval. Fig. 12 presents the PLT results.

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11
Cumulative Production
Contribution

Production
Contribution from
Individual Layers

High Permeability
Zone

Figure 12 PLT after the acid treatment on Well C.

Table 9 summarizes the production contribution of the perforated interval, divided by zones. Zones 5 and 6, located in the
lower portion of the perforated interval, and presented 50% of the production. They were expected to contribute considerably
to the production because of their higher permeability. Despite their much lower permeability, Zones 2, 3 and 4 also
presented impressive production contributions. Zone 1, another low-permeability zone, presented very low production
contribution.

Table 9 Summary of Production Contribution from Individual Zones.

Considering the perforation length and high permeability heterogeneity presented by the reservoir, the operator classified the
treatment as successful. As a strategy for future treatments in similar scenarios (wells where lower zones have much higher
permeability than upper zones), pumping the initial barrels of the bullheaded acid at lower rate could improve the treatment
distribution, giving the acid more contact time with the upper zone.

12

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Conclusions and Lessons Learned


1.
2.
3.
4
5

An SD-VES acid system was introduced in 2009 to treat carbonate formation offshore Brazil. Since the first job,
more than 40 wells were treated using the system.
The SD-VES system has provided good post-treatment results in both Albian and pre-salt carbonates, which
constitute the main carbonate reservoirs offshore Brazil.
Several acid placement techniques have been applied offshore Brazil to achieve treatment diversion. The SD-VES
system can be used as a main acid fluid and chemical divergent in many placement techniques.
The SD-VES is generally bullheaded in a single phase as a self-diverting system, requiring no intercalation with
other fluids. The high acid concentration and rheological behavior as the acid spends at the formation is responsible
for stimulation and chemicaly diversion of the treatment.
Three case histories of well treated using the SD-VES demonstrate very good production results, especially for Well
#3, where post-treatment PLT indicated a production distribution and therefore treatment distribution.

Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank the management of Petrobras and Baker Hughes for the permission to publish this paper.
Equations
The Damage Ratio can be defined by the equations below:
DR= (PE - Pwf)/(PE-Pwf-PS)
Damage Ratio compared to Skin:
Positive Skin: DR > 1
Skin = 0: DR = 1
Negative Skin: DR < 1
Nomenclature
BPM =

Barrels per Minute

CT =

Computed Tomography

DR =

Damage Ratio

FT =

Feet

ID =

Internal Diameter

IN=

Inches

LBM =

Pounds

PLT =

Production Log Test

PSI =

Pounds per Square Inch

PE =

Static Pressure

Pwf =

Flow Pressure

SD-VES =

Self-Diverting Viscoelastic System

Wt% =

Percent by weigth

Vol% =

Percent by volume

PS =
Skin Pressure
SI Metric Conversion Factors
bbl

1.589 873 E 01 = m3

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cP
lbm
mD
ft
in
psi
bbl/day/psi

13

1.0* E 03 = Pa . s
4.535 E-01 = kg
9.869 233 E 04 = m2
3.048* E 01 = m
2.54* E +012 = mm
6.894 757 E + 00 = kPa
2.26 m3/day/kgf/cm2

*Conversions factors are exact


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