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Types KCGG 122, 142,

KCEG 112, 142, 152,


242 and
KCEU 142, 242
Overcurrent and Directional
Overcurrent Relays

Service Manual
R8551E

Pxxxx/EN SS/B11

SAFETY SECTION

Pxxxx/EN SS/B11
Safety Section

Page 1/10

CONTENTS
1.

INTRODUCTION

2.

HEALTH AND SAFETY

3.

SYMBOLS AND EXTERNAL LABELS ON THE EQUIPMENT

3.1

Symbols

3.2

Labels

4.

INSTALLING, COMMISSIONING AND SERVICING

5.

DECOMMISSIONING AND DISPOSAL

6.

EQUIPMENT WHICH INCLUDES ELECTROMECHANICAL ELEMENTS

7.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR SAFETY

7.1

Protective fuse rating

7.2

Protective Class

7.3

Installation Category

7.4

Environment

8.

CE MARKING

9.

RECOGNIZED AND LISTED MARKS FOR NORTH AMERICA

Pxxxx/EN SS/B11
Page 2/10

Safety Section

BLANK PAGE

Pxxxx/EN SS/B11
Safety Section

1.

Page 3/10

INTRODUCTION
This guide and the relevant operating or service manual documentation for the equipment
provide full information on safe handling, commissioning and testing of this equipment and
also includes descriptions of equipment label markings.
Documentation for equipment ordered from AREVA T&D is despatched separately from
manufactured goods and may not be received at the same time.
Therefore this guide is provided to ensure that printed information normally present on
equipment is fully understood by the recipient.
Before carrying out any work on the equipment the user should be familiar with
the contents of this Safety Guide.
Reference should be made to the external connection diagram before the equipment is
installed, commissioned or serviced.
Language specific, self-adhesive User Interface labels are provided in a bag for some
equipment.

2.

HEALTH AND SAFETY


The information in the Safety Section of the equipment documentation is intended to ensure
that equipment is properly installed and handled in order to maintain it in a safe condition.
It is assumed that everyone who will be associated with the equipment will be familiar with
the contents of that Safety Section, or this Safety Guide.
When electrical equipment is in operation, dangerous voltages will be present in certain parts
of the equipment. Failure to observe warning notices, incorrect use, or improper use may
endanger personnel and equipment and cause personal injury or physical damage.
Before working in the terminal strip area, the equipment must be isolated.
Proper and safe operation of the equipment depends on appropriate shipping and handling,
proper storage, installation and commissioning, and on careful operation, maintenance and
servicing. For this reason only qualified personnel may work on or operate the equipment.
Qualified personnel are individuals who
are familiar with the installation, commissioning, and operation of the equipment and
of the system to which it is being connected;
are able to safely perform switching operations in accordance with accepted safety
engineering practices and are authorised to energize and de-energize equipment
and to isolate, ground, and label it;
are trained in the care and use of safety apparatus in accordance with safety
engineering practices;
are trained in emergency procedures (first aid).
The operating manual for the equipment gives instructions for its installation, commissioning,
and operation. However, the manual cannot cover all conceivable circumstances or include
detailed information on all topics. In the event of questions or specific problems, do not take
any action without proper authorization. Contact the appropriate AREVA technical sales
office and request the necessary information.

Pxxxx/EN SS/B11
Page 4/10

3.

Safety Section

SYMBOLS AND EXTERNAL LABELS ON THE EQUIPMENT


For safety reasons the following symbols and external labels, which may be used on the
equipment or referred to in the equipment documentation, should be understood before the
equipment is installed or commissioned.

3.1

Symbols

Caution: refer to equipment documentation

Caution: risk of electric shock

Protective Conductor (*Earth) terminal.

Functional/Protective Conductor Earth terminal


Note This symbol may also be used for a Protective Conductor (Earth) terminal if that
terminal is part of a terminal block or sub-assembly e.g. power supply.
*NOTE:
3.2

THE TERM EARTH USED THROUGHOUT THIS GUIDE IS THE DIRECT


EQUIVALENT OF THE NORTH AMERICAN TERM GROUND.

Labels
See "Safety Guide" (SFTY/4L M) for equipment labelling information.

4.

INSTALLING, COMMISSIONING AND SERVICING


Equipment connections
Personnel undertaking installation, commissioning or servicing work for this
equipment should be aware of the correct working procedures to ensure safety.
The equipment documentation should
commissioning or servicing the equipment.

be

consulted

before

installing,

Terminals exposed during installation, commissioning and maintenance may


present a hazardous voltage unless the equipment is electrically isolated.
Any disassembly of the equipment may expose parts at hazardous voltage, also
electronic parts may be damaged if suitable electrostatic voltage discharge
(ESD) precautions are not taken.
If there is unlocked access to the rear of the equipment, care should be taken by
all personnel to avoid electric shock or energy hazards.
Voltage and current connections should be made using insulated crimp
terminations to ensure that terminal block insulation requirements are maintained
for safety.
To ensure that wires are correctly terminated the correct crimp terminal and tool
for the wire size should be used.
The equipment must be connected in accordance with the appropriate
connection diagram.

Pxxxx/EN SS/B11
Safety Section

Page 5/10
Protection Class I Equipment
-

Before energising the equipment it must be earthed using the protective


conductor terminal, if provided, or the appropriate termination of the
supply plug in the case of plug connected equipment.

The protective conductor (earth) connection must not be removed since


the protection against electric shock provided by the equipment would
be lost.

The recommended minimum protective conductor (earth) wire size is 2.5 mm


(3.3 mm for North America) unless otherwise stated in the technical data section
of the equipment documentation, or otherwise required by local or country wiring
regulations.
The protective conductor (earth) connection must be low-inductance and as
short as possible.
All connections to the equipment must have a defined potential. Connections
that are pre-wired, but not used, should preferably be grounded when binary
inputs and output relays are isolated. When binary inputs and output relays are
connected to common potential, the pre-wired but unused connections should be
connected to the common potential of the grouped connections.
Before energising the equipment, the following should be checked:
-

Voltage rating/polarity (rating label/equipment documentation);

CT circuit rating (rating label) and integrity of connections;

Protective fuse rating;

Integrity of the protective conductor (earth) connection (where


applicable);

Voltage and current rating of external wiring, applicable to the


application.

Equipment Use
If the equipment is used in a manner not specified by the manufacturer, the
protection provided by the equipment may be impaired.
Removal of the equipment front panel/cover
Removal of the equipment front panel/cover may expose hazardous live parts
which must not be touched until the electrical power is removed.
UL and CSA Listed or Recognized Equipment
To maintain UL and CSA approvals the equipment should be installed using UL
and/or CSA Listed or Recognized parts of the following type: connection cables,
protective fuses/fuseholders or circuit breakers, insulation crimp terminals, and
replacement internal battery, as specified in the equipment documentation.
Equipment operating conditions
The equipment should be operated within the specified electrical and
environmental limits.
Current transformer circuits
Do not open the secondary circuit of a live CT since the high voltage produced
may be lethal to personnel and could damage insulation.
Generally, for safety, the secondary of the line CT must be shorted before
opening any connections to it.
For most equipment with ring-terminal connections, the threaded terminal block
for current transformer termination has automatic CT shorting on removal of the
module. Therefore external shorting of the CTs may not be required, the
equipment documentation should be checked to see if this applies.
For equipment with pin-terminal connections, the threaded terminal block for
current transformer termination does NOT have automatic CT shorting on
removal of the module.

Pxxxx/EN SS/B11
Page 6/10

Safety Section
External resistors, including voltage dependent resistors (VDRs)
Where external resistors, including voltage dependent resistors (VDRs), are
fitted to the equipment, these may present a risk of electric shock or burns, if
touched.
Battery replacement
Where internal batteries are fitted they should be replaced with the
recommended type and be installed with the correct polarity to avoid possible
damage to the equipment, buildings and persons.
Insulation and dielectric strength testing
Insulation testing may leave capacitors charged up to a hazardous voltage. At
the end of each part of the test, the voltage should be gradually reduced to zero,
to discharge capacitors, before the test leads are disconnected.
Insertion of modules and pcb cards
Modules and pcb cards must not be inserted into or withdrawn from the
equipment whilst it is energised, since this may result in damage.
Insertion and withdrawal of extender cards
Extender cards are available for some equipment. If an extender card is used,
this should not be inserted or withdrawn from the equipment whilst it is
energised. This is to avoid possible shock or damage hazards. Hazardous live
voltages may be accessible on the extender card.
Insertion and withdrawal of integral heavy current test plugs
It is possible to use an integral heavy current test plug with some equipment.
CT shorting links must be in place before insertion or removal of heavy current
test plugs, to avoid potentially lethal voltages.
External test blocks and test plugs
Great care should be taken when using external test blocks and test plugs such
as the MMLG, MMLB and MiCOM P990 types, hazardous voltages may be
accessible when using these. *CT shorting links must be in place before the
insertion or removal of MMLB test plugs, to avoid potentially lethal voltages.
*Note when a MiCOM P992 Test Plug is inserted into the MiCOM P991 Test
Block, the secondaries of the line CTs are automatically shorted, making them
safe.
Fibre optic communication
Where fibre optic communication devices are fitted, these should not be viewed
directly. Optical power meters should be used to determine the operation or
signal level of the device.
Cleaning
The equipment may be cleaned using a lint free cloth dampened with clean
water, when no connections are energised. Contact fingers of test plugs are
normally protected by petroleum jelly which should not be removed.

Pxxxx/EN SS/B11
Safety Section

5.

Page 7/10

DECOMMISSIONING AND DISPOSAL


Decommissioning:
The supply input (auxiliary) for the equipment may include capacitors across the
supply or to earth. To avoid electric shock or energy hazards, after completely
isolating the supplies to the equipment (both poles of any dc supply), the
capacitors should be safely discharged via the external terminals prior to
decommissioning.
Disposal:
It is recommended that incineration and disposal to water courses is avoided.
The equipment should be disposed of in a safe manner. Any equipment
containing batteries should have them removed before disposal, taking
precautions to avoid short circuits. Particular regulations within the country of
operation, may apply to the disposal of batteries.

6.

EQUIPMENT WHICH INCLUDES ELECTROMECHANICAL ELEMENTS


Electrical adjustments
It is possible to change current or voltage settings on some equipment by direct
physical adjustment e.g. adjustment of a plug-bridge setting. The electrical power
should be removed before making any change, to avoid the risk of electric shock.
Exposure of live parts
Removal of the cover may expose hazardous live parts such as relay contacts,
these should not be touched before removing the electrical power.

7.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS FOR SAFETY

7.1

Protective fuse rating


The recommended maximum rating of the external protective fuse for equipments is 16A,
high rupture capacity (HRC) Red Spot type NIT, or TIA, or equivalent, unless otherwise
stated in the technical data section of the equipment documentation. The protective fuse
should be located as close to the unit as possible.
DANGER

7.2

CTs must NOT be fused since open circuiting them may


produce lethal hazardous voltages.

Protective Class
IEC 61010-1: 2001
EN 61010-1: 2001

7.3

Class I (unless otherwise specified in the equipment


documentation). This equipment requires a protective
conductor (earth) connection to ensure user safety.

Installation Category
IEC 61010-1: 2001
EN 61010-1: 2001

Installation Category III (Overvoltage Category III):


Distribution level, fixed installation.
Equipment in this category is qualification tested at
5kV peak, 1.2/50s, 500, 0.5J, between all
supply circuits and earth and also between
independent circuits

Pxxxx/EN SS/B11
Page 8/10
7.4

Safety Section

Environment
The equipment is intended for indoor installation and use only. If it is required for use in an
outdoor environment then it must be mounted in a specific cabinet or housing which will
enable it to meet the requirements of IEC 60529 with the classification of degree of
protection IP54 (dust and splashing water protected).
Pollution Degree Pollution
Degree 2
Altitude operation up to
2000 m
IEC 61010-1: 2001
EN 61010-1: 2001

8.

Compliance is demonstrated by reference to safety


standards.

CE MARKING
Compliance with all
Community directives:

Marking

relevant

European

Product safety:
Low Voltage Directive - 73/23/EEC
amended by 93/68/EEC
EN 61010-1: 2001
EN 60950-1: 2001
EN 60255-5: 2001
IEC 60664-1: 2001

Compliance demonstrated by reference to


safety standards.

Electromagnetic Compatibility Directive


(EMC) 89/336/EEC amended by
93/68/EEC.

Compliance demonstrated via the Technical


Construction File route.

The following Product Specific Standard


was used to establish conformity:
EN 50263 : 2000
Where applicable :

II (2) G

ATEX Potentially Explosive


Atmospheres directive
94/9/EC, for equipment.

The equipment is compliant with Article 1(2) of


European directive 94/9/EC. It is approved for operation
outside an ATEX hazardous area. It is however
approved for connection to Increased Safety, Ex e,
motors with rated ATEX protection, Equipment Category
2, to ensure their safe operation in gas Zones 1 and 2
hazardous areas.
CAUTION Equipment with this marking is not itself
suitable for operation within a potentially explosive
atmosphere.
Compliance demonstrated by Notified Body certificates
of compliance.

Radio and
Telecommunications Terminal
Equipment (R & TTE)
directive 95/5/EC.

Compliance demonstrated by compliance to the Low


Voltage Directive, 73/23/EEC amended by 93/68/EEC,
down to zero volts, by reference to safety standards.

Pxxxx/EN SS/B11
Safety Section

9.

Page 9/10

RECOGNIZED AND LISTED MARKS FOR NORTH AMERICA


CSA - Canadian Standards Association
UL

- Underwriters Laboratory of America

UL Recognized to UL (USA) requirements


UL Recognized to UL (USA) and CSA (Canada) requirements
UL Listed to UL (USA) requirements

UL Listed to UL (USA) and CSA (Canada) requirements

Certified to CSA (Canada) requirements

Pxxxx/EN SS/B11
Page 10/10

Safety Section

BLANK PAGE

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Contents

SAFETY SECTION
THIS MUST BE READ BEFORE ANY WORK IS CARRIED OUT ON THE RELAY
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 2

HANDLING AND INSTALLATION

CHAPTER 3

RELAY DESCRIPTION

CHAPTER 4

APPLICATION OF PROTECTION FUNCTIONS

CHAPTER 5

MEASUREMENT AND RECORDS

CHAPTER 6

SERIAL COMMUNICATIONS

CHAPTER 7

TECHNICAL DATA

CHAPTER 8

COMMISSIONING

APPENDIX 1

RELAY CHARACTERISTIC CURVES

APPENDIX 2

LOGIC DIAGRAMS

APPENDIX 3

CONNECTION DIAGRAMS

APPENDIX 4

COMMISSIONING TEST RECORD

Page 2

SAFETY SECTION
This Safety Section should be read before commencing any work on
the equipment.
Health and safety
The information in the Safety Section of the product documentation is intended to
ensure that products are properly installed and handled in order to maintain them
in a safe condition. It is assumed that everyone who will be associated with the
equipment will be familiar with the contents of the Safety Section.
Explanation of symbols and labels
The meaning of symbols and labels which may be used on the equipment or in the
product documentation, is given below.

Caution: refer to product documentation

Caution: risk of electric shock

Protective/safety *earth terminal

Functional *earth terminal.


Note: this symbol may also be used for a protective/
safety earth terminal if that terminal is part of a
terminal block or sub-assembly eg. power supply.

*Note: The term earth used throughout the product documentation is the direct
equivalent of the North American term ground.

Installing, Commissioning and Servicing


Equipment connections
Personnel undertaking installation, commissioning or servicing work on this
equipment should be aware of the correct working procedures to ensure safety.
The product documentation should be consulted before installing, commissioning or
servicing the equipment.
Terminals exposed during installation, commissioning and maintenance may
present a hazardous voltage unless the equipment is electrically isolated.
If there is unlocked access to the rear of the equipment, care should be taken by all
personnel to avoid electric shock or energy hazards.
Voltage and current connections should be made using insulated crimp
terminations to ensure that terminal block insulation requirements are maintained
for safety. To ensure that wires are correctly terminated, the correct crimp terminal
and tool for the wire size should be used.
Page 3

Before energising the equipment it must be earthed using the protective earth
terminal, or the appropriate termination of the supply plug in the case of plug
connected equipment. Omitting or disconnecting the equipment earth may cause a
safety hazard.
The recommended minimum earth wire size is 2.5 mm2, unless otherwise stated in
the technical data section of the product documentation.
Before energising the equipment, the following should be checked:
Voltage rating and polarity;
CT circuit rating and integrity of connections;
Protective fuse rating;
Integrity of earth connection (where applicable)
Equipment operating conditions
The equipment should be operated within the specified electrical and
environmental limits.
Current transformer circuits
Do not open the secondary circuit of a live CT since the high voltage produced
may be lethal to personnel and could damage insulation.
External resistors
Where external resistors are fitted to relays, these may present a risk of electric
shock or burns, if touched.
Battery replacement
Where internal batteries are fitted they should be replaced with the recommended
type and be installed with the correct polarity, to avoid possible damage to the
equipment.
Insulation and dielectric strength testing
Insulation testing may leave capacitors charged up to a hazardous voltage. At the
end of each part of the test, the voltage should be gradually reduced to zero, to
discharge capacitors, before the test leads are disconnected.
Insertion of modules and pcb cards
These must not be inserted into or withdrawn from equipment whilst it is energised,
since this may result in damage.
Fibre optic communication
Where fibre optic communication devices are fitted, these should not be viewed
directly. Optical power meters should be used to determine the operation or signal
level of the device.

Page 4

Older Products
Electrical adjustments
Equipments which require direct physical adjustments to their operating mechanism
to change current or voltage settings, should have the electrical power removed
before making the change, to avoid any risk of electric shock.
Mechanical adjustments
The electrical power to the relay contacts should be removed before checking any
mechanical settings, to avoid any risk of electric shock.
Draw out case relays
Removal of the cover on equipment incorporating electromechanical operating
elements, may expose hazardous live parts such as relay contacts.
Insertion and withdrawal of extender cards
When using an extender card, this should not be inserted or withdrawn from the
equipment whilst it is energised. This is to avoid possible shock or damage
hazards. Hazardous live voltages may be accessible on the extender card.
Insertion and withdrawal of heavy current test plugs
When using a heavy current test plug, CT shorting links must be in place before
insertion or removal, to avoid potentially lethal voltages.

Decommissioning and Disposal


Decommissioning: The auxiliary supply circuit in the relay may include
capacitors across the supply or to earth. To avoid electric
shock or energy hazards, after completely isolating the
supplies to the relay (both poles of any dc supply), the
capacitors should be safely discharged via the external
terminals prior to decommissioning.
Disposal:

It is recommended that incineration and disposal to water


courses is avoided. The product should be disposed of in a
safe manner. Any products containing batteries should have
them removed before disposal, taking precautions to avoid
short circuits. Particular regulations within the country of
operation, may apply to the disposal of lithium batteries.

Page 5

Technical Specifications
Protective fuse rating
The recommended maximum rating of the external protective fuse for this
equipment is 16A, Red Spot type or equivalent, unless otherwise stated in the
technical data section of the product documentation.
Insulation class: IEC 61010-1: 1990/A2:
Class I
EN 61010-1: 1993/A2:
Class I

This equipment requires a


protective (safety) earth
1995 connection to ensure user
safety.

Installation
Category
(Overvoltage):

IEC 61010-1: 1990/A2:


Category III
EN 61010-1: 1993/A2:
Category III

1995

Distribution level, fixed


installation. Equipment in
1995 this category is qualification
tested at 5kV peak,
1.2/50s, 500, 0.5J,
between all supply circuits
and earth and also between
independent circuits.

Environment:

IEC 61010-1: 1990/A2:


Pollution degree 2
EN 61010-1: 1993/A2:
Pollution degree 2

1995

Product safety:

73/23/EEC

EN 61010-1:
EN 60950:

1995

Compliance is demonstrated
by reference to generic
1995 safety standards.
Compliance with the
European Commission Low
Voltage Directive.

1993/A2: 1995 Compliance is demonstrated


1992/A11: 1997 by reference to generic
safety standards.

Page 6

Types KCGG 122, 142,


KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242 and
KCEU 142, 242
Overcurrent and Directional Overcurrent
Relays
Service Manual

Chapter 1
Introduction

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142,
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242,
KCEU 142, 242
1.

R8551D
Chapter 1
Contents

INTRODUCTION

2.

USING THE MANUAL

3.

AN INTRODUCTION TO K RELAYS

4.

MODELS AVAILABLE

5.

AVAILABILITY OF MAIN FEATURES

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142,
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242,
KCEU 142, 242

Section 1.

R8551D
Chapter 1
Page 1 of 4

INTRODUCTION

The K Range of overcurrent and directional overcurrent relays has been


rationalised and additional features have been added to the individual relays to
widen their application. Some menu cell locations have changed to accommodate
the new features and so setting files that have been generated for the series 1
relays to suit particular applications may need some small modification before they
can be used with the new K Range series 2. However, the menu locations for
measured values and other data that is accessed by SCADA equipment retain their
original locations. Hence the changes should be transparent to most
communication interfaces that may have been developed.
Manual R8501 should be used for K Range series 1 relays.
This manual details the menu, functions and logic for the K Range series 2 relays.

Section 2.

USING THE MANUAL

This manual provides a description of the K Range series 2 overcurrent and


directional overcurrent range of protection relays. It is intended to guide the user
through application, installation, setting and commissioning of the relays.
The manual has the following format:
Chapter 1.

Introduction
An introduction on how to use this manual and a general
introduction to the relays covered by the manual.

Chapter 2.

Handling and installation


Precautions to be taken when handling electronic equipment

Chapter 3.

Relay description
A detailed description of features that are common to all
K Range series 2 relays.

Chapter 4.

Application of protection functions


An introduction to the applications of the relays and special
features provided.

Chapter 5.

Measurements and records


How to customise the measurements and use the recording features.

Chapter 6.

Serial communications
Hints on using the serial communication feature.

Chapter 7.

Technical data
Comprehensive details on the ratings, setting ranges and
specifications etc.

Chapter 8.

Commissioning
A guide to commissioning, problem solving and maintenance.

Appendix

Appendices include relay characteristic curves, logic diagrams,


connection diagrams and commissioning test records.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142,
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242,
KCEU 142, 242

Section 3.

R8551D
Chapter 1
Page 2 of 4

AN INTRODUCTION TO K RELAYS

The K Range of protection relays brings numerical technology to the successful


Midos range of protection relays. Fully compatible with the existing designs and
sharing the same modular housing concept, the relays offer more comprehensive
protection for demanding applications.
Each relay includes an extensive range of control and data gathering functions to
provide a completely integrated system of protection, control, instrumentation, data
logging, fault, event and disturbance recording. The relays have a user-friendly 32
character liquid crystal display (LCD) with 4 push buttons which allow menu
navigation and setting changes. Also, by utilising the simple 2-wire communication
link, all of the relay functions can be read, reset and changed on demand from a
local or remote personal computer (PC) loaded with the relevant software.
With enhanced versatility, reduced maintenance requirements and low burdens,
K Range relays provide a more advanced solution to power system protection.
The K Range series 2 relays have new features that are additional to those found
on series 1 relays. The additional functions include:
Protection

thermal, underfrequency, broken conductor detection, rectifier


protection and improved undervoltage

Measurement thermal ammeters, single phase W and VAR


Logic

improved logic flexibility

Recording

additional methods of resetting the disturbance recorder, triggering


the disturbance recorder from the logic inputs, thresholds on circuit
breaker maintenance counter and contact arcing duty plus 5 full
fault records.

KCGG relays provide overcurrent and earth fault protection for power distribution
systems, industrial power systems and all other applications where overcurrent
protection is required. The relays are used in applications where time graded
overcurrent and earth fault protection is required. The earth fault protection
provides suitable sensitivity for most systems where the earth fault current is limited.
KCEG relays provide directional overcurrent and earth fault protection.
The overcurrent elements can be selectively directionalised, making the relays a
cost effective option where both directional and non-directional protection is
required. The sensitivity of earth fault protection has been increased to cover most
applications. The earth fault protection provides suitable sensitivity for most systems
where the earth fault current is limited.
KCEU relays provide directional overcurrent and sensitive wattmetric earth fault
protection for systems which are earthed through a Petersen coil.
Integral features in K Range relays include circuit breaker failure protection, back
tripping, blocked overcurrent protection for feeders or busbars, cold load pick-up
facilities, load shedding capabilities and two alternative groups of predetermined
settings. The relays also have integral serial communication facilities via K-Bus.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142,
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242,
KCEU 142, 242

Section 4.

R8551D
Chapter 1
Page 3 of 4

MODELS AVAILABLE

The following list of models is covered by this manual


KCGG 122

One phase overcurrent and earth fault relay

KCGG 142 01 Three phase overcurrent and earth fault relay


KCGG 142 02 Three phase overcurrent and earth fault relay with reduced I/O
KCEG 112

Directional earth fault

KCEG 142

Directional three phase overcurrent and directional earth fault relay

KCEG 152

Three phase overcurrent relay and directional earth fault relay

KCEG 242

Directional three phase overcurrent and directional earth fault relay

KCEU 142

Directional three phase overcurrent and wattmetric sensitive earth


fault relay

KCEU 242

Directional three phase overcurrent and wattmetric sensitive earth


fault relay

Note:

The 100 series of relays are powered by a DC/AC auxiliary


supply. The 200 series of relays are dual powered, ie. powered
by a DC/AC auxiliary supply or from the current transformer
circuit in the absence of an auxiliary supply.

K Range series 2 relay

Equivalent K Range series 1 relays

KCGG 122

KCGG 110, KCGU 110

KCGG 142

KCGG 120, KCGG 130, KCGG 140, KCGU 140

KCEG 112

KCEG 110, KCEU 110

KCEG 142

KCEG 130, KCEG 140, KCEU 140

KCEG 152

KCEG 150, KCEU 150, KCEG 160, KCEU 160

KCEG 242

KCGG/KCEG 210, KCGG/KCEG 230,


KCGG/KCEG 250, KCGG/KCGU 240,
KCEG/KCEU 240

KCEU 142

KCEU 141

KCEU 242

KCEU 241

Table of equivalence between K Range series 1 and series 2 relays

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142,
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242,
KCEU 142, 242

Section 5.

R8551D
Chapter 1
Page 4 of 4

AVAILABILITY OF MAIN FEATURES

The following table lists the features that vary between models
Feature

KCGG KCGG KCGG KCEG KCEG KCEG KCEG KCEU KCEU


122 142 01 142 02* 112
142
152
242
142
242

Protection
Overcurrent

Earth fault

Directional overcurrent

Directional earth fault

Underfrequency

Undervoltage
Thermal overload

Wattmetric
Measurement
Frequency
Current

Voltage

Single phase power

Three phase power

Thermal ammeter(s)

Thermal demand(s)

Thermal state

CB operations

CB contact duty

Logic inputs

Output relays

Programmable Inputs/Outputs

* The fully functionality KCGG 142 01 relay is also available as a KCGG 142 02
with reduced I/O.

Types KCGG 122, 142,


KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242 and
KCEU 142, 242
Overcurrent and Directional Overcurrent
Relays
Service Manual

Chapter 2
Handling and Installation

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551C
Chapter 2
Contents

1.
1.1
1.2

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
Receipt of relays
Electrostatic discharge (ESD)

1
1
1

2.

HANDLING OF ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

3.

RELAY MOUNTING

4.

UNPACKING

5.

STORAGE

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

Section 1.
1.1

R8551C
Chapter 2
Page 1 of 3

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

Receipt of relays
Protective relays, although generally of robust construction, require careful
treatment prior to installation on site. Upon receipt, relays should be examined
immediately to ensure no damage has been sustained in transit. If damage has
been sustained during transit a claim should be made to the transport contractor
and AREVA T&D should be promptly notified.
Relays that are supplied unmounted and not intended for immediate installation
should be returned to their protective polythene bags.

1.2

Electrostatic discharge (ESD)


The relays use components that are sensitive to electrostatic discharges.
The electronic circuits are well protected by the metal case and the internal module
should not be withdrawn unnecessarily. When handling the module outside its
case, care should be taken to avoid contact with components and electrical
connections. If removed from the case for storage, the module should be placed in
an electrically conducting antistatic bag.
There are no setting adjustments within the module and it is advised that it is not
unnecessarily disassembled. Although the printed circuit boards are plugged
together, the connectors are a manufacturing aid and not intended for frequent
dismantling; in fact considerable effort may be required to separate them. Touching
the printed circuit board should be avoided, since complementary metal oxide
semiconductors (CMOS) are used, which can be damaged by static electricity
discharged from the body.

Section 2.

HANDLING OF ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT

A persons normal movements can easily generate electrostatic potentials of several


thousand volts. Discharge of these voltages into semiconductor devices when
handling electronic circuits can cause serious damage, which often may not be
immediately apparent but the reliability of the circuit will have been reduced.
The electronic circuits are completely safe from electrostatic discharge when
housed in the case. Do not expose them to risk of damage by withdrawing
modules unnecessarily.
Each module incorporates the highest practicable protection for its semiconductor
devices. However, if it becomes necessary to withdraw a module, the folowing
precautions should be taken to preserve the high reliability and long life for which
the equipment has been designed and manufactured.
1. Before removing a module, ensure that you are at the same electrostatic
potential as the equipment by touching the case.
2. Handle the module by its frontplate, frame or edges of the printed circuit board.
Avoid touching the electronic componenets, printed circuit track or connectors.
3. Do not pass the module to another person without first ensuring you are both at
the same electrostatic potential. Shaking hands achieves equipotential.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551C
Chapter 2
Page 2 of 3

4. Place the module on an antistatic surface, or on a conducting surface which is


at the same potential as yourself.
5. Store or transport the module in a conductive bag.
If you are making measurements on the internal electronic circuitry of an
equipment in service, it is preferable that you are earthed to the case with a
conductive wrist strap. Wrist straps should have a resistance to ground between
500k 10M.
If a wrist strap is not available you should maintain regular contact with the case to
prevent a build-up of static. Instrumentation which may be used for making
measurements should be earthed to the case whenever possible.
More information on safe working procedures for all electronic equipment can be
found in BS5783 and IEC 60147-OF. It is strongly recommended that detailed
investigations on electronic circuitry or modification work should be carried out in
a special handling area such as described in the above-mentioned BS and IEC
documents.

Section 3.

RELAY MOUNTING

Relays are dispatched either individually or as part of a panel/rack assembly.


If loose relays are to be assembled into a scheme, then construction details can be
found in Publication R7012. If an MMLG test block is to be included it should be
positioned at the right-hand side of the assembly (viewed from the front). Modules
should remain protected by their metal case during assembly into a panel or rack.
The design of the relay is such that the fixing holes are accessible without removal
of the cover. For individually mounted relays an outline diagram is normally
supplied showing the panel cut-outs and hole centres. These dimensions will also
be found in Publication R6551.

Section 4.

UNPACKING

Care must be taken when unpacking and installing the relays so that none of the
parts is damaged or the settings altered. Relays must only be handled by skilled
persons. The installation should be clean, dry and reasonably free from dust and
excessive vibration. The site should be well lit to facilitate inspection. Relays that
have been removed from their cases should not be left in situations where they are
exposed to dust or damp. This particularly applies to installations which are being
carried out at the same time as construction work.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

Section 5.

R8551C
Chapter 2
Page 3 of 3

STORAGE

If relays are not to be installed immediately upon receipt they should be stored in a
place free from dust and moisture in their original cartons. Where de-humidifier
bags have been included in the packing they should be retained. The action of the
de-humidifier crystals will be impaired if the bag has been exposed to ambient
conditions and may be restored by gently heating the bag for about an hour, prior
to replacing it in the carton.
Dust which collects on a carton may, on subsequent unpacking, find its way into
the relay; in damp conditions the carton and packing may become impregnated
with moisture and the de-humifier will lose its efficiency.
Storage temperature 25C to +70C.

Types KCGG 122, 142,


KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242 and
KCEU 142, 242
Overcurrent and Directional Overcurrent
Relays
Service Manual

Chapter 3
Relay Description

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 3
Contents

1.

RELAY DESCRIPTION

2.
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5

USER INTERFACE
Frontplate layout
LED indications
Keypad
Liquid crystal display
Flag display format

2
2
3
3
3
3

3.
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13
3.14
3.15
3.16
3.17

MENU SYSTEM
Default display
Accessing the menu
Menu contents
Menu columns
System data
Fault records
Measurements 1
Measurements 2
Measurements 3
Earth fault 1
Phase fault 1
Earth fault 2
Phase fault 2
Logic
Input masks
Relay masks
Recorder

5
5
5
6
6
7
8
8
8
9
9
10
11
12
13
14
14
15

4.
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15
4.16

CHANGING TEXT AND SETTINGS


Quick guide to menu controls
To enter setting mode
To escape from the setting mode
To accept the new setting
Password protection
Entering passwords
Changing passwords
Restoration of password protection
Entering text
Changing function links
Changing setting values
Setting communication address
Setting input masks
Setting output masks
Resetting values and records
Resetting trip LED indication

17
17
18
18
18
19
19
19
20
20
20
20
21
21
21
21
22

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 3
Contents

5.
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7

EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS
Auxiliary supply
Dual powered relays
Logic control inputs
Analogue inputs
Output relays
Ouput relay minimum dwell time
Setting the relay with a PC or laptop

22
23
23
23
24
25
25
25

6.

ALARM FLAGS

25

Figure 1.
Figure 2.

Frontplate layout
Flag display format

2
4

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

Section 1.

R8551D
Chapter 3
Page 1 of 26

RELAY DESCRIPTION

The KCGG, KCEG and KCEU relays use numerical techniques to derive protection
and control functions. They can have up to eight multiplexed analogue inputs,
sampled eight times per power frequency cycle. The Fourier derived power
frequency component returns the rms value of the measured quantity. To ensure
optimum performance, frequency tracking is used. The channel that is tracked is
chosen on a priority basis, Va, Vb, Vc, Ia, Ib, Ic. Frequency tracking is not
employed on the residual voltage, or current to ensure the maximum harmonic
rejection. In the absence of a signal to frequency track, the sampling frequency
defaults to the rated frequency of the power system.
Up to eight output relays can be programmed to respond to any of the protection
or control functions and up to eight logic inputs can be allocated to control
functions. The logic inputs are filtered to ensure that induced AC current in the
external wiring to these inputs does not cause an incorrect response. Software links
further enable the user to customise the product for their own particular
applications. They select/interconnect the various protection and control elements
and replace the interconnections that were previously used between the cases of
relays that provided discrete protection or control functions.
The relays are powered from either a DC or an AC auxiliary supply which is
transformed by a wide ranging DC/DC converter within the relay. This provides
the electronic circuits with regulated and galvanically isolated supply rails.
The power supply also provides a regulated and isolated field voltage to energise
the logic inputs.
The dual powered version of the relay draws its energising supply from the current
transformers in the absence of an auxiliary voltage supply. This makes it suitable
for application where the auxiliary supply is not reliable or not available. They can
be used in shunt trip, capacitor discharge and AC series trip arrangements.
An interface on the front of the relay allows the user to navigate through the menu
to access data, change settings and reset flags, etc. As an alternative the relays
can be connected to a computer via their serial communication ports and the menu
accessed on-line. This provides a more friendly and intuitive method of setting the
relay, as it allows a whole column of data to be displayed at one time instead of
just a single menu cell. Computer programs are also available that enable setting
files to be generated off-line and these files can then be downloaded to the relay
via the serial port.
In addition to protection and control functions the relays can display all the values
that it measures and many additional ones that it calculates. They also store useful
time stamped data for post fault analysis in fault records, event records and
disturbance records. This data is available via a serial communication port for
access locally and/or remotely with a computer. The fault records, event records
and disturbance records can be extracted automatically via the serial port and
values can be polled periodically to determine trends. Remote control actions can
also be made and to this end many K Range relays have been integrated into
SCADA systems.
K Range relays provide the user with the flexibility to customise the relay for their
particular applications. They provide many additional features that would be
expensive to produce on an individual basis and, when the low installation costs
are taken into account, it will be seen to provide an economic solution for
protection and control.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

Section 2.

R8551D
Chapter 3
Page 2 of 26

USER INTERFACE

The front plate of the relay provides a man machine interface providing the user
with a means of entering settings to the relay displaying measured values, fault
records and alarms. The series 2 relays have additional graphics to assist the user.
The area in which the fault flags are displayed is divided up to denote the area
associated with each phase and there is a marked position for the appropriate
phase colours to be marked and for labels to be affixed to denote the use of the
three overcurrent stages and the three auxiliary timers.
2.1

Frontplate layout
Model number

Relay types

KCGG14200102125
No P967701

KCGG142
Liquid
crystal
display

Serial number

SETTING GROUP
FAULT No

F n _ 2 G2 A _ _ * B _ _ * V <
AU X

BT

2 C*

F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
C

AUX TIMER

Flag identifiers

AUX 1

STAGE 1

AUX 2

STAGE 2

AUX 3

STAGE 3

Digit identifiers

*
*
*

ALARM

TRIP
HEALTHY

Entry keys

LED indicators

Ratings
In 1 A V 110/125 V
Vn 110 V
50/60 Hz

Figure 1: Frontplate layout

The frontplate of the relay carries a liquid crystal display LCD on which data such
as settings and measured values can be viewed. The data is accessed through a
menu system. The four keys [F]; [+]; [] and [0] are used to move around the menu,
select the data to be accessed and enter settings. Three light emitting diodes (LEDs)
indicate alarm, healthy and trip conditions.
A label at the top corner identifies the relay by both its model number and serial
number. This information uniquely specifies the product and is required when
making any enquiry to the factory about a particular relay. In addition there is a
rating label in the bottom corner which gives details of the auxiliary voltage,
reference voltage (directional relays only) and current ratings. Two handles, one at
the top and one at the bottom of the frontplate, will assist in removing the module
from the case.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
2.2

R8551D
Chapter 3
Page 3 of 26

LED indications
The three LEDs provide the following functions:

2.3

GREEN LED

Indicates the relay is powered up and running. In most


cases it follows the watchdog relay but dual powered
relays are the exception because the watchdog does not
operate for loss of auxiliary supply.
Such a condition would be considered a normal
operational condition when the relays are energised
from line current transformers alone.

YELLOW LED

Indicates alarm conditions that have been detected by


the relay during its self checking routine. The alarm lamp
flashes when the password is entered (password
inhibition temporarily overridden).

RED LED

Indicates a trip that has been issued by the relay. This


may be a protection trip or result from a remote trip
command; this can be determined by viewing the trip
flags.

Keypad
The four keys perform the following functions:
[F]

function select/digit select key/next column

[+]

put in setting mode/increment value/accept key/previous column

[]

put in setting mode/decrement value/reject key/next column

[0]

reset/escape/change default display key

Note: Only the [F] and [0] keys are accessible when the relay cover is in place.
2.4

Liquid crystal display


The liquid crystal display has two lines each of sixteen characters. A back-light is
activated when any key on the frontplate is momentarily pressed and will remain lit
until ten minutes after the last key press. This enables the display to be read in all
conditions of ambient lighting.
The numbers printed on the frontplate just below the display, identify the individual
digits that are displayed for some of the settings, ie. function links, relay masks etc.
Additional text around the display is used to define the areas in which the various
parts of the fault information will be found.

2.5

Flag display format


Now that there are five full fault records the top four left-hand digits no longer
display Fn, Fn-1, . . . Fn-4 to denote the last and previous fault flags. Instead
they now display Fn to indicate latched fault flags and Fnow to indicate
unlatched flags (when cell 0023 is selected from the System Data column).
The next two digits indicate the setting group that was in operation during the fault
when Fn is displayed eg. G1 indicates setting group 1 and G2 indicates
setting group 2. When Fnow is displayed then the setting group is that which is
currently active.
The next most important areas are the four marked by a circle. These circles are
over printed with a letter (A, B or C) to indicate the phase, or a symbol to represent

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 3
Page 4 of 26

an earth fault. Alternatively a coloured disc may be stuck over the circles to
indicate the phases by colour eg. red, yellow and blue. There are four characters
on the display associated with each of these four areas to flag operation of the
start and operation of the three overcurrent stages for that phase.

SETTING GROUP
FAULT No

F n _ 2G2 A _ _ * B _ _ * V<
AU X

BT

C*

F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
AUX TIMER
AUX 1

STAGE 1

AUX 2

STAGE 2

AUX 3

STAGE 3

*
*
*

ALARM

TRIP
HEALTHY

Figure 2: Flag display format

Consider the four digits above the circle marked ||. If the relay trips during a
fault involving phase C then the first digit will be the letter C to indicate the current
exceeded the I> threshold and that the protection has started. The next three
characters are flags for each of the three overcurrent stages (t>, t>>, t>>>)
associated with that phase (phase C in this example) and an asterisk (*) will be
displayed for the stage or stages that have operated.
Thus:
C

would indicate that a current above the I> setting had been detected by
the phase C element during the fault (START condition).

C*

would indicate the first overcurrent stage (t>) had operated

C_*

would indicate the second stage (t>>) had timed out

C__*

would indicate t>>> had timed out third overcurrent stage

C*_*

would indicate that both t> and t>>> had timed out

Flag information is similarly provided for the other two phases and for earth faults.
The six digits at the left-hand side of the display on the bottom line identify the
auxiliary functions AUX1, AUX2, AUX3 as AUX123. Two printed panels below the
display may be used to indicate the function of each of the three auxiliary functions
and those of the three main overcurrent functions respectively. The appropriate preprinted labels can be affixed in these two areas.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 3
Page 5 of 26

The two characters at the extreme right-hand end of the top line of the display will
indicate V< when the undervoltage element has operated. Operation of the
breaker failure protection is indicated by the letter B and operation of the thermal
element by the letter T immediately below the V<. For indication of a local/
remote trip via relay RLY7 the B is replaced by an R. Where B and R are both
valid, B is given priority.

Section 3.

MENU SYSTEM

Data within the relays is accessed via a menu table. The table is comprised of cells
arranged in rows and columns, like a spreadsheet. A cell may contain text values
limits or functions. The first cell in a column, the column heading, contains text
identifying the data grouped under it in that column.
3.1

Default display
The selected default display will normally show on the LCD and a momentary press
of the function key [F] will change the display to the heading for the first column,
SYSTEM DATA. Further momentary presses of the [F] key will step down the
column, row by row, so that data may be read. If at any time the [F] key is pressed
and held for one second the cursor will be moved to the top of the next column
and the heading for that column will be displayed. Further momentary presses of
the [F] key will then move down the new column, row by row.
A new feature is that pressing the [F] and [0] keys together and holding for one
second can be used to step back up the menu column. A short press of the [0] key
will switch on the back light for the LCD without changing the display in any way.
In this way the full menu may be scanned with just the [F] and [0] keys that are
accessible with the relay cover in place, and reset actions can be effected.
Following a protection trip red trip LED will be lit. The display will change
automatically from the default display to that of the fault flags for the last fault.
Whilst the fault flags are displayed the trip LED can be reset by holding down the
[0] for at least one second. The trip LED will be reset and the display will change to
the default display that was last selected. The flag information will not be lost by
this action, it can still be accessed under FAULT RECORDS.
The display will not default to the flag information if the user interface is in use at
the time. The default display will return 15 minutes after the last key press, or it can
be selected more quickly by moving to any column heading and then pressing the
[0] key for 1 second. The selected default display will appear unless there has
been a fault when the fault flags will be displayed. It is possible to step through the
available default displays by momentary presses of the reset key [0].

3.2

Accessing the menu


The only settings which can be changed with the cover in place are those that can
be reset either to zero or some preset value. To change any other settings the cover
must be removed from the relay to gain access to the [+] and [] keys that are used
to increment or decrement a value. When a column heading is displayed the []
key will change the display to the next column and the [+] key will change the
display to the previous column, giving a faster selection.
When a cell that can be changed is displayed the action of pressing either the [+]
or [] keys will put the relay in setting mode (indicated by a flashing cursor in the
display). To escape from the setting mode without making any change the [0] key

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 3
Page 6 of 26

should be depressed for one second. Section 4 gives instructions for changing the
various types of settings.
Password protection is provided for the configuration settings of the relay because
an accidental change could seriously affect the ability of the relay to perform its
intended functions. Configuration settings include the selection of time curves,
function links, CT and VT ratios, opto-input and relay output allocation. Individual
protection settings are protected from change when the relay cover is in place.
3.3

Menu contents
Related data and settings are grouped in separate columns of the menu.
Each column has a text heading (in capital letters) that identifies the data contained
in that column. Each cell may contain text, values, limits and/or a function.
The cells are referenced by the column number/row number. For example 0201 is
column 02, row 01. When a cell is displayed the four characters at the top left
hand corner of the LCD indicate the column number and row number in the menu
table.
The full menu is given in the following tables, but not all the items listed will be
available in a particular relay. For example, a single pole earth fault relay would
not display any phase fault settings and a non-directional relay would not display
any settings associated with the directional feature. Those cells that do not provide
any useful purpose are not made available in the factory configuration.
Certain settings will disappear from the menu when the user de-selects them; the
alternative setting group is a typical example. If group 2 settings have not been
enabled then the menu columns EARTH FLT 2 and PHASE FLT 2 will be hidden and
make them visible, the system data link SD4 must be set to 1. This note is included
at this time to explain why some of the items listed below may not appear in the
menu for a relay that is being compared with the full list.

3.4

Menu columns
The menu tables shown below are for KCEG directional overcurrent and earth fault
protection relays, unless otherwise stated. The directional elements shown in the
menu tables are not available in KCGG relays.
Column
Number

Heading

Description

00

SYSTEM DATA

Settings and data for the system - relay and


serial communications

01

FLT RECORDS

Fault records for the last five faults

02

MEASURE 1

Directly measured quantities (V & I etc.)

03

MEASURE 2

Calculated quantities (W & VAR etc.)

04

MEASURE 3

Calculated (additional)

05

EARTH FLT 1

Earth fault protection settings group 1

06

PHASE FLT 1

Phase fault protection settings group 1

07

EARTH FLT 2

Earth fault protection settings group 2

08

PHASE FLT 2

Phase fault protection settings group 2

09

LOGIC

Settings for miscellaneous functions used


in the logic

0A

INPUT MASKS

User assigned allocation of logic input

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 3
Page 7 of 26

0B

RELAY MASKS

User assigned allocation of output relays

0C

RECORDER

Settings for the disturbance recorder

The menu cells that are read only are marked


Cells that can be set are marked
Cells that can be reset are marked
Cells that are password protected are marked

3.5

[READ].
[SET].
[RESET].
[PWP].

System data
Display

Status

Description

0000

SYSTEM DATA

READ

Column heading

0002

Password

PWP

Password that must be entered before certain settings


may be changed

0003

SD Links

PWP

Function links that enable the user to enable (activate)


the options required

Rem ChgStg

1 = enable remote setting changes

Rem CB Ctrl

1 = enable remote control of circuit breaker

Rem ChgGrp

1 = enable remote change of setting group

En Grp2

1 = enable group 2 settings to be used and


displayed

Auto Flag

1 = enable flags to be reset automatically on load


restoration

Auto Rec

1 = enable disturbance recorder to reset on load


restoration

Log Evts 8

1 = enable logic inputs and output relay status to be


stored in event records

Alt Rec Rst

1 = enable alternative reset method for disturbance


recorder

0004

Description

PWP

Product description user programmable text

0005

Plant

PWP

Plant reference user programmable text

0006

Model

READ

Model number that defines the product

0008

Serial No.

READ

Serial number unique number identifying the


particular product

0009

Freq

SET

Default sampling frequency must be set to power


system frequency (not available on KCEU relays)

READ

Indicates the Courier communication level supported


by the product

000A Comms Level


000B

SET

Communication address (1 to 255)

000C Plnt Status

Rly Address

READ

Binary word used to indicate the status of circuit


breakers and isolators

000D Ctrl Status

READ

Binary word used to indicate the status of control data

000E

Grp now

READ

Indicates the active setting group

000F

LS Stage

READ

Indicates the last received load shedding command

0010

CB Control

SET

Indicates the status of the circuit breaker control

0011

Software

READ

Software reference for the product

0020

Log Status

READ

Indicates the current status of all the logic inputs

0021

Rly Status

READ

Indicates the current status of the output relay drives

0022

Alarms

READ

Indicates the current state of internal alarms

Uncfg

READ

Error in factory configuration settings

Uncalib

READ

Operating in uncalibrated state

Setting

READ

Error detected in stored settings

No Service

READ

Protection out-of-service and not functioning

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

3.6

3.7

R8551D
Chapter 3
Page 8 of 26

No Samples

READ

No A/D samples but still in service

No Fourier

READ

Fourier is not being performed

Test Wdog

SET

Test watchdog by setting this bit to 1

0023

FnowG1

READ

Indicates the current status of the fault flags


(These flags are not latched)

Fault records
Display

Status

Description

0100

FLT RECORDS

READ

Column heading

0101

Fault No 1

SET

Number of fault record displayed may be selected


(Fn; Fn -1; Fn -2; . . . Fn -5)

0102 Fn G1

READ

Flags (latched) indicating the functions that operated


during the fault

0103

Ia

READ

Highest value of current measured in phase A during


the fault

0104

Ib

READ

Highest value of current measured in phase B during


the fault

0105

Ic

READ

Highest value of current measured in phase C during


the fault

0106

Io

READ

Highest value of residual current measured during the


fault

0107 Vab

READ

Value of Vab during the fault

0108

Vbc

READ

Value of Vbc during the fault

0109

Vca

READ

Value of Vca during the fault

010A Vo

READ

Highest value of residual voltage measured during


the fault

010B

CB Trip Time

READ

Circuit breaker trip time

0110

Clear = O

RESET

Press [0] key to clear all fault records when this cell is
displayed

Measurements 1
Display

Status

Description

0200

READ

Column heading

0201

Ia
Ib
0203 Ic
0204 Io

READ

Measured current in phase A

0202

READ

Measured current in phase B

READ

Measured current in phase C

READ

Measured residual current

0205

Vab

READ

Measured line voltage Vab

0206

Vbc

READ

Measured line voltage Vbc

0207

Vca

READ

Measured line voltage Vca

0208

Va

READ

Measured phase voltage Va


(not available on KCEU relays)

0209

Vb

READ

Measured phase voltage Vb


(not available on KCEU relays)

020A Vc

READ

Measured phase voltage Vc


(not available on KCEU relays)

020B

READ

Measured residual voltage Vo

READ

Measured power system frequency F

MEASURE 1

Vo

020C F

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
3.8

3.9

Measurements 2
Display

Status

Description

0300

MEASURE 2

READ

Column heading

0301

3W

READ

Three phase active power

0302

3VA

READ

Three phase apparent power

0303

3VAr

READ

Three phase reactive power

0304

Imax

READ

Highest of the three phase currents measured not a


peak demand value

0309

Wa

READ

Active power in phase A


(not available on KCEU relays)

030A Wb

READ

Active power in phase B


(not available on KCEU relays)

030B

READ

Active power in phase C


(not available on KCEU relays)

Wc

030C PowerFactor

READ

Power factor three phase

030D VARa

READ

Reactive power in phase A


(not available on KCEU relays)

030E

VARb

READ

Reactive power in phase B


(not available on KCEU relays)

030F

VARc

READ

Reactive power in phase C


(not available on KCEU relays)

0310

Sum (ops)

PWP

Number of circuit breaker operations

0311

CBdutyA

PWP

Sum of I, or

0312

CBdutyB

PWP

0313

CBdutyC

PWP

031E

Power mode

PWP

I2 broken by phase A of circuit breaker


Sum of I, or I2 broken by phase B of circuit breaker
Sum of I, or I2 broken by phase C of circuit breaker

Sets the convention used for signing the direction of


measured power flow

Measurements 3
Display

Status

Description

0400

READ

Column heading

READ

Thermal ammeter reading in phase A

MEASURE 3

0404

IthA
0405 IthB
0406 IthC
0407

READ

Thermal ammeter reading in phase B

READ

Thermal ammeter reading in phase C

Thermal

PWP

Thermal state (%)

040A Pk IthA

PWP

Peak thermal ammeter reading in phase A demand


value

Pk IthB

PWP

Peak thermal ammeter reading in phase B demand


value

040C Pk IthC

PWP

Peak thermal ammeter reading in phase C demand


value

040B

3.10

R8551D
Chapter 3
Page 9 of 26

Earth fault 1
Display

Status

Description

0500

EARTH FLT1

READ

Column heading

0501

EF Links

PWP

Software links that are used to select the available


optional earth fault functions

En Io>>

1 = enable earth fault stage 2

EN Io>>>

1 = enable earth fault stage 3

Drn to>

1 = directionalise earth fault stage 1

Drn to>>

1 = directionalise earth fault stage 2

Drn to>>>

1 = directionalise earth fault stage 3

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
6

Io>>NoPeak

1 = no peak measurement for stage 2 earth faults


(KCGG only)

Rev Io>>>

1 = reverse direction of third earth fault stage (Io>>>)

0502

CT Ratio

PWP

Overall ratio of the line or neutral CT feeding the


earth fault protection elements

0503

VT Ratio

PWP

Overall ratio of the voltage transformer feeding the


relay

0504

Curve

PWP

Selected characteristic from the definite time or 10


inverse time options

0505

Io>

SET

Current setting for start output and first earth fault


stage

0506 to>/TMS

SET

Time multiplier setting that will be used with a


selected inverse time curve

0507 to>/DT

SET

Time delay that will be effective when the definite time


characteristic is selected

0508 toRESET

SET

Hold time for which the current must remain below


Io> before the timer resets to zero

Io>>

SET

Current setting for second earth fault stage

050A to>>

SET

Time delay for second earth fault stage

0509

Io>>>

SET

Current setting for third earth fault stage

050C to>>>

SET

Time delay for third earth fault stage

050D Char Angle

SET

Characteristic angle setting for earth fault directional


element

050E

Io<

SET

Setting for earth fault undercurrent element

050F

Vop>

SET

Setting for minimum polarising voltage below which


the directional element is blocked

0510

Po>

SET

Wattmetric power threshold


(only available on KCEU relays)

Status

Description

050B

3.11

R8551D
Chapter 3
Page 10 of 26

Phase fault 1
Display
0600

PHASE FLT 1

READ

Column heading

0601

PF Links

PWP

Software links that are used to select the available


optional phase fault functions

En Therm

En I>>

1 = enable stage 2 overcurrent

En I>>>

1 = enable stage 3 overcurrent

Drn t>

1 = directionalise stage 1 overcurrent

Drn t>>

1 = directionalise stage 2 overcurrent

Drn t>>>

1 = directionalise stage 3 overcurrent

I>> NoPeak

1 = No peak measurement for stage 2 overcurrent


(KCGG only)

I>>> = 2/3

1 = 2 out of 3 phase elements to operate for t>>>


to give an output

CB blk V<

1 = undervoltage blocked when circuit breaker is


open

V< any = 1

1 = output for any phase undervoltage;


0 = output for all phases undervoltage

V< P-N = 1

1 = undervoltage responds to phase voltage;


0 = undervoltage responds to line voltage
(not available on KCEU relays)

SynPol = 3.2

1 = synchronous polarising extended to 3.2s;


0 = 0.32s

Brkn Cond

1 = enables broken conductor logic

1 = enable thermal element

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
D

En F<

1 = enable under frequency element to initiate tAUX1


(not available on KCEU relays)

Rev I>>>

1 = reverse direction of third overcurrent stage

All 2/3

0602

CT Ratio

PWP

Overall ratio of the line CT feeding the phase fault


protection elements

0603

VT Ratio

PWP

Overall ratio of the voltage transformer feeding the


relay

0604

Curve

PWP

Selected characteristic from the definite time or 10


inverse time options

0605

I>

SET

Current setting for start output and first overcurrent


stage

0606

t>/TMS

SET

Time multiplier setting that will be used with a


selected inverse time curve

0607

t>/DT

SET

Time delay that will be effective when the definite time


characteristic is selected

0608

tRESET

SET

Hold time for which the current must remain below I>
before the timer resets to zero

0609

I>>

SET

Current setting for second overcurrent stage

060A t>>
060B

3.12

R8551D
Chapter 3
Page 11 of 26

I>>>

1 = 2/3 logic applied to all phase outputs

SET

Time delay for second overcurrent stage

SET

Current setting for third overcurrent stage

060C t>>>

SET

Time delay for third overcurrent stage

060D Char Angle

SET

Characteristic angle setting for overcurrent directional


element
Setting for phase fault undercurrent element

060E

I<

SET

060F

V<

SET

Setting for undervoltage element

0610

tV<

SET

Definite time delay for undervoltage feature

0611

F<

SET

Setting for underfrequency


(not available on KCEU relays)

0612

th> Alarm

SET

Thermal alarm level (%)

0613

Ith> Trip

SET

Thermal current rating (trip level = 100%)

0614

TC

SET

Setting for thermal time constant

Earth fault 2
Display

Status

Description

0700

EARTH FLT 2

READ

Column heading

0701

EF Links

PWP

Software links that are used to select the available


optional earth fault functions

En Io>>

1 = enable earth fault stage 2

En Io>>>

1 = enable earth fault stage 3

Drn to>

1 = directionalise earth fault stage 1

Drn to>>

1 = directionalsise earth fault stage 2

Drn to>>>

1 = directionalise earth fault stage 3

Io>> NoPeak

1 = no peak measurement for stage 2 earth faults


(KCGG only)

Rev Io>>>

0702

CT Ratio

PWP

Overall ratio of the line or neutral CT feeding the


earth fault protection elements

1 = reverse direction of third earth fault stage (Io>>>)

0703

VT Ratio

PWP

Overall ratio of the voltage transformer feeding the


relay

0704

Curve

PWP

Selected characteristic from the definite time or 10


inverse time options

0705

Io>

SET

Current setting for start output and first earth fault


stage

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
0706

to>/TMS

SET

Time multiplier setting that will be used with a


selected inverse time curve

0707

to>/DT

SET

Time delay that will be effective when the definite time


characteristic is selected

0708 toRESET

SET

Hold time for which the current must remain below


Io> before the timer resets to zero

0709

Io>>

SET

Current setting for second earth fault stage

070A to>>

SET

Time delay for second earth fault stage

SET

Current setting for third earth fault stage

070B

3.13

R8551D
Chapter 3
Page 12 of 26

Io>>>

070C to>>>

SET

Time delay for third earth fault stage

070D Char Angle

SET

Characteristic angle setting for earth fault directional


element

070E

Io<

SET

Setting for earth fault undercurrent element

070F

Vop>

SET

Setting for minimum polarising voltage below which


the directional element is blocked

0710

Po>

SET

Wattmetric power threshold


(only available on KCEU relays)

Phase fault 2
Display

Status

Description

0800

PHASE FLT 2

READ

Column heading

0801

PF Links

PWP

Software links that are used to select the available


optional phase fault functions

En Therm

1 = enable thermal element

En I>>

1 = enable stage 2 overcurrent

En I>>>

1 = enable stage 3 overcurrent

Drn t>

1 = directionalise stage 1 overcurrent

Drn t>>

1 = directionalise stage 2 overcurrent

Drn t>>>

1 = directionalise stage 3 overcurrent

I>> NoPeak

1 = No peak measurement for stage 2 overcurrent


(KCGG only)

I>>> = 2/3

1 = 2 out of 3 phase elements to operate for t>>>


to give an output

CB blk V<

1 = undervoltage blocked when circuit breaker is


open

V< any = 1

1 = output for any phase undervoltage;


0 = output for all phases undervoltage

V< P-N = 1

1 = undervoltage responds to phase voltage;


0 = undervoltage responds to line voltage

SynPol = 3.2

1 = synchronous polarising extended to 3.2s;


0 = 0.32s

Brkn Cond

1 = enables broken conductor logic

EN F<

1 = enable under frequency element to initiate tAUX1


(not available on KCEU relays)

Rev I>>>

1 = reverse direction of third overcurrent stage

All 2/3

1 = 2/3 logic applied to all phase outputs

0802

CT Ratio

PWP

Overall ratio of the line CT feeding the phase fault


protection elements

0803

VT Ratio

PWP

Overall ratio of the voltage transformer feeding the


relay

0804

Curve

PWP

Selected characteristic from the definite time or 10


inverse time options

0805

I>

SET

Current setting for start output and first overcurrent


stage

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
0806

t>/TMS

SET

Time multiplier setting that will be used with a


selected inverse time curve

0807

t>/DT

SET

Time delay that will be effective when the definite time


characteristic is selected

0808

tRESET

SET

Hold time for which the current must remain below I>
before the timer resets to zero

0809

I>>

SET

Current setting for second overcurrent stage

080A t>>

SET

Time delay for second overcurrent stage

SET

Current setting for third overcurrent stage

080B

3.14

R8551D
Chapter 3
Page 13 of 26

I>>>

080C t>>>

SET

Time delay for third overcurrent stage

080D Char Angle

SET

Characteristic angle seting for overcurrent directional


element

080E

I<

SET

Setting for phase fault undercurrent element

080F

V<

SET

Setting for undervoltage element

0810

tV<

SET

Definite time delay for undervoltage feature

0811

F<

SET

Setting for underfrequency


(not available on KCEU relays)

0812

th>Alarm

SET

Thermal alarm level (%)

0813

Ith>Trip

SET

Thermal current rating (trip level = 100%)

0814

TC

SET

Setting for thermal time constant

Logic
Display

Status

Description

0900

LOGIC

READ

Column heading

0901

LOG Links

PWP

Software links that are used to select the available


optional logic functions

CB Rec

1 = enable CB operations and contact duty registers


to be incremented

CB1*I = 0

1 = CB contact proportional to I;
0 = CB contact duty proportional to I2

BF blk strt

1 = enables the start outputs to be reset when


breaker failure protection operates

tAUX2 = I<

1 = tAUX2 initiated by undercurrent in all three


phases

tAUX2=/Io<

1 = tAUX2 initiated when the earth fault current


exceeds the Io< setting

tAUX3 Grp2

1 = tAUX3 selects setting grp2

tAUX2-tAUX3

1 = enables the pick up of tAUX3 to be delayed by


tAUX2

Latch Strt

1 = start latches fault flags and generate fault record

Hold Grp2

1 = selects and holds the grp2 settings operational

Rst CBclose

1 = enables a circuit breaker trip to reset the close


pulse timer

Log Rly7

1 = enable relay 7 to initiate fault records

tAUX3=DDO

1 = tAUX3 is delayed on drop-off


0 = tAUX3 is delayed on pick-up

0902 tBF

SET

Breaker failure protection time delay setting

0903 tAUX1

SET

Auxiliary timer 1 setting

0904 tAUX2

SET

Auxiliary timer 2 setting

0905 tAUX3

SET

Auxiliary timer 3 setting

0906

tTRIP

SET

Trip pulse time setting

0907

tCLOSE

SET

Close pulse time setting

SET

Alarm 1 setting for excessive circuit breaker operations

0908 CB ops>

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

3.15

3.16

R8551D
Chapter 3
Page 14 of 26

0909

CB duty>

SET

Alarm 1 setting for excessive circuit breaker contact


duty

090F

Display

SET

Default display that is selected on power-up

Manufact

Manufacturers name

Descript

Description of product

Plant

Plant reference

Thermal

Thermal State (%)

IthA B C

Thermal ammeter readings for each of the three


phases

Ia Ib Ic

Instantaneous reading of phase currents (prospective


value of thermal ammeter)

Ia Io Vab Vo

Line current and voltage plus residual current and


voltage

kW kVAr

Active and reactive three phase power

Input masks
Display

Status

Description

0A00 INPUT MASKS

READ

Column heading

0A01 Blk to>

PWP

Logic input to block first stage earth fault timer to>

0A02 Blk to>>

PWP

Logic input to block second stage earth fault timer


to>>

0A03 Blk to>>>

PWP

Logic input to block third stage earth fault timer


to>>>

0A04 Blk t>

PWP

Logic input to block first stage overcurrent timer t>

0A05 Blk t>>

PWP

Logic input to block second stage overcurrent timer


t>>

0A06 Blk t>>>

PWP

Logic input to block third stage overcurrent timer


t>>>

0A07 L Trip

PWP

Logic input to initiate trip pulse timer from external


input

0A08 L Close

PWP

Logic input to initiate close pulse timer from external


input

0A09 Ext Trip

PWP

Logic input to initiate breaker fail and records from


an external trip signal

0A0A Aux 1

PWP

Logic input to initiate timer tAUX1 from external input

0A0B Aux 2

PWP

Logic input to initiate timer tAUX2 from external input

0A0C Aux 3

PWP

Logic input to initiate timer tAUX3 from external input

0A0D Set Grp 2

PWP

Logic input to select group 2 protection settings from


external input

0A0E CB Closed

PWP

Logic input to indicate circuit breaker in closed


position

0A0F

PWP

Logic input to indicate circuit breaker in open position

0A10 Bus2

CB Open

PWP

Logic input to indicate circuit breaker in bus 2


position

0A11 Reset Ith

PWP

Logic input to block/reset thermal protection,


also resets thermal ammeters

Status

Description

Relay masks
Display
0B00

RELAY MASKS

READ

Column heading

0B01

Io> Fwd

PWP

Earth fault forward start (non directional start for non


directional relays)

0B02

Io> Rev

PWP

Earth fault reverse start (only available when


directionalised)

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

3.17

R8551D
Chapter 3
Page 15 of 26

0B03

to>

PWP

First stage time delayed earth fault output

0B04

to>>

PWP

Second stage time delayed earth fault output

0B05

to>>>

PWP

Third stage time delayed earth fault output

0B06

I> Fwd

PWP

Overcurrent forward start (non directional start for non


directional relays)

0B07

I> Rev

PWP

Overcurrent reverse start (only available when


directionalised)

0B08

tA>

PWP

First stage time delayed overcurrent output for


phase A

0B09

tB>

PWP

First stage time delayed overcurrent output for


phase B

0B0A tC>

PWP

First stage time delayed overcurrent output for


phase C

0B0B

PWP

Second stage time delayed overcurrent output

0B0C t>>>

PWP

Third stage time delayed overcurrent output

0B0D CB Trip

PWP

Trip pulse output

t>>

0B0E

CB Close

PWP

Close pulse output

0B0F

CB Fail

PWP

Breaker fail output for initiation of back tripping

0B10

Aux 1

PWP

Output from the auxiliary 1 time delayed function

0B11

Aux2

PWP

Output from the auxiliary 2 time delayed function

0B12

Aux3

PWP

Output from the auxiliary 3 time delayed function

0B13

tV<

PWP

Undervoltage time delayed output

0B14

Level 1

PWP

Output in response to command to load shed to


level 1 (not available on KCEU relays)

0B15

Level 2

PWP

Output in response to command to load shed to


level 2 (not available on KCEU relays)

0B16

Level 3

PWP

Output in response to command to load shed to


level 3 (not available on KCEU relays)

0B17

thAlarm

PWP

Thermal overload alarm

0B18

thTrip

PWP

Thermal overload trip

0B19

CB Alarm

PWP

Alarm for circuit breaker maintenance

Recorder
Display

Status

Description

0C00 RECORDER

READ

Column heading

0C01 Control

SET

Manual stop/start control (running = started;


triggered = stopped)

0C02 Capture

SET

Select the functions to be captured: magnitudes/


phase angles/samples

0C03 Post trigger

SET

Select the number of samples recorded after the


trigger (1 to 511)

0C04 Logic trig

SET

Select the logic input to trigger the recorder


(0 to 7 pick-up or drop-off)

+Opto0

Trigger in response to energisation of logic input L0

+Opto1

Trigger in response to energisation of logic input L1

+Opto2

Trigger in response to energisation of logic input L2

+Opto3

Trigger in response to energisation of logic input L3

+Opto4

Trigger in response to energisation of logic input L4

+Opto5

Trigger in response to energisation of logic input L5

+Opto6

Trigger in response to energisation of logic input L6

+Opto7

Trigger in response to energisation of logic input L7

Opto0

Trigger in response to de-energisation of logic


input L0

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 3
Page 16 of 26

Opto1

Trigger in response to de-energisation of logic


input L1

Opto2

Trigger in response to de-energisation of logic


input L2

Opto3

Trigger in response to de-energisation of logic


input L3

Opto4

Trigger in response to de-energisation of logic


input L4

Opto5

Trigger in response to de-energisation of logic


input L5

Opto6

Trigger in response to de-energisation of logic


input L6

Opto7

Trigger in response to de-energisation of logic


input L7

0C05 Relay Trig

SET

Select the output relay tio trigger the recorder


(0 to 7 pick-up or drop-off)

+Rly 0

Trigger in response to energisation of output relay


RLY 0

+Rly 1

Trigger in response to energisation of output relay


RLY 1

+Rly 2

Trigger in response to energisation of output relay


RLY 2

+Rly 3

Trigger in response to energisation of output relay


RLY 3

+Rly 4

Trigger in response to energisation of output relay


RLY 4

+Rly 5

Trigger in response to energisation of output relay


RLY 5

+Rly 6

Trigger in response to energisation of output relay


RLY 6

+Rly 7

Trigger in response to energisation of output relay


RLY 7

Rly 0

Trigger in response to de-energisation of output relay


RLY 0

Rly 1

Trigger in response to de-energisation of output relay


RLY 1

Rly 2

Trigger in response to de-energisation of output relay


RLY 2

Rly 3

Trigger in response to de-energisation of output relay


RLY 3

Rly 4

Trigger in response to de-energisation of output relay


RLY 4

Rly 5

Trigger in response to de-energisation of output relay


RLY 5

Rly 6

Trigger in response to de-energisation of output relay


RLY 6

Rly 7

Trigger in response to de-energisation of output relay


RLY 7

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

Section 4.

R8551D
Chapter 3
Page 17 of 26

CHANGING TEXT AND SETTINGS

Settings and text in certain cells of the menu can be changed via the user
interface. To do this the cover must be removed from the front of the relay so that
the [+] and [] keys can be accessed.
4.1

Quick guide to menu controls


Quick guide to menu control with the four keys
Current display

Key press

Effect of action

Default display

[0] long

Back-light turns ON no other effect

[0] short

Steps through the available default displays

[F]

steps down to column heading SYSTEM


DATA

[+]

Back-light turns ON no other effect

[]

Back-light turns ON no other effect

[0] short

Back-light turns ON no other effect

[F]

steps down to column heading SYSTEM


DATA without resetting the fault flags

[0] long

resets trip LED and returns default display

[+]

Back-light turns ON no other effect

[]

Back-light turns ON no other effect

[0] short

Back-light turns ON no other effect

[0] long

Re-establishes password protection


immediately and returns the default display

Fault flags after a trip

Column heading

[F] long
[F] short

Any menu cell

steps down the menu to the next item in


the column

[]

move to next column heading

[+]

move to previous column heading

[F] short
[F] long

Any settable cell

move to next column heading

steps down the menu to the next item in


the column
displays the heading for the next column

[F] + [0]

steps back up the menu to the previous


item

[0] short

Back-light turns ON no other effect

[0] long

Resets the value if the cell is resettable

[+] or []

Puts the relay in setting mode. The password


must first be entered for protected cells

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 3
Page 18 of 26

Current display

Key press

Effect of action

Setting mode

[0]

Escapes from the setting mode without a


setting change

[+]

Increments value with increasing rapidity if


held

[]

Decrements value with increasing rapidity


if held

[F]

Changes to the confirmation display

[F]

If function links, relay or input masks are


displayed the [F] key will step through them
from left to right and finally changing to the
confirmation display

[+]

Confirms setting and enters new setting or


text

[]

Returns prospective change to check/modify

[0]

Escapes from the setting mode without a


setting change

Confirmation mode

The actions shown in the shaded area can only be performed when the cover is
removed.

4.2

[F] long

means press F key and hold for longer than 1s

[F] short

means press F key and hold for less than 1s

[F]

means press the F key length of time does not change the response

To enter setting mode


Give the [F] key a momentary press to change from the selected default display
and switch on the back-light; the heading SYSTEM DATA will be displayed.
Use the [+] and [] keys, or a long press of the [F] key, to select the column
containing the setting, or text that is to be changed. Then with the [F] key step
down the column until the contents of that cell are displayed. Press the [+] key to
put the relay into the setting mode. Setting mode will be indicated by a flashing
cursor on the bottom line of the display. If the cell is read-only, or password
protected, then the cursor will not appear and the relay will not be in the setting
mode.

4.3

To escape from the setting mode


IMPORTANT! If at any time you wish to escape from the setting mode without
making a change to the contents of the selected cell: Hold the [0] key depressed
for 1s, the original setting will be returned and the relay will exit the setting mode.

4.4

To accept the new setting


Press the [F] key until the confirmation display appears:
Are you sure?
+ = YES

= NO

Press the [0] key if you decide not to make any change.
Press the [] key if you want to further modify the data before entry.
Press the [+] key to accept the change. This will terminate the setting mode.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
4.5

R8551D
Chapter 3
Page 19 of 26

Password protection
Password protection is provided for the configuration settings of the relay.
This includes time curve selection, CT and VT ratios, function links, input masks and
relay masks. Any accidental change to configuration could seriously affect the
ability of the relay to perform its intended functions, whereas, a setting error may
only cause a grading problem. Individual settings are protected from change when
the relay cover is in place by preventing direct access to the [+] and [] keys.
The password consists of four characters that may contain any upper case letter
from the alphabet. The password is initially set in the factory to AAAA, but it can
be changed by the user to another combination if necessary. If the password is lost
or forgotten, access to the relay will be denied. However, if the manufacturer or
their agent is supplied with the serial number of the relay, a back-up password can
be supplied that is unique to that particular product.

4.6

Entering passwords
Using the [F] key, select the password cell [0002] in the SYSTEM DATA column of
the menu. The word Password is displayed and four stars. Press the [+] key and
the cursor will appear under the left hand star. Now use the [+] key to step through
the alphabet until the required letter is displayed. The display will increment faster
if the key is held down and the [] key can be used in a similar way to move
backwards through the alphabet. When the desired character has been set the [F]
key can be given a momentary press to move the cursor to the position for the next
character. The process is then repeated to enter the remaining characters that
make up the password. When the fourth character is acknowledged by a
momentary press of the [F] key the display will read:
Are you sure?
+ = YES

= NO

Press the [0] key if you decide not to enter the password.
Press the [] key if you want to modify the entry.
Press the [+] to enter the password. The display will then show four stars and if the
password was accepted the alarm LED will flash. If the alarm LED is not flashing
the password was not accepted a further attempt can be made to enter it, or the
[F] key pressed to move to the next cell.
Note: When the password cell is displayed, do not press the [+] or [] key whilst
the alarm LED is flashing unless you want to change the password!
4.7

Changing passwords
When the password has been entered and the alarm LED is flashing the [+] key is
pressed to put the relay in setting mode. A new password can now be entered as
described in Section 4.6. After entering the fourth character make a note of the
new password shown on the display before pressing the [F] key to obtain the
confirmation display.
Are you sure?
+ = YES

= NO

Press the [0] key if you decide not to enter the new password.
Press the [] key if you want to modify your entry.
Press the [+] to enter the new password which will then replace the old one.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 3
Page 20 of 26

Note: Make sure the new password has been written down before it is entered
and that the password being entered agrees with the written copy before
accepting it. If the new password is not entered correctly you may be
denied access in the future. If the password is lost a back-up password
unique to that relay can be provided from the factory, or certain agents, if
the serial number of the product is quoted.
4.8

Restoration of password protection


Password protection is reinstated when the alarm LED stops flashing. This will occur
fifteen minutes after the last key press. To restore the password protection without
waiting for the fifteen minute time-out, select the password cell or any column
heading and hold the reset key [0] depressed for 1s. The alarm LED will cease to
flash to indicate the password protection is restored.

4.9

Entering text
Enter the setting mode as described in Section 4.2 and move the cursor with the [F]
key to where the text is to be entered or changed. Then using the [+] and [] keys,
select the character to be displayed. The [F] key may then be used to move the
cursor to the position of the next character and so on. Follow the instructions in
Section 4.4 to exit from the setting change.

4.10

Changing function links


Select the column heading required and step down to the function links SD Links,
EF Links, PF Links, or LOG Links and press either the [+] or [] to put the
relay in a setting change mode. A cursor will flash on the bottom line at the
extreme left position. This is link F; as indicated by the character printed on the
frontplate under the display.
Press the [F] key to step along the row of links, one link at a time, until some text
appears on the top line that describes the function of a link. The [+] key will
change the link to a 1 to select the function and the [] key will change it to a
0 to deselect it. Follow the instructions in Section 4.4 to accept the setting
change.
Not all links can be set, some being factory selected and locked. The links that are
locked in this way are usually those for functions that are not supported by a
particular relay, when they will be set to 0. Merely moving the cursor past a link
position does not change it in any way.

4.11

Changing setting values


Move through the menu until the cell that is to be edited is displayed. Press the [+]
or [] key to put the relay into the setting change mode. A cursor will flash in the
extreme left hand position on the bottom line of the display to indicate that the
relay is ready to have the setting changed. The value will be incremented in single
steps by each momentary press of the [+] key, or if the [+] key is held down the
value will be incremented with increasing rapidity until the key is released.
Similarly the [] key can be used to decrement the value. Follow the instructions in
Section 4.4 to exit from the setting change.
Note: When entering CT RATIO or VT RATIO the overall ratio should be entered,
ie. 2000/5A CT has an overall ratio of 400:1. With rated current applied
the relay will display 5A when CT RATIO has the default value of 1:1 and
when the ratio is set to 400:1 the displayed value will be 400 x 5 =
2000A.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
4.12

R8551D
Chapter 3
Page 21 of 26

Setting communication address


The communication address will be set to 255, the global address to all relays on
the network, when the relay is first supplied. Reply messages are not issued from
any relay for a global command, because they would all respond at the same time
and result in contention on the bus. Setting the address to 255 will ensure that
when first connected to the network they will not interfere with communications on
existing installations. The communication address can be manually set by selecting
the appropriate cell for the SYSTEM DATA column, entering the setting mode as
described in Section 4.2 and then decrementing or incrementing the address.
Then exit setting mode as described in Section 4.4.
To automatically allocate an address to the relay, see Chapter 6.

4.13

Setting input masks


An eight bit mask is allocated to each protection and control function that can be
influenced by an external input applied to one or more of the logic inputs.
When the menu cell for an input mask is selected the top line of the display shows
text describing the function to be controlled by the inputs selected in the mask.
A series of 1s and 0s on the bottom line of the display indicates which logic
inputs are selected to exert control. The numbers printed on the frontplate under the
display indicate each of the logic inputs (L7 to L0) being displayed.
A 1 indicates that a particular input is assigned to the displayed control function
and a 0 indicates that it is not. The same input may be used to control more than
one function.

4.14

Setting output masks


An eight bit mask is allocated to each protection and control function. When a
mask is selected the text on the top line of the display indicates the associated
function and the bottom line of the display shows a series of 1s and 0s for the
selected mask. The numbers printed on the frontplate under the display indicate the
output relay (RLY7 to RLY0) to which each bit is associated. A 1 indicates that the
relay will respond to the displayed function and a 0 indicates that it will not.
A logical OR function is performed on the relay masks so that more than one
relay may be allocated to more than one function. An output mask may be set to
operate the same relay as another mask so that, for example, one output relay
may be arranged to operate for all the functions required to trip the circuit breaker
and another for only those functions that are to initiate autoreclose.

4.15

Resetting values and records


Some values and records can be reset to zero, or some predefined value.
To achieve this the menu cell must be displayed and then the [0] key held
depressed for at least one second to effect the reset. The fault records are slightly
different because they are a group of settings and to reset these the last cell under
FLT RECORDS must be selected. This will display:
Clear = [0]
To reset ALL FIVE fault records hold the [0] key depressed for more than 1s. If the
records are not cleared the oldest record will be overwritten by the next fault.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
4.16

R8551D
Chapter 3
Page 22 of 26

Resetting trip LED indication


The trip LED can be reset when the flags for the last fault are displayed. They are
displayed automatically after a trip occurs, or can be selected in the fault record
column. The reset is effected by depressing the [0] key for 1s. Resetting the fault
records as described in 4.15 will also reset the trip LED indication.
Set function link SD5 to 1 for the trip LED to automatically reset. This will then
occur when the circuit breaker is reclosed and the load current exceeds the
undercurrent setting (I<) for three seconds. The LED will not reset if the circuit
breaker is not reclosed and so it is a useful function to employ with autoreclose
equipment, as it will prevent unwanted trip flags being displayed after a successful
reclosure of the circuit breaker.

Section 5.

EXTERNAL CONNECTIONS

Standard connection table


Function
Earth terminal
Watchdog relay
(break contact)
48V field voltage
Capacitor trip voltage
Not used
Auxiliary voltage input
Not used
A phase voltage
C phase voltage
A phase current
B phase current
C phase current
Neutral current
Output relay 4

[+]
[+]

(+)

IN
IN
IN
IN
IN
IN

Output relay 5

Output relay 6

Output relay 7

Opto control input L3


Opto control input L4
Opto control input L5
Opto control input L6
Opto control input L7
Common L3/L4/L5/L6/L7

(+)
(+)
(+)
(+)
(+)
()

Terminal
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
15
16
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56

[]
[]

()

IN
OUT
OUT
OUT
OUT
OUT

Function
Not used
Watchdog relay
(make contact)
48V field voltage
Capacitor trip voltage
Not used
Auxiliary voltage input
Not used
B phase voltage
Common voltage neutral
A phase current
B phase current
C phase current
Neutral current
Output relay 0

Output relay 1

Output relay 2

Output relay 3

(+)
(+)
(+)
()

Opto control input L0


Opto control input L1
Opto control input L2
Common L0/L1/L2
K-BUS serial port
K-BUS serial port

Key to connection tables


[+] and []

indicate the polarity of the dc output from these terminals

(+) and ()

indicate the polarity for the applied dc supply

IN/OUT

the signal direction for forward operation

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KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 3
Page 23 of 26

Note: All relays have standard Midos terminal blocks to which connections can
be made with either 4mm screws or 4.8mm pre-insulated snap-on
connectors. Two connections can be made to each terminal.
5.1

Auxiliary supply
The auxiliary voltage may be DC or AC provided it is within the limiting voltages
for the particular relay. The voltage range will be found on the frontplate of the
relay; it is marked Vx = (24V 125V) or (48V 250V). An ideal supply to use for
testing the relays will be 50V DC or 110V AC because these values fall within
both of the auxiliary voltage ranges.
The supply should be connected to terminals 13 and 14 only. To avoid any
confusion it is recommended that the polarity of any applied voltage is kept to the
Midos standard:
for dc supplies the positive lead connected to terminal 13 and the negative to
terminal 14
for ac supplies the live lead is connected to terminal 13 and the neutral lead to
terminal 14.

5.2

Dual powered relays


Dual powered relays derive power from the current transformer circuit and may be
used with this power source alone. However, the application of an auxiliary DC or
AC voltage will enable lower earth fault settings to be used, also settings to be
applied and data to be read when the load current is insufficient to power the
relay. It will also allow communications to be maintained at such times.
When powered from the CT circuit alone the 48V field voltage will be available to
power the opto-isolated control inputs when the protection starts up. The phase
fault current setting range is limited to the minimum current levels at which the
power requirements of the relay can be maintained. See Technical Data,
Chapter 7. This model of relay is rated for an auxiliary voltage
Vx = (100V to 250V).
Note: The capacitance discharge circuit is not isolated from the auxiliary supply
and to prevent the relay from being damaged, no external ground
connection should be made to this circuit.

5.3

Logic control inputs


There are a number of logic control inputs to the relay that are optically coupled to
provide galvanic isolation between the external and internal circuits. They are
rated at 48V and the power supply within the relay provides an isolated field
voltage to energise them. This arrangement keeps the power consumption of these
inputs to a minimum and ensures that they always have a supply to energise them
when the relay is operational. This is particularly important for the dual powered
relay when there is no auxiliary supply voltage available and the relay is
energised by the current from the line current transformers.
Software filtering is applied to prevent induced AC signals in the external wiring
causing operation of logic inputs. This is achieved by sampling the logic inputs
eight times per cycle and five consecutive samples have to indicate that the input is
energised in a positive sense before it is accepted. This ensures that the inputs are
relatively immune to spurious operation from induced AC signals in the wiring.
The capture time is:
12 2.5ms at 50Hz
10.4 2.1ms at 60Hz (not available on KCEU relays)

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KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 3
Page 24 of 26

Note: These inputs will not capture a fleeting contact unless it dwells in the closed
state for a time exceeding the above values.
The opto-isolated logic control inputs are divided into two groups. Three (L0, L1,
L2) have their common connection on terminal 52 and are fitted to the KCGG 142
02 relay and relays with no more than two analogue inputs. The remainder (L3,
L4, L5, L6, L7) have their common connection on terminal 55 and are fitted to
relays with 8 opto inputs. When they are to be energised from the field voltage
then terminals 52 and 55 must be connected to terminal 8, the negative of the field
voltage. The logic inputs can then be energised by connecting a volt free contact
between the positive of the field voltage, terminal 7, and the terminal for the
appropriate logic input.
The circuit for each opto-isolated input contains a blocking diode to protect it from
any damage that may result from the application of voltage with incorrect polarity.
Where the opto-isolated input of more than one relay is to be controlled by the
same contact it will be necessary to connect terminal 7 of each relay together to
form a common line. In the example circuit below, contact X operates L1 of relay 1
and contact Y operates L0 of relay 1 as well as L0 and L1 of relay 2. There are no
connections made to L2 as it is not used on either relay.
The logic inputs can be separated into two isolated groups when it is necessary to
energise some from the station battery. The logic inputs are rated at 48V and it will
be necessary to connect an external resistor in series with the input if the battery is
of higher rated voltage. The value of this resistor should be 2.4k for every
additional 10V.
The field voltage is not earthed and has insulation rated for 2kV for 1 minute.
Thus if necessary the positive terminal of the field voltage could be connected to
the positive terminal on the external battery. Also the two separate groups of logic
inputs could be energised from separate batteries.
5.4

Analogue inputs
The relays can have up to eight analogue inputs, two on the microprocessor board
and six on the auxiliary expansion board. Each is fed via an input transducer, a
low pass filter and a three range scaling amplifier. The analogue signals are
sampled eight times per cycle on each channel as the sampling rate tracks the
frequency of the input signal.
The wide setting range provided on the auxiliary powered version of the relays is
sufficient to enable the 5A version of the relay to operate from either 1A or 5A
current transformers and this version of the relay can be used where dual rated
relays are specified. Alternatively, the wide setting range makes the relay suitable
for use on circuit breakers that may be applied to a wide range of load circuit
ratings with only one current transformer ratio. For example a circuit breaker rated
at 2kA and fitted with current transformers rated at 2000/10A (or 2000/2A) and
relays rated at 5A (or 1A) could be applied to circuits with load ratings from 100A
to 2000A.
The dual powered relays have a narrower setting range and must be used with
current transformers that match their current rating. Thermal dissipation is the
limitation for the upper end of the setting range and the energy required to power
the relay is the limitation at the lower end. When the relay is powered from an
additional auxiliary voltage source, earth fault settings can be applied below that
at which the relay can derive sufficient power from the CTs. For this reason the
earth fault setting range has not been restricted.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
5.5

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Page 25 of 26

Output relays
Four programmable output relays are provided on the KCGG 142 02 relay and
relays with no more than two analogue inputs and eight on all other models. They
can be arranged to operate in response to any or all of the available functions by
suitably setting the output masks. The protection and control functions to which
these relays respond are selectable via the menu system of the relay.
In addition there is a watchdog relay which has one make and one break contact.
Thus it can indicate both healthy and failed conditions. As these contacts are
mainly used for alarm purposes they have a lower rating than the programmable
outputs. The terminal numbers for the output relay contacts are given in the table at
the start of Section 5.

5.6

Ouput relay minimum dwell time


Outputs from t>, t>>, t>>>, to>, to>>, to>>> have a minimum dwell of 100ms.
The thermal trip will have an inherent delay dependent on the selected time
constant. The contact dwell ensures a positive trip signal is given to the circuit
breaker.
All other outputs such as I>, I>>, I>>>, Io>, Io>>, Io>>>, tV>, Aux1, Aux2 and
Aux3 have no deliberate dwell time added to them. This is because they are either
followed by a timer, or used for control purposes which require a faster reset time.

5.7

Setting the relay with a PC or laptop


Connection to a personal computer (PC) or lap top via a K-Bus/RS232 interface
type KITZ 101 will enable settings to be changed more easily. Software is
available for the PC that allows on line setting changes in a more user friendly way
with a whole column of data being displayed instead of just single cells. Setting
files can also be saved to floppy disk and downloaded to other relays of the same
type. There are also programs available to enable setting files to be generated offline, ie. away from the relays that can be later down-loaded as necessary.
The communication connections and available software are covered under
Applications in Chapter 6.

Section 6.

ALARM FLAGS

A full list of the alarm flags will be found in Section 3.3 and is located in cell 0022
of the SYSTEM DATA column of the menu. They consist of nine characters that may
be either 1 or 0 to indicate the set and reset states respectively. The control
keys perform for this menu cell in the same way as they do for function links.
The cell is selected with the function key [F] and the relay then put in the setting
mode by pressing the [+] key to display the cursor. The cursor will then be stepped
through the alarm word from left to right with each press of the [F] key and text
identifying the alarm bit selected will be displayed.
The only alarm flag that can be manually set is the bit 6, the watchdog test flag.
When this flag is set to 1 the watchdog relay will change state and the green
LED will extinguish.
When any alarm flag is set the alarm LED will be continuously lit. However, there is
another form of alarm condition that will cause the alarm LED to flash and this
indicates that the password has been entered to allow access to change protected

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 3
Page 26 of 26

settings within the relay. This is not generally available as a remote alarm and it
does not generate an alarm flag.
Note: No control will be possible via the key pad if the unconfigured alarm is
raised because the relay will be locked in a non-operate state.

Types KCGG 122, 142


KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242 and
KCEU 142, 242
Overcurrent and Directional Overcurrent
Relays
Service Manual

Chapter 4
Application of Protection Functions

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
Contents

1.
1.1
1.2

CONFIGURATION
Configuring the relay
Default configuration

1
1
2

2.
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4
2.5
2.6

CHANGING THE CONFIGURATION OF THE RELAY


System data (SD)
Earth fault links (EF)
Phase fault links (PF)
Logic links (LOG)
Preferred use of logic inputs
Preferred use of output relays

2
2
3
4
5
6
6

3.

OVERCURRENT AND EARTH FAULT PROTECTION

4.
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8

FIRST STAGE OVERCURRENT AND EARTH FAULT LOGIC


Start function
Definite time
Inverse time curves
Reset timer
Matching the reset time response of an electromechanical relay
Protection against intermittent recurrent faults
Time graded protection
Dual rate inverse time curves

8
8
9
9
10
10
10
11
12

5.
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.6.1
5.6.2
5.7
5.8
5.9
5.10
5.10.1
5.10.2
5.10.3
5.10.4
5.11
5.12

SECOND/THIRD STAGE OVERCURRENT AND EARTH FAULT LOGIC


Two out of three logic
Broken conductor logic
Transformer inrush currents
Sensitivity to harmonics
Autoreclose inhibition of instantaneous low set
Blocked overcurrent protection
Blocked IDMT overcurrent
Blocked short time overcurrent
Protection of busbars on radial system
Points to consider with blocking schemes
Back-up transfer tripping scheme
Restricted earth fault protection
Setting voltage for stability:
Rs, stabilising resistor
Is, current setting
Metrosil assessment
Rectifier protection
Cold load pick-up

12
13
13
13
14
14
14
14
15
16
17
18
18
18
19
19
19
20
21

6.
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7
6.8
6.9

DIRECTIONAL OVERCURRENT
Directional overcurrent logic
Directional start output
Directional first stage overcurrent
Directional second and third overcurrent stages
Directional earth fault logic
Application of directional phase fault relays
Synchronous polarisation
Application of directional earth fault relays
Power directional earth fault element

23
23
23
24
24
24
24
26
26
27

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KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
Contents

6.10
6.11
6.11.1
6.11.2
6.11.3

Directional stability for instantaneous elements


Protection of circuits with multiple in-feeds
Blocked directional overcurrent protection
Blocked overcurrent protection for the feeder
Blocked overcurrent protection for the bus section

28
28
29
29
29

7.
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7

THERMAL OVERCURRENT
Thermal state
Thermal trip and alarm levels
Operation time
Thermal memory
Thermal reset
Dual time constant characteristics
Application of thermal protection

30
31
31
31
31
32
32
33

8.
8.1

UNDERCURRENT
Breaker failure protection

34
34

9.
9.1
9.2

UNDERVOLTAGE
Undervoltage trip
Voltage controlled overcurrent protection

35
35
36

10.

UNDER FREQUENCY

36

11.
11.1
11.2
11.3

AUXILIARY TIMERS
Extra earth fault stage
Loss of load protection
Delayed under frequency trip

36
37
37
37

12.
12.1
12.2
12.3

SETTING GROUP SELECTION


Remote change of setting group
Manual change of setting group
Controlled change of setting group

38
38
38
38

13.
13.1
13.2
13.3
13.4
13.5
13.6

DUAL POWERED RELAYS


Powered from current transformers alone
Powered from an auxiliary AC voltage and from current transformers
Special application notes for dual powered relays
Dead substation protection
Capacitor discharge tripping
AC series tripping

39
39
40
40
41
41
41

14.
14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.6

AUTORECLOSE - SINGLE SHOT SCHEME


Overview
Connections
Successful reclose description
Unsuccessful reclose
Blocking instantaneous low set protection when reclosing
Circuit breaker operation counter

42
42
43
44
45
45
46

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
Figure 1:
Figure 2:
Figure 3:
Figure 4:
Figure 5:
Figure 6:
Figure 7:
Figure 8:
Figure 9:
Figure 10:
Figure 11:
Figure 12:
Figure 13:
Figure 14:
Figure 15:
Figure 16:
Figure 17:
Figure 18:
Figure 19:
Figure 20:
Figure 21:
Figure 22:
Figure 23:
Figure 24:
Figure 25:
Figure 26:

Available overcurrent characteristics and their settings


First stage overcurrent and earth fault logic.
Matching electromechanical reset time
Intermittent recurrent fault
Dual rate curves
Second and third stage overcurrent logic
Blocked IDMT overcurrent
Blocked overcurrent for busbar protection
Back-up transfer trip scheme
Protection for silicon rectifiers
Matching curve to load and thermal limit of rectifier
Compensation for motor starting current
Directional characteristic
Directional overcurrent relay logic
Circuit with multiple infeeds
Thermal alarm and trip logic
Circuit breaker fail logic
Undervoltage logic
Auxiliary timer logic
Setting group selection logic
Start-up time delay
Capacitor discharge trip
AC series trip arrangement
Connection diagram for single shot autoreclose scheme
Successful autoreclose sequence
Unsuccessful autoreclose sequence

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Chapter 4
Contents

7
8
10
11
12
13
15
16
17
20
20
22
23
25
29
30
34
35
37
38
39
41
42
43
44
45

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

Section 1.

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 1 of 60

CONFIGURATION

The settings that customise the relay for a particular application are referred to as
the configuration. They include the function links, input masks, relay masks, etc.
and they are password protected to prevent them being changed accidentally.
Together these settings select the functions that are to be made available and how
they are to be interconnected.
Before the advent of integrated numerical relays, protection and control schemes
comprised individual relays that had to be interconnected and a diagram was
produced to show these interconnections. The configuration of a numerical relay is
the software equivalent of these interconnections. With the software approach,
installations can be completed in much shorter times, especially for repeat
schemes, saving valuable time and cost. A second advantage is the ability to make
some changes without having to disturb the external wiring.
Before the connection diagrams can be drawn for an installation, it will be
necessary to decide how the logic within the relay is to function. A copy of the
logic diagram will be found at the back of this manual. It should be copied and the
appropriate squares in the input and relays masks should be shaded in to show
which logic inputs and output relays are to be assigned in each mask. The function
links should then be drawn on the diagram in position 0 or 1 as required.
These software links may turn functions on, or off, and when in the off state some
unnecessary settings may not appear in the menu. The second and third
overcurrent stages are typical examples of this. As supplied the third overcurrent
stage is turned off and its associated settings I>>>/t>>> will not appear in the
menu. The function link settings can now be read off the logic diagram and
entered as a series of ones and noughts, in the boxes provided on the logic
diagram.
Case connection diagrams will be found at the back of this manual for the current
models of K Range directional and non directional overcurrent relays. They may be
copied and notes added in the appropriate boxes to indicate the function of the
logic inputs and relay outputs. This diagram will then give the appropriate terminal
numbers to which the external wires must be connected. In particular, it will show
the terminal numbers to which the current and voltage transformers connections are
to be made.
Enough information is available from the logic and case connection diagrams to
enable the full external wiring diagrams to be drawn and the operation of
complete protection and control scheme to be understood.
1.1

Configuring the relay


Each scheme of protection and control will have its own particular configuration
settings. These can be named appropriately and the name entered as the
description in cell 0004 in the system data column of the menu. If the scheme is
likely to become a standard that is to be applied to several installations it would be
worthwhile storing the configuration on a floppy disc so that it can be downloaded
to other relays.
The configuration file can be made even more useful by adding appropriate
general settings for the protection and control functions. It will then only require the
minimum of settings to be changed during commissioning the installation.

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1.2

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Default configuration
The relays are provided with a basic configurations and typical settings to suit a
basic application. The basic configuration provides:
One settings group only.
One IDMT characteristic (t> = standard inverse)
Instantaneous overcurrent (t>>=0)
Breaker failure protection with backtrip relay
CB maintenance alarm
Remote circuit breaker control

Section 2.
2.1

CHANGING THE CONFIGURATION OF THE RELAY

System data (SD)


Select the system data column of the menu, enter the password and then step down
to the cell containing the SD links. Press the [+] key to put the relays into setting
mode and use the [F] key to step through the options. The option will be shown in
abbreviated form on the top line of the display as each function link is selected.
To select an option set the link to 1 with the [+] key and to deselect it set it to 0
with the [] key.
The following options are available via links SD0 to SD8:
SD0

Rem ChgStg

1 = enable remote setting changes

SD1

Not used

SD2

Rem CB Ctrl

1 = enable remote control of circuit breaker

SD3

Rem ChgGrp

1 = enable remote change of setting group

SD4

En Grp2

1 = enable group 2 settings to be used

SD5

Auto Flag

1 = enable flags to reset automatically on load


restoration

SD6

Auto Rec

1 = enable disturbance recorder reset on load


restoration

SD7

Log Evts

1 = enable logic events to be stored

SD8

Alt Rec Reset

1 = enable alternative reset method for disturbance


record.

When the selection has been completed continue to press the [F] key until the
confirmation display appears and confirm the selection.
Now step down the menu to cell [0004 Description] and enter a suitable name for
the configuration; a maximum of sixteen characters are available.
Step down one cell [0005 Plant Ref.], where a suitable reference can be entered
for the plant that the relay is to protect. If the configuration is for a relay that is to
be applied to one particular circuit, then the reference by which the circuit is
known can be entered at this time; a maximum of sixteen characters are available.
Now move down the system data column to cell [0009 Freq] and set the frequency
to 50Hz or 60Hz (except for KCEU relays) as appropriate. This is an important

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setting because it will be the default frequency used by the analogue/digital


converter when appropriate signals are not available for frequency tracking.
If the address of the relay on the serial communication bus is known then it can be
entered at this time. This cell is password protected on the series 2 relays.
This concludes the settings that can be entered in this menu column at this time.
2.2

Earth fault links (EF)


Select the column EARTH FAULT (1) and EF Links. Press the [+] key to put the relay
into setting mode and set the links to 1 that enable the required options available
via links EF0 to EF6.
EF 0

Not used

EF 1

En Io>>

1 = enable earth fault stage 2

EF 2

En Io>>>

1 = enable earth fault stage 3

EF 3

Drn to>

1 = earth fault stage 1 directionalised

EF 4

Drn to>>

1 = earth fault stage 2 directionalised

EF 5

Drn to>>>

1 = earth fault stage 3 directionalised

EF 6

Io>> NoPeak

1 = no peak measurement for stage 2 earth fault


element

EF E

RevIo>>>

1 = reverse direction of third earth fault stage (Io>>>)

The links EF3, EF4 and EF5 enable the three overcurrent stages Io>, Io>> and
Io>>> to be selectively directionalised. If all three links EF3, EF4 & EF5 are set non
directional then the forward start will also be non directional and the reverse start
will retain its normal function provided a directionalising voltage signal is
available. The directional options are not be available on non directional KCGG
overcurrent relays.
For KCGG relays the Io>>/Io>>> elements are responsive to peak measurement
so that they respond faster, but they will be more sensitive to harmonic currents that
create peaks on the waveform. The NoPeak option can be selected for Io>>
element, with link EF6, when the relay is required to be insensitive to harmonics.
However, the NoPeak option is only provided for the Io>> setting. The KCEG/
KCEU directional overcurrent relays do not respond to peak values and are not
provided with this link option.
When the selection has been completed continue to press the [F] key until the
confirmation display appears and then confirm the selection.
Next enter the time delay characteristic for the to> element.
Enter, or copy, the same settings into the EARTH FAULT (2) column if it is active.
It is not essential that the links are set the same in both setting groups. For example
the Io>>> element could be made available in group one and not in group two
settings.
Note: It would be wise to ensure the logic is such that an element that is to be
switched out in the alternative setting group is reset before the alternative
setting group is selected, or alternatively make a physical test to ensure
there are no latch-up problems.
A different time characteristic can be selected for to> in the second setting group,
but it is not advisable to select inverse in one group and definite time in the other if

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it is intended to dynamically switch between setting groups. If two different inverse


curves are selected then the same register will be used for both. These registers are
not reset to zero when the setting group is changed unless the current falls below
the set threshold.
2.3

Phase fault links (PF)


Select the PF Links under the PHASE FAULT (1) menu column heading and put the
relay into setting mode by pressing the [+] key. Step through the function links with
the [F] key and set the links for the options required.
There are more options available for phase faults, but most of the additional ones
are associated with voltage functions that are only available of the directional
relays. The exceptions are the thermal characteristic which can be enabled by
setting PF0=1 and the broken conductor detection which is activated by setting
PFC=1. The 2/3 logic is also required for the broken conductor detection, so set
link PF7=1 as well when using this function.
PF 0

En Therm

1 = enable thermal element

PF 1

En I>>

1 = enable stage 2 overcurrent

PF 2

Enable I>>>

1 = enable stage 3 overcurrent

PF 3

Drn t>

1 = stage 1 overcurrent directionalised

PF 4

Drn t>>

1 = stage 2 overcurrent directionalised

PF 5

Drn t>>>

1 = stage 3 overcurrent directionalised

PF 6

1 = no peak measurement for stage 2 overcurrent

PF 7

I>> NoPeak
I>>>=2/3

PF 8

CB blk V<

1 = V< blocked when CB open

PF 9

V< any=1

1 = any phase undervoltage for trip


0 = all phases undervolted for trip

PF A

V< P-N=1

1 = V< measure phase/neutral voltage


0 = V< measure line voltage

PF B

SynPol=3.2

1 = synchronous polarising time extended to 3.2s

PF C

Brkn Cond

1 = enable broken conductor logic

PF D

En F<

1 = enable underfrequency element to initiate tAUX1

PF E

RevI>>>

1 = reverse direction of third overcurrent stage

PF F

All 2/3

1 = 2/3 logic applied to all phase outputs

1 = 2 out of 3 phase elements to operate for


I>>>/t>>> trip

The links PF3, PF4 and PF5 enable the three overcurrent stages I>, I>> and I>>>
to be selectively directionalised. If all three links PF3, PF4 & PF5 are set non
directional then the forward start will also be non directional and the reverse start
will retain its normal function provided a directionalising voltage signal is
available. The directional options are not available on non directional KCGG
overcurrent relays.
For KCGG relays the I>>/I>>> elements are responsive to peak measurement so
that they respond faster, but they will be more sensitive to harmonic currents that
create peaks on the waveform. The NoPeak option can be selected for I>>
element, with link PF6, when the relay is required to be less sensitive to harmonics.

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However, the NoPeak option is only provided for the I>> setting. The KCEG/
KCEU directional overcurrent relays do not respond to peak values and are not
provided with this link option.
When the selection has been completed continue to press the [F] key until the
confirmation display appears and confirm the selection.
Next enter the time delay characteristic for the t> element.
Enter, or copy, the same settings into the PHASE FAULT (2) column if it is active.
It is not essential that the links are set the same in both setting groups. For example
the I>>> element could be made available in group one and not in group two
settings.
Note: It would be wise to check that an element that is to be switched out in the
alternative setting group is reset before the alternative setting group is
selected, or alternatively make a physical test to ensure there are no latchup problems.
A different time characteristic can be selected for t> in the second setting group,
but it is not advisable to select inverse in one group and definite time in the other if
it is intended to dynamically switch between setting groups. If two different inverse
curves are selected then the same register will be used for both and these registers
will not be reset to zero when the setting group is changed unless the current is
below the set threshold.
2.4

Logic links (LOG)


The Logic Links under the LOGIC menu column heading customise the auxiliary
functions of the relay. Put the relay into setting mode by pressing the [+] key.
Step through the function links with the [F] key and set the links for the options
required.
LOG0

CB Rec

1 = enable CB records to be generated;


0 = inhibit CB records.

LOG1

CB1*1=0

1 = sum of currents; 0 = sum of current squared.

LOG2

BF blk Start

1 = enable breaker fail to reset start relays.

LOG3

Aux2=I<

1 = enable I< to initiate timer tAUX2 (loss of load


function).

LOG4

Aux2=/Io<

1 = enable tAUX2 to start when Io exceeds Io< .

LOG5

tAUX3 Grp2

1 = Group 2 settings selected whilst tAUX3 is giving


an output.

LOG6

tAUX2-tAUX3

1 = enable tAUX2 to delay pick-up of tAUX3.

LOG7

Latch Strt

1 = enable start flags to be latched.

LOG8

Hold Grp2

1 = manual selection of group 2 settings.

LOG9

Rst CBclose

1 = enable a trip to terminate the CB close pulse

LOGA

Log Rly7

1 = enable relay RLY7 to initiate latch flags and log


records

LOGB

tAUX3=DDO

1 = tAUX3 delayed on drop-off


0 = delayed on pick-up

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When the selection has been completed continue to press the [F] key until the
confirmation display appears and confirm the selection.
Set the breaker failure protection time delay tBF.
Set the circuit breaker close and trip pulse time delays tCLOSE and tTRIP.
Select the default display that appears on start-up.
2.5

Preferred use of logic inputs


The following table is not mandatory, but it is suggested that it is followed where
possible so that different schemes will use the a particular logic input for the same
or similar function.

2.6

L0

Stg grp2

[change setting group]

L1

Blk t>>/to>>

[Block instantaneous low set from autoreclose]

L2

Blkt>>>/to>>>

[Block overcurrent for busbar/unit feeder protection]

L3

EXT TRIP

[external trip input from other protection]

L4

AUX2

[Auxiliary input to initiate timer tAUX2/CLP]

L5

AUX3

[Auxiliary input to initiate timer tAUX3/CLP]

L6

CB closed

[indication that CB is closed]

L7

CB open

[indication that CB is open]

Preferred use of output relays


The following table is not mandatory, but it is suggested that it is followed where
possible so that different schemes will use a particular output relay for the same or
similar function.
RLY0

START

[earth fault start or combined phase and earth forward


start]

RLY1

START

[phase start or combined phase and earth reverse start]

RLY2

AR INITIATE

[any function assigned to initate autoreclose]

RLY3

TRIP

[any protection function assigned to trip the circuit


breaker]

RLY4

ALARM

[Any function assigned to produce an alarm]

RLY5

BACKTRIP

[Output to backtrip for breaker fail]

RLY6

CB close

[in response to a remote command]

RLY7

CB trip

[in response to a remote command]

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Section 3.

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OVERCURRENT AND EARTH FAULT PROTECTION

Three independent time delayed overcurrent stages are provided for each phase
and residual current input. In addition there is an undercurrent function associated
with each of these currents and in some instances a thermal overcurrent
characteristic is provided. The settings are marked I>/t>; I>>/t>>; I>>>/t>>>; I<
and Ith>/TC; shown appropriately in the diagram below. These settings affect all
three phases equally.
The earth fault elements have similar settings marked Io>/to>; Io>>/to>>; Io>>>/
to>>> and Io<; there being no thermal element associated with this input.
Both the peak value and the Fourier derived rms value of the power frequency
component of the fault current are used to derive the protection functions.
Each value has its own associated characteristics that can be used to advantage.
For example, a change in the peak value may be detected in one half cycle of fault
current and so this measurement is used for the undercurrent elements to obtain the
fast reset required by breaker fail applications. The Fourier derived values are
particularly useful for earth fault applications due to their high rejection of
harmonic currents, in particular the third harmonic. Fourier values are also used for
all measurements where a phase angle reference is required.

Ith>
TC

I>

Time

t>

I>>
t>>

I<

I>>>
t>>>

Current

Figure 1: Available overcurrent characteristics and their settings

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Section 4.

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FIRST STAGE OVERCURRENT AND


EARTH FAULT LOGIC

The following diagram shows the logic associated with the first earth fault and
overcurrent stages. When the residual current exceeds the Io> threshold and
provided that no logic inputs selected in the input mask [0A01 Blk to>] are
energised, the time delay to> will start to time out. When the delay time expires
the output relays selected in the relay mask [0B03 to>] will be energised, causing
them to pick-up.
If a logic input selected in mask [0A01 BLK to>] is energised then the time delay
will be blocked and held reset.
+

0A01

BLK to>

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

&

0B03

to>

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Io>

&

A4

to>

0B01

Io> START

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

OBO8 tA>

BLK t>

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

&

0B09

t>

tB>

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0B0A

I>

tC>

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

&

0B06

I> START

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Blocking signal from breaker fail protection

Figure 2: First stage overcurrent and earth fault logic.

Similar logic is provided for the phase fault overcurrent protection and here a
separate overcurrent threshold and time delay is used for each phase, but the
same settings for I> and t> will apply to the elements on all three phases. A
separate relay mask is provided for each phase so that a differrent output relay
can be assigned to each phase output and/or the same output relays to all three
phases.
4.1

Start function
As soon as the Io> threshold is exceeded an instantaneous output is available via
relay mask [0B01 Io>]. This is used to indicate that the protection has detected an
earth fault and that the time delay to> has started. This time delay can be blocked
by energising a logic input assigned in the input mask [0A01 Blk to>]. If this
blocking input is energised by the start output from a downstream relay then
operation will be blocked only if the relay nearer to the fault can clear the fault.
This is the principle known as Blocked Overcurrent Protection, described more
fully in a later section.
The phase element is also provided with a start output via mask [0B06 I>] and a
blocking input via mask [A4 Blk t>]. The start outputs for both the phase and
earth fault elements are gated with a blocking signal, the function of which is
described in the Section 4.8.1 Breaker failure protection.
The time delayed output is via mask [0B03 to>] for the earth faults and for phase
faults masks [0B08 tA>], [0B09 tB>] and [0B0A tC>] provide separate outputs for
each of the phase elements.

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Definite time
The first stage can be selected have a definite time characteristic. The operation
time will be the set time for the time delay to> or t>, plus the operation time of the
output relay and the time taken to detect the overcurrent condition.
The same register is used for the time delay t> in both setting groups and the timer
is not reset when switching from one setting group to the other. Thus switching from
the setting group with a long time setting to that with a short time setting may result
in an instantaneous trip if the shorter time setting had already elapsed.

4.3

Inverse time curves


Alternatively, the first stage can be selected to have a current dependent inverse
time characteristic. The operation time is given accurately by a mathematical
expression, into which the constants for the selected characteristic must be
inserted.
Nine inverse time characteristics are available and the general mathematical
expression for the curves is:
k

+c
I a 1
seconds
Is

t = TMS

where

Curve No.

TMS

= Time Multiplier (0.025 to 1.5 in step 0.025)

= Fault current

Is

= Overcurrent setting

k, c, a

= Constants specifying curve

Description

Name

IEC Curve

0
1

Definite Time
Standard Inverse

DT
SI30xDT

0
0.14

0 to 100
0

1
0.02

Very Inverse

VI30xDT

13.5

Extremely Inverse

EI10xDT

80

Long Time Inverse

LTI30xDT

120

Moderately Inverse

MI

0.103

0.228

0.02

Very Inverse

VI

39.22

0.982

Extremely Inverse

EI

56.4

0.243

Short Time Inverse

STI30xDT

0.05

0.04

Rectifier Protection

RECT

45900

5.6

Although the curves tend to infinity at the setting current value (Is), the guaranteed
minimum operation current is 1.05Is 0.05Is for all inverse characteristic curves,
except curve 9 for which the minimum operating current is 1.6Is0.05Is
(see section on rectifier protection).
Note: Definite time characteristic and the start functions operate at Is 0.05Is.
Curves numbers 1, 2, 4, and 8 become definite time for currents in excess
of 30 x Is. Curve 3 becomes definite time for currents above 10 x Is to give
extra time grading steps at high current levels.

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Reset timer
A delayed reset is provided with the t>/to> time delays and the time set for this
timer determines the duration that the current must remain below the threshold
I>/Io> before the time delay register is reset to zero. There is an exception to this
when the protection trips, because for this condition the time registers t>/to> are
reset immediately. For the majority of applications the reset delay could be set to
zero. For others a more appropriate setting can be used and some examples
applications are given later.

4.5

Matching the reset time response of an electromechanical relay

tReset

Is
Figure 3: Matching electromechanical reset time

The reset characteristic of an electromechanical relay is inverse and the reset timer
can be used to give the relay a reset characteristic which approximates to this as
shown in the diagram.
It should be noted that the tRESET is not affected by the time multiplier setting and
must therefore be set to the required delay.
4.6

Protection against intermittent recurrent faults


This type of fault is also sometimes referred to as a pecking or flashing fault.
A typical example of an intermittent recurrent fault would be one in a plastic
insulated cable where, in the region of the fault, the plastic melts and reseals the
cable, extinguishing the fault but after a short time the insulation breaks down
again. The process repeats to give a succession of fault current pulses each of
increasing duration with reducing intervals between, until the fault becomes
permanent.

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2000A
0.2s

3.0s

0.3s

2.0s

0.5s

0A
Trip level

Figure 4: Intermittent recurrent fault

When the reset time of the overcurrent relay is less than the interval between the
fault current pulses, the relay will be continually reset and not be able to integrate
up to the trip level until the fault becomes permanent. Having the reset time set to
give as long a delay as possible, but less than that which would interfere with
normal operation of the protection and control system, will help to eliminate some
less common health and safety problems.
Overcurrent relays in Midos K Range have provision for adjusting the reset delay
to values between 0 and 60 seconds for timers t>/to>. Reset times of 60 seconds
are most suited to cable applications where autoreclose is not generally permitted.
For overhead lines with fast reclosing equipment, it can be an advantage to set the
reset time to zero; this will ensure that all relays will have fully reset before a
reclosure takes place and that some relays will not be held part way towards
operation as a result of the last fault.
When grading with electro-mechanical relays which do not reset instantaneously,
the reset delay can be used to advantage to gain closer discrimination. In these
instances the reset time should be set to a value less than the dead time setting of
any autoreclose relays on the system. Sensitive earth/ground fault relays will also
benefit from having the reset time set as high as possible so that fault current pulses
are summated.
Any reset delay will give an improvement in the detection of intermittent faults.
4.7

Time graded protection


Inverse definite minimum time relays are time graded such that the relay nearer to
the fault operates faster than the relays nearer to the source. This is referred to as
relay co-ordination because if the relay nearest to the fault does not operate, the
next one back towards the source will trip in a slightly longer time. The time
grading steps are typically 400ms, the operation times becoming progressively
longer with each stage.
Where difficulty is experienced in arranging the required time grading steps the
use of a blocked overcurrent scheme should be considered (described in a later
section).
Note: The dynamic range of measurement is typically 820 times minimum setting.

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Dual rate inverse time curves

I>(1)

I>>
I>(2)

Figure 5: Dual rate curves

The same registers are used for the time delay in both setting group 1 and setting
group 2. They are not reset when switching from one group to the other, unless the
current falls below the threshold, or a blocking input is asserted.
One of the other two time stages I>>, or I>>>, must be set in both setting groups,
to the current level at which the curve is to change. When this current setting is
exceeded, an output relay that is externally connected to energise a logic input will
select the second setting group. I>(2), the current setting in the second setting
group, must be set to less than 95% of the I>>, the current at which the
characteristic is switched, to ensure that the register does not reset.
The same TMS setting is advised for both setting groups, as an instantaneous trip
may occur when switching to a lower TMS setting if the shorter time setting has
already elapsed.

Section 5.

SECOND/THIRD STAGE OVERCURRENT and


EARTH FAULT LOGIC

The second and third overcurrent and earth fault stages must be selected by setting
links PF1, PF2, EF1 and EF2 =1 as appropriate for their associated settings to
appear in the menu table. For these elements to operate the Fourier derived value
of current must exceed the set threshold, or the peak value of the current must
exceed twice the set threshold. This latter function ensures faster operation for
currents above twice setting whilst ensuring negligible transient overreach.
The time delays for the second and third stage overcurrent elements can be
blocked by the energisation a logic input. If the time delay has started it will be
reset by the application of the blocking signal. Each phase fault and earth fault
element has its own independent time delay to ensure correct discrimination and
fault indication.

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EF1
0
1

EF2
0
1

PF1
0
1
PFC
0
1

PF2
0
1

0A02 BLK to>>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

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&

to> >

&

to> >>

0B04 to>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Stage 2
Earth fault

Io>>
0A03 BLK to>>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0B05 to>>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Stage 3
Earth fault

Io>>>

0A05 BLK t>>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

&

t> >

&

t> >>

0B0B t>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

OBOC t>>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Stage 2
Overcurrent

I>>

I<

&

0A06 BLK t>>>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

I>>>

PF7
0
1

Broken conductor
Stage 3 Overcurrent

2/3

Figure 6: Second and third stage overcurrent logic

5.1

Two out of three logic


The t>>> element is provided with a two out of three logic, selected by setting link
PF7=1. When selected, operation only occurs for phase/phase faults and double
phase to earth/ground faults. It will not operate for single phase earth/ground
faults.

5.2

Broken conductor logic


The Broken Conductor Detection feature is associated with t>>> element and is
based on the principle that if a conductor is broken there will be load current in
two phases, but not in all three.
The logic associated that provides this function is shown in Figure 6 above. It is
enabled when links PF2, PFC and PF7 are each set to 1. Link PF2 activates the
third overcurrent stage and when link PF7 is set to 1 an output will be produced if
current is flowing in only two phases for a time in access of the setting t>>>.
Link PFC enables the undercurrent elements to block the operation of t>>> if current
is flowing in all three phases. Typically settings are, I< = 0.06In: I>>>= 0.08In for
this application to ensure positive discrimination.
An output relay can be allocated in the output mask [0B0C t>>>] for detection of a
broken conductor. To latch the flags relay RLY3 must be assigned in this same
output mask and the flags will indicate the fault with a _ _ * for two of the three
phases and exclude the letters identifying the phases if the current is below the I>
threshold. The broken conductor will be in the phase for which no flags have
operated, because the current is zero.

5.3

Transformer inrush currents


Either I>>/Io>>, or I>>>/Io>>> elements, may be used as high-set instantaneous
elements. The design is such that they do not respond to the DC transient
component of the fault current. The principle of operation allows the current
settings to be set down to 35% of the prospective peak inrush current that will be
taken by a transformer when it is energised. To a first approximation the peak
inrush is given by the reciprocal of the per unit series reactance of the transformer.
Use of the cold load pick up feature, to increase the time setting for the
instantaneous elements when energising the primary circuit, may be considered as
a way of allowing lower current thresholds to be used.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
5.4

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 14 of 60

Sensitivity to harmonics
The sampling frequency of the digital/analogue converter is synchronised to the
power frequency by a frequency tracking algorithm. This improves both accuracy
of measurement and the harmonic rejection. The tracking follows the analogue
phase inputs with a preference to track the voltage inputs, but in their absence the
current inputs are tracked. When the signal levels are too small to track the
sampling frequency defaults to the set system frequency. It is important that this has
been correctly set in menu cell 0009.
The fundamental component of the residual voltage and current is usually relatively
small and this can result in the harmonic content being predominant. Frequency
tracking does not take place on the residual signals because it can lock-in to a subharmonic of the predominant frequency resulting in a reduced harmonic rejection
level. An example where this would become a problem is when a transformer is
energise and an almost pure second harmonic current can appear in the neutral
circuit. With frequency tracking of this signal the harmonic rejection could fall
significantly. For this application a multiphase relay is best suited as it will give
maximum harmonic rejection whilst tracking the phase quantities.
The I>>/Io>> and the I>>>/Io>>> elements in the KCGG relays respond to the
peak value and the fourier derived values. This allows them to respond more
quickly to an overcurrent condition, but at the same time it reduces the harmonic
rejection. The I>>/Io>> elements are each provided with a software link PF6/EF6
that inhibits the peak measurement when they are set to 1. If the Io>> element is
used for sensitive earth fault applications it is advised that link EF6 is set to 1.
The KCEG directional relays do not respond to the peak values and so for them
links PF6 and EF6 cannot be set.

5.5

Autoreclose inhibition of instantaneous low set


When overcurrent relays from the Midos K Range are used with autoreclose relays
the I>>/Io>> elements may be used as low set instantaneous elements.
The associated time delays t>>/to>> would be set to zero seconds to effect rapid
fault clearance. Although the timer is set to zero, its output still may be blocked via
one of the logic inputs to the relay. Blocking this element instead of the trip path,
with a contact of the autoreclose relay, will ensure correct flagging at all times.
Where lightning strikes are frequent, it can be an advantage to make the I>>/
Io>> setting equal to I>/Io>, in order to detect the maximum number of transient
faults. It will also be advantageous to set SD5 = 1 so that the protection flags
automatically reset after a successful reclose sequence.

5.6

Blocked overcurrent protection


This type of protection is applicable to radial feeder circuits where there is little or
no back feed. For parallel feeders, ring circuits, or where there can be a back feed
from generators, directional relays should be considered.

5.6.1

Blocked IDMT overcurrent


This application relies on the up-stream IDMT relay being blocked by the start
output from a down-stream relay that detects the presence of fault current above its
setting. Thus both the up-stream and down-stream relays can then have the same
current and time settings and grading will be automatically provided by the
blocking feature. If the breaker fail protection is selected, the block on the upstream relay will be released if the down-stream circuit breaker fails to trip.

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KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 15 of 60

Thus for a fault below relay C, the start output from relay C will block operation of
relay B and the start output of relay B will block operation of relay A. Hence all
three relays could have the same time and current settings and the grading would
be obtained by the blocking signal received from a relay closer to the fault. This
gives a constant, close time grading, but there will be no back-up protection in the
event of the pilots being short circuited.

Figure 7: Blocked IDMT overcurrent

5.6.2

Blocked short time overcurrent


Reduced fault clearance times and increased security can be obtained by using
blocked short time overcurrent protection. For this the I>>/t>> and the Io>>/to>>
elements are used with their current threshold set above the transient load level and
setting t>>/to>> to 80ms for non-directional relays. This time delay is for worst
case conditions and may be reduced, depending on the system X/R and maximum
fault level.

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KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 16 of 60

The time delays t>>/to>> are arranged to be blocked by the start output of the
downstream relay when the downstream relay detects a fault current flowing.
The short time delay is essential to ensure that the blocking signal will be received
by the upstream relay before operation can occur.
The inverse time overload elements should be graded in the normal way for
cascade operation and to provide overload and backup protection. The short time
elements, operating in the blocking mode, then provide an instantaneous zone of
protection and again the breaker fail feature can be used to advantage.
On detection of a breaker failure condition the start output would be reset to
remove the block from the upstream relay, allowing the upstream relay to trip its
breaker to clear the fault.
Overcurrent relays are adequate for non-cascade operation on radial circuits, but
for ring circuits, or where there are parallel feeds, it will be necessary to use
directionalised overcurrent relays.
5.7

Protection of busbars on radial system


This is simply achieved on radial circuits by setting for the short time lags
(t>>/to>>) of the relay on the incoming feeder 80ms for non-directional relays,
and blocking these time delays when the start output of any relay on the load
circuits detects fault current flowing from the busbar to a feeder. The 80ms time
delay is for worst case conditions and may be reduced, depending on the system
X/R and maximum fault level. Feedback from regenerative loads must be less than
the relay setting.
The protection can be enhanced by arranging for the internal breaker fail circuits
of the feeder relays to backtrip the incoming circuit breaker and/or adding the
back-up transfer tripping arrangement. The use of a dual powered relay on the
incoming feeder can also be considered to provide dead substation protection.
These topics are described more fully in other sections.

Incomer

Block short time overcurrent

KCEG
242

Back trip

F1

KCGG
142

F2

Feeder 1

KCGG
142

F3

Feeder 2

KCGG
142

KCGG
142

F4

Feeder 3

Figure 8: Blocked overcurrent for busbar protection

F5

Feeder 4

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
5.8

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 17 of 60

Points to consider with blocking schemes


It is possible to separate the phase and earth fault start outputs and use them to
block the respective elements of the upstream relay. However, if this is done then
the effect of current transformer saturation during phase faults has to be
considered. If the current transformers transiently saturate on one of the circuits
then a spill current is produced in the neutral circuit of the current transformers.
This can result in one of two effects:
The current exceeds the threshold of the earth/ground fault element then it will
attempt to trip if it does not receive a blocking signal from a down stream relay.
This will be an incorrect operation that may trip more circuits than necessary.
As a result of spill current, an earth/ground fault element gives a blocking
signal to the relay on the in-feed for a short duration.
The first of these problems can be lessened by increasing the time setting of to>>,
but this will reduce the benefits of blocked overcurrent schemes. The solution to
consider is to block the phase and earth fault trip elements with the phase and
earth fault start elements of the downstream relays, but prevent blocking of the
phase fault trip elements under transient current transformer saturation conditions.
This will be most easily achieved by setting the earth fault element polarising
voltage threshold (Vop) above the maximum expected zero sequence voltage
occurring under healthy conditions, thus preventing the earth fault elements on the
incoming feeder relay producing a blocking signal under transient CT saturation
conditions.
The second effect may not be a problem at all if the transient spill current only lasts
a short time, as the added delay caused by a spurious blocking signal will stabilise
the protection for only a short time. If this is seen as a problem then the use of a
stabilising resistor could be considered.

Watchdog
repeat relay

Trip
relays

t>>

Incomer

t>>>

t>> set to 60ms


t>>> set to 260ms
Incomer

Feeder
1
Feeder
2
Feeder
3
Watchdog
Contacts

Watchdog
Contacts

Figure 9: Back-up transfer trip scheme

Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder Feeder


4
4
1
2
3

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
5.9

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 18 of 60

Back-up transfer tripping scheme


In this application a trip from the relay on the incoming feeder can be diverted via
the watchdog contacts of a failed relay to the circuit breaker on that feeder. Thus a
fault on an outgoing feeder can be cleared by tripping the feeder circuit breaker
even though the relay on that circuit has failed. Without this feature the fault would
only have been cleared by tripping the circuit breaker on the incoming feeder and
thus losing the total busbar load.
Consider the radial feed arrangement shown in the diagram. The protection relay
on the incomer provides two additional time delayed outputs: t>> with an 80ms
delay if the downstream feeder relays are non-directional, or 200ms if they are
directional, and t>>> with a delay of t>> plus grading margin. The t>> delay is for
worst case conditions and may be reduced, depending on the system X/R and
maximum fault level. The t>> output contact is wired through a normally open
contact on the watchdog repeat relay, to the trip relay for the circuit breaker on the
in-feed. The t>>> output is wired directly to the trip relay for the circuit breaker on
the in-feed.
With all the relays in a healthy state, the watchdog repeat relay will be energised
and for a busbar fault the circuit breaker on the incoming circuit will be tripped by
t>>. For a fault on any of the outgoing feeders t>> and t>>> of the relay on the
incoming circuit will be blocked by the start contact of the overcurrent relay on the
outgoing feeder which is carrying the fault current. The circuit carrying the fault
current will be tripped by the overcurrent relay on that circuit.
In the event of any relay on the outgoing circuits becoming defective, the
watchdog repeat relay drops off to give an alarm and to transfer the t>> trip from
the incoming circuit breaker to the buswire connected, via the watchdog break
contact of each relay on the outgoing feeders, to the appropriate circuit breaker.
Thus the trip will be transferred to the circuit breaker with the failed relay and so a
fault on that circuit will be cleared without tripping the busbar. For a busbar fault
the incoming circuit breaker will be tripped by t>>> after a short delay. For faults
on any healthy outgoing feeder both t>> and t>>> of the incoming feeder will be
blocked and correct discrimination will be obtained with only the faulted feeder
being tripped.

5.10

High impedance protection


The application of the KCGG numerical overcurrent relay as differential protection
for machines, power transformers and busbar installations is based on the high
impedance differential principle, offering stability for any type of fault occurring
outside the protected zone and satisfactory operation for faults within the zone.
A high impedance relay is defined as a relay or relay circuit whose voltage setting
is not less than the calculated maximum voltage which can appear across its
terminals under the assigned maximum through fault current condition.
It can be seen from Figure 1 that during an external fault the through fault current
should circulate between the current transformer secondaries. The only current that
can flow through the relay circuit is that due to any difference in the current
transformer outputs for the same primary current. Magnetic saturation will reduce
the output of a current transformer and the most extreme case for stability will be if
one current transformer is completely saturated and the other unaffected. This
condition can be approached in busbar installations due to the multiplicity of
infeeds and extremely high fault level. It is less likely with machines or power
transformers due to the limitation of through fault level by the protected units

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KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 19 of 60

CTA

CTB

Protected
unit

Z MA

Z MB
R CTA

R CTB

RL

RL
R RELAY CIRCUIT

RL

RL

Figure 10: Principle of high impedance protection

impedance, and the fact that the comparison is made between a limited number of
current transformers. Differences in current transformer remanent flux can, however,
result in asymmetric current transformer saturation with all applications.
Calculations based on the above extreme case for stability have become accepted
in lieu of conjunctive scheme testing as being a satisfactory basis for application.
At one end the current transformer can be considered fully saturated, with its
magnetising impedance ZMB short circuited while the current transformer at the
other end, being unaffected, delivers its full current output. This current will then
divide between the relay and the saturated current transformer. This division will be
in the inverse ratio of
RRELAY CIRCUIT to (RCTB + 2RL) and, if RRELAY CIRCUIT is high compared with RCTB + 2RL,
the relay will be prevented from undesirable operation, as most of the current will
pass through the saturated current transformer.
To achieve stability for external faults, the stability voltage for the protection (Vs)
must be determined in accordance with formula 1.
The setting will be dependent upon the maximum current transformer secondary
current for an external fault (If) and also on the highest loop resistance value from
the relaying point (RCT + 2RL).
The stability of the scheme is also affected by the characteristics of the differential
relay and the value of K in the expression takes account of this. One particular
characteristic that affects the stability of the scheme is the operating time of the
differential relay. The slower the relay operates the longer the spill current can
exceed its setting before operation occurs and the higher the spill current that can
be tolerated. For the KCGG relay I> element the value of K is 0.5 as shown in
formula 2.
Vs > KIf(RCT + 2RL)

(1)

Vs > 0.5If(RCT + 2RL)

(2)

where RCT =

current transformer secondary winding resistance

RL

maximum lead resistance from the current transformer to the


relaying point

If

maximum secondary external fault current

a constant affected by the dynamic response of the relay

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KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 20 of 60

Note: When high impedance differential protection is applied to motors or


reactors, there is no external fault current. Therefore, the locked rotor
current or starting current of the motor, or reactor inrush current, should be
used in place of the external fault current.
To obtain high speed operation for internal faults, the knee point voltage, VK , of
the CTs must be significantly higher than the stability voltage, Vs. This is essential
so that the operating current through the relay is a sufficient multiple of the applied
current setting. Ideally a ratio of VK 5Vs would be appropriate, but where this is
not possible refer to the Advanced Application Requirements for Through Fault
Stability.
This describes an alternative method whereby lower values of Vs may be obtained.
Typical operating times for different VK/Vs ratios are shown in the following table:
VK/Vs

12

Typical
operating
time (ms)

30

40

50

60

These times are representative of a system X/R ratio of 40 and a fault level of 5Is
to 10Is. Lower values of X/R and higher fault currents will tend to reduce the
operating time.
The kneepoint voltage of a current transformer marks the upper limit of the roughly
linear portion of the secondary winding excitation characteristic. This is defined
exactly in British practice as that point on the excitation curve where a 10%
increase in exciting voltage produces a 50% increase in exciting current.
The current transformers should be of equal ratio, of similar magnetising
characteristics and of low reactance construction. In cases where low reactance
current transformers are not available and high reactance ones must be used,
it is essential to use the reactance of the current transformer in the calculations for
the voltage setting. Thus, the current transformer impedance is expressed as a
complex number in the form
RCT + jXCT. It is also necessary to ensure that the exciting impedance of the current
transformer is large in comparison with its secondary ohmic impedance at the
relay setting voltage.
In the case of the high impedance relay, the operating current is adjustable in
discrete steps.
The primary operating current (Iop) will be a function of the current transformer
ratio, the relay operating current (Ir), the number of current transformers in parallel
with a relay element (n) and the magnetising current of each current transformer
(Ie) at the stability voltage (Vs). This relationship can be expressed as follows:
Iop = (CT ratio) x (Ir + nIe) (3)
In order to achieve the required primary operating current with the current
transformers that are used, a current setting (Ir) must be selected for the high
impedance relay, as detailed above. The setting of the stabilising resistor (R ST) must
be calculated in the following manner, where the setting is a function of the relay
ohmic impedance at setting (Rr), the required stability voltage setting (Vs) and the
relay current setting (Ir).
RST =

Vs

Ir

Rr

(4)

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KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 21 of 60

Note: The auxiliary powered KCGG ohmic impedance over the whole setting
range is small, 0.06 (1A) and 0.006 (5A) and so can be ignored.
Therefore:
RST =
5.10.1

Vs

(5)

Ir

Use of metrosil non-linear resistors


When the maximum through fault current is limited by the protected circuit
impedance, such as in the case of generator differential and power transformer
restricted earth fault protection, it is generally found unnecessary to use non-linear
voltage limiting resistors (Metrosils). However, when the maximum through fault
current is high, such as in busbar protection, it is more common to use a non-linear
resistor (Metrosil) across the relay circuit (relay and stabilising resistor). Metrosils
are used to limit the peak voltage developed by the current transformers, under
internal fault conditions, to a value below the insulation level of the current
transformers, relay and interconnecting leads, which are able to withstand 3000V
peak.
The following formulae should be used to estimate the peak transient voltage that
could be produced for an internal fault. This voltage is a function of the current
transformer kneepoint voltage and the prospective voltage that would be produced
for an internal fault if current transformer saturation did not occur. Note, the
internal fault level, I'f , can be significantly higher than the external fault level, If ,
on generators where current can be fed from the supply system and the generator.
Vp = 2 2VK (Vf VK)

(6)

Vf = I'f (RCT + 2RL + RST + Rr)

(7)

where

Vp

peak voltage developed by the CT under internal fault


conditions.

Vk

current transformer knee-point voltage.

Vf

maximum voltage that would be produced if CT saturation did


not occur.

I'f

maximum internal secondary fault current.

RCT

current transformer secondary winding resistance.

RL

maximum lead burden from current transformer to relay.

RST

relay stabilising resistor.

Rr

Relay ohmic impedance at setting.

When the value of Vp is greater than 3000V peak, non-linear resistors (Metrosils)
should be applied. These Metrosils are effectively connected across the relay
circuit, or phase to neutral of the ac buswires, and serve the purpose of shunting
the secondary current output of the current transformer from the relay circuit in
order to prevent very high secondary voltages.
These Metrosils are externally mounted and take the form of annular discs, of
152mm diameter and approximately 10mm thickness. Their operating
characteristics follow the expression:
V = CI0.25

(8)

where

Instantaneous voltage applied to the


non-linear resistor (Metrosil)

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R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 22 of 60

constant of the non-linear resistor (Metrosil)

instantaneous current through the non-linear resistor (Metrosil)

With a sinusoidal voltage applied across the Metrosil, the RMS current would be
approximately 0.52x the peak current. This current value can be calculated as
follows:
Vs(rms) x 2 4
C

I(rms) = 0.52

(9)

where Vs(rms) = rms value of the sinusoidal voltage applied across the Metrosil.
This is due to the fact that the current waveform through the Metrosil is not
sinusoidal but appreciably distorted.
For satisfactory application of a non-linear resistor (Metrosil), its characteristic
should be such that it complies with the following requirements:
At the relay voltage setting, the non-linear resistor (Metrosil) current should be as
low as possible, but no greater than approximately 30mA rms for 1A current
transformers and approximately 100mA rms for 5A current transformers.
The metrosil units normally recommended for use with 1A CTs are as follows:
Stability voltage

Recommended metrosil type

Vs (V) rms

Single pole

Triple pole

Up to 125V

600A/S1/S256
C = 450

600A/S3/I/S802
C = 450

125-300V

600A/S1/S1088
C = 900

600A/S3/I/S1195
C = 900

The metrosil units normally recommended for use with 5A CTs and single pole relays are as
follows:
Secondary

Recommended metrosil type

internal fault

Relay stability voltage, Vs (V) rms

Current
(A) rms
50A

Up to 200V

250V

275V

300V

600A/S1/S1213
C = 540/640

600A/S1/S1214
C = 670/800

600A/S1/S1214
C = 670/800

600A/S1/S1223
C = 740/870

100A

600A/S2/P/S1217 600A/S2/P/S1215 600A/S2/P/S1215 600A/S2/P/S1196


C = 470/540
C = 570/670
C = 570/670
C = 620/740

150A

600A/S3/P/S1219 600A/S3/P/S1220 600A/S3/P/S1221 600A/S3/P/S1222


C = 430/500
C = 520/620
C = 570/670
C = 620/740

The single pole Metrosil units recommended for use with 5A CTs can also be used
with triple pole relays and consist of three single pole units mounted on the same
central stud but electrically insulated from each other. A triple pole Metrosil type
and the reference should be specified when ordering. Metrosil units for higher
stability voltage settings and fault currents can be supplied if required.

SERVICE MANUAL
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KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
5.10.2

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 23 of 60

The KCGG
The KCGG142 is a numerical 3 phase overcurrent and earth fault relay with 3
stages of phase and earth fault protection, I>/Io>, I>>/Io>> and I>>>/Io>>>
which can be used for 3 phase differential protection or restricted earth fault (REF)
protection. The KCGG122 is a numerical single phase overcurrent and earth fault
relay with the same 3 stages of phase and earth fault protection, which can be
used for REF protection only. It is recommended that the I> element is used as the
main protection element for 3 phase differential protection and the Io> element for
restricted earth fault applications. This is because the I>/Io> elements have
increased through fault stability compared to the I>>/Io>> and I>>>/Io>>>
elements. The I>/Io> elements operate when the Fourier value exceeds the
threshold setting and the positive and negative peak values exceed 90% of the
threshold setting. The I>>/Io>> and I>>>/Io>>> elements operate when the
Fourier derived values exceeds the threshold setting or where the peak of any half
cycle exceeds twice the set threshold. Since the differential spill current is likely to
contain a dc offset level, the positive and negative peaks will have different
amplitudes and so the I>/Io> element is more stable. The time delay characteristic
should be selected to be definite time and with a setting of zero seconds.
The output relay that is to trip the circuit breakers must be allocated in the relay
masks for t>A, t>B and t>C. Any relay allocated in these relay masks will dwell in
the closed state for a minimum of 100 milliseconds, even if fleeting operation of
the protection should occur, ensuring positive operation of the circuit breaker, or
trip relay. It is not advised that the start outputs from I> are used because they do
not have this in-built minimum contact dwell.
Separate output relays may be allocated to each phase trip if it is required to have
phase segregated outputs. However, the three relay masks, t>A, t>B and t>C must
also be assigned to relay RLY3, for fault records to be generated. Phase
information will be included in the fault flags.
The Io>>/Io>>>/I>>/I>>> elements not being used should be disabled by setting
the phase and earth fault function links PF1, PF2, EF1 and EF2 to 0.
Setting ranges of I>/Io> elements are:

I> 0.08 3.2In


Io> 0.005 0.8In
The ohmic impedance (Rr) of the auxiliary powered KCGG over the whole setting
range is 0.06 for 1A relays and 0.006 for 5A relays ie. independent of
current. To comply with the definition for a high impedance relay, it is necessary, in
most applications, to utilise an externally mounted stabilising resistor in series with
the relay.
The standard values of the stabilising resistors normally supplied with the relay, on
request, are 220 and 47 for 1A and 5A relay ratings respectively. In
applications such as busbar protection, where higher values of stabilising resistor
are often required to obtain the desired relay voltage setting, non-standard resistor
values can be supplied. The standard resistors are wire wound, continuously
adjustable and have a continuous rating of 145W.

SERVICE MANUAL
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5.10.3

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 24 of 60

Applying the KCGG


The recommended relay current setting for restricted earth fault protection is usually
determined by the minimum fault current available for operation of the relay and
whenever possible it should not be greater than 30% of the minimum fault level.
For busbar protection, it is considered good practice by some utilities to set the
minimum primary operating current in excess of the rated load. Thus, if one of the
current transformers becomes open circuit the high impedance relay does not
maloperate.
The Io> earth fault element in the KCGG142 with its low current settings can be
used for busbar supervision. When a CT or the buswires become open circuited
the 3 phase currents will become unbalanced and residual current will flow.
Hence, the Io> earth fault element should give an alarm for open circuit conditions
but will not stop a maloperation of the differential element if the relay is set below
rated load. Whenever possible the supervision primary operating current should
not be more than 25 amps or 10% of the smallest circuit rating, whichever is the
greater. The earth fault element (Io>) should be connected at the star point of the
stabilising resistors, as shown in Figure 9. The time delay setting for the supervision
elements (to>) should be at least 3 seconds to ensure that spurious operation does
not occur during any through fault. This earth fault element will operate for an
open circuit CT on any one phase, or two phases, but not necessarily for a fault on
all three when the currents may sumate to zero. The supervision may be
supplemented with a spare phase protection stage (I>>>) set to the same setting as
the Io> element or its lowest setting, 0.08In, if the Io> supervision setting is less
than 0.08In. Note that the Io current should be checked when the busbar is under
load. This can be viewed in the Measurements 1 menu in the relay. It is important
that the Io> threshold is set above any standing Io unbalance current.
The supervision element should be used to energise an auxiliary relay with hand
reset contacts connected to short circuit the buswires.
This renders the busbar zone protection inoperative and prevents thermal damage
to the Metrosil. Contacts may also be required for busbar supervision alarm
purposes.
It is recommended that the dual powered KCEG242 relay is not used for
differential protection because of the start-up time delay when powered from the
CTs alone, approximately 200ms. Also, the minimum setting of the phase
overcurrent elements, 0.4In, would limit its application for differential protection.
Figures 3 to 9 show how high impedance relays can be applied in a number of
different situations.

5.10.3.1 Advanced application requirements for through fault stability


When Vs from formula 2 becomes too restrictive for the application, the following
notes should be considered. The information is based on the transient and steady
state stability limits derived from conjunctive testing of the relay. Using this
information will allow a lower stability voltage to be applied to the relay, but the
calculations become a little more involved.
There are two factors to be considered that affect the stability of the scheme. The
first is saturation of the current transformers caused by the dc transient component
of the fault current and the second is steady state saturation caused by the
symmetrical ac component of fault current only.

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KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 25 of 60

5.10.3.2 Transient stability limit


To ensure through fault stability with a transient offset in the fault current the
required voltage setting is given by:
Vs = 40 + 0.05RST +
0.04If(RCT + 2RL) (10)
If this value is lower than that given by formula 2 then it should be used instead.
Vs and RST are unknowns in equation (10). However, for a relay current setting Ir,
the value of RST can be calculated by substituting for Vs using equation (5), Vs = Ir
RST.
RST Ir = 40 + 0.05RST +
0.04If(RCT+ 2RL)

(11)

5.10.3.3 Steady state stability limit


To ensure through fault stability with non offset currents:
(RCT+ 2RL) must not exceed
(VK + Vs)/If.
5.10.4

(12)

Typical setting examples

5.10.4.1 Restricted earth fault protection


The correct application of the KCGG as a high impedance relay can best be
illustrated by taking the case of the 11000/415V, 1000kVA, X = 5%, power
transformer shown in Figure 10, for which restricted earth fault protection is
required on the LV winding. CT ratio is 100/5A.
5.10.4.2 Stability voltage
The power transformer full load current
3
= 1000 x 10

3 x 415

= 1391A
Maximum through fault level (ignoring source impedance)
=

100
x 1391
5

= 27820A
Required relay stability voltage (assuming one CT saturated)
=

0.5If (RCT + 2RL)

0.5 x 27820
x

5
(0.3 + 0.08)
1500

17.6V

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KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
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5.10.4.3 Stabilising resistor


Assuming that the relay effective setting for a solidly earthed power transformer is
approximately 30% of full load current, we can choose a relay current setting, Io>
= 20% of 5A ie. 1A. On this basis the required value of stabilising resistor is:
V
RST = s

Ir

= 17.6
1
= 17.6 ohms

5A rated KCGG relays can be supplied, on request, with stabilising resistors that
are continuously adjustable between 0 and 47.
Thus, a stabilising resistance of 17.6 can be set using the standard supplied
resistor.
5.10.4.4 Current transformer requirements
To ensure that internal faults are cleared in the shortest possible time the knee point
voltage of the current transformers should be at least 5 times the stability voltage,
Vs.
VK = 5Vs
=

5 x 17.6

88V

The exciting current to be drawn by the current transformers at the relay stability
voltage, Vs, will be:

Ie <

Is Ir
n

where Is = relay effective setting


=

5
30
x 1391 x
1500
100

= 1.4A

Ir (Io>) = relay setting


= 1A
n = number of current
transformers in parallel
with the relay
= 4
Ie @ 17.6V <

1.4 1
4

< 0.1A
The time delay setting of the to> element should be set to 0s.
The Io>>/Io>>>/I>>/I>>> elements not used should be disabled by setting the
phase and earth fault function links PF1, PF2, EF1 and EF2 to 0. Note, the phase
overcurrent elements not used for restricted earth fault protection could be used to
provide normal overcurrent protection.

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KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 27 of 60

5.10.4.5 Metrosil non-linear resistor requirements


If the peak voltage appearing across the relay circuit under maximum internal fault
conditions exceeds 3000V peak then a suitable non-linear resistor (Metrosil),
externally mounted, should be connected across the relay and stabilising resistor,
in order to protect the insulation of the current transformers, relay and
interconnecting leads. In the present case the peak voltage can be estimated by
the formula:
Vp = 2 2VK (Vf VK)

where VK = 88V (In practice this should be the actual current transformer kneepoint
voltage, obtained from the current transformer magnetisation curve).
Vf

If(RCT + 2RL RST + Rr)

27820 x

5
x
1500

(0.3 + 0.08 + 17.6)


=

92.7 x 17.98

1667V

Therefore substituting these values for VK and Vf into the main formula, it can be
seen that the peak voltage developed by the current transformer is:
Vp

2 2VK (Vf VK)

2 2 x 88 x (1667 88)

1054V

This value is well below the maximum of 3000V peak and therefore no Metrosils
are required with the relay. If, on the other hand, the peak voltage VP given by the
formula had been greater than 3000V peak, a non-linear resistor (Metrosil) would
have to be connected across the relay and the stabilising resistor.
The recommended non-linear resistor type would have to be chosen in accordance
with the maximum secondary internal fault current and the voltage setting.
5.10.5

Busbar protection
A typical 132kV double bus generating station is made up of two 100MVA
generators and associated step-up transformers, providing power to the high
voltage system, by means of four overhead transmission lines, shown in
Figure 2. The main and reserve busbars are sectionalised with bus section circuit
breakers.
The application for a high impedance circulating current scheme having 4 zones
and an overall check feature, is as follows:
The switchgear rating is 3500MVA, the system voltage is 132kV solidly earthed
and the maximum loop lead resistance is 4 ohms. The current transformers are of
ratio 500/1 amp and have a secondary resistance of 0.7 ohms.

5.10.5.1 Stability voltage


The stability level of the busbar protection is governed by the maximum through
fault level which is assumed to be the switchgear rating. Using the switchgear
rating allows for any future system expansion.
=

3500 x 106 = 15300A


3 x 132 x 103

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KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
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Required relay stability voltage (assuming one CT is saturated)


=

0.5 If (RCT + 2RL)

0.5 x 15300 (0.7 + 4)


500

72V

5.10.5.2 Current setting


The primary operating current of busbar protection is normally set to less than 30%
of the minimum fault level. It is also considered good practice by some utilities to
set the minimum primary operating current in excess of the rated load. Thus, if one
of the CTs becomes open circuit the high impedance relay does not maloperate.
The primary operating current should be made less than 30% of the minimum fault
current and more than the full load current of one of the incomers. Thus, if one of
the incomer CTs becomes open circuit the differential protection will not
maloperate. It is assumed that 30% of the minimum fault current is more than the
full load current of the largest circuit.
Full load current
3
= 100 x 10 = 438A

3 x 132

5.10.5.3 Discriminating zone


Magnetising current taken by each CT at 72V = 0.072A
Maximum number of CTs per
zone = 5
Relay current setting,
Ir(I>) = 400A = 0.8In
Relay primary operating current,
Iop
=
CT ratio x (Ir + nIe)
=

500 x (0.8 + (5 x 0.072))

500 x 1.16

580A (132% full load


current)

5.10.5.4 Check zone


Magnetising current taken by each CT at 72V = 0.072A
Maximum number of circuits = 6
Relay current setting, Ir (I>)
= 0.8A
Relay primary operating current,

Iop

500 x (0.8 + (6 x 0.072))

500 x 1.232

616A
(141% full load current)

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KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
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Therefore, by setting Ir (I>) = 0.8A, the primary operating current of the busbar
protection meets the requirements stated earlier.
5.10.5.5 Stabilising resistor
The required value of the stabilising resistor is:
RST

Vs

Ir

= 72

0.8

= 90
Therefore the standard 220 variable resistor can be used.
5.10.5.6 Current transformer requirements
To ensure that internal faults are cleared in the shortest possible time the knee point
voltage of the current transformers should be at least 5 times the stability voltage,
Vs.
Vk/Vs = 5
Vk

= 360V

5.10.5.7 Metrosil non-linear resistor requirements


If the peak voltage appearing across the relay circuit under maximum internal fault
conditions exceeds 3000V peak then a suitable non-linear resistor (Metrosil),
externally mounted, should be connected across the relay and stabilising resistor,
in order to protect the insulation of the current transformers, relay and
interconnecting leads. In the present case the peak voltage can be estimated by
the formula:
Vp = 2 2VK (Vf VK)

where VK = 360V (In practice this should be the actual current transformer
kneepoint voltage, obtained from the current transformer magnetisation curve).
Vr

= I'f(RCT + 2RL + RST + Rr)


1

= 15300 x 500 x (0.7 + 4 + 90)


= 30.6 x 94.7
= 2898V
Therefore substituting these values for VK and Vf into the main formula, it can be
seen that the peak voltage developed by the current transformer is:
Vp

= 2 2VK (Vf VK)


= 2 2 x 360 x (2898 360)
= 2704V

This value is below the maximum of 3000V peak and therefore no Metrosils are
required with the relay. If, on the other hand, the peak voltage VP given by the
formula had been greater than 3000V peak, a non-linear resistor (Metrosil) would
have to be connected across the relay and the stabilising resistor.
The recommended non-linear resistor type would have to be chosen in accordance
with the maximum internal fault current and the voltage setting.

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KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 30 of 60

5.10.5.8 Busbar supervision


Whenever possible the supervision primary operating current should not be more
than 25 amps or 10% of the smallest circuit, whichever is the greater.
The Io> earth fault element in the KCGG142 with its low current settings can be
used for busbar supervision.
Assuming that 25A is greater than 10% of the smallest circuit current.

Io> = 25/500 = 0.05In


Using the I>>> element for 3 phase busbar supervision

I>>> = 0.08In (minimum setting)


The time delay setting of the to> and t>>> elements, used for busbar supervision,
is 3s.
The Io>>/Io>>>/I>> elements not used should be disabled by setting the phase
and earth fault function links PF1, EF1 and EF2 to 0.
5.10.5.9 Advanced application requirements for through fault stability
The previous busbar protection example is used here to demonstrate the use of the
advanced application requirements for through stability.
To ensure through fault stability with a transient offset in the fault current the
required voltage setting is given by:
Vs = 40 + 0.05RST +
0.04IF(RCT+ 2RL)
If this value is lower than that given by formula 2 then it should be used instead.
To ensure through fault stability with non offset currents:
(RCT+ 2RL) must not exceed
(VK + Vs)/If.
5.10.5.10 Transient stability limit
Vs = 40 + 0.05 RST + 0.04 x 15300/500 (0.7 + 4)
Vs = 45.753 + 0.05 RST
Vs = Ir RST
The relay current setting, Ir = 0.8In
0.8 RST = 45.753 + 0.05 RST
RST = 61
Vs = 0.8 x 61 = 48.8V
Steady state stability limit
(RCT + 2RL) < (VK + Vs)/IF.
Assuming VK = 5 Vs
(6 x 48.8)

(0.7 + 4) < (15300/500)


4.7 < 9.57
Thus, the steady state stability requirement is met.

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KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 31 of 60

VK = 5 Vs = 244V
Using the advanced application method the knee point voltage requirement has
been reduced to 244V compared to the conventional method where the knee point
voltage was calculated to be 360V.
100MVA 15kV

100MVA 132/15kV

132kV
Main
reserve

Figure 11: Double busbar generating station.

A
B

P1

P2

P1

P2

S1

S2

S1

S2

Protected
plant

A
B
C

21 R A
Protective
relays 22
v
R ST

23 R B
v
R ST

24

25 R C
26

v
R ST

Figure 12: Phase and earth fault differential protection for generators, motors or reactors.
P1

P2

S1

S2

A
B
C

28

27
P2

S2

R ST

v
P1

S1

Figure 13: Restricted earth fault protection for 3 phase, 3 wire system-applicable to star
connected generators or power transformer windings.

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KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
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P1

P2

S1

S2

A
B
C

28

27

R R ST

Figure 14: Balanced or restricted earth fault protection for delta winding of a power
transformer with supply system earthed.
P2

P1

S2

S1

A
B
C

P2

P1

S2

S1

27

28
R R ST
v

Figure 15: Restricted earth fault protection for 3 phase, 4 wire system-applicable to star
connected generators or power transformer windings with neutral earthed at switchgear.
P2

P1

S2

S1

A
B
C

P2

P1

S2

S1

27
P2

S2

P1

S1

28
R R ST
v

Figure 16: Restricted earth fault protection for 3 phase, 4 wire system-applicable to star
connected generators or power transformer windings earthed directly at the star point.

SERVICE MANUAL
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KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

A
B

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 33 of 60

P1

P2

S1

S2

P1

P2

S1

S2

P2

P1

S2

S1

A
B

21 R A
Protective
relays 22
v
R ST

23 R B
24

25 R C

v
R ST

26

R ST

Figure 17: Phase and earth fault differential protection for an auto-transformer with CTs at
the neutral star point.
P1

S1

P2

S2

A
B
C
P2

S2

P2

S2

P1

S1

P1

S1

A
B
C
21 R
A

Contacts from
buswire
supervision
auxiliary relay

Protective
relays 22

23
24

R ST

25 R
C

RB
v
R ST

27
RN
28

26

v
R ST

Buswire
supervision

Figure 18: Busbar protection simple single zone phase and earth fault scheme.
11kV

1500/5A

415V

A
R CT

B
C

RL
R CT

Data
Protection:

R L = 0.04
R LC = 0.3

Transformer: X

= 5%

RL

RL

Restricted
earth fault
protection

RL

Figure 19: Restricted earth fault protection on a power transformer LV winding.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
Rectifier protection

C
A

Rectifier

Transformer

Rs

Protection

Figure 20: Protection for silicon rectifiers


10000
Typical thermal limit
for silicon rectifier

1000

Protection curve

Time (seconds)

5.11

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 34 of 60

100

Instantaneous
overcurrent

10
Typical
load area

0.1
1

Multiple of rated current

Figure 21: Matching curve to load and thermal limit of rectifier

The rectifier protection feature has been based upon the inverse time/current
characteristic as used in the MCTD 01 and the above diagram shows a typical
application.
The protection of a rectifier differs from the more traditional overcurrent
applications in that many rectifiers can withstand relatively long overload periods
without damage, typically 150% for 2 hours and 300% for 1 min.
The relay I> setting of the relay should be set to the rated rms value of the current
that flows into the transformer when the rectifier is delivering its rated load.
The relay will give a start indication when the current exceeds this setting but this is
of no consequence because this function is not used in this application. Curve 9
should be selected for the inverse time curve and this cuts-off for currents below
1.6 times allowing the rectifier to carry 150% overload for long periods. If this is
not acceptable the I> setting can be adjusted to move the cut-off point relative to
the current scale. The operation time can be modified by adjustment of the time
multiplier setting (TMS) so that it lies between limiting characteristic of the rectifier
and the allowable load area.

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KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
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Typical settings for the TMS are:


Light industrial service

TMS = 0.025

Medium duty service

TMS = 0.1

Heavy duty traction

TMS = 0.8

The high set is typically set at 8 times rated current as this ensures HV AC
protection will discriminate with faults covered by the LV protection. However, it
has been known for the high set to be set to 4, or 5, times where there is more
confidence in the AC protection.
Use of the thermal element to provide protection between 70% and 160% of rated
current could enhance the protection. It is also common practice to provide
restricted earth fault protection for the transformer feeding the rectifier. See the
appropriate section dealing with restricted earth fault protection.
5.12

Cold load pick-up


The Cold Load Pick-up (CLP) feature enables the settings of the relay to be changed
to cater for temporary overload conditions that may occur during cold starts, such
as switching on large heating loads after a sufficient cooling period, or any load
that takes a high initial starting current.
Initiation of CLP is usually by an auxiliary contact of the circuit breaker that is
closed when the circuit breaker is in the open state. This would be used to energise
a logic input that would be allocated in mask [0A0C Aux3]. If a logic input is
already available to indicate the circuit breaker open status, it can be allocated in
more than one mask; it would not be necessary to use an additional logic input.
For short duration starting loads it may only be necessary to delay the short time
protection functions. Allocating a relay in output mask [0B12 Aux3] and
energising a logic input via its contacts. The logic input can then be allocated in
the appropriate input masks to block the short time overcurrent elements.
Alternatively setting link LOGB = 1 gives timer tAUX3 a delay on drop-off, when it
can be used to select group 2 settings. Then, with the appropriate preset settings
applied, the protection levels can be raised above starting currents and held there
for the time set on tAUX3, after which they return to their normal values. To select
this mode of operation set link [LOG5] = 1 and [SD4]=1. Group 2 settings will be
in operation when tAUX3 is energised, that is before the load comes on and for
the set time for tAUX3 after the circuit breaker closes. See also the section entitled
SETTING GROUPS which explains the alternative methods by which group 2
settings can be selected.
This latter arrangement is useful when there are no spare output relays and can be
used as an alternative means of blocking the short time elements without using
external connections. To achieve it, the elements that are set to a short time must be
deselected in the group 2 settings, or preferably given a higher setting. This is
possible for elements t>>; t>>>; to>> and to>>>.
If delayed initiation is required, allocate the logic input in mask [0A0B Aux2]
instead of [0A0C Aux3]; set link [LOG6] =1 and set the required delay on tAUX2.
For retrofit installations where an auxiliary circuit breaker contact is not available,
undercurrent initiation via tAUX2 may be used. It is possible to set tAUX2 to zero if
no initial delay is necessary.

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KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
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The above change of setting group can also be enabled if a 52B contact is not
available, or during instances when the operation of upstream circuit breakers will
cut the supply without opening the down-stream circuit breakers. This is achieved
by using the loss of load feature associated with tAUX2 and by setting [LOG6] =1.
The time delay of the tAUX2 when used in this configuration must be set longer
than the total fault clearance time of the system.

Time

Note: It will be essential to check for correct resetting of any function that is
deselected when switching to group 2 settings.

Stall (CLP)
Overlo
ad

(CLP)

t>
Stall

t>>

Overl

oad

Short circuit

t>>>

I>

I>>

I>>>

Current

Figure 22: Compensation for motor starting current

Section 6.

DIRECTIONAL OVERCURRENT
I

Zone of
forward start
forward operation

Is

c90

c
Is

Reverse start

Figure 23: Directional characteristic

c+90

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KCEU 142, 242

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Phase fault directional elements are polarised by the quadrature phase/phase


voltage, and the earth/ground fault elements are polarised by the zero sequence
voltage. The directional part of the measurement includes a threshold value on the
polarising quantity, and for phase fault measurement this threshold is fixed.
However for earth/ground faults an adjustable threshold is provided to allow a
setting above any imbalance in the zero sequence polarising signal to be applied.
Control is provided for adjustment of the characteristic angle of the relay.
The directional decision is applied after the current threshold and before the
following associated time delay. The directionalisation of any element can be
selectively overridden by adjusting software links in the relay menu to a suitable
setting. The undercurrent element I< is the exception since this element is not
provided with directional control.
6.1

Directional overcurrent logic


The logic, shown in Figure 24, provides directional control for stage 1, 2 and 3
overcurrent elements in the forward direction and start indication in both the
forward and reverse direction. The forward direction will usually be for current
flowing from the busbar to the feeder.
KCEG 142 and KCEU 142 relays only, are supplied with additional links PFE and
EFE. They enable the direction of the third overcurrent and earth fault stages to be
reversed. There is also the option to select 2/3 logic for all phase trip and start
outputs, by setting link PFF = 1. The 2/3 logic requires more than one phase to
operate before an output is given. These features may not be found in the very first
models manufactured.

6.2

Directional start output


When the current threshold I> is exceeded and the polarising signal is above the
threshold Vp>, an output is directed to the [0B06 I> Fwd] mask for forward current
flow and to the [0B07 I> Rev] for reverse current flow. A non-directional start can
be obtained by allocating the same output relay in both start masks so that it
operates for forward or reverse current flow.
If all three elements are selected to be non directional (links PF3, PF4 and PF5 set
to 0) then the forward start will become a non-directional start, but the reverse
start will retain its directionality (on the series 1 relays, KCEG110/130/140/150,
the reverse start was inhibited when all three elements were selected to be non
directional).

6.3

Directional first stage overcurrent


If link PF3=0 the time delay t> will start timing when the current exceeds the I>
setting to give a non-directional trip via the appropriate relay mask [0B08 tA>],
[0B09 tB>], or [0B0A tc>]. With link PF3 set to 1 the time delay will only run if
the current exceeds the I> threshold and is in the forward direction. External
control is asserted via input mask [0A04 Blk t>] and when this input is energised
the time delay is reset to zero after the reset delay (tRESET).

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R8551D
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Directional second and third overcurrent stages


Elements I>>/t>> and I>>>/t>>> can also be selectively directional, or nondirectional. To directionalise them links PF4 and PF5 respectively, should be set to
1. If these links are set to 0 then the elements will be non-directional. The delay
has a definite time characteristic for these elements, which can be blocked via the
appropriate input mask [0A05 Blk I>>] and [0A06 Blk I>>>]. There are no start
functions associated with these two elements.

6.5

Directional earth fault logic


The logic for the earth fault element is similar to that described for phase faults.
An independent set of software links, input masks and relay masks are provided to
give optimum flexibility to the user.

6.6

Application of directional phase fault relays


It is normal practice to set the characteristic angle of the relay (c) to the angle
between the prospective fault current and the polarising voltage. A fault will then
lie at the centre of the directional characteristic. For a three phase fault the fault
current will normally lag the phase voltage by an angle of 45 to 60. However
the polarising voltage is the quadrature line voltage, which lags the phase voltage
by 90. Thus if the fault current lags the phase voltage by an angle (), the angle
difference with respect to the polarising voltage will be (90 ).
Thus characteristic angle setting for the relay will be the phase angle of the fault
current with respect to the polarising voltage. Thus c = (90 ) and so for a fault
angle of 60 the setting for c will be +30.
K Range series 2 relays have the range for the characteristic angle setting
increased to 180, so that it is possible to reverse the direction of operation.
For the above example the characteristic angle setting is +30 for operation when
current flows from the busbar to the feeder, so for operation when current flows
from the feeder to the busbar the characteristic angle must be shifted by 180.
Thus for operation in the reverse direction c = (90 + ) = 150.
The minimum operating value of the voltage input to the directional overcurrent
relay should be as low as practicable from the aspect of correct directional
response of the relay itself. This follows because of the important requirement for
the relay to achieve correct directional response during a short circuit fault close to
the relay when the voltage input can be below 1% of rated value. Furthermore,
there is no restriction on the minimum operating value from the aspect of the power
system or voltage transformer performance. Hence the threshold for the phase fault
elements of the KCEG relays has been set at 0.006Vn.

6.7

Synchronous polarisation
The phase directional elements are polarised by the quadrature line voltage,
referred to a cross polarisation, they will always have a polarising signal for closeup phase to phase faults. However, for close-up three phase faults the polarising
voltage may be lost completely and synchronous polarising is then used.
The phase angle of the line voltages with respect to the sampling frequency is
measured for each cycle and the last value measured is stored in memory.
When the polarising signal is lost the last stored phase reference for the voltage is
used for the directional decision. The phase angle of the current relative to the
sampling frequency is measured and from this is subtracted the stored phase angle
of the polarising voltage to give the phase angle of the current with respect to the

PF2
0
1

PFC
0
1

PF1
0
1

EF2
0
1

EF1
0
1

REV

FWD

FWD
REV

REV

FWD

FWD

&

I>>>

REV

FWD

0A06
BLK t>>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

I<

I>>

BLK t>>
0A05
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

I>

0A04
BLK t>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Io>>>

FWD
0A03
BLK to>>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Io>>

0A02
BLK to>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Io>

0A01
BLK to>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

PFE

EFE
0

Figure 24: Directional overcurrent relay logic

PF5

&

PF4

EF4
0
1

PF4

&

&

&

&

&

PF3

EF5
0
1

EF4
0
1

EF3
0
1

t>>>

t>>

t>
1

PF5

to>>>

to>>

EF5
0
1

to>

PF7
0
1

PFF
0

2
1

1
PFF
0

2
1

PFF
0

PFF
0

PFF
0

&

&

&

&

&

&

&

0B0C t>>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0B0B t>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0B07 I> REV START


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0B06 I> FWD START


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0B0A tC>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0B09 tB>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0B08 tA>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0B05 to>>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0B02 Io> REV START


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0B04 to>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0B01 Io> FWD START


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0B03 to>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Broken conductor
stage 3 overcurrent

Stage 2 overcurrent

Start overcurrent

Stage 1 overcurrent

Stage 3 earth fault

Stage 2 earth fault

Start earth fault

Stage 1 earth fault

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 39 of 60

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 40 of 60

polarising voltage and this is compared with the set operational angle limits for
operation. Because the relay tracks the frequency the stored phase reference for
the voltage holds good even though the frequency may drift during the fault and
hence the term synchronous polarisation.
The duration of the synchronous polarisation is 320ms, but an option is now
provided to extend this to 3.2s to allow operation of the IDMT element.
The duration is selected with link [PFB]. For PFB=0 duration is 320ms and for
PFB=1 duration it is increased to 3.2s. The longer duration will be useful when
fault current is limited and the operation time of the relay is expected to be
relatively slow for close-up faults.
6.8

Application of directional earth fault relays


The earth fault elements use the residual voltage as the polarising quantity.
With the KCEG 142/242 relays this voltage is internally derived from the three
phase/neutral voltages applied to the relay. With the KCEG 112/152 this voltage
has to be externally derived from an open delta winding on the line voltage
transformers, or via star/open delta interposing voltage transformers.
Note that the KCEU 142/242 relays measure residual voltage by means of an
internal resistor network and VT. However, the external VT connections to the relay
are the same as those for the KCEG 142/242 relays, namely three phase and one
neutral connection. This is therefore applicable where a suitable star connected VT
winding is available. However, for applications where there is only a broken delta
winding available to polarise the relay, this is accommodated by connecting the
relay as shown in Figures 21 and 22, Appendix 3. From this figure it can be seen
that the residual voltage must be applied between one phase voltage input and
neutral, ensuring that the remaining two phase voltage inputs are tied down to
neutral. It is important that these two connections are not left floating, as an
incorrect residual voltage measurement would result.
The characteristic angle will be directly as marked for earth faults and lagging
angles of between 0 to 60 may be used as appropriate, dependent on the
system earthing arrangements.
When providing sensitive earth fault protection for an insulated system a core
balance transformer is recommended. Where this is oriented as for an earthed
system ie. with the relay looking down the feeder, the relay characteristic angle
should be set to +90. If the current transformer is reversed, anticipating capacitive
current flow from the feeder onto the busbar, 90 should be used.
In such applications, relatively sensitive current settings will be required for the
directional earth fault relay. The standard setting range of the earth fault elements
in the KCEG relay models goes down to 0.5% of rated current. If settings more
sensitive than this are required, the KCEG 112 and KCEG 152 models can be
supplied with a setting range matching that of the KCEU models, namely, down to
0.1% of In. For complete details on available setting ranges, refer to Technical
Data section Chapter 7.
More detailed information regarding application of the KCEG 112/152 relays to
insulated systems, is available in a separate application guide, reference R6554.
Where a directional relay is used to prevent sympathetic tripping of the earth fault
overcurrent element, which would otherwise result from the currents flowing via the
cable capacitance to earth, an angle setting of +45(lead) is recommended.

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KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 41 of 60

For earth faults the minimum operating value of the residual voltage input to the
directional earth fault relay is determined by power system imbalance and voltage
transformer errors. The zero sequence voltage on a healthy distribution system can
be as high as 1.0%, also the voltage transformer error can be 1.0% per phase
which results in a possible spurious residual voltage as high as 2.0% under healthy
conditions. In order to take account of both of the foregoing quantities and thus
eliminate unwanted relay operation it is necessary to introduce a minimum
operating value of up to 3.5%. In practice, a choice of settings of say 2.0% to
4.0% should be considered, with perhaps 10% and 20% for high resistance and
insulated neutral systems respectively. The setting for Vop> will be found in the
EARTH FAULT setting column of the menu and should be set appropriately, taking
the above notes into account.
Note: The KCEG 140 required a residual voltage in excess of 6%Vn before the
voltage threshold circuit would function, regardless of the Vop> setting.
With the KCEG 142/242 the sensitivity of this circuit has been improved to
less than 0.6%Vn.
For protection of arc suppression (Petersen) coil earthed systems, a sensitive current
setting is required to enable accurate detection of the relatively small currents
flowing under fault conditions. Angles in the region of +5(lead), 0, 5(lag) are
common, with the relays having suitably fine setting adjustment of 1.
6.9

Power directional earth fault element


An alternative option for arc suppression (Petersen) coil earthed systems is
provided by the KCEU 142/242 relays. These relays operate when the power
measured in the residual circuit exceeds the power setting (Po>). Power is
measured in watts and is equal to VIcos.
Po>
Thus for operation the residual current must exceed
before it can operate.
Vo cos
The residual current required to operate the relay is high when there is little
residual voltage. By virtue of this feature the relay effectively ignores any residual
spill current, resulting from mismatch of the line CTs, due to the fact that there is
negligible zero sequence voltage present under load conditions.
The power characteristic is relative to the set characteristic angle (fc), which will
typically be set to 0. To reverse the direction of operation the characteristic angle
is changed by 180.
Note: If the power setting Po> = 0, then the normal directional characteristic will
be operative instead of the power characteristic.
More detailed information regarding the application of the KCEU 142,242 relays
to Petersen Coil Earthed systems, is available in a separate application guide,
reference R6554.

6.10

Directional stability for instantaneous elements


Directional relays are required to withstand a fault in the reverse direction without
operating. In addition they are required to remain stable (ie. not operate) when the
reverse fault current is removed and the current falls to zero, or to a level that is
below the current setting of the relay and in a forward direction. With time
delayed protection, directional stability is not usually a problem, but with
directionalised instantaneous overcurrent relays it is much more difficult to achieve
and momentary operation may occur when the fault is removed.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 42 of 60

The software of the K Range relays has been arranged to reduce transient
operation to a minimum, but even so it is advisable to set the associated time delay
for any directional overcurrent element to between 40ms and 200ms, depending
on the system X/R ratio and the maximum fault level, to ensure stability under this
condition.
For a two phase to earth fault, close to the operating boundary, one definite time
phase element may give a directional decision that is different to the other two and
could be considered to be incorrect. To eliminate the protection performing in a
way that is not expected a better decision can be made by setting link PFF = 1 to
activate the 2/3 logic on both the trip and start outputs. Earth fault protection will
then be essential to clear single phase faults. This was not a problem with
directionalised IDMT protection because of its inherent current/time characteristic.
6.11

Protection of circuits with multiple in-feeds


For the blocked overcurrent protection to be applied to a feeder that can be fed
from either end, or a busbar with multiple in-feeds, a directional feature must
incorporated. The START elements of any relay that detects current flowing from the
protected zone must block the operation of any relays that detect current flowing
into the protected zone. The directional feature is used to establish if the current is
flowing into, or out of, the protected zone. The principle can be applied to the
protection of busbars, parallel feeders, as shown in the following example, and it
is also suited to ring circuits to simplify grading problems.
The following diagram shows a busbar with several feeders connected to it and
divided by a bus section circuit breaker. The dotted lines indicate the zones of
protection that can be formed using short time overcurrent protection arranged in a
blocked overcurrent scheme. The basic IDMT protection is still applied in the
traditional fashion, but is now augmented by the additional overcurrent elements
within the feeder protection arranged to provide unit protection for both their
associated feeder the bus section to which the feeder is connected.
Incomer

Incomer

KCEG
142

KCEG
142

KCEG
142

Feeder 1

KCEG
142

KCEG
142

Feeder 2

Figure 25: Circuit with multiple infeeds

KCEG
142

KCEG
142

Feeder 3

Feeder 4

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
6.11.1

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 43 of 60

Blocked directional overcurrent protection


Because the busbar is divided by a circuit breaker an extra directional overcurrent
relay is required to divide the protection into a separate zone for the bus sections.
The standard connections used for the relays connected to each feeder is such that
the forward start relays operate for fault current flowing from the busbar to the
feeder and the reverse start for fault current flowing towards the busbar. For the
bus section relay the forward start operates for current flowing from the left hand
to the right hand bus section.

6.11.2

Blocked overcurrent protection for the feeder


The KCEG 142 relays will usually be arranged to protect the feeder and the
forward direction will then be for current flow from the busbar to the feeder.
The current threshold for the I>>/Io>> element would be set above any transient
loads. They can be prevented from overreaching the ends of the feeder and
operating for faults beyond the busbars, by applying the blocked directional
overcurrent principle. This forms a unit protection scheme for the feeder and can
be useful when the normal time grading steps are not possible.
Set links PF4 = 1 and EF4 = 1 for these elements to be directionalised, so that they
will not operate for faults on the busbar behind them. Then to prevent them
overreaching the remote busbar the reverse start contact of the relay at the other
end of the line is arranged to block the t>>/to>> time delays via a logic input.
For a fault on the feeder, current will only be seen to flow in the forward direction,
into the feeder, and so the protection will operate. This arrangement is also tolerant
to high transient loads, so allowing the short time elements to be set closer to the
load current.

6.11.3

Blocked overcurrent protection for the bus section


The circuits connected to the left hand bus section in Figure 25 are the incomer,
feeders 1 & 2 and the bus section. The I>>>/Io>>> elements of each relay may
be used to form the blocked directional overcurrent protection for this application.
The I>>>/Io>>> elements shall be directionalised by setting function links PF5 = 1
and EF5 = 1. The forward direction for these relays will be for current flowing from
the bus zone to a feeder, so it will be necessary to reverse the direction of
operation for the third stage by setting links PFE = 1 and EFE = 1.
The forward start contacts from each relay are used to define the boundary of the
bus zone. To do this, the forward start contacts of each relay connected to a zone
are connected in parallel across a pair of buswires and arranged to block the
operation of both the t>>>/to>>> time delays of each relay when current flows
from the busbar by any legitimate path. Thus if fault current flows away from the
busbar the overcurrent protection is blocked and if current flows towards the
busbar and does not flow away down any other legitimate circuit the busbar
overcurrent protection operates to clear the fault.
Previous notes on this application referred to the use of a non directional element
to cover the bus zone. However, based on experience we now recommend the use
of directional elements for improved stability. Stability can be further improved by
applying 2/3 logic to all phase fault start and trip outputs. However, operation of
the earth fault element will then be essential to cover single phase faults and for
solidly earthed systems the zero sequence voltage should be calculated to ensure
that there is sufficient to operate the relay at the minimum fault current.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 44 of 60

Application of Midos K Range relays for single and double busbar protection is
further described in publications R4112 and R4114.
Note: The response of directional overcurrent relays to power system disturbances
will vary with the earthing arrangements. It is not practical to consider all
configurations of the power system and so the application notes in this
document can only be a general guide. Each application will need to be
engineered to suit the system.

Section 7.

THERMAL OVERCURRENT

The thermal overload protection shares the time constant setting with the thermal
ammeters and thus a compromise will be necessary if they are to be used at the
same time. It is recommended that the time constant is chosen to suit the protection
in such instances. The settings for the time constant (TC), the continuous thermal
current rating (Ith>) and the thermal alarm (th>) will be found in the menu columns
containing the phase fault settings.
The time constant can be set between 1 minute and 120 minutes in 1 minute steps
and the thermal current setting (Ith>) can be adjusted between 0.08In and 3.2In.
The thermal protection responds to I2 and will operate faster as the current
increases, but for currents in access of 5.3 times rated current the operation time
will remain the same as that for 5.3 times rated current. This will not be a problem
in practice because the normal IDMT, or definite time, protection will normally
have taken over at a lower level of current.
0
1
PF0

Alarm
0A11
RESET Ith
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Trip
Thermal
reset

0B17
th ALARM
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0B18
th TRIP
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Figure 26: Thermal alarm and trip logic

7.1

Thermal state
In simplified terms the thermal state is a percentage thermal current limit that has
been attained by the thermal replica. The thermal state will be found under
MEASURE 3 in cell 0407 and can be displayed on the front of the relay by
viewing this cell or selecting it from the default display.
The thermal state = I2[1-e-t/T]/[Ith>]2 x 100 = %Ith>
Final value of thermal state =

[highest thermal ammeter reading]2


[continuous thermal current limit]2

x100%

The thermal state will tend to 100% when the highest of the three thermal ammeters
is displaying a current equal to the set thermal current limit (Ith>).
The time to reach 100% will depend upon:
Applied current
Prefault load current
Thermal time constant
Continuous thermal rating

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
7.2

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 45 of 60

Thermal trip and alarm levels


A thermal trip will be given via the output mask [0B18 th Trip] when the thermal
state reaches 110%. This is equivalent to the current being in excess of 1.05Ith>.
It should be noted that the thermal trip will remain asserted until the replica cools
and the thermal state falls below the trip level.
In addition an alarm setting can be set for a thermal state between 0% and 110%.
When this threshold is exceeded an output can be obtained via the alarm output
mask [0B17 th Alarm].

7.3

Operation time
The operation time characteristic is given by he following expression:
t = T.LOGe

Ix2 P
Ix2 1.10

where
t
T
Ix
P
P

= time in minutes
= selected time contstant
= current in multiples (Ith>)
= (per unit of prefault load)2
= (IL/Ith>)2

The characteristic curves will be found in the appendix to this document where the
times are shown as a multiple of the selected time constant for various levels of
prefault load.
7.4

Thermal memory
When the auxiliary energising supply is lost the thermal state is stored in non
volatile memory. On restoration of the supply the thermal state is restored.
However, if the stored value of the thermal state is in excess of 90%, the restored
thermal state will be set to 90%.

7.5

Thermal reset
The thermal state can be reset to zero after the password has been entered by
performing a reset function on cell [0407 Thermal] under MEASURE 3. This can be
achieved via the user interface of the relayby pressing the reset key [0] for one
second whilst this cell is displayed, or by a 'reset cell' command via the serial port.
However, this cell is protected and the password must be entered before it can be
reset.
Alternatively, the thermal state can be reset by energising a logic input that has
been allocated in the input mask [0A11 RESET th]. All input masks are password
protected against change, but once a logic input has been assigned to this function
it is not necessary to enter the password again before the reset function can
respond to this input being energised.
Note: The thermal state cannot be reset whilst viewing cell 0407 from the default
display.
If the thermal state is greater than 90% it will be reset to 90% after a break
in the auxiliary supply.
If link PF0 = 0 in either setting group, then the thermal state will not reset to
zero when that group is selected. If the thermal protection is not to be used

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 46 of 60

the thermal state should be manually reset to zero to clear the memorised
state.
7.6

Dual time constant characteristics


It is possible to set different time constants in setting group 1 and 2 and so
produce dual characteristics with dual time constants in a similar way to the
composite curves described in Section 4.8. For such an application the setting
group will be arranged to change in response to the current exceeding one of the
current thresholds I>> or I>>>.

7.7

Application of thermal protection


The thermal protection characteristic can be used to protect electrical equipment in
such a way that the full thermal capacity is utilised with due regard to the thermal
inertia, but in a manner that prevents unacceptable temperatures from being
attained. It can be applied to standard high voltage cables with natural cooling
and to dry type power transformers.
The setting (Ith>) should be set to the maximum continuously rated current for the
protected item of plant. If the current transformer (CT) ratio has been entered then
this will be in primary quantities, but if the CT ratio has been set to 1:1 then the
continuous rated current entered should be that referred to the secondary winding
of the CT.
The appropriate thermal time constant (T) must be entered and the following table
gives some suggested values for typical cables. The curves for the thermal
characteristic are to be found in the appendix to this document and it will be seen
that they take due account of the pre-load current.
The typical values of time constants in the following table are paper insulated lead
sheathed cables, or polyethylene insulated cables laid above ground or in
conduits.
Rated voltage of cable

Conductor
cross
section (mm)2

6 to 11kV
T minutes

22kV
T minutes

33kV
T minutes

66kV
T minutes

25

10

15

35

10

15

50

10

15-25

40

70

15

25

40

95

15

25

40

60

120

20

25

40

60

150

25

40

50

60

185

25

40

60

60

240

40

40

60

75

300

40

60

60

90

Typical time constant values for cables

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

Other protectable items

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 47 of 60

T minutes

Dry-type transformers

40

Air-cored reactors

40

Capacitor banks

10

Overhead lines from 100mm2 Cu or 150mm2 Al

10

Busbars

60

Typical time constants for other protected plant items

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

Section 8.

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 48 of 60

UNDERCURRENT

These elements provide a quick response to an undercurrent condition when they


are used to terminate the breaker fail timer sequence and close the fault records
etc. To achieve this the peak value of each both half cycles of current are
compared with the current setting threshold I<. An undercurrent indication is
indicated given when the peak value of either the positive, or negative, half cycle
is below the I< threshold giving a theoretical detection time of half a cycle.
A logical OR function is performed on the outputs of the three phase fault
undercurrent elements to produce an output when an undercurrent condition is
detected in all three phases. Similarly the peak value of the residual current is
compared with the earth fault undercurrent threshold Io< to produce a separate
output.
The undercurrent elements are also be used to provide some additional functions in
conjunction with the auxiliary timers, but it should be remembered that they are
responsive to peak measurement and will be more responsive to the harmonic
content of the waveform.
8.1

Breaker failure protection


Reset start relays

0A09 EXT. TRIP


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

I<
Io<

tBF

LOG2
1
0

0B0F
CB FAIL
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

RLY3

Figure 27: Circuit breaker fail logic

The breaker fail timer (tBF) will start to time if relay RLY3 operates and at least one
of the undercurrent elements is detecting current flowing in the circuit. The breaker
fail timer can also be initiated in response to a logic input being energised if that
logic input is allocated in the input mask [0A09 EXT TRIP]. If tBF times out before
the undercurrent element, relay RLY3, and the external trip reset, then the output
mask [0B0F BF] will be energised and any output relay assigned in this mask will
pick-up. If this relay picks-up the circuit breaker is assumed to have failed to clear
the fault and this output relay can be then used to back trip the next circuit breaker,
nearer the source, to clear the fault.
If a blocked overcurrent scheme is in use, logic link LOG2 can be set to 1.
This will cause the start relays to reset releasing the block on the upsteram relay to
allow it to trip directly and clear the fault.
The time delay (tBF) will typically have a setting in the range of 200 to 400ms.
The exact time will depend on the sum of the delays in the tripping path including
the operation time of the circuit breaker.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

Section 9.

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 49 of 60

UNDERVOLTAGE

The undervoltage elements can be selected to respond to changes in line voltage


by setting link PFA=0, or to the phase voltage by setting link PFA=1. The following
time delay tV< can be selected to time when ALL three phase elements indicate an
undervoltage condition by setting link PF9=0. Alternatively the delay can be
selected to start in response to any one, or more, elements indicating an
undervoltage condition by setting link PF9=1. One, or more, output relays can be
assigned in mask [0B13 tV<] to pick-up when the undervoltage condition has been
present for longer than the set time tV<.

PF8
0
1

V<

0A0E CB CLOSED IND


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

&
1

PF9
0
1

tV<

0B13 tV<
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Figure 28: Undervoltage logic

The undervoltage function can be selectively blocked when the circuit breaker is
open if link PF8=1. A logic input should be energised via an auxiliary contact of
the circuit breaker that will be closed when the circuit breaker is closed. This logic
input will indicate when the circuit breaker is closed and must then be assigned in
the input mask [0A0E CB CLOSED]. If the undervoltage element is to be
operational when the circuit breaker is open then set link PF8=0, then assigning a
logic input in mask [0A0E CB CLOSED] is not essential to the operation of the
undervoltage function.
9.1

Undervoltage trip
An undervoltage trip is often used to isolate the supplies to machinary when the
source of electrical supply is lost. This is a safety feature that prevents equipment
starting-up unexpectedly when the supplies are eventually restored.
The undervoltage elements can arranged to trip the circuit breaker when all three
phase voltages have been lost and for this application it does not matter if the
phase, or the line, voltages are used. It is advisable to block the undervoltage trip
function when the circuit breaker is open, otherwise the trip command will be
maintained and reclosing of the circuit breaker may be prevented.
Set links as follows: PF8 = 1; PF9 = 0, or 1; PFA = 0.
An appropriate delay may be applied to tV< to prevent tripping on voltage dips.
Assign relay RLY3 in output mask [0B17 tV<].
Assign a logic input, to indicate CB closed, in input mask [0A0E CB CLOSED].
These settings will be applicable to trigger the disturbance recorder for an
undervoltage condition, but it would be advisable to assign an alternative relay to
RLY3, because this relay is assigned functions that cause the fault flags to be
latched.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
9.2

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 50 of 60

Voltage controlled overcurrent protection


Applications where the fault current may be less than the nominal full load,
eg. generation current decrement, or remote back-up protection of long feeders,
will benefit from the application of voltage controlled overcurrent protection.
Discrimination between low load current and a low fault current is achieved by
detecting the reduction in the line voltage, at the relaying point, that is present
during a fault and not during normal load conditions. For this application the
following settings should be applied to the relay:
Set links as follows: PF8 = 1; PF9 = 1, or 1; PFA = 0 (the line voltage is used to
prevent operation during earth fault).
Assign a logic input, to indicate CB closed, in input mask [0A0E CB CLOSED].
Assign any relay, but not RLY3, in output mask [0B17 tV<] and externally wire this
contact to energise an unused logic input and then assign this input in mask [0A0D
SEL GRP2]. This will select the group 2 settings when an undervoltage condition
occurs.
Apply normal settings for phase faults in group 1and the appropriate lower phase
fault settings in group 2.

Section 10. UNDER FREQUENCY


The under frequency threshold (F<) is used in conjunction with an auxiliary timer to
provide a load shedding function. Setting link PFD = 1 will enable the under
frequency element to initiate tAUX1 when the frequency falls below the setting F<
provided a logic input is assigned in the input mask [0A0A AUX1] is energised, to
give a time delayed output via any relay assigned in the output mask [0B10
AUX1]. This will usually be relay RLY3, the main trip relay. This feature enables the
load shedding to be graded by both frequency and time.
The frequency measurement will default to the set rated frequency when the signals
are too small to measure and provided the under frequency setting is lower than
this no output should occur. However, it is known that when a circuit breaker is
opened there may be small signals present due to mutual coupling, or ringing
effects, that generate signals to which the underfrequency element can respond.
In such cases the underfrequency can be gated with some other function such as a
lowset overcurrent element, or the circuit breaker closed indication via the input
mask [0A0A AUX1].

Section 11. AUXILIARY TIMERS


When the auxiliary timers tAUX1, tAUX2, and tAUX3 are not being used by the
internal logic of the relay they may be used as discrete time delay elements.
Timers tAUX1 and tAUX2 will start to time when a logic input assigned in their
input masks is energised. They will then energise an output relay assigned in their
associated output masks after the set time has elapsed. Time delays can be set
from 0.01s up to 24 days.
Timer tAUX2 may be used as a discrete time delay function, or to give delayed
initiation of tAUX3. It can also be used to give longer reset delays for the
disturbance recorder (see the section on Disturbance Recorder).

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KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 51 of 60

Timer tAUX3 is slightly different to tAUX1 and tAUX2 in it can be selected to give a
delay on pick-up as in series 1 relays, or alternatively a delay on drop-off.
Software link LOGB is used to make the selection. Set LOGB = 0 for delay on pickup and LOGB = 1 for delay on drop-off.

0A0A AUX1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

PFD=1
0
1

0B10 AUX1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

tAUX1
F<

I<

SD8
0
1
LOG3
0
1
LOG4
0
1

3SEC

0A0B AUX2
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

I<

Recorder
stopped

Io<

&

0A0C AUX3
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

tAUX2
1

tAUX3

0
1
LOGB

SD8
0
1

SD5
0
1
SD6
0
1

Reset trip flags

Recorder
stopped

0
1
LOG6

Reset
disturbance
recorder

0B11 AUX2
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0B12 AUX3
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Figure 19: Auxiliary timer logic

The cold load start timer has been deleted in the K Range series 2 relays and when
this function is required tAUX3 should be utilised with link LOGB = 1. For delayed
initiation of the cold load start, set link LOG6 = 1 when the delayed initiation will
be given by tAUX2.
11.1

Extra earth fault stage


Setting link LOG4=1 will enable the earth fault undercurrent element Io< to start
tAUX2 when the current exceeds the Io< setting. This gives a fourth earth fault
stage, but note that this element is responsive to peak measurement and will not
provide a high degree of rejection to harmonic currents.

11.2

Loss of load protection


Setting link LOG3=1 will enable the phase fault undercurrent elements to start
tAUX2 when the current is less than the I< setting. This can be used to start the
cold load start sequence in retrofit installations. It can also be used to indicate loss
of critical loads.

11.3

Delayed under frequency trip


Setting link PFD=1 will enable the under frequency element to initiate tAUX1 when
the frequency falls below the setting F<, to give a time delayed output via any
relay assigned in the output mask for tAUX1. This can be used to provide a time
delayed under frequency trip for load shedding. This feature enables the load
shedding to be graded by frequency and time setting.
The under frequency will not maloperate when the signal that is being frequency
tracked is too small to track. This is because the frequency tracking will default to
the set rated frequency and provided the under frequency setting is lower than this
no output will occur.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 52 of 60

Section 12. SETTING GROUP SELECTION


The relay has two setting groups, but as supplied only setting group 1 will be
visible. To make the second group of settings visible in the menu, set function link
SD4=1 in the SYSTEM DATA column. The value of the group 2 settings is
unimportant when link SD4 = 0, because group 1 settings will be in use by default.
The menu cell 000E, in the SYSTEM DATA column, is a read only cell that displays
the setting group that is in operation.
Note: The logic associated with the change of setting group has changed from
that in the original K Range relay and the following notes only apply to
K Range series 2 relays.

LOG8
0
1

SD3
0
1

0A0C
AUX3
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0
1
LOGB

tAUX3

STG GRP 2
0A0D
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Remote set Grp2


Remote reset Grp1

SET
RESET

1
LOG6

0B12 AUX3
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
LOG5
0
1

SD4
0
1

Change to setting group


2

1
0

Figure 30: Setting group selection logic

12.1

Remote change of setting group


Link [SD3] must be set to 1 before the relay will respond to a remote command
to change the selected setting group. Because the command cannot be sustained
over the serial link a set/reset register is used to remember the remotely selected
setting group. When link SD3=1, the set/reset register shall change to 0/1 in
response to the respective commands <Set Group 1>/<Set Group 2> via the serial
port. When the value of set/reset register is 0 then the group 1 settings shall be
in operation and when its value is 1 the group 2 settings will be in operation.
The state of this register stored when the relay is powered down and restored on
power up.
When link SD3=0 the value of the set/reset register will no longer change in
response to remote command and will retain its last set state prior to setting
SD3=0. When link SD3=0 the value of the cell cannot be changed via the serial
port and the value of this register will have no effect on the setting group in use.
Note: If [SD4] = 0 then the group 2 settings will be hidden and group 1 will be
active by default.

12.2

Manual change of setting group


Link [SD4] must be set to 1 to make the second setting group active.
Then manual selection of Setting Group 2 shall be effected by setting link LOG8=1
in the LOGIC column of the menu.

12.3

Controlled change of setting group


Link SD4 must be set to 1 to make the second setting group active. Now an
internally generated control signal from timer tAUX3 via link LOG5 will select
setting group 2. Alternatively, energising a logic input allocated in mask [0A0D
STG GRP2] will select setting group 2. Note that tAUX3 will have a delay on pick-

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 53 of 60

up if link LOGB = 0 and delay on drop-off if LOGB = 1. The logic input could be
energised via the contacts of one of the output relays so that change of setting
group will be in response to some protection function such as an overcurrent
element operating, or the directional contacts changing state. Three example uses
are given below:
Dual rate inverse time curves

[see Section 4.8]

Cold load pick-up

[see Section 5.12]

Dual thermal time constant

[see Section 7.6]

Voltage controlled overcurrent [see Section 9.2]

Section 13. DUAL POWERED RELAYS


Dual powered relays are powered from an AC, or DC, auxiliary supply.
This supply need not be secure because the relay will draw current from the current
transformer circuit in the absence of the auxiliary supply.
Powered from current transformers alone
When powered from the current transformer circuit alone, the minimum current to
operate the relay is that required to establish the power supply rails within the
relay. Lowering the design value of this parameter increases the burden on the
current transformers and the power dissipated within the relay case. The limits are
therefore a compromise based on these factors:
Minimum current to power the relay for phase faults = 0.4In
Minimum current to power the relay for earth faults = 0.2In
However, a combined three phase and earth/ground fault relay will operate with
lower earth/ground fault current settings when the load current in the protected
circuit is sufficient to power the relay ie. greater than 0.4In. Settings less than
0.2In are provided for earth faults, but they must be used with discretion.
0.8

0.6

Time (seconds)

13.1

0.4

0.2

0
7

10

70

Multiple of minimum current to power the relay

Figure 31: Start-up time delay

100

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 54 of 60

When switching onto a fault, the relay will be delayed in operation by the start up
time and this delay will need to be taken into account in any grading exercise.
The delay is the time taken by the processor to initialise its registers, read in
settings from non-volatile memory and perform self checks. There will be an
additional delay whilst the power supply builds up, but this will be less significant
when using an inverse time/current characteristic as the power supply delay
similarly varies with current. The start-up time is not reduced by lowering the time
multiplier setting. With prefault load current there will be no start-up time and the
relays will operate within their normal time settings.
Note: Where the start-up delay cannot be tolerated it is recommended that the
relay is also powered from an auxiliary AC voltage supply so that it can be
up and running before a fault occurs. It will also make stored disturbance
and event records more secure, because they are discarded when the relay
powers down.
13.2

Powered from an auxiliary AC voltage and from current


transformers
The addition of an auxiliary AC, or DC, voltage supply to power the relay will:
enable the settings to be changed when the protected circuit is de-energised.
enable records to be retrieved and control functions to be carried out over the
communication link.
reduce the burden on the line CTs.
When using an auxiliary AC voltage, it may be lost during a fault, when power
will be drawn from the current transformer circuit to maintain the relay in a fully
operational state. However, if the source of the auxiliary voltage is carefully
chosen it is unlikely to be lost completely during earth faults but it may collapse to
50% of its rated value. Provided the voltage is still above the minimum required to
power the relay, very low earth fault settings can be successfully applied. In the
absence of the auxiliary voltage the relay is not guaranteed to operate for earth
fault currents less than 0.2In.
No alarm is given for loss of the ac auxiliary voltage, unless it is externally
monitored by a separate supervision relay.

13.3

Special application notes for dual powered relays


Dual powered relays may be fitted with eight opto-isolated inputs and eight relay
outputs, but at the claimed minimum operating current they cannot all be energised
at the same time. If they are, then the minimum operation current will be increased.
However, in applications requiring a dual powered relay it is unlikely that more
than two output relays will be energised at any one time. The following table
shows how the minimum operating current varies with the number of relays (not
including the watchdog) and inputs that are to be energised at the same time.
No.of output relays energised

8 opto-inputs energised

1.3xImin

1.5xImin

1.7xImin

2.0xImin

6 opto-inputs energised

1.3xImin

1.4xImin

1.6xImin

1.8xImin

4 opto-inputs energised

1.2xImin

1.3xImin

1.5xImin

1.8xImin

2 opto-inputs energised

1.1xImin

1.2xImin

1.4xImin

1.6xImin

Imin = 0.4In for phase faults and 0.2In for earth/ground faults.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
13.4

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 55 of 60

Dead substation protection


The dual powered relays derive power for the electronics and the trip coil of the
circuit breaker from the line current transformers and optionally from an auxiliary
voltage supply. Applying one of these relays on the incoming feeder to the
substation will ensure that the substation is still protected in the event of complete
failure of the auxiliary supplies.
The application limitations are that the setting range of these relays is a little more
restricted when power is being derived from the current transformers alone and
that the circuit breaker must have a suitable trip coil fitted. The tripping energy is
provided by a 680F capacitor charged to 50V and the circuit breaker should
reliably trip when this capacitor is discharged into its trip coil.

13.5

Capacitor discharge tripping


Dual powered relays may use either of the above methods. In addition, these
particular relays charge an internal capacitor from the current circuit and also from
the auxiliary voltage circuit (Figure 32). This capacitor is 680F and it is charged
to 50V dc. It may be discharged directly into a suitably sensitive trip coil via one
of the programmable output relays. The minimum energy fed to the trip coil is that
from the capacitor, but in most cases it will be supplemented by a current from the
auxiliary voltage circuit and/or the current circuit.
When energized from current alone the lowest current for which the relay will
operate will be that necessary to start up the power supply. To be able to use
lower fault settings an auxiliary supply will be required.
The capacitance discharge circuit is not isolated from the auxiliary supply and to
prevent the relay from being damaged, no external ground connection should be
made to this circuit.
Relay

42

RLY3

44
9

Trip

+
10

Figure 32: Capacitor discharge trip

13.6

AC series tripping
As an alternative the trip capacitor in the dual powered relays may be discharged
into an auxiliary relay. This relay will be de-energized in the quiescent state, with
its break contacts short circuiting the trip coils of the circuit breaker (Figure 33).
The trip coils are connected in series with the current transformer secondary circuit
so that, when the auxiliary relay is operated, the full secondary current is diverted
through the trip coils.
To cover all fault conditions, three trip coils are required and may be necessary to
limit the maximum energy that can be fed to each coil, by means of saturating
shunt reactors.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 56 of 60

RELAY

42

RLY3

44
9
+
10

21

TC

TC

23

25

28

MVAZ

TC

Ia
To
line
CTs

Ib

Ic
In

Figure 33: AC series trip arrangement

Section 14. AUTORECLOSE - single shot scheme


In many feeder protection schemes, autoreclose is used as an effective tool to
restore supply following transient faults such as flash overs caused by lightning
strikes.
Areas prone to sever lightning activity usually require multi-shot autoreclose
schemes to deal with multiple strikes. These schemes are quite complex, often
involving enabling and disabling of certain protection functions at each stage and
hence requires complex scheme logic and timing routines as provided in the KAVR
and KVTR relays. However, there are many instances where transient faults are
rare and not justifying dedicated autoreclose schemes, but even so a simple single
shot autoreclose scheme can reduce the number of instances of lost supply due to
these occasional transient faults.
14.1

Overview
The scheme provides a single shot autoreclose function using the scheme logic
capablilities of the KCGG or KCEG overcurrent relays together with a single
external auxiliary relay.
The auxiliary relay is an MVAA 15 relay or similar electrically reset relay, which is
utilised to latch the autoreclose initiate signal. This has the added advantage of
preventing hunting of the scheme.
The autoreclose dead time and reclaim time are controlled by the two auxiliary
timers tAUX2 and tAUX3 that form an integral part of the KCGG/KCEG. Timer
tAUX1 may be included in the scheme to detect unsuccessful reclosures. Of course
these auxiliary timers may already be in use with other K scheme options in which
case they may be replaced by external delay on energisation timers such as the
MVTT 14 or MVUA 11. In K Range series 2 relays only, auxililary timers tAUX3
may be configured for delay on pick-up, or delay on drop-off and for this

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 57 of 60

application it should be set for a delay on pick-up by setting link LOGB = 0


(in K Range series 1 tAUX3 is always delayed on pick-up). Timers tAUX2 and
tAUX3 are always delayed on pick-up.
14.2

Connections
The connection diagram for the scheme using the K Range relay auxiliary timers is
shown in Figure 34.
Equipment list
Device

Function

Device

Function

99-1,2
SW-1
SW-2
PB-1
94
52-a
52-b
FS-1
FS-2

Multifunction protection
Manual trip/close switch
A/R in/out selector switch
Manual A/R reset push button
Electrically reset relay - MVAA 15
CB aux-open when CB open
CB aux-closed when CB open
Trip circuit fuse
Protective relay circuit fuse

FS-3
52T
52C
AUX1
AUX2
AUX3
AUX1-1
AUX2-1
AUX3-1

Close circuit fuse


CB trip coil
CB close coil
Unsuccessful reclose timer
Dead time
Reclaim time
Unsuccessful reclose contact
CB close initiate contact
Successful reclose pulse contact

SW-1/1
TOC
+

FS-1

99-1
(t>, t>>, t>>>)

FS-2

99-2
(t>, t>>, t>>>)

In Out
52T
SW-2/1
Out In

PB-1

94
S
R
MVAA15

AUX3-1

14

13
48V
+
-

94-1

52-b

AUX1
AUX2

52-a

AUX3

AUX2-1

BLOCK
(99-t>>)
CB Close

AUX1-1
FS-3

CB Close -1

SW-1/2
TOC

99
KCGG/KCEG
94-2

Figure 34: Connection diagram for single shot autoreclose scheme

52C

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
14.3

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 58 of 60

Successful reclose description


When the protective relay operates (KCGG or KCEG) to trip the circuit breaker,
the MVAA 15 (device 94) electrically reset relay is latched in, initiating the
autoreclose sequence if the autoreclose service switch SW-2/1 is set to In Service.

99
52-a
52-b
94-1
Aux2
CB Close
Aux3
Aux1
1

1. Protection relay trips


2. AUX2 operates at end of dead time and closes breaker
3. AUX3 operates at end of reclaim time and resets scheme

Figure 35: Successful autoreclose sequence

The 94-1contact starts the AUX2 timer as the dead time of the scheme. At the end
of the dead time, contact AUX2-1 operates to energise the local CB close input to
the KCGG relay, which in turn closes its contact CBClose-1 to energise the CB
close coil 52C. The CB Close function of the K Range relay includes a timer setting
for the duration of the close pulse to prevent burn out of the 52C coil.
The 94-1 contact may also be used, if desired, to block any one or all of the
K range relay overcurrent stages by setting the appropriate input masks. The one
input from 94-1 can then be programmed to initiate CB Close as well as initiate
blocking.
As the 94-1 contact is latched in, as soon as the CB closes, the 52-a contact will
close to initiate the Aux3 timer as the reclaim time. If the breaker remains closed
for the duration of AUX3 reclaim time, the AUX3-1 contact operates to reset the 94
relay which resets the complete scheme. A second contact may be programmed
for the AUX3 timer as a successful reclose pulse contact which will remain closed
for the reset time of 94 plus the reset time of AUX3.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
14.4

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 59 of 60

Unsuccessful reclose
In the case of an unsuccessful reclose, a separate alarm is given by the AUX1
timer.

99
52-a
52-b
94-1
Aux2
CB Close
Aux3
Aux1
1

1. Protection relay trips


2. AUX2 operates at end of dead time and closes breaker
3. Protection relay trips again within reclaim time
4. AUX1 raises unsuccessful reclose alarm
5. Scheme reset by manual push-button - CB can now be closed manually
Figure 36: Unsuccessful autoreclose sequence

As the 94-1 contact is latched in when the autoreclose is initated, if the breaker
fails to close or fails to stay closed following the reclose pulse from CB Close-1, the
52-b contact will initate the AUX1 timer. This timer is set slightly longer (eg. 2s)
than the AUX2 Dead Time timer and raises the Unsuccessful Reclose alarm via
AUX1-1.
As a security against manual closing of the breaker either during a reclose
sequence or if there has been an unsuccessful reclose, the 94-2 contact prevents
the manual close switch energising the 52C coil.
14.5

Blocking instantaneous low set protection when reclosing


When using autoreclose equipment it is often the practice to utilise I>>/Io>> as
instantaneous low set elements. This will ensure that any transient fault is quickly
extinguished so that the autoreclose can then re-establish the supplies. It may be
considered an advantage to block the operation of the instantaneous elements
during the reclose cycle to allow time graded tripping to determine and isolate the
faulted circuits, with the minimum disruption of supplies. As described in Chapter
4, Section 5.5, it is advantageous to block the associated timers for the low set
elements t>>/to>> to ensure accurate flagging of the fault. The output from timer
AUX2 is shown in the diagram to perform this function as well as initiating the
close pulse timer. Setting link SD5 = 1 will result in the fault flags being reset
automatically following a successful reclosure.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 4
Page 60 of 60

Where lightning strikes are frequent, it can be an advantage to make the


I>>/Io>> setting equal to I>/Io>, in order to detect the maximum number of
transient faults.
14.6

Circuit breaker operation counter


Each K Range series 2 relay is equipped with a circuit breaker operation counter,
the value of which can be displayed on the LCD or remotely via the serial
communication port. In addition an output relay can be arranged to pick-up when
the counter value reaches a settable limit (see Chapter 5, Section 7.2). This counter
can be used to augment the autoreclose scheme.

Types KCGG 122, 142


KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242 and
KCEU 142, 242
Overcurrent and Directional Overcurrent
Relays
Service Manual

Chapter 5
Measurement and Records

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 5
Contents

1.
1.1
1.2
1.3

MEASURE 1
Current
Voltage
Frequency

1
1
1
1

2.
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4

MEASURE 2
Imax
Power
Power mode selection
Three phase power factor

1
1
1
2
2

3.
3.1
3.2
3.3

MEASURE 3
Thermal ammeter
Thermal state
Peak demand

3
3
4
4

4.
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4

FAULT RECORDS
Generating fault records
Accessing fault records
Resetting fault records
Fault passage information

4
5
5
5
6

5.
5.1
5.2
5.3

EVENT RECORDS
Triggering event records
Time tagging of event records
Accessing and resetting event records

6
6
6
7

6.
6.1
6.2
6.3
6.4
6.5
6.6
6.7

DISTURBANCE RECORDS
Recorder control
Recorder capture
Recorder post trigger
Recorder logic trigger
Recorder relay trigger
Notes on recorded times
Disturbance recorder reset options

7
7
8
8
8
8
8
9

7.
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4

CIRCUIT BREAKER MAINTENANCE RECORDS


Circuit breaker clearance time
Circuit breaker operations counter
Circuit breaker contact duty
Circuit breaker maintenance alarm

9
9
10
10
10

8.
8.1
8.1.1
8.1.2
8.2
8.3

ALARM RECORDS
Watchdog
Auxiliary powered relays
Dual powered relays
Trip indication
Alarm indication

11
11
11
11
11
11

Figure 1:
Figure 2:
Figure 3:
Figure 4:

Mode of signing power flow


Record initiation logic
Recorder reset
Circuit breaker alarm

2
5
9
9

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

Section 1.

R8551D
Chapter 5
Page 1 of 11

MEASURE 1

The same menu cells have been retained for measurement values and new cells
have been used for any additional measurements that are now included.
1.1

Current
Current is measured once per power frequency cycle and Fourier is used to extract
the fundamental component. Measurements are made for each of the three phase
currents (Ia, Ib, Ic) and the residual circuit current (Io). These values are stored in
menu cells 0201, 0202, 0203 and 0204 respectively.

1.2

Voltage
The phase/neutral voltages are measured directly when the internal VTs are star
connected. The phase voltages (Va, Vb, Vc) are then stored in menu locations
0208, 0209 and 020A. From the sum of these voltages the residual voltage (Vo) is
calculated. This voltage is equivalent to the output that would be obtained from an
open delta connection of a three phase VT and is three times the zero sequence
voltage. The residual voltage Vo is stored in menu location 020B. The phase
voltages are calculated from the measured phase voltages and stored in menu
locations 0205, 0206 and 0207.
In KCEU 142/242 the internal VTs are delta connected. The line voltages (Vab,
Vbc, Vca) and the residual voltage (Vo) are then directly measured and stored in
their respective menu locations.

1.3

Frequency
The sampling frequency of the analogue/digital converter is synchronised to the
power system frequency when there is a signal of sufficient strength to reliably
make a frequency measurement. In the absence of a signal to frequency track the
sampling frequency defaults to the power frequency setting in menu cell 0009.
For protection functions the measured frequency defaults to the power frequency
setting when the current and voltage is zero. The displayed frequency
measurement will also be the sampling frequency, but in this case it will read 0
when the frequency tracking stops.

Section 2.
2.1

MEASURE 2

Imax

Imax is not a demand value, but the highest of the three phase currents and is
stored in menu cell 0304. It is a useful value to display when all three phase
currents cannot be displayed.
2.2

Power
Active and reactive power is calculated for each of the three phases and from
these the three phase power is calculated. On series 1 relays only the three phase
power could be accessed, but on series 2 relays the single phase values are also
available. All the power measurements are to be found under MEASURE 2.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
2.3

R8551D
Chapter 5
Page 2 of 11

Power mode selection


The standard current and voltage connections, shown on connection diagrams,
follow the convention that forward current flows from the busbar to the feeder.
This will correspond to positive values of active power flowing from the busbar to
the feeder. However, alternative methods of signing the direction of power flow are
provided to suit other application, or users standard. The signing for the active
and reactive power can be changed in menu cell 031E to any of the following four
alternatives:

Lagging kVArs to busbar


Mode 0 = VAr
Mode 1 = VAr
Mode 2 = +VAr
Mode 3 = +VAr

Power to busbar

Power to feeder

Mode 0 = W
Mode 1 = +W
Mode 2 = W
Mode 3 = +W

Mode 0 = +W
Mode 1 = W
Mode 2 = +W
Mode 3 = W

Lagging kVArs to feeder


Mode 0 = +VAr
Mode 1 = +VAr
Mode 2 = VAr
Mode 3 = VAr

Figure 1: Mode of signing power flow

When connected for forward power flow to the feeder then:


Mode 0 Net export signing : + = net export of power and negative VArs
Mode 1 Import to busbar

: + = net power flow to busbar in (a+jB) form.

Mode 2 Export from busbar : + = net power flow to feeder in (a+jB) form.
Mode 3 Net import signing : + = net import of power and negative VArs
As a safeguard against accidental change this cell is password protected.
2.4

Three phase power factor


The three phase power factor is calculated after taking the selected signing mode
into account as follows:
pf = [active power]/[apparent power]
Range: 1<0<+1 [the sign (/+) indicates reverse/forward and not lag/lead]

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

Section 3.
3.1

R8551D
Chapter 5
Page 3 of 11

MEASURE 3

Thermal ammeter
The thermal ammeters have a representative characteristic similar to that produced
by a bi-metal type of instrument, where the movement would be proportional to the
bending of the bi-metal strip as a result of the heat applied. Its time/position
characteristic is essentially exponential during the heating and cooling cycle and
its response is measured in time constants.
This type of instrument does not respond to minor rises or dips in the measured
current. It displays a steady measurement of the average current over the demand
period, equal to six times the selected time constant. In the event of the auxiliary
supply to the relay being lost the thermal values are remembered and restored
when the supply is re-established.
The setting for the time constant is in menu cells 0614 and 0814 and is adjustable
from 1 to 120 minutes in 1 minute steps. However, the time constant is shared with
the thermal protection and if the thermal protection is in use its time constant
settings will probably be given priority over the instrument requirements.
For some applications it may be found to be advantageous to allocate a different
time constant in the group 1 and group 2 settings and to arrange for the setting
group 2 to be selected in response to operation of one of the overcurrent stages.
For example a different cooling time constant could be effective when a motor was
stationary and taking no current, to that when the cooling is increased by
windage.
UK applications
Electricity Supply Industry Specification ESI 50-2 states that the preferred time lag
is 30 minutes and this shall be equal to 6 time constants. Thus for this application
the time constant should be set to 5 minutes.
US applications
In the USA the response of such devices is expressed as the time to reach 90% of
the prospective current and the generally accepted time would seem to be in the
order of 15 minutes. The time to reach 90% of final value is 2.3 time constants and
so for such applications the recommended time constant would be 15/2.3 = 6
minutes.
Note:

Link PF0 =1 for the thermal ammeters to operate.


If PF0 = 0 then they will neither increment nor decrement.
It is recommended that the thermal demand registers are manually reset to
zero after setting PF0 = 0 as this will clear the thermal memory of the
ammeters.
If link PF0 is set differently in the two setting groups, the thermal memory
may maintain a constant reading on the thermal ammeters after switching
to the setting group in which PF0 = 0.

The thermal ammeters cannot be directly reset by performing a reset cell operation
on menu cell 0404, 0405 or 0406. They are password protected and only reset
when the peak demand registers are reset (see Section 3.3).

SERVICE MANUAL
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KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
3.2

R8551D
Chapter 5
Page 4 of 11

Thermal state
The thermal state is a measure of the percentage of the limiting thermal capacity
that the protected item of plant is estimated to have reached. The maximum current
that the device can withstand continuously should be entered as the setting for
(Ith>) in the phase fault settings of the relay (cells 0613 and 0813). The time
constant will compensate for the cooling effects resulting from heat being radiated
to the surroundings. When a current equal to Ith> is applied the thermal state will
reach 100% after approximately 6 times the set time constant. Normal load current
will be less than Ith> and the thermal state, being proportional to I2 will be
considerably lower than 100%.
On loss of the auxiliary supply the thermal state is memorised and when the supply
is restored the thermal state is restored to the memorised value unless the stored
value is greater than 90% when it will be restored to 90%. The thermal state is
protected and the password must be entered before it can be reset via the menu.
Cell 0407 under MEASURE 3 should then be displayed and the [0] key pressed
for 1 second. This does not reset the thermal ammeters or the peak demand values.
The thermal state can also be reset by energising a logic input assigned in input
mask [0A11 RESET Ith]. Energising this input will reset the thermal state without
resetting the peak demand ammeters. The password does not need to be entered
to reset by this method.

3.3

Peak demand
The peak demand is the highest value the thermal ammeters have attained since
they were last reset and the demand for each phase is recorded separately.
The peak demand can be reset by entering the password, selecting one of the
peak demand values in the menu, cells 040A, 040B, or 040C, and pressing the
reset key [0]. This will also cause the thermal ammeters to reset at the same time
but the thermal state will not be reset.

Section 4.

FAULT RECORDS

A full fault record is now stored for each of the last five faults, with the new record
overwriting the oldest record one. These records are stored in non volatile memory
and are retained when the relay is powered down. Fault records contain the
following information:
fault flags
three line voltages
measured phase currents
residual current and voltage
time from trip command to cessation of current flow
Fault records are also recorded with a time tag in the event recorded

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
4.1

SD2
0
1

R8551D
Chapter 5
Page 5 of 11

Generating fault records


Block start

L TRIP
0A07
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Trip circuit breaker
0A08
L CLOSE
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Close circuit breaker

0B0D CB TRIP
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

tTRIP

1
1

0A09
EXT. TRIP
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

LOGA
0
1
LOG7
0
1

I<

Io<

RLY3

tBF

LOG9
0
1
LOG2
0
1

tCLOSE
Reset

0B0E CB CLOSE
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

CB FAIL
0B0F
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Generate circuit breaker maintenance
records

1
RLY7
I>
Io>

Latch flags
Generate fault records and
Copy to events records

Figure 2: Record initiation logic

Fault records are generated when output relay RLY3, or a logic input assigned in
the input mask [0A09 EXT TRIP], is energised. The fault flags will be latched and
the trip LED lit in response to these two inputs. The circuit maintenance records will
be updated and the breaker fail protection initiated by either of these two inputs.
Relay RLY7 is used for remote, or manual trip, and can be arranged to trigger the
generation of fault and circuit breaker maintenance records by setting link
LOGA = 1, but in this case the breaker fail protection will not be initiated.
Setting link LOG7 = 1 will enable the start relays to generate a fault record and so
record the passage of fault current, but since if the fault is not cleared by this relay
operating output relay RLY3 or RLY7, the circuit breaker fail protection will not be
initiated, the trip LED will not be lit and the maintenance records will not be
updated.
4.2

Accessing fault records


Fault records can be accessed by selecting [0101 Fault No Fn] in the
[FLT RECORD] column menu. The fault number (Fn) denotes the record for the last
fault and the record for previous faults can be selected by successive long presses
of the [0] key. Fn-1 is the previous fault and Fn-2 is the one before that, etc.
The [0] key enables fault record selection with the cover in place on the relay, but
for remote selection, the usual change setting commands will give a quicker
response. With the cover removed and menu cell [0101 Fault NoFn] displayed,
the [+] and [] keys can be used to change to the required record number.

4.3

Resetting fault records


All five fault records can be cleared by selecting cell 0110, the last cell under fault
records and pressing the [0] key for 1 second.
Note:

If fault records are being viewed with ACCESS or PAS&T software; hit
return key and then select the reset cell option to reset all five fault records.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
4.4

R8551D
Chapter 5
Page 6 of 11

Fault passage information


Any start function can be used to initiate a fault record when it detects the passage
of fault current through the protected zone. This fault record will contain the current
magnitude, the phases involved and voltage measurements, if appropriate.
To achieve this it is necessary to set function link LOG 7 = 1 so that recording is
initiated by the start relays picking up. Several such records may be stored in the
event recorder and the number will be increased if the logging of logic events is
turned off by setting link SD7 = 0.
If the fault records are also generated by relay RLY3 they will still be generated for
faults that are cleared by the relay tripping as well as for those passing through the
protected section. The disturbance recorder, if set to trigger when relay RLY3 picksup, will only capture a record for faults cleared by RLY3 operating.

Section 5.

EVENT RECORDS

Fifty time tagged event records can be stored, after which the oldest record is
overwritten. They are stored in volatile memory and will be lost if the relay is
powered down. The event records can only be accessed via the serial
communication port and PC software is available to support the automatic
extraction and storing of these records.
The following items are recorded by the event recorder:
Fault records including: fault flags, fault currents and voltages.
Setting changes made via the user interface on the front of the relay
Logic events: status change of logic inputs and/or output relays
Alarms: internal equipment alarms detected by self monitoring functions.
The number of full fault records that can be stored in events records can be
increased by setting link SD7 = 0 to inhibit storage of logic events.
5.1

Triggering event records


Event records are triggered automatically in response to the functions listed in the
previous section.

5.2

Time tagging of event records


The K Range relays do not have a real time clock. Instead, they each have a freerunning 32-bit counter that increments every 1ms. When an event occurs, the value
of this millisecond counter is recorded (Ta) and stored in the event buffer.
When the event is extracted, the present value of the millisecond counter is also
sent in the message (Tb). The master station must record the actual time at which it
received the event message (Tc). This is equivalent to Tb if we consider the
transmission time of the event over the communication network to be negligible.
It then calculates how long ago the event occurred by:
How long ago = (Tb Ta) ms
Real time
= (time message was received) (how long ago it occurred)
= (Tc) (Tb Ta) ms
Time tagging is to a resolution of 1ms, the incrementation rate of the counter and
remains valid for approximately 49 days. However, the crystal to control the timing
has a nominal accuracy of 50 ppm, is not externally synchronised and has no
temperature compensation. It can therefore introduce an error of 1s in every 5.5
hours.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 5
Page 7 of 11

The event recording was originally designed for use with automatic extraction
programs running on a personal computer (PC) when these timing errors would be
insignificant. Refer to Chapter 5, Section 6.6 for notes on recorded times, as these
apply equally to event records.
5.3

Accessing and resetting event records


Event records cannot be viewed on the relay and can only be accessed via the
serial communication port of the relay. A PC with suitable software, such as PAS&T,
can automatically extract the records, display them on a screen, print them, or
store them to either a floppy disk or to the hard disk of the computer.
When a new record is generated the oldest event record is automatically
overridden and the event flag set. The PAS&T software responds to this flag and
extracts the record. When all records have been read, the event flag resets.

Section 6.

DISTURBANCE RECORDS

The internal disturbance recorder has one channel allocated to each of the
measured analogue quantities; one to record the eight control inputs and one to
record the eight relay outputs. As with the event recorder, when the buffer is full the
oldest record is overwritten and records are deleted if the auxiliary supply to the
relay is removed. This ensures that when the buffer is read the contents will all be
valid.
The disturbance recorder is stopped and the record frozen, a set time after a
selected trigger has been activated. For example, a protection trip command could
be the selected trigger and the delay would then set the duration of the trace after
the fault.
Each sample has a time tag attached to it so that when the waveform is
reconstituted it can be plotted at the correct point against the time scale, thus
ensuring that the time base is correct and independent of the frequency.
The K Range overcurrent relays measure eight samples per cycle, but the method of
recording allows the analysis program to perform with records that may have a
different sample rate.
The disturbance recorder may be triggered by several different methods dependent
on the settings in the RECORDER column of the menu. However, the records have
to be read via the serial communication port and suitable additional software is
required to reconstruct and display the waveforms. Only one complete record is
stored and the recorder must be reset before another record can be captured.
6.1

Recorder control
This cell displays the state of the recorder :
a) RUNNING recorder storing data (overwriting oldest data)
b) TRIGGERED recorder stop delay triggered
c) STOPPED
recorder stopped and record ready for retrieval
When this cell is selected, manual control is possible and to achieve this the relay
must be put into the setting mode by pressing the [+] key. A flashing cursor will
then appear on the bottom line of the display at the left-hand side. The [+] key will
then select 'running' and the [] key will select 'triggered'. When the appropriate
function has been selected the [F] key is pressed to accept the selection and the
selected function will take effect when the [+] key is pressed to confirm the
selection. To abort the selection at any stage, press the reset key [0].

SERVICE MANUAL
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KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
6.2

R8551D
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Page 8 of 11

Recorder capture
The recorder can capture:
a) SAMPLES the individual samples
b) MAGNITUDES the Fourier derived amplitudes
c) PHASES the Fourier derived phase angles
The relay has no electro-mechanical adjustments, all calibration is effected in
software and all three of the above options are used in the calibration process.
For normal use as a fault recorder, SAMPLES will be the most useful.
However, for 60Hz systems there is less processing time available per cycle and if
all the protection functions have been activated the menu system, being the lowest
priority task, may appear very slow. To improve this the disturbance recorder
should be stopped (triggered) via the menu. If records are still required at this time
then it is suggested that the recorder is set to record magnitudes rather than
samples because this will use less of the available processing time.

6.3

Recorder post trigger


The post trigger setting determines the length of the trace that occurs after the stop
trigger is received. This may be set to any value between 1 and 512 samples.
When recording samples the total trace duration is 512/8 = 64 cycles because
the interval between the samples is equivalent to one eighth of a cycle. However,
the Fourier derived values are calculated once per cycle and so the total trace
length when recording these calculated phase or amplitude values is 512 cycles.

6.4

Recorder logic trigger


Any, or all, of the opto-isolated inputs may be used as the stop trigger and the
trigger may be taken from either the energisation or the de-energisation of these
inputs. The bottom line of the display for this cell will show a series of 16
characters, each of which may be set to '1' or '0'. A '1' will select the input as a
trigger and a '0' will deselect it.
The selection is made using the instructions for the setting links in Chapter 3,
Section 3.4. The opto-isolated input (L0 to L7) associated with each digit is shown
on the top line of the display for the digit underlined by the cursor. A '+' preceding
it will indicate that the trigger will occur for energisation and a '' will indicate the
trigger will occur for de-energisation.

6.5

Recorder relay trigger


Any, or all, of the output relays may be used as a stop trigger and the trigger may
be taken from either the energisation or the de-energisation of these outputs. The
bottom line of the display for this cell will show a series of 16 characters, each of
which may be set to '1' or '0'. A '1' will select the input and a '0' will deselect it.
The selection is made using the instructions for setting links in Chapter 3,
Section 3.4. The output relay (RLY0 to RLY7) associated with each digit underlined
by the cursor is shown on the top line of the display. A '+' preceding it will
indicate that the trigger will occur for energisation and a '' will indicate the
trigger will occur for de-energisation.

6.6

Notes on recorded times


The times recorded for the opto-isolated inputs is the time at which the relay
accepted them as valid and responded to their selected control function. This will
be 12.5 2.5ms at 50Hz (10.4 2.1ms at 60Hz) after the opto-input was
energised.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 5
Page 9 of 11

The time recorded for the output relays is the time at which the coil of the relay was
energised and the contacts will close approximately 5ms later. Otherwise the time
tags are generally to a resolution of 1ms for events and to a resolution of 1s for
the samples values.
6.7

Disturbance recorder reset options


I<
0A0B

SD8
0
1
LOG3
0
1
LOG4
0
1

3SEC

AUX2

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Recorder
stopped
I<

&
1

Io<

tAUX2

SD8
0
1

SD5
0
1
SD6
0
1

Reset trip flags

Recorder
stopped

Reset disturbance
recorder

0B11

AUX2

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Figure 3: Recorder reset

The disturbance recorder is reset via cell [0C01 Control]. Alternatively it can be
arranged to reset automatically, 3 seconds after the current is detected by the
undercurrent elements to be above its set threshold. To select this option set link
SD6 = 1 and SD8 = 0. This automatic 3s reset may be useful when auto reclose
equipment is employed since a record will only be stored when the autoreclose
equipment fails to reclose the circuit breaker, or it locks out.
If a shorter or longer reset delay is required, set the links as follows. SD6 = 1 and
SD8 = 1 (LOG3 = 0, LOG4 = 0) and then tAUX2 can be set to the necessary reset
delay. The setting range for tAUX2 is 0 to 24 days in graduated steps with the
smallest step of 10ms. With this option the recorder can be reset instantaneously
by energising a logic input that is assigned in the input mask [0A0A AUX2].

Section 7.

CIRCUIT BREAKER MAINTENANCE RECORDS

0A09 EXT. TRIP


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

RLY3
Generate circuit breaker
maintenance records

1
RLY7

LOG0
0
1

Latch red trip LED

CB(ops)>
1

0B19 CB ALARM
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

CB duty>

Figure 4: Circuit breaker alarm

7.1

Circuit breaker clearance time


The time taken for the circuit breaker to break the fault current is estimated and
stored in the fault records in menu cell [0109 CB Trp Time]. A sudden increase in
this time measurement may indicate the need for maintenance of the circuit
breaker.

SERVICE MANUAL
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KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
7.2

R8551D
Chapter 5
Page 10 of 11

Circuit breaker operations counter


A register sums the number of circuit breaker operations and the value can be
accessed via menu cell 0310 under the column heading MEASURE 2. This record
is updated every time output relay RLY3 operates, or an opto input assigned in
input mask [0A09 EXT TRIP] is energised by an external trip. If link LOGA = 1 then
operation of relay RLY7 will also be able to increment this register. RLY7 is normally
used for manual or remote trips via the trip pulse timer (tTRIP).
This function is inhibited if link LOG 0 = 0 and operative if LOG 0 =1.
Incrementation of this counter can be blocked during testing by setting link
LOG 0 = 0.
The value of the counter can be reset to zero when it is displayed, by pressing the
reset key [0]. Alternatively a reset cell command can be sent via the serial
communication port. These cells are password protected and cannot be reset if the
password has not been entered.
Note: Resetting the (CBops) counter will also result in the 'CBduty' registers being
reset at the same time.

7.3

Circuit breaker contact duty


Three registers are used to sum the contact breaking duty separately for each
phase. These are labelled [0311 CBdutyA], [0312 CBdutyB] and
[0313 CBdutyC]. If link LOG 1=1 then the relay sums the current and it LOG 1=0
then the relay sums the squared current. The value of these registers can be
accessed under the column heading MEASURE 2. These records are updated
every time output relay RLY3 operates, if link LOGA = 1 and RLY7 operates, or an
opto input assigned in input mask [0A09 EXT TRIP] is energised by an external trip.
When a remote trip is issued via the serial communications, or a local trip initiated
via the input mask [0A07 LTrip] relay RLY7 should be assigned in output mask
[0B0D CB Trip]. Then the contact duty record will also be updated when relay
RLY7 operates if links LOG0 = 1, LOG1 = 0, LOGA = 1.
This function is inhibited if link LOG0 = 0 and operative if LOG1 = 1. Hence by
setting this link LOG0 = 0 during testing its incrementation can be blocked.
The value of these three registers can be reset to zero when any one of them is
displayed, by pressing the reset key [0]. Alternatively a reset cell command can be
sent via the serial communication port. These cells are password protected and
cannot be reset if the password has not been entered.
Note:

7.4

Resetting the circuit breaker contact duty registers will also reset the circuit
breaker operations counter.

Circuit breaker maintenance alarm


A threshold can be set on the circuit breaker operations counter and the summated
contact duty. The settings will be found in menu cells [0908 CBops>] and
[0909 CBduty>1] under the LOGIC column heading. When the thresholds are
exceeded the output mask [0B19 CB ALARM] will be energised and any relay
assigned in this mask will pick-up to initiate an alarm. This is the only form of alarm
that is generated, except for the change in state of the output relay, which may be
recorded in the event records if link SD7 = 1. The alarm will be inhibited if link
LOG 0=0, or if the output relay is de-selected in the relay mask.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

Section 8.

R8551D
Chapter 5
Page 11 of 11

ALARM RECORDS

8.1

Watchdog

8.1.1

Auxiliary powered relays


The watchdog relay will pick up when the relay is operational to indicate a healthy
state, with its make contact closed. When an alarm condition is detected that
requires some action to be taken, the watchdog relay will reset and its break
contact will close to give an alarm.

8.1.2

Dual powered relays


The watchdog relay operates in a slightly modified way on this version of the relay,
because it does not initiate an alarm for loss of auxiliary power, as this may have
been taken from an insecure source, or it may be powered solely from the current
circuit. Operation of the watchdog is therefore inverted so that it will pick up for a
failed condition, closing its make contact to give an alarm and in the normal
condition it will remain dropped off with its break contact closed to indicate a
healthy state.
The green LED will usually follow the operation of the watchdog in either of these
two cases. It will be lit when the relay is powered-up, operational and has not
detected any abnormal conditions.
The watchdog can be tested by setting alarm flag 6 to '1' in menu cell 0003 in the
SYSTEM DATA column of the menu.

8.2

Trip indication
The trip LED will be lit following a trip condition where output relay RLY3 has
operated, or a logic input that has been assigned in input mask [0A08 EXT TRIP]
has been energised.
Relay RLY7 is generally reserved for remote trip initiation via the serial
communication port. When link LOGA = 1 and relay RLY7 is assigned in output
mask [0B0D CB Trip] the trip LED will be lit if relay RLY7 has operated. Relay RLY7
can also be initiated for manual trips via the trip pulse timer (tTRIP) by assigning a
logic input in mask [0A07 LTrip] to give a trip indication. Unlike relay RLY3, RLY7
does not initate the breaker fail protection, but they can both initiate the generation
of fault records and hence fault flags. When relay RLY7 operates and link
LOGA = 1, the default display changes to the fault flag display and a letter 'R' is
displayed in the extreme right-hand position on the bottom line of the display to
indicate a 'remote trip'.
If link LOGA = 0 relay RLY7 can be freely assigned to any output function, without
creating a trip indication.

8.3

Alarm indication
The alarm LED will flash when the password has been entered. It will be lit and
remain steady when an internal fault has been detected by its self test routine.
The alarm flags can then be accessed to determine the fault, provided the relay is
still able to perform this function. See Chapter 3, Sections 3.5 and 3.6 for more
information on alarm flags.

Types KCGG 122, 142


KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242 and
KCEU 142, 242
Overcurrent and Directional Overcurrent
Relays
Service Manual

Chapter 6
Serial Communications

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 6
Contents

1.

COURIER LANGUAGE AND PROTOCOL

2.
2.1
2.2
2.3

K-BUS
K-Bus transmission layer
K-Bus connections
Ancillary equipment

1
2
2
3

3.
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6

SOFTWARE SUPPORT
Courier Access
PAS&T
K-Graph
CourierCom
PC requirements
Modem requirements

3
3
3
4
4
4
4

4.
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14

DATA FOR SYSTEM INTEGRATION


Differences between K Range series 1 and series 2 relays
Relay address
Measured values
Status word
Plant status word
Control status word
Logic input status word
Output relay status word
Alarm indications
Event records
Notes on recorded times
Protection flags
Fault records
Disturbance records

5
5
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
8
8
8
9
10
10

5.
5.1
5.2

SETTING CONTROL
Remote setting change
Remote control of setting group

10
11
11

6.

REMOTE OPERATION OF OUTPUT RELAYS

12

7.
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.3.1
7.3.2
7.3.3

CIRCUIT BREAKER CONTROL


Remote control of circuit breaker
Local control of the circuit breaker
Safe manual closing of the circuit breaker
Closing the circuit breaker via the serial communication port
Closing the circuit breaker via a lead mounted push-button
Delayed manual closure of the circuit breaker

13
13
13
14
14
14
14

8.

AIDS TO CIRCUIT BREAKER MAINTENANCE

15

Figure 1.
Figure 2.

Typical K-Bus connection diagram


Circuit breaker control logic

2
13

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

Section 1.

R8551D
Chapter 6
Page 1 of 15

COURIER LANGUAGE AND PROTOCOL

Serial communications are supported over K-Bus, a multi-drop network that readily
interfaces to IEC 60870-5 FT1.2 standards. The language and protocol used for
communication is Courier. It has been especially developed to enable generic
master station programs to access many different types of relay without the
continual need to modify the master station program for each relay type. The
relays form a distributed data base and the master station polls the slave relays for
any information required.
This includes:
Measured values
Menu text
Settings and setting limits
Fault records
Event records
Disturbance records
Plant status
Software is available to support both on-line and off-line setting changes to be
made and the automatic extraction and storage of event and disturbance records
as described in Section 3.
Courier is designed to operate using a polled system, which prevents a slave
device from communicating directly to a master control unit when it needs to inform
it that something has happened; it must wait until the master control unit requests
the information. A feature of Courier is that each piece of information is packeted
by preceding it with a data type and length code. By knowing the format of the
data the receiving device can interpret it.
The Courier Communication Manual describes various aspects of this language
and other communication information necessary to interface these devices to other
equipment. It gives details on the hardware and software interfaces as well as
guidelines on how additional devices should implement the Courier language so
as to be consistent with all other devices.

Section 2.

K-BUS

K-Bus is a communication system developed to connect remote slave devices to a


central master control unit, thus allowing remote control and monitoring functions to
be performed using an appropriate communication language. It is not designed to
allow direct communication between slave devices, but merely between a master
control unit and several slave devices. The main features of K-Bus are:
cost effectiveness, high security, ease of installation and ease of use.
Each relay in the K Range has a serial communication port configured to K-Bus
standards. K-Bus is a communication interface and protocol designed to meet the
requirements of communication with protective relays and transducers within the
power system substation environment. It has the same reliability as the protective
relays themselves and does not result in their performance being degraded in any
way. Error checking and noise rejection have been of major importance in its
design.

SERVICE MANUAL
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KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
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2.1

R8551D
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Page 2 of 15

K-Bus transmission layer


The communication port is based on RS485 voltage transmission and reception
levels with galvanic isolation provided by a transformer. A polled protocol is used
and no relay unit is allowed to transmit unless it receives a valid message,
addressed to it without any detected error. Transmission is synchronous over a pair
of screened wires and the data is FM0 coded with the clock signal to remove any
dc component so that the signal will pass through transformers.
With the exception of the master units, each node in the network is passive and
any failed unit on the system will not interfere with communication to the other
units. The frame format is HDLC and the data rate is 64kbits/s.
K-Bus connections
Connection to the K-Bus port is by standard Midos 4mm screw terminals or snap-on
connectors. A twisted pair of wires is all that is required; the polarity of connection
is not important. It is recommended that an outer screen is used with an earth
connected to the screen at the master station end only. Termination of the screen is
effected with the U shaped terminal supplied and which has to be secured with a
self tapping screw in the hole in the terminal block just below terminal 56, as
shown in the diagram. Operation has been tested up to 32 units connected along
1,000 metres of cable. The specification for suitable cable will be found in the
technical data section. The method of encoding the data results in the polarity of
the connection to the bus wiring being unimportant.
Note:

K-Bus must be terminated with a 150 resistor at each end of the bus.
The master station can be located at any position, but the bus should only
be driven from one unit at a time.

56

54

2.2

K-Bus
Screened 2 core cable

Figure 1: Typical K-Bus connection diagram

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Ancillary equipment
The minimum requirement to communicate with the relay is a K-Bus/IEC 60870-5
converter box type KITZ and suitable software to run on an IBM or compatible
personal computer.
RS232 interconnection lead for connecting the KITZ to a personal computer (PC)
and software as described in Section 3.

Section 3.
3.1

SOFTWARE SUPPORT

Courier Access
The Courier Access program is supplied with each KITZ and it allows on-line
access to any relay or other slave device on the system. It polls all available
addresses on the bus to build a list of the active relays. Each relay can be
programmed with a product description (16 characters) and a plant reference
(16 characters).
A particular relay may then be chosen and accessed to display a table listing the
menu column headings. Selecting a heading from the list and pressing the return
key of the computer returns the full page of data that has been selected.
Selecting a setting from the displayed page and pressing the return key again will
bring up the setting change box displaying the current setting value and the
maximum and minimum limits of setting that have been extracted from the relay.
A new setting may be typed in and entered. The new value will be sent to the relay
and the relay will send back a copy of the data it received. If the returned value
matches what was sent, it is judged to have been received correctly and the
display asks for confirmation that the new setting is to be entered. When the
execution command is issued the relay checks the setting is within limits, stores it,
then replies to state if the new value has been accepted, or rejected.
If the setting selected is password protected, the relay will reply that access is
denied. Any data received in error is automatically resent. Any data not
understood, but received without error is ignored.
A complete setting file can be extracted from the relay and stored on disc and
printed out for record purposes. The stored settings can also be copied to other
relays.
Control commands, such as close/trip of a circuit breaker, are actioned in the
same way as setting changes and can be achieved with this program by using the
setting change mechanism. This program supports modem connection but it cannot
extract event or disturbance records.

3.2

PAS&T
The Protection Access Software and Toolkit (PAS&T) program performs all the
functions described for the Courier Access program, but additionally it can perform
the following functions:
Generate a table of all circuit breakers that can be controlled via the relays
connected to K-Bus. These are listed by their plant reference and their open/
closed status is displayed. Selecting a circuit breaker from this table enables it
to be controlled with all the background security described for setting changes.
Automatically extracts event records, displays them on screen, prints, or stores
them to disc.

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Automatically extracts disturbance records and stores them to disc in


COMTRADE format.
Poll the relay for selected data at set intervals and displays the values on screen,
or stores a selected number of values that it can plot on screen to show trend
information.
Display coded or decoded messages on screen to help de-bug the
communication system.
The auto-addressing feature allocates the next available address on the bus to a
new relay.
3.3

K-Graph
This program, supplied with PAS&T, can display disturbance records and print
them. The COMTRADE format in which the files are stored can also be loaded into
an Excel, or similar spreadsheet program.

3.4

Courier-Com
Courier-Com is a Windows based setting program that can be used off-line,
ie. without the relays being connected. Setting files can be generated in the office
and taken to site on floppy disc for loading to the relays. This program can be
used to down-load the settings to the relay, alternatively ACCESS or PAS&T may be
used.

3.5

PC requirements
To operate fully, the above programs require:
IBM PC/XT/AT/PS2 or true compatible.
640kB of main memory RAM
Graphics adapter CGA, EGA, VGA or MDA
Serial adapter port configured as COM1 or COM2 (RS232)
Floppy disk drive 3.5 inch
MS-DOS 3.2 or later/IBM PC-DOS 3.2 or later
Parallel printer port for optional printer.
Additional equipment
Printer
RS-232 link.
KITZ 101 K-Bus/ RS232 communication interface.
Modem

3.6

Modem requirements
AREVA T&D have adopted the IEC 60870-5 ft1.2 frame
format for transmitting the courier communication language over RS-232 based
systems, which includes transmission over modems.
The IEC 60870-5 ft1.2 specification calls for an 11-bit frame format consisting of 1
start bit, 8 data bits, 1 even parity bit and 1 stop bit. However, most modems
cannot support this 11-bit frame format, so a relaxed 10-bit frame format is
supported by the Protection Access Software & Toolkit and by the KITZ, consisting
of 1 start bit 8 data bits, no parity and 1 stop bit.

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Although Courier and IEC 60870 both have inherent error detection, the parity
checking on each individual character in the 11-bit frame provides additional
security and is a requirement of IEC 60870 in order to meet the error rate levels it
guarantees. It is therefore recommended that modems should be used which
support these 11-bit frames.
The following modem has been evaluated for use with the full IEC 60870 ft1.2
protocol and is recommended for use:
Motorola Codex 3265 or 3265 Fast
Other modems may be used provided that the following features are available;
refer to the modem documentation for details on setting these features:
Support for an 11 bit frame (1 start bit, 8 data bits, 1 even parity bit and 1 stop
bit). This feature is not required if the 10-bit frame format is chosen.
Facility to disable all error correction, data compression, speed buffering or
automatic speed changes.
It must be possible to save all the settings required to achieve a connection in
non-volatile memory. This feature is only required for modems at the outstation
end of the link.
Notes:
1. The V23 asymmetric data rate (1200/75bits/s) is not supported
2. Modems made by Hayes do not support 11 bit characters.

Section 4.
4.1

DATA FOR SYSTEM INTEGRATION

Differences between K Range series 1 and series 2 relays


As far as system integration is concerned there should be little difference between
relays from series 1 and series 2. However, the following should be noted:
Changing the communication address is now password protected for added
security and to change the address the password must first be entered. This does
not apply to the auto-addressing facility available within the Courier language that
will apply the next available address on the bus to a relay set to address 0, nor the
new address feature that allows a relay to be directly addressed by serial number
sent to the global address 255. Both auto-addressing and direct addressing by
serial number are supported by PAS&T, but direct addressing by serial number is
also supported by Courier Access.
Measurement functions retain their original cell references and some additional
measurements will be available on the K Range series 2 relays.
The data under fault records has been rearranged to enable five full fault records
to be stored. The menu cell references for these have changed and reference
should be made to Chapter 3, Section 6 for the new cell locations. A notable
change is that the circuit breaker operation time which was stored in menu cell
0109 is now to be found in menu cell 010B.
Additional input masks and output masks have also been generated for the new
functions and this has resulted in them being renumbered.
Software function links have been added for the new functions and they must be
set to 1 in order to select the new features. Previously these links were unused

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and hence set to 0 by default. The functions of some existing links have been
changed. Reference should be made to the logic diagrams to determine how they
should be set for series 2 relays.
Application setting files for series 1 relays will require some modification before
they can be used with series 2 relays.
4.2

Relay address
The relay can have any address from 1 to 254 inclusive. Address 255 is the
global address that all relays, or other slave devices, respond to. The Courier
protocol specifies that no reply shall be issued by a slave device in response to a
global message. This is to prevent all devices responding and causing contention
on the bus.
Each relay is supplied with its address set to 255 to ensure that when connected to
an operational network it will not have a conflicting address with another device
that is already operational. To make the new device fully operational it must have
its address set. The address can be changed manually by entering the password
and changing the address by the setting change method via the user interface on
the front of the relay.
Alternatively, if the software running on the PC supports auto-addressing, the relay
address can be set to 0 and the auto-addressing feature of the PC software turned
on. The relay will then be automatically set to the next available address on the
bus. PAS&T software supports both these features.
If the address is 255, or unknown, the device address can be changed by sending
a new address, in a global message, to a device with a particular serial number.
This method (supported by PAS&T, Courier Access and Courier-Com) is useful for
devices that are not provided with a user interface with which to read or change
the current address.

4.3

Measured values
Any measured value can be extracted periodically by polling the relay. Measured
values are stored in the same menu locations in the KCGG/KCEG/KCEU relays
and the KMPC measurement centre.

4.4

Status word
A status byte is contained in every reply from a slave device. This is returned by
the relay at the start of every message to signal important data on which the
master station may be designed to respond automatically.
The flags contained are:
Bit
Bit
Bit
Bit
Bit
Bit
Bit
Bit

0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

Disturbance record available for collection


Plant status word changed
Control status word changed
Relay busy, cannot complete reply in time
Relay out of service
Event record available for retrieval
Alarm LED lit
Trip LED lit

Bits 6 and 7 are used to mimic the trip and alarm indication on the frontplate of
the slave devices. They cannot be used to extract fault and alarm information from
a slave device because they cannot be guaranteed to be set for a long enough
period to be identified.

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Bits 5 and 0 enable the master station to respond automatically and extract event
records and disturbance records, if they are so programmed.
4.5

Plant status word


The plant status word can be found at menu location 000C and each pair of bits
in the plant status word is used to indicate the status (position) of items of plant
controlled via the relay.
Only the circuit breaker can be controlled via the relays described in this service
manual and the associated bits in the plant status word are defined as follows:
Bit 1
0
0
1
1
Bit 8
0
0
1
1

Bit 0
0
1
0
1
Bit 9
0
1
0
1

Circuit breaker 1

No CB connected (auxiliary CB1 contacts faulty)


CB1 open
CB1 closed
Auxiliary CB1 contacts or wiring faulty

Circuit breaker 2

No CB connected (auxiliary CB2 contacts faulty)


CB2 open
CB2 closed
Auxiliary CB2 contacts or wiring faulty

The master PAS&T control unit software makes use of this information to generate a
table of all the circuit breakers and isolators that can be controlled and to show
their current status.
To make this information available to the master control unit it is necessary to
allocate a logic input that will be energised when the circuit breaker is closed in
input mask [0A0E CB CLOSED IND] and one that is energised when the circuit
breaker is open in input mask [0A0F CB OPEN IND]. Bits 0 and 1 will then
indicate the position of the circuit breaker.
If the circuit breaker can be racked into one of two positions, such that it can be
connected to busbar 1 or busbar 2, then a third logic input that will be energised
when the circuit breaker is connected to busbar 2 must be assigned in the input
mask [0A10 CB BUS 2]. The circuit breaker open/closed states will then be
transferred to bits 8 and 9 when the circuit breaker is in position for connecting the
feeder to busbar 2. The circuit breaker can then be controlled with the appropriate
open and close commands.
4.6

Control status word


The control status word will be found in menu cell 000D. It is used to transfer
control information from the slave device to the master control unit. However, the
relays described in this manual are protection relays and this feature is not used.

4.7

Logic input status word


The status of the logic control inputs can be observed by polling menu cell 0020,
where the lowest 8 bits of the returned value indicates the status of each of the 8
logic inputs. This cell is read only.

4.8

Output relay status word


The status of the output relays can be observed by polling menu cell 0021, where
the lowest 8 bits of the returned value indicates the status of each of the 8 output
relays. This cell is read only.

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Alarm indications
The status of the internal alarms produced by the relays self test routine can be
observed by polling menu cell 0022, where the lowest 7 bits of the returned value
indicate the status of each of the alarms. Bit 6 can be set/reset, in order to test the
watchdog relay. No other control actions are possible on this cell.
Bit 0 Error in factory configuration detected (relay inoperative)
Bit 1 Error in calibration detected (relay running in uncalibrated state)
Bit 2 Error detected in storage settings (relay operationsal, check settings)
Bit 3 No service (protection out of service)
Bit 4 No samples (A/D converter not sampling)
Bit 5 No Fourier (Fourier routine not being performed)
Bit 6 Test watchdog (set to 1 to test and rest to 0 afterwards)

4.10

Event records
An event may be a change of state of a control input or an output relay. It may be
a setting that has been changed locally or a protection or control function that has
performed its intended function. A total of 50 events may be stored in a buffer,
each with an associated time tag. This time tag is the value of a timer counter that
is incremented every 1ms.
The event records can only be accessed via the serial communication port when
the relay is connected to a suitable master station. When the relay is not connected
to a master station the event records can still be extracted within certain limitations:
The event records can only be read via the serial communication port and a
K-Bus/IEC 60870-5 interface unit will be required to enable the serial port to be
connected to an IBM or compatible PC. Suitable software will be required to run
on the PC so that the records can be extracted.
When the event buffer becomes full the oldest record is overwritten by the next
event.
Records are deleted when the auxiliary supply to the relay is removed, to ensure
that the buffer does not contain invalid data. Dual powered relays are most
likely to be affected.
The time tag will be valid for 49 days assuming that the auxiliary supply has not
been lost within that time. However, there may be an error of 4.3s in every 24
hour period due to the accuracy limits of the crystal. This is not a problem when
a master station is on line as the relays will usually be polled once every second
or so.
The contents of the event record are documented in Chapter 5, Section 5.

4.11

Notes on recorded times


As described in Chapter 5, Section 5.2, the event records are appended with the
value of a 1 millisecond counter and the current value of the counter is appended
to the start of each reply form a relay. Thus it is possible to calculate how long ago
the event took place and subtract this from the current value of the real time clock
in the PC.
If transmission is to be over a modem there will be additional delays in the
communication path. In which case the KITZ can be selected to append the real
time at which the message was sent and this value can then be used in the

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conversion of the time tags. With this method of time tagging, the time tags for all
relays on K-Bus will be accurate, relative to each other, regardless of the accuracy
of the relay time clock.
See also Chapter 5, Section 6.6 for additional information on time tagging
accuracy.
4.12

Protection flags
The protection flags hold the status of the various protection elements in the relay
and it is from these that the fault flags are generated. They are transmitted in the
event records as part of a fault record and this is the only way they can be
accessed.
The following table lists the protection flags:
Bit position
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31

Hexadecimal mask
0x00000001L
0x00000002L
0x00000004L
0x00000008L
0x00000010L
0x00000020L
0x00000040L
0x00000080L
0x00000100L
0x00000200L
0x00000400L
0x00000800L
0x00001000L
0x00002000L
0x00004000L
0x00008000L
0x00010000L
0x00020000L
0x00040000L
0x00080000L
0x00100000L
0x00200000L
0x00400000L
0x00800000L
0x01000000L
0x02000000L
0x04000000L
0x08000000L
0x10000000L
0x20000000L
0x40000000L
0x80000000L

Protection function
PhA lowset trip
PhB lowset trip
PhC lowset trip
E/F lowset trip
PhA 1st highset trip
PhB 1st highset trip
PhC 1st highset trip
E/F 1st highset trip
PhA 2nd highset trip
PhB 2nd highset trip
PhC 2nd highset trip
E/F 2nd highset trip
PhA lowset forward/normal start
PhB lowset forward/normal start
PhC lowset forward/normal start
E/F lowset forward/normal start
PhA lowset reverse start
PhB lowset reverse start
PhC lowset reverse start
E/F lowset reverse start
Thermal overload
Phase undercurrent trip
Undervoltage trip
Manual remote CB trip
AUX1 trip
AUX2 trip
AUX3 trip
Manual remote CB close
Breaker fail trip
Trip occurred in GROUP 2 settings
E/F Undercurrent trip
Thermal overload alarm

This 32 bit word can be found in packet #4 of the event record as the menu cell
value. A decoded text form can be found in packet #3 as the ASCII Text Description
of the event (refer to Courier User Manual). The value can be decoded to establish
which elements were operated at the time of the event. The bit position is identical
for K Range series 1 and series 2 relays with the exception of following bits:
Bit 20 for series 1 relays indicated cold load start; for series 2 relays this
function is transferred to AUX3 and bit 20 now indicates operation of the
thermal overload element.
Bit 31 for series 1 relays was not used. For series 2 relays bit 31 indicates the
operation of the thermal overload alarm element.

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Fault records
Although fault records are stored in the event records and they may be extracted in
this way, it may be necessary in some instances to extract the fault records directly.
To do this, the record number must be first entered in menu cell 0101 so that the
correct fault record can be extracted. Fn is the record for the last fault; Fn-1 is the
previous fault record and Fn-4 is the oldest record. Then the values for menu
column 01 should be requested.
The Courier User Guide gives the detailed commands associated with these
functions.

4.14

Disturbance records
The procedure for setting up the disturbance recorder in the relays, is fully
described in Chapter 5, Section 6 of this manual. If the extraction of these records
is to be incorporated in some bespoke software program reference should be
made to the Courier User Guide for the relevant commands that are necessary to
extract the records.
It is recommended that all such records are stored in a Comtrade format to enable
commercially available programs to use the files. Comtrade includes minimum and
maximum values for each analogue chanel. In all K Range relays these are 0 and
32767.

Section 5.

SETTING CONTROL

Control functions via a K Range relay can be performed over the serial
communication link. They include change of individual relay settings, change of
setting groups, remote control of the circuit breaker, and operation and latching
selected output relays.
Remote control is restricted to those functions that have been selected in the relays
menu table and the selection cannot be changed without entering the password.
CRC and message length checks are used on each message received. No
response is given for received messages with a detected error. The master station
can be set to resend a command a set number of times if it does not receive a
reply or receives a reply with a detected error.
Note: Control commands are generally performed by changing the value of a cell
and are actioned by the setting change procedure, as described in Chapter
6, 3.1, and have the same inherent security. No replies are permitted for
global commands as these would cause contention on the bus; instead a
double send is used for verification of the message by the relay for this type
of command. Confirmation that a control command, or setting change, has
been accepted is issued by the relay and an error message is returned
when it is rejected.
The command to change setting group does not give an error message
when the group 2 settings are disabled unless link SD3=0 to inhibit
response to a remote setting group change commands.

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Remote setting change


The relay will only respond to setting change commands via the serial port if link
SD0=1. Setting SD0=0 inhibits all remote setting changes with the exception of the
SD software links and the password entry. Thus, with link SD0=0, remote setting
changes are password protected.
To change them, the password must be remotely entered and the function link SD
function link SD0 set to 1 to enable remote setting changes. When all setting
changes have been made, set link SD0=0 to restore password protection to remote
setting changes.

5.2

Remote control of setting group


The setting group selection is fully described in Chapter 4, Section 12.1 including
the remote control of this function. Group 2 must be activated before it can be
selected by setting software link SD4=1. Set link SD3=1 to enable the relay to
respond to change setting group commands, via the serial port to select group 2
and set SD4=1 to inhibit this function.
If the remote setting changes have been selected to have password protection, as
described in Section 5.1, then it can also be applied to the remote setting group
selection as follows. Set link SD3=0 to inhibit remote setting changes, then set link
SD0=1 to enable remote setting changes and set link LOG8=1. The group 2
settings will then be in operation and setting link SD0=0 will restore the password
protection.
If conventional SCADA has an output relay assigned to select the alternative setting
group then it may be used to energise a logic input assigned in the input mask
[0A0D STG GRP 2]. In this case set link SD3=0.

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KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

Section 6.

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REMOTE OPERATION OF OUTPUT RELAYS

K Range series 2 relays (except for KCEU) respond to the load shed by level
Courier commands. These were intended to be used to control the load shedding
control of conventional voltage regulating relays and can of course still be used for
that purpose. However, it also provides a way of remotely operating and latching
selected output relays. In the following example it is assumed that relays are
allocated in the load shedding output masks as follows:
RLY0 assigned in [0B14 LEVEL 1]
RLY1 assigned in [0B15 LEVEL 2]
RLY2 assigned in [0B16 LEVEL 3]
The following truth table then applies:
Command

RLY 0

RLY 1

RLY 3

Load shed to level 0

Load shed to level 1

Load shed to level 2

Load shed to level 3

If the relays are assigned as follows :


RLY0 assigned in [0B14 LEVEL 1]
RLY1 assigned in [0B15 LEVEL 2]
RLY0, RLY1 & RLY2 assigned in [0B16 LEVEL 3]
The truth table would read:
Command

RLY 0

RLY 1

RLY 3

Load shed to level 0

Load shed to level 1

Load shed to level 2

Load shed to level 3

The relays will retain their selected state until a new command is received.
The settings will be stored when the relay is powered-down and restored again on
power-up. This allows these particular outputs to be used to select other functions
such as block sensitive earth fault, or inhibit instantaneous low set overcurrent
elements.

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Section 7.

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CIRCUIT BREAKER CONTROL

To set-up the relay for circuit breaker control, relay RLY7 must be assigned in output
mask [0B0D CB TRIP] and RLY6 in output mask [0B0E CB CLOSE].
Some circuit breakers require the closing pulse to be interrupted when a trip
command is issued during the closing sequence, such as when closing onto a fault.
This is to prevent pumping of the circuit breaker, ie. reclosing again when the trip
signal is terminated, and it can be arranged by setting link LOG9 = 1. Some other
types of circuit breaker require the close pulse to be maintained and to achieve
this, set link LOG9 = 0.

SD2
0
1

Block start

L TRIP
0A07
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Trip circuit breaker
0A08
L CLOSE
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Close circuit breaker

0B0D CB TRIP
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

tTRIP

1
1

0A09
EXT. TRIP
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

LOGA
0
1
LOG7
0
1

I<
Io<

RLY3

tBF

LOG9
0
1
LOG2
0
1

tCLOSE
Reset

0B0E CB CLOSE
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0B0F
CB FAIL
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Generate circuit breaker maintenance
records

1
RLY7
I>
Io>

Latch flags
Generate fault records and
Copy to events records

Figure 2: Circuit breaker control logic

7.1

Remote control of circuit breaker


Set link SD2=1 to enable remote control of the circuit breaker. The ACCESS,
PAS&T, or other suitable program that supports this feature can then be used to
perform the remote control of this plant item. When using PAS&T, logic inputs must
be assigned in input masks [0A0E CB CLOSED IND] and [0A0F CB OPEN IND]
to indicate the status of the circuit breaker so that a table of circuit breakers and
their status can be generated. If the circuit breaker can be racked into an
alternative position, such that it can then be connected to busbar 2 instead of
busbar 1, then a logic input must be assigned in mask [0A10 CB BUS2] if this
information is required to be displayed by PAS&T.
Password protection for remote circuit breaker control can be applied as follows.
Set link SD2=0 to inhibit remote changes. To make a remote change, enter the
password, set link SD2=1, and send the command to control the circuit breaker.
Then to re-establish password protection set link SD2=0 again.

7.2

Local control of the circuit breaker


If local controls are routed to the circuit breaker via the logic inputs assigned in
masks [0A07 Ltrip] and [0A08 Lclose], the circuit breaker maintenance records
will be updated for local control of the circuit breaker. In this case it will be the
action of relay RLY7 operating that causes the record to be incremented as
described in Chapter 5, Section 4.1.

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Safe manual closing of the circuit breaker


There have been instances of injury to personnel when closing a circuit breaker
onto a fault. So, from a health and safety point of view, it is sometimes considered
necessary to manually close the circuit breaker from a safe distance. This is
particularly important, when the autoreclose has locked-out, or after maintenance
on the primary plant when temporary earth clamps may have been left connected.
If the closure of the circuit breaker is routed via the KCGG/KCEG/KCEU relay,
any of the following procedures may be considered:

7.3.1

Closing the circuit breaker via the serial communication port


If the serial port of the relay has no connections made to it, then the terminals 54
and 56 can be connected to a jack plug on the front of the panel. To close the
circuit breaker from a safe distance it is then only necessary to plug in an
extension lead and connect it to a laptop computer. The circuit breaker can then be
closed as described in Section 7.1.

7.3.2

Closing the circuit breaker via a lead mounted push-button


A spare logic input of the relay can be wired, via the field voltage supply of the
relay, to a plug that is mounted on the panel of the cubicle. In this case a jack plug
is not advised because the two terminals may be temporarily short circuited when
the plug is being inserted. This logic input is then assigned in the input mask
[0A08 Lclose].
To operate the circuit breaker an extension lead is plugged into the socket and a
lead mounted push-button at the other end is then pressed to initiate a pulse of
fixed duration to close the circuit breaker. For extra security, one of the auxiliary
timers may be connected in the control path, so that the push-button has to be
pressed for the set time of the timer before the circuit breaker will close.

7.3.3

Delayed manual closure of the circuit breaker


If auxiliary timer tAUX3 is not being used for some other purpose and either tAUX1
or tAUX2 is also available then proceed as follows:
1. Set link LOGB = 1 to give tAUX3 a delay on drop-off.
2. Allocate an output relay in mask [0B12 AUX3] and connect its contact to a
spare logic input.
3. Assign this logic input in input mask [0A0A AUX1] to start tAUX1 or [0A0C
AUX2] to start tAUX2.
4. Assign an output relay in mask [0B10 AUX1] or [0B11 AUX2] depending on
the timer to be used.
5. Energise a logic input via the contact of this output relay and assign it in input
mask [0A08 Lclose] to initiate the closing pulse.
6. Allocate a logic input in mask [0A0C AUX3] and arrange for this to be
energised via a switch (preferably a key switch) that is spring loaded in the off
position.
When the initiating switch is closed momentarily timer tAUX3 will pick-up its output
relay which will remain picked-up for the set time of tAUX3. Timer tAUX1 (or
tAUX2) will be picked up by the output relay assigned to tAUX3 and when it times
out it will pick-up a relay that triggers the close pulse via the Lclose input. The time
setting for tAUX1 (ortAUX2) should be the required delay and tAUX3 should be set
2 seconds longer. When tAUX3 times out the circuit resets.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 6
Page 15 of 15

The close sequence can be interrupted by breaking the link, from the output of
tAUX3 to the logic input initiating tAUX1 (or tAUX2, whichever is being used), with
a push-button or an alternative position on the key switch. Note that these timers
have very wide setting ranges and that the delay is in the order of 20 to 30
seconds only.
Where no auxiliary timers are available the close pulse could be initiated by
energising a logic input assigned in the input mask [0A08 Lclose] via a push
button connected via a twisted pair of wires of sufficient length. If an auxiliary
timer is available and is connected in the initiating path it would add to the
security.

Section 8.

AIDS TO CIRCUIT BREAKER MAINTENANCE

The information gathered by the relay can be of assistance in determining the need
for circuit breaker maintenance. The circuit breaker opening time is recorded under
FAULT RECORDS. If this value is monitored, any significant increase may be used
as an indication that circuit breaker maintenance is required.
Additionally the number of circuit breaker operations is recorded under
MEASUREMENTS (2). An indication of the summated contact breaking duty which
is recorded separately for each phase will also be found under this heading.

Types KCGG 122, 142


KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242 and
KCEU 142, 242
Overcurrent and Directional Overcurrent
Relays
Service Manual

Chapter 7
Technical Data

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 7
Contents

1.
1.1
1.2

RATINGS
Inputs
Outputs

1
1
1

2.
2.1
2.2
2.3
2.4

BURDENS
Current circuits
Reference voltage
Auxiliary voltage
Opto-isolated inputs

2
2
2
3
3

3.
3.1
3.2

OVERCURRENT SETTING RANGES


Auxiliary powered relays
Dual powered relays

3
3
3

4.
4.1
4.2
4.3

TIME SETTING RANGES


Inverse definite minimum time (IDMT)
Definite independent time
Auxiliary time delays

4
4
5
5

5.
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5

OTHER PROTECTION SETTINGS


Directional
Thermal
Undervoltage
Underfrequency
Ratios

5
5
5
6
6
6

6.

MEASUREMENT (DISPLAYED)

7.
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9

ACCURACY
Reference conditions
Current
Time delays
Directional
Thermal
Undervoltage
Under frequency
Auxiliary timers
Measurements

6
6
6
7
7
7
7
7
8
8

8.
8.1
8.2
8.2.1
8.2.2
8.3
8.4

INFLUENCING QUANTITIES
Ambient temperature
Frequency
With frequency tracking
Without frequency tracking (KCGG 122 KCEG 112)
Auxiliary supply
System X/R

8
8
8
8
8
9
9

9.
10.
10.1
10.2

OPTO-ISOLATED INPUTS
Output Relays
Output relays 0 to 7
Watchdog

9
10
10
10

11.

OPERATION INDICATOR

10

12.

COMMUNICATION PORT

10

13.

CURRENT TRANSFORMER REQUIREMENTS

10

14.

HIGH VOLTAGE WITHSTAND

12

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 7
Contents

14.1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
14.6
14.7

Dielectric withstand IEC 60255-5: 1977


High voltage impulse IEC 60255-5: 1977
Insulation resistance IEC 60255-5: 1977
High frequency disturbance IEC 60255-22-1: 1988
Fast transient IEC 60255-22-4: 1992
EMC compliance
Electrostatic discharge test IEC 60255-22-2: 1996

12
12
12
12
12
12
12

15.
15.1
15.2
15.3

IEEE/ANSI SPECIFICATIONS
Standard for relay systems associated with electrical power apparatus
Surge withstand capability
Radio electromagnetic interference

13
13
13
13

16.
16.1
16.2
16.3
16.4
16.5
16.6

ENVIRONMENTAL
Temperature IEC 60255-6: 1988
Humidity IEC 60068-2-3: 1969
Enclosure protection IEC 60529:1989
Vibration IEC 60255-21-1:1988
Shock and bump IEC 60255-21 2:1988
Seismic IEC 60255-21-3:1993

13
13
13
13
13
13
13

17.

MODEL NUMBERS

14

18.
18.1
18.2
18.3

FREQUENCY RESPONSE
Transient overreach
Peak measurement
Frequency response of directional elements

16
17
17
18

Figure 1:
Figure 2:
Figure 3:

Response of Fourier filtering


Response when frequency tracking
Frequency response when relay responds to both peak and Fourier values

16
17
18

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

Section 1.
1.1

R8551D
Chapter 7
Page 1 of 18

RATINGS

Inputs
Current input
(In)

Rated (In)
(A)

Continuous
(xIn)

3s
(xIn)

1s
(A)

Auxiliary powered

1
5

3.2
3.2

30
30

100
400

Dual powered

1
5

2.4
2.4

30
30

100
400

Voltage input
(Line)

Rated (Vn)
(V)

Continuous
(xVn)

10s
(xVn)

110
440

4
2

5.4
2.6

Rated voltage
(V)

DC supply
(V)

AC supply
(V)

Crest
(V)

24-125
48-250

19-150
33-300

50-133
87-265

190
380

100-250

60-300

60-265

380

Nominal rating
(Hz)

Operative range
(Hz)

50 or 60

45-65

Non-tracking

50

47-52.5

Non tracking

60

57-63

Rating
(Vdc)

Off state
(Vdc)

On state
(Vdc)

50

12

35

Operative range
Auxiliary voltage
(Vx)
Auxiliary powered
Dual powered
Frequency
(Fn)
Frequency tracking

Logic inputs
1.2

Outputs
Field Voltage

48V dc (Current limited to 60mA)

Capacitor Trip

50V dc (680F capacitor - Energy = 0.85J)

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

Section 2.
2.1

R8551D
Chapter 7
Page 2 of 18

BURDENS

Current circuits
Auxiliary powered

Phase

Earth(1)

SEF(2)

Conditions

In = 1A
In = 1A
In = 5A
In = 5A

0.06
0.06
0.006
0.006

0.06
0.06
0.006
0.006

0.08
0.06
0.006
0.006

ohms at In
ohms at 30In
ohms at In
ohms at 30In

Dual powered

Phase

Earth

SEF

In=1A

0.58
0.45
0.37
0.33
0.31
0.31
0.31

2.7
2.3
2.0
1.9
1.9
1.9
1.7

2.6
2.2
2.0
1.8
1.7
1.7
1.5

ohms at 0.5In for Vx =110V


ohms at 1.0In for Vx = 110V
ohms at 2.0In for Vx = 110V
ohms at 5.0In for Vx = 110V
ohms at 10In for Vx = 110V
ohms at 20In for Vx = 110V
ohms at 30In for Vx = 110V

In=1A

8.1
5.4
2.1
0.8
0.46
0.35
0.32

27.3
11.4
5.2
2.6
2.0
1.8
1.6

29.9
12.4
5.6
2.6
2.0
1.8
1.6

ohms at 0.5In for Vx = 0V


ohms at 1.0In for Vx = 0V
ohms at 2.0In for Vx = 0V
ohms at 5.0In for Vx = 0V
ohms at 10In for Vx = 0V
ohms at 20In for Vx = 0V
ohms at 30In for Vx = 0V

In=5A

0.034
0.027
0.024
0.022
0.021
0.021
0.021

0.106
0.088
0.078
0.072
0.071
0.069
0.062

0.108
0.089
0.079
0.071
0.068
0.066
0.064

ohms at 0.5In for Vx = 110V


ohms at 1.0In for Vx = 110V
ohms at 2.0In for Vx = 110V
ohms at 5.0In for Vx = 110V
ohms at 10In for Vx = 110V
ohms at 20In for Vx = 110V
ohms at 30In for Vx = 110V

In=5A

0.333
0.220
0.091
0.037
0.026
0.022
0.021

1.082
0.454
0.207
0.103
0.078
0.073
0.070

1.219
0.500
0.225
0.101
0.077
0.071
0.066

ohms at 0.5In for Vx = 0V


ohms at 1.0In for Vx = 0V
ohms at 2.0In for Vx = 0V
ohms at 5.0In for Vx = 0V
ohms at 10In for Vx = 0V
ohms at 20In for Vx = 0V
ohms at 30In for Vx = 0V

Note 1: For standard and special earth fault settings in KCEG relays
Note 2: For sensitive earth fault settings in KCEG 112/152 and KCEU relays
2.2

Reference voltage
Vn = 110V
Vn = 440V

0.02VA
0.08VA

@ 110V phase/phase
@ 440V phase/phase

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
2.3

R8551D
Chapter 7
Page 3 of 18

Auxiliary voltage
DC supply 2.5 6.0W at Vx max with no output relays or logic inputs energized
4.0 8.0W at Vx max with 2 output relays & 2 logic inputs energized
5.5 12W at Vx max with all output relays & logic inputs energized
AC supply 6.0 12VA at Vx max with no output relays or logic inputs energized
6.0 14VA at Vx max with 2 output relays & 2 logic inputs energized
13 23VA at Vx max with all output relays & logic inputs energized

2.4

Opto-isolated inputs
DC supply 0.25W per input (50V 10k)

Section 3.
3.1

OVERCURRENT SETTING RANGES

Auxiliary powered relays


Threshold (Is)

Step size

I>
I>>
I>>>
I<
Io>
Io>>
Io>>>
Io<

0.08 3.2In
0.08 32In
0.08 32In
0.02 3.2In

0.01In
0.01In
0.01In
0.01In

0.005 0.8In
0.005 8.0In
0.005 8.0In
0.005 0.8In

0.0025In
0.0025In
0.0025In
0.0025In

Special earth fault

Io>
Io>>
Io>>>
Io<

0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02

0.01In
0.01In
0.01In
0.01In

Sensitive earth fault

Io>
Io>>
Io>>>
Io<

0.001 0.16In
0.001 1.6In
0.001 1.6In
0.0005 0.16In

Reset

General

0.95Is

Phase fault

Standard earth fault

3.2

32In
32In
32In
3.2In

0.0005In
0.0005In
0.0005In
0.0005In

Dual powered relays


Phase fault

Standard earth fault

Special earth fault

Threshold (Is)

Step size

I>
I>>
I>>>
I<
Io>
Io>>
Io>>>
Io<

0.4 2.4In
0.4 32In
0.4 32In
0.02 2.4In

0.01In
0.01In
0.01In
0.01In

0.005 0.6In
0.005 8.0In
0.005 8.0In
0.005 0.6In

0.0025In
0.0025In
0.0025In
0.0025In

Io>
Io>>
Io>>>
Io<

0.02
0.02
0.02
0.02

0.01In
0.01In
0.01In
0.01In

2.4In
32In
32In
2.4In

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 7
Page 4 of 18

Sensitive earth fault

Io>
Io>>
Io>>>
Io<

0.001 0.16In
0.001 1.6In
0.001 1.6In
0.0005 0.16In

Reset

General

0.95Is

0.0005In
0.0005In
0.0005In
0.0005In

The sensitive earth fault settings are only available on KCEU 142/242 and
sensitive versions of KCEG 112/152 relays
Note:

Section 4.
4.1

Operation is not guaranteed for earth faults below 0.2In, regardless of the
actual setting, when the load current is below 0.4In and the auxiliary
voltage is not available. See also the special application notes for dual
powered relays and the table in Chapter 4, Section13.3 regarding the
maximum number of outputs and inputs that may be energized at any one
time.

TIME SETTING RANGES

Inverse definite minimum time (IDMT)


Nine inverse reset time characteristics are available and the general mathematical
expression for the curves is:
k

+c
I a 1
seconds
Is

t = TMS

where TMS

I
Is

= Time Multiplier (0.025 to 1.5 in 0.025 steps)


= Fault current
= Overcurrent setting

k, c, a = Constants specifying curve


Curve No.

Description

Name

IEC Curve

0
1

Definite Time
Standard Inverse

DT
SI30xDT

0
0.14

0 to 100
0

1
0.02

Very Inverse

VI30xDT

13.5

Extremely Inverse

EI10xDT

80

Long Time Inverse

LTI30xDT

120

Moderately Inverse

MI

0.103

0.228

0.02

Very Inverse

VI

39.22

0.982

Extremely Inverse

EI

56.4

0.243

Short Time Inverse

STI30xDT

0.05

0.04

Rectifier Protection

RECT

45900

5.6

Although the curves tend to infinity at the setting current value (Is), the guaranteed
minimum operation current is 1.05Is 0.05Is for all inverse characteristic curves,
except curve 10 for which the minimum operating current is 1.6Is 0.05Is
(see section on rectifier protection).

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 7
Page 5 of 18

Curves numbers 1, 2, 4, and 8 become definite time for currents in excess of


30xIs. Curve 3 becomes definite time for currents above 10xIs to give extra time
grading steps at high current levels. Curves 1, 2 and 3 are curves A, B and C in
IEC 60255-3.
Curves 5, 6 and 7 are slightly different in that they tend to a definite operating
time given by the constant (a) at high fault levels. Curves 5, 6 and 7 were
proposed by IEEE/ANSI, for inclusion in the IEC standard IEC 60255-3, as curves
D, E and F.
4.2

Definite independent time


to>/t>
tRESET
to>>/t>>
to>>>/t>>>

4.3

Step size

0 to 100s
0 to 60s
0 to 100s
0 to 10s

0.01s
0.1s
0.01s
0.01s

Setting range

Step size

0 to 10s
0 to 28 days
0 to 28 days
0 to 28 days
0 to 10s
0.5 to 5s
0.5 to 5s

0.01s
0.01s min graded
0.01s min graded
0.01s min graded
0.01s
0.1s
0.1s

Auxiliary time delays


tV<
tAUX1
tAUX2
tAUX3
tBF
tTRIP
tCLOSE

Section 5.
5.1

Definite time
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time

Setting range

Definite time
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time
Definite time

OTHER PROTECTION SETTINGS

Directional
Characteristic angle (c) 180.....0.....+180
Operating boundary

c 90 (85 for wattmetric)

Voltage threshold Vp>

0.6V
2.4V

for Vn = 110V
for Vn = 440V

Voltage threshold Vop>

0.6V to 80V step 0.2V


2.4V to 320V step 0.8V

for Vn = 110V
for Vn = 440V

Additional settings for KCEU 142/242 relays

5.2

Po> (1A)

0 20W

50mW steps

Po> (2A)

0 100W

250mW steps

Thermal
Time Constant

1 to 120 minutes step 1 minute

Current Rating Ith>

0.08In to 3.2In step 0.01In

Thermal alarm level th>

0 110% of Ith> 1% of Ith> steps

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
5.3

R8551D
Chapter 7
Page 6 of 18

Undervoltage
Undervoltage (V<)

5.4

0 to 220V for Vn = 110V


0 to 880V for Vn = 440V

Underfrequency
Under frequency (F<)

46 to 64Hz

Reset

F<+0.05Hz

step 0.01Hz

Underfrequency function is not available on KCEU 142/242 relays


5.5

Ratios
CT ratios

9999 : 1

Default = 1 : 1

VT ratios

9999 : 1

Default = 1 : 1

Section 6.
Voltage

(0 327) x VT ratio

volts phase/neutral

Current

(0 64)In x CT ratio

amps per phase

Power

(0 9.999)x1021

VAr

(0 9.999)x1021

VAr

VA

(0 9.999)x1021

VA

CB Operations

(0 65535)

Current2 broken

(0 9.999)x1021

A2 (or A)

Frequency

45 65 (or 0 )

Hz

Section 7.
7.1

7.2

MEASUREMENT (DISPLAYED)

ACCURACY

Reference conditions
Ambient temperature

20C

Frequency

50Hz or 60Hz (whichever is set)

Time multiplier setting

1.0

Auxiliary voltage

24V to 125V (auxiliary powered)


48V to 250V (auxiliary powered)
100V to 250V (dual powered)

Fault Position

Within 80 of the RCA where appropriate.

Current
Undercurrent

Minimum operation

10% (> 4 x minimum setting)


20% (< 4 x minimum setting)

Overcurrent

Minimum operation
Reset
Repeatability

5%
5%
2.5%

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
Earth Fault

7.3

R8551D
Chapter 7
Page 7 of 18

Minimum operation

20% (@ minimum setting)


10% (@2x minimum setting)
5% (@ >4x minimum setting)

Time delays
Reference
range
Operating time

IDMT except (EI)


and (Rectifier)

5% + (20 to 40)ms

2Is to 30Is

(t>/to>)

Extremely inv (EI)


Rectifier
Definite time

7.5% + (20 to 40)ms


7.5% + (20 to 40)ms
0.5% + (20 to 40)ms

2Is to 10Is
2Is to 5Is
3Is to 30Is

Repeatability

Inverse time
Definite time

2% 40ms
0.5% or10ms

Overshoot time
Reset time
t>/to>

Less than 50ms


Definite time

when current reduced to zero.


1% 50ms

Disengagement

I<
I>/Io>

typically 35ms
typically 30ms

t>/to>

typically 30ms*

t>>/to>>

typically 50ms*

t>>>/to>>>

typically 50ms*

*Minimum dwell disengagement time is affected if measuring circuit resets


within 100ms of pick-up. For further information see Chapter 3,
Section 5.6.
7.4

7.5

7.6

7.7

Directional
Characteristic angle c

Operating boundary

c 90 accuracy 2

PU DO differential

less than 3 (typically <1)

Polarizing voltage (Vp>)

10% (at c 80)

Polarizing voltage (Vop>)

10% (at c 80)

Wattmetric characteristic

4% (typical)

Thermal
Thermal (Ith>)

Minimum operation 5%

Operation Time

2% of TC from 1.2Ith> to 5Ith>

Undervoltage
Undervoltage (V<)

10%

Undervoltage delay (tV<)

0.5%+(20 to 70)ms

Under frequency
Under frequency (F<)

0.02Hz from 46Hz to 64Hz

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
7.8

R8551D
Chapter 7
Page 8 of 18

Auxiliary timers
Operating time

Set time 0.5%(set time)+(15 to 35)ms

Disengagement time

0 to 10ms (for timers alone)


15 to 30ms (including output relays and opto-inputs)

Breaker Fail Timer tBF


7.9

Measurements
Voltage

2%Vn (typical) Reference range = 1 to 320 V

Current

2%In (typical) Reference range = setting range

Power

2%Pn (typical)

VAr

2%Pn (typical)

VA

2%Pn (typical)

Frequency

(45 65Hz) 0.02Hz (typical)

Section 8.
8.1

INFLUENCING QUANTITIES

Ambient temperature

Operative range

25C to +55C

Current settings

1%

Voltage settings

0.03% per C

Operation times

1%

Angle measurement

<2

8.2

Frequency

8.2.1

With frequency tracking

8.2.2

0.5% or 10ms

Operative range

46 to 65Hz (47 to 52Hz for KCEU relays)

Current setting

1%

Voltage settings

1%

Operating times

1%

Angle measurement

<1

Without frequency tracking (KCGG 122 KCEG 112)


Reference range

47 to 52Hz or 57 to 61Hz

Current settings

2%

Operating times

2%

Angle measurement

<2

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
8.3

8.4

R8551D
Chapter 7
Page 9 of 18

Auxiliary supply
Nominal

Operative range

24/125V

19 to 150V dc (aux powered)


50 to 133V ac (aux powered)

48/250V

33 to 300V dc (aux powered)


87 to 265V ac (aux powered)

100/250V

60 to 300V dc (dual powered)


60 to 265V ac (dual powered)

Current settings

0.5%

Voltage settings

0.5%

Operation times

0.5%

Angle measurement

0.5

System X/R
Transient overreach

<5%

Effect upon directional characteristics


Effect upon Operating Times (fault 45 from RCA)
<40ms (X/R < 30, I 5Is)
<75ms (X/R 90, I 5Is)
Minimum protection time delay for directional stability (fault 45 from RCA)
40ms (X/R 15, I 40In)
Additional time delay incurred for forward direction fault (45 from RCA)
60ms (X/R 5, I <16In)
100ms (X/R 15, I <40In)

Section 9.

OPTO-ISOLATED INPUTS

Capture time

12.5 2.5ms at 50Hz


10.4 2.1ms at 60Hz

Release time

12.5 2.5ms at 50Hz


10.4 2.1ms at 60Hz

Minimum operating voltage

>35V dc

Maximum operating voltage

50Vdc

Input resistance

10k
(add 12kW for every additional 50V in
excess of 50V)

Maximum series lead resistance

2k
for single input at 40V min.
1k
for 2 inputs in parallel at 40V min.
0.5k for 4 inputs in parallel at 40V min.

Maximum ac induced loop voltage

50V rms (thermal limit)

Maximum capacitance coupled


ac voltage

250V rms via 0.1F

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 7
Page 10 of 18

Section 10. OUTPUT RELAYS


10.1

Output relays 0 to 7
Type
Rating

10.2

1 make
Make

30A and carry for 0.2s

Carry

5A continuous

Break

DC 50W resistive
25W inductive (L/R = 0.04s)
AC 1250VA (maxima of 5A)
Subject to maxima of 5A and 300V

Watchdog
Type
Rating

1 make + 1 break
Make

10A and carry for 0.2s

Carry

5A continuous

Break

DC 30W resistive
DC 15W inductive (L/R = 0.04s)
AC 1250VA (maxima of 5A)
Subject to a maxima of 5A and 300V

Durability

>10,000 operations

Section 11. OPERATION INDICATOR


3 light emitting diodes internally powered.
16 character by 2 line liquid crystal display (with backlight).

Section 12. COMMUNICATION PORT


Language

Courier

Transmission

Synchronous RS485 voltage levels

Format

HDLC

Baud Rate

64kbit/s

K-Bus Cable

Screened twisted pair

Length

1000m

Bus Loading

32 units (mulitdrop system)

Section 13. CURRENT TRANSFORMER REQUIREMENTS


CT requirements for use in typical applications are shown below. These CT
requirements are based on a maximum prospective fault current of 50x relay rated
current (In) and the relay having a maximum high-set setting of 25In. The CT
requirements are designed to provide operation of the phase and earth fault
elements.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 7
Page 11 of 18

Where the criteria for a specific application are in excess of those detailed above,
or the actual lead resistance exceeds the limiting value quoted, the CT
requirements may need to be increased. CT requirements for a variety of further
applications are provided in publication R6096.
Auxiliary powered relays KCGG 122, 142 and KCEG 112, 142,
152 and KCEU 142
Relay and CT
secondary rating

Nominal
output

Accuracy
class

Accuracy
limit factor

Limiting lead
resistance
(one way)

1A

2.5VA

10P

20

0.6

5A

7.5VA

10P

20

0.06

Dual powered relays KCEG 242 and KCEU 242


Relay and CT
secondary rating

Nominal
output

Accuracy
class

Accuracy
limit factor

Limiting lead
resistance
(one way)

1A

7.5VA

10P

15

0.7

5A

10VA

10P

20

0.06

Core balance current transformer requirements for earth faults


Core balance CTs of metering class accuracy are required and should have a
knee-point voltage satisfying the following formulae. (The value of current used for
Ifn should be the maximum possible earth fault current that may flow). In addition,
it should be ensured that the phase error of the applied CT is less than 90' at 10%
of rated current and less than 150' at 1% of rated current.
For the IDMT characteristic of the first element, Io>:
Vk > (Icn/2).(Rct + Rwp + Rwn + Rrp + Rrn) earth faults
Vk > (Ifn/2).(Rct + Rwp + Rwn + Rrp + Rrn) earth faults
where: Vk = Required CT knee-point voltage

Icn = Maximum prospective secondary current for earth faults or


31 times Io> setting (whichever is lower)
Ifn = Maximum prospective secondary current for earth faults
Rct = CT secondary winding resistance
Rwp = Resistance of each CT phase lead
Rwn = Resistance of each CT neutral lead
Rrp = Impedance of relay phase current input
Rrn = Impedance of relay neutral current input
Where the K Range relays are being used for restricted earth fault protection the
CTs must be sized to assure stability as described in Chapter 4, Section 5.10.
The accuracy class of the CTs should be chosen to suit the required accuracy of
measurement values.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 7
Page 12 of 18

Limits of error for accuracy classes 5P and 10P


Accuracy class

Current error (%)

Composite error (%)

5P

10P

10

The accuracy limit factors detailed above should be used to ensure full range fault
recording.

Section 14. HIGH VOLTAGE WITHSTAND


14.1

Dielectric withstand IEC 60255-5: 1977


2.0kV rms for one minute between all terminals and case earth, except terminal 1.
2.0kV rms for one minute between terminals of independent circuits, including
contact circuits.
1.5kV rms for 1 minute across open contacts of output relays 0 to 7.
1.0kV rms for 1 minute across open contacts of the watchdog relay.

14.2

High voltage impulse IEC 60255-5: 1977


5kV peak, 1.2/50s, 0.5J between all terminals and all terminals to case earth.

14.3

Insulation resistance IEC 60255-5: 1977


>100MW when measured at 500Vdc

14.4

High frequency disturbance IEC 60255-22-1: 1988


Class III
2.5kV peak between independent circuits and case.
1.0kV peak across terminals of the same circuit.

14.5

Fast transient IEC 60255-22-4: 1992


Class IV
4kV, 2.5kHz applied to all inputs and outputs.

14.6

EMC compliance
89/336/EEC
Compliance to the European Commission Directive on EMC is claimed via the
Technical Construction File route.
EN 50081-1
EN 50082-2
Generic Standards are used to establish conformity.

14.7

Electrostatic discharge test IEC 60255-22-2: 1996


Class 3 (8kV)

discharge in air with cover in place

Class 2 (4kV)

point contact discharge with cover removed

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 7
Page 13 of 18

Section 15. IEEE/ANSI SPECIFICATIONS


15.1

Standard for relay systems associated with electrical power


apparatus
C37.90 - 1989

15.2

Surge withstand capability


C37.90.1 - 1989

15.3

Radio electromagnetic interference


C39.90.2 - 1989

Section 16. ENVIRONMENTAL


16.1

16.2

Temperature IEC 60255-6: 1988


Storage and transit

25C to +70C

Operating

25C to +55C

Humidity IEC 60068-2-3: 1969


56 days at 93% relative humidity and 40C

16.3

Enclosure protection IEC 60529:1989


IP50 (Dust protected)

16.4

Vibration IEC 60255-21-1:1988


Class 1

16.5

Shock and bump IEC 60255-21 2:1988


Class 1

16.6

Seismic IEC 60255-21-3:1993


Class 1

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 7
Page 14 of 18

Section 17. MODEL NUMBERS


Relay type:

KCGG

122
142

1
1

2
4

0
X
0
X

1
X
2
Y

2
2

Configuration:
Standard
Customer Settings (standard only)
Reduced input/output
Customer settings (reduced I/O)
Case size:
Size 4 Midos flush mounting

Auxiliary voltage:
24/125V
48/250V

2
5

Not used
CT rating:
1A CT standard (0.005In to 0.8In for earth faults)
1A CT special (0.02In to 3.2In for earth faults)
5A CT standard (0.005In to 0.8In for earth faults)
5A CT special (0.02In to 3.2In for earth faults)

C
D
E
F

Language:
English
French
German
Spanish

E
F
G
S

Relay type:

KCEG

112
142
152
242

1
1
1
2

Configuration:
Standard
Case size:
Size 4 Midos flush mounting (KCEG112 only)
Size 6 Midos flush mounting (KCEG142/152 only)
Size 8 Midos flush mounting (KCEG242 only)
Auxiliary voltage:
24/125V (except KCEG242)
48/250V (except KCEG242)
110/250V (KCEG242 only)
Operating voltage:
110V ac; 50-60Hz
440V ac; 50-60Hz
CT rating:
1A CT standard
1A CT special
5A CT standard
5A CT special
Language:
English
French
German
Spanish

(0.005In to 0.8In for earth faults)


(0.02In to 3.2In for earth faults)
(0.005In to 0.8In for earth faults)
(0.02In to 3.2In for earth faults)

1
4
5
4

2
2
2
2

D
F
H

2
5
9

1
4

(0.005In to 0.6In for earth faults)


(0.002In to 2.4In for earth faults)
(0.005In to 0.6In for earth faults)
(0.02In to 2.4In for earth faults)

C
D
E
F

E
F
G
S

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

Relay type:

R8551D
Chapter 7
Page 15 of 18

KCEU

142
242

1
2

Configuration:
Standard
Case size:
Size 6 Midos flush mounting (KCEU 142 only)
Size 8 Midos flush mounting (KCEU 242 only)
Auxiliary voltage:
24/125V (except KCEU242)
48/250V (except KCEU242)
110/250V (KCEU242 only)
Operating voltage:
110V ac; 50-60Hz
440V ac; 50-60Hz
CT rating:
1A CT standard
1A CT special
5A CT standard
5A CT special
Language:
English
French
German
Spanish

(0.005In to 0.8In for earth faults)


(0.02In to 3.2In for earth faults)
(0.005In to 0.8In for earth faults)
(0.02In to 3.2In for earth faults)

4
4

2
2

F
H

2
5
9

1
4

(0.005In to 0.6In for earth faults)


(0.002In to 2.4In for earth faults)
(0.005In to 0.6In for earth faults)
(0.02In to 2.4In for earth faults)

C
D
E
F

E
F
G
S

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 7
Page 16 of 18

Section 18. FREQUENCY RESPONSE


The operating criteria for each element have been chosen to suit the applications
for which it is most likely to be used. Knowing how these elements respond under
operating conditions will help to apply them effectively.

Fourier filter response


Anti-aliasing filter response

4
Harmonic

Figure 1: Response of Fourier filtering

Measurement is based on the Fourier derived value of the fundamental component


of current and Figure 1 shows the frequency response that results from this filtering.
The '1' on the horizontal scale relates to the selected rated frequency of the relay
and the figures '2', '3', '4' etc. are the second, third and fourth harmonic
frequencies respectively. It can be seen that harmonics up to and including the 6th
are suppressed, giving no output. The 7th is the first predominant harmonic and
this is attenuated to approximately 30% by the anti-aliasing filter. For power
frequencies that are not equal to the selected rated frequency. ie. the frequency
does not coincide with '1' on the horizontal scale, the harmonics will not be of
zero amplitude. For small frequency deviations of 1Hz, this is not a problem but
to allow for larger deviations, an improvement is obtained by the addition of
frequency tracking.
With frequency tracking the sampling rate of the analogue/digital conversion is
automatically adjusted to match the applied signal. In the absence of a signal of
suitable amplitude to track, the sample rate defaults to that to suit the selected rated
frequency (Fn) for the relay. In presence of a signal within the tracking range
(45 to 65Hz), the relay will lock on to the signal and the '1' on the horizontal axis
in diagram above will coincide with the measured frequency of the measured
signal. The resulting output for 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th and 6th harmonics will be zero.
Thus this diagram applies when the relay is not frequency tracking the signal and
also if it is tracking a frequency within the range 45 to 65Hz.
Power frequency signals are predominant in phase quantities and are therefore
used in the frequency tracking routine, whereas, earth fault quantities often contain
a high proportion of harmonic signals. The earth fault element of multi-pole relays
will generally be locked to the power frequency as the relay tracks it using the
phase quantities. If the relay were to track a frequency above 65Hz then it would
try to lock on to a sub-harmonic frequency and the response would then be as
shown in diagram below. The horizontal axis of this graph is in Hz, the unit of

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 7
Page 17 of 18

frequency, and a substantial output is produced for the 2nd harmonic of the system
frequency and also for the 3rd, etc. Hence it is for this reason the relays are
restricted to tracking the phase quantities and do not track earth fault signals.

100

200
Frequency - Hz

300

400

Figure 2: Response when frequency tracking

18.1

Transient overreach
The I>>/Io>> and I>>>/Io>>> elements are often required for instantaneous high
set and/or low set functions and for these applications they need to be unaffected
by offset waveforms, which may contain a large dc exponential component, and
by transformer inrush currents. To achieve this, two criteria for operation are
applied independently. The first is that the Fourier derived power frequency
component of the fault current is above the set threshold, as for I>/Io>. The
second is that the peak of any half cycle of current exceeds twice the set threshold
value and is provided to reduce the operation time to less than that which could be
obtained with the Fourier measurement alone.

18.2

Peak measurement
Another point to be aware of is that the second criterion uses peak values and
these are only filtered by the anti-aliasing filter. However, the peak measurements
are still based on sampled values and the position of the samples relative to the
peak of the harmonic will depend on the phase relationship. The frequency
response will therefore be modified for the I>>/Io>> and I>>>/Io>>> elements
for which the diagram below is typical only.
For certain applications it may be necessary to set the I>> or Io>> element to a
low setting, possibly lower than that for the I> or Io> elements. In these situations
the modified frequency response shown may not be acceptable because of the
lack of harmonic rejection. To overcome this problem a software link is provided to
select or deselect the peak detection feature for the I>> and Io>> overcurrent
elements.
The peak measurement is not used for the I>>/Io>> and I>>>/Io>>> elements of
directional overcurrent relays. This is to ensure that the overcurrent and directional
measurement is made from the same data to ensure decisive operation. Therefore,
the following diagram will apply to KCEG/KCEU relays and a KCGG relay that
has been set so as not to respond to peak values.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 7
Page 18 of 18

Filter response for I>>/I>>> with peak measurement


tracking a single frequency

Figure 3:

18.3

50

100

200
Frequency Hz

300

400

Frequency response when relay responds to both peak and Fourier values

Frequency response of directional elements


The phase directional elements are provided with synchronous polarization which
is maintained for 320ms, or 3.2s, after the voltage collapses so that decisive
operation is ensured. During the period of synchronous polarization the relay
tracks the frequency on a current signal so that the phase correction is maintained,
even with some deviation in frequency.

Types KCGG 122, 142


KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242 and
KCEU 142, 242
Overcurrent and Directional Overcurrent
Relays
Service Manual

Chapter 8
Commissioning

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 8
Contents

1.

INTRODUCTION

2.

PRODUCT SETTING FAMILIARISATION

3.
3.1
3.2
3.3

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED FOR TESTING


Minimum equipment required for KCGG relays
Additional equipment required for KCEG and KCEU relays
Optional equipment

3
3
3
3

4.
4.1
4.1.1
4.1.2
4.1.3
4.1.4
4.1.5
4.2
4.2.1
4.2.2
4.2.3
4.2.4
4.2.5
4.2.6
4.2.7
4.2.8
4.2.9
4.2.10
4.2.11

PRODUCT VERIFICATION TESTS


With the relay de-energised
Visual inspection
Insulation
External wiring
Watchdog contacts
Auxiliary supply
With the relay energised
Watchdog contacts
Light emitting diodes (LEDs)
Liquid crystal display (LCD)
Field supply
Capacitor trip voltage (KCEG 242 and KCEU 242 relays only)
Input opto-isolators
Output relays
Communications ports
Current inputs
Voltage inputs (KCEG and KCEU relays only)
Energisation from line current transformers
(KCEG 242 and KCEU 242 only)

3
4
4
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
8
9
9
10

SETTING TESTS
Apply customer settings
Ckeck settings
Demonstrate correct relay operation
Non-directional phase fault test (KCGG 122/142 relays)
Connect the test circuit
Perform the test
Check the operating time
Directional phase fault test (KCEG 142/242 and KCEU 142/242 relays)
Connect the test circuit
Perform boundary of operation test
Perform the timing test
Directional earth fault function test (KCEG 112/152 relays)
Connect the test circuit
Perform boundary of operation test
Perform the timing test

11
11
11
11
11
11
12
12
12
12
13
14
14
14
14
15

5.
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.3.1
5.3.1.1
5.3.1.2
5.3.1.3
5.3.2
5.3.2.1
5.3.2.2
5.3.2.3
5.3.3
5.3.3.1
5.3.3.2
5.3.3.3

10

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
6.
6.1

R8551D
Chapter 8
Contents

6.1.1
6.1.2
6.2

ON-LOAD CHECKS
Check current and voltage transformer connections
(KCEG and KCEU relays)
Voltage connections
Current connections
Check current transformer connections (KCGG relays)

15
15
15
16
16

7.

FINAL CHECKS

17

8.
8.1
8.2
8.2.1
8.2.2
8.2.3
8.2.4
8.3
8.3.1
8.3.2
8.3.3
8.3.4
8.3.5
8.3.6
8.3.7
8.3.8
8.3.9
8.4
8.4.1
8.4.2
8.5
8.6
8.6.1
8.6.2
8.6.3
8.7
8.8
8.8.1
8.8.2

PROBLEM SOLVING
Password lost or not accepted
Protection settings
Settings for high sets not displayed
Second setting group not displayed
Function links can not be changed
Curve selection can not be changed
Alarms
Watchdog alarm
Cell [0022 Alarms] link 0 = 1
Cell [0022 Alarms] link 1 = 1
Cell [0022 Alarms] link 2 = 1
Cell [0022 Alarms] link 3 = 1
Cell [0022 Alarms] link 4 = 1
Cell [0022 Alarms] link 5 = 1
Cell [0022 Alarms] link 7 = 1
Fault flags will not reset
Records
Problems with event records
Problems with disturbance records
Circuit breaker maintenance records
Communications
Measured values do not change
Relay no longer responding
No response to remote control commands
Output relays remain picked up
Thermal state
Thermal state reset to zero
Thermal ammeter time constants

18
18
18
18
18
18
18
19
19
19
19
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
20
21
22
22
22
22
22
23
23
23
23

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 8
Contents

9.
9.1
9.2
921
9.2.1.1
9.2.1.2
9.2.1.3
9.2.1.4
9.2.2
9.2.2.1
9.2.2.2
9.2.2.3
9.2.2.4
9.2.2.5
9.3
9.3.1
9.3.1.1
9.3.1.2
9.3.1.3
9.3.2
9.3.3
9.3.4
9.4

MAINTENANCE
Remote testing
Maintenance checks
Remote testing
Alarms
Measurement accuracy
Trip test
Circuit breaker maintenance
Local testing
Alarms
Measurement accuracy
Trip test
Circuit breaker maintenance
Additional tests
Method of repair
Replacing a PCB
Replacement of user interface
Replacement of main processor board
Replacement of auxiliary expansion board
Replacing output relays
Replacing the power supply board
Replacing the back plane (size 4 and 6 cases)
Recalibration

23
23
24
24
24
24
24
25
25
25
25
25
25
25
26
26
26
26
26
27
27
27
27

Figure 1:
Figure 2:

Connections for directional phase fault tests


Connections for directional earth fault tests

13
14

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

Section 1.

R8551D
Chapter 8
Page 1 of 28

INTRODUCTION

The KCEG, KCGG and KCEU relays are fully numerical in their design,
implementing all protection and non-protection functions in software. The relays
employ a high degree of self-checking and, in the unlikely event of a failure, will
give an alarm. As a result of this, the commissioning tests do not need to be as
thorough as with non-numeric electronic or electro-mechanical relays.
To commission numeric relays it is only necessary to verify that the hardware is
functioning correctly and the application-specific software settings have been
applied to the relay. It is considered unnecessary to test every function of the relay
if the settings have been verified by one of the following methods:
Extracting the settings applied to the relay using appropriate setting software
(Preferred method)
Via the operator interface.
To confirm that the product is operating correctly once the customers settings have
been applied, a test should be performed on a single element.
Unless previously agreed to the contrary, the customer will be responsible for
determining the application-specific settings to be applied and testing scheme logic
applied by external customer wiring.
Blank commissioning test and setting records are provided in Appendix 4 for
completion as required.
Before carrying out any work on the equipment, the user should be
familiar with the contents of the Safety Section and Chapter 2,
Handling and Installation of this manual.

Section 2.

PRODUCT SETTING FAMILIARISATION

When commissioning a KCEG, KCGG or KCEU relay for the first time, sufficient
time should be allowed to become familiar with the method by which settings are
applied.
Chapter 3, Section 3 contains a detailed description of the menu structure of the
KCEG, KCGG and KCEU relays but the key functions are summarised in Table 1.
With the cover in place only the [F] and [0] keys are accessible. Data can only be
read or flag and counter functions reset. No protection or configuration settings
can be changed.
Removing the cover allows access to the [+] and [] keys so that all settings can be
changed and there is greater mobility around the menu.
In Table 1, [F] long indicates that the key is pressed for at least 1 second and
[F] short for less than 0.5 second. This allows the same key to perform more than
one function.
Alternatively, if a portable PC is available together with a K-Bus interface and
suitable setting software, the menu can be viewed a page at a time to display a
full column of data and text. Settings are also more easily entered and the final
settings can be saved to a file on a disk for future reference or printing a
permanent record. Refer to the software user manual for details and allow sufficient
time to become familiar with its operation if it is being used for the first time.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 8
Page 2 of 28

Current Display

Key Press

Default display

[F] short or Display changes to menu column heading


[F] long
SYSTEM DATA.

Backlight turns ON no other effect.

[]

Backlight turns ON no other effect.

[0] short

Steps through the available default displays.

[0] long

Backlight turns ON no other effect.

[+]

Flag faults after


a trip

Column heading

Any menu cell

A settable cell

Setting mode

Confirmation
mode

Effect of Action

[F] short or Display moves to menu column heading


[F] long
SYSTEM DATA.
[+]

Backlight turns ON no other effect.

[]

Backlight turns ON no other effect.

[0] short

Backlight turns ON no other effect.

[0] long

Resets trip LED and returns to default display.

[F] short

Move to next item in menu column.

[F] long

Move to next column heading.

[+]

Move to previous column heading.

[]

Move to next column heading.

[0] short

Backlight turns ON no other effect.

[0] long

Re-establishes password protection and returns to


default display.

[F] short

Move to next item in menu column.

[F] + [0]

Move to previous item in menu column.

[F] long

Move to next column heading.

[0] short

Backlight turns ON no other effect.

[0] long

Resets the value if cell is resettable.

[+] or []

Puts relay in the setting mode (flashing cursor on


bottom line of display). The password must first be
entered for protected cells.

[F]

Changes to the confirmation display.


If function links, relay or input masks are displayed,
the [F] key will step through them from left to right
and finally changing to the confirmation display.

[+]

Increments value rapidly increases if held depressed.

[]

Decrements value rapidly decreases if held depressed.

[0]

Escapes from the setting mode without the setting


being changed.

[+]

Confirms setting and enters the new value.

[]

Returns prospective value of setting for checking


and further modification.

[0]

Escapes from the setting mode without a setting change.

Only available with front cover removed

Table 1: Functions of keys

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

Section 3.
3.1

R8551D
Chapter 8
Page 3 of 28

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED for COMMISSIONING

Minimum equipment required for KCGG relays


Overcurrent test set with interval timer.
Multimeter with suitable ac and dc voltage, and ac current, ranges.
Audible continuity tester (if not included in multimeter).

3.2

Additional equipment required for KCEG and KCEU relays


Phase-shifting transformer
Variable transformer (Variac) and resistors (if overcurrent test can not change the
phase angle between current and voltage).
Phase angle meter.
Phase rotation meter (not required for the KCEG 112).

3.3

Optional equipment
Multi-finger test plug type MMLB01 (if test block type MMLG installed).
A portable PC, with appropriate software and a KITZ 101 K-Bus/IEC60870-5
interface unit (if one is not already installed at site) will be useful and save
considerable time. However, it is not essential to commissioning.
A printer (for printing a setting record from the portable PC).

Section 4.

PRODUCT CHECKS

These product checks cover all aspects of the relay that need to be checked to
ensure that it has not been physically damaged prior to commissioning, is
functioning correctly and all measurements are within the stated tolerances.
If the application-specific settings have been applied to the relay prior to
commissioning, it is advisable to make a copy of the settings so as to allow their
restoration later. This can be done by:
Obtaining a setting file on a diskette from the customer (this requires a portable
PC with appropriate software for downloading the settings to the relay.)
Extracting the settings from the product itself (this again requires a portable PC
with appropriate software.)
Manually creating a setting record. This could be done using a copy of the
setting record located in Appendix 4.
If the customer has changed the password preventing unauthorised changes to
some of the settings, either the revised password should be provided or the
customer should restore the original password prior to commencement of testing.
Note: In the event that the password has been lost, a recovery password can be
obtained from AREVA T&D by quoting the model
and serial numbers of the particular relay. The recovery password is unique
to that relay and will not work on any other relay.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
4.1

R8551D
Chapter 8
Page 4 of 28

With the relay de-energised


The following group of tests should be carried out without the auxiliary supply or
measured voltages being applied to the relay and the trip circuit isolated.
If an MMLG test block is provided, this can easily be achieved by inserting test
plug type MMLB01 which effectively open-circuits all wiring routed through the test
block.
Before inserting the test plug, reference should be made to the scheme diagram to
ensure that this will not potentially cause damage or a safety hazard.
For example, the test block may also be associated with protection current
transformer circuits. It is essential that the sockets in the test plug, which correspond
to the current transformer secondary windings, are linked before the test plug is
inserted into the test block.
DANGER: Never open circuit the secondary circuit of a current
transformer since the high voltage produced may be
lethal and could damage insulation.
If an MMLG test block is not provided, the voltage transformer supply to the relay
should be isolated by means of the panel links or connecting blocks. The line
current transformers should be short-circuited and disconnected from the relay
terminals. Where means of isolating the auxiliary supply and trip circuit
(eg. isolation links, fuses, MCB etc.) are provided, these should be used. If this is
not possible, the wiring to these circuits will have to be disconnected and the
exposed ends suitably terminated to prevent them being a safety hazard.

4.1.1

Visual inspection
Loosen the cover screws and remove the cover. The relay module can now be
withdrawn from its case. In accordance with Chapter 2, Section 2 (Handling of
Electronic Equipment), carefully examine the module and case to see that no
damage has occurred since installation.
Check that the serial and model numbers on the front plate and label on the
left-hand, inside face of the case are identical. The only time that the serial
numbers may not match is when a failed relay has been replaced to provide
continuity of protection.
The rating information on the front of the relay should also be checked to ensure it
is correct for the particular installation.
Visually check that the current transformer shorting switches, fitted on the terminal
block inside the rear of the case, are wired into the correct circuit. The shorting
switches are between terminals 21 and 22, 23 and 24, 25 and 26, and 27 and
28 for all versions of KCEG, KCGG and KCEU. Ensure that, while the relay
module is withdrawn, the shorting switches are closed by checking with a
continuity tester.
Ensure that the case earthing connection, above the rear terminal block, is used to
connect the relay to a local earth bar. Where there is more than one relay in a tier,
it is recommended that a copper earth bar should be fitted connecting the earth
terminals of each case in the same tier together. However, as long as an adequate
earth connection is made between relays, the use of a copper earth bar is not
essential.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
4.1.2

R8551D
Chapter 8
Page 5 of 28

Insulation
Insulation resistance tests only need to be done during commissioning if the
customer requires them to be done and if they have not been performed during
installation.
If insulation resistance tests are required, isolate the relay trip contacts and re-insert
the relay module.
Isolate all wiring from the earth and test the insulation with an electronic or
brushless insulation tester at a dc voltage not exceeding 500V and internal
impedance greater than 100M. Terminals of the same circuits should be
temporarily strapped together.
The main groups of relay terminals are:
a) Voltage transformer circuits
b) Current transformer circuits
c) Auxiliary voltage supply
d) Field voltage output and opto-isolated control inputs
e) Relay contacts
f) Communication port
g) Case earth
On completion of the insulation resistance tests, ensure all external wiring is
correctly reconnected to the unit.

4.1.3

External wiring
Check that the external wiring is correct to the relevant relay diagram or scheme
diagram. The relay diagram number appears on a label on the left-hand, inside
face of the case and the corresponding connection diagram can be found in
Appendix 3 of this manual. If a connection diagram from the service manual is
used, the customers mask allocations for the input opto-isolators and output relays
should be checked to see which functions have been configured in each mask.
If an MMLG test block is provided, the connections should be checked against the
scheme diagram. It is recommended that the supply connections are to the live side
of the test block (coloured orange with the odd numbered terminals (1, 3, 5, 7
etc.)). The auxiliary supply is normally routed via terminals 13 (supply positive) and
15 (supply negative), with terminals 14 and 16 connected to the relays positive
and negative auxiliary supply terminals respectively. However, check the wiring
against the schematic diagram for the installation to ensure compliance with the
customers normal practice.

4.1.4

Watchdog contacts
If not already done to perform the insulation resistance tests, isolate the relay trip
contacts and re-insert the relay module. Using a continuity tester, check the
watchdog contacts are in the states given in Table 2 for a de-energised relay.
Terminals
3 and 5
4 and 6

Contact state
Relay de-energised
Relay energised
Closed
Open
Open
Closed

Table 2: Watchdog contact status

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
4.1.5

R8551D
Chapter 8
Page 6 of 28

Auxiliary supply
The relay can be operated from either an ac or a dc auxiliary supply but the
incoming voltage must be within the operating ranges specified in Table 3.
Without energising the relay, measure the auxiliary supply to ensure it is within the
operating range.
Relay
rating (V)

DC operating
range (V)

AC operating
range (V)

Maximum crest
voltage (V)

24/125
48/250

19 150
33 300

50 133
87 265

190
380

Table 3: Operational range of auxiliary supply

It should be noted that the relay can withstand an ac ripple of up to 12% of the
upper rated voltage on the dc auxiliary supply. However, in all cases the peak
value of the auxiliary supply must not exceed the maximum crest voltage. Do not
energise the relay using the battery charger with the battery disconnected as this
can seriously damage the relays power supply circuitry.
Energise the relay if the auxiliary supply is within the operating range. If an MMLG
test block is provided, it may be necessary to link across the front of the test plug to
restore the auxiliary supply to the relay.
4.2

With the relay energised


The following group of tests verify that the relay hardware and software is
functioning correctly and should be carried out with the auxiliary supply applied to
the relay.
The measured currents and voltages must not be applied to the relay for these
checks.

4.2.1

Watchdog contacts
Using a continuity tester, check the watchdog contacts are in the states given in
Table 2 for an energised relay.
Note: This test can not be performed with dual powered relays because their
watchdog contacts work in a different way to those of an auxiliary powered
relay (ie. they do not give an alarm when the supply fails and only pick-up
when the relay is not healthy).

4.2.2

Light emitting diodes (LEDs)


On power up the green LED should have illuminated and stayed on indicating the
relay is healthy. The relay has non-volatile memory which remembers the state (on
or off) of the yellow alarm and red trip LED indicators when the relay was last
powered, and therefore these indicators may also be on.
If either the alarm or trip, or both LEDs are on then these should be reset before
proceeding with further testing. If the LEDs successfully reset (the LED goes out),
there is no testing required for that LED because it is known to be operational.
Testing the alarm LED
The alarm LED can simply be tested by entering the password in the
[0002 Password] cell as this will cause it to flash.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 8
Page 7 of 28

Testing the trip LED


The trip LED can be tested by initiating a manual circuit breaker trip from the relay.
However, if the customer settings do not allocate output relays 3 or 7 in the relay
masks for circuit breaker tripping from the phase fault protection function
(KCEG 142/152/242, KCGG 122/142 and KCEU 142, 242 relays) or earth
fault protection function (KCEG 112 relay), the trip LED will operate during the
setting checks performed later. Otherwise the trip LED will need testing.
If testing the LED is necessary but neither output relay 3 or 7 has been assigned for
manual circuit breaker tripping, with the password entered (use the [0002
Password] cell if not already in this mode), set relay mask [0B0D CB Trip] bit 7
to1.
Set the [0010 CB Control] to Trip and confirm the operation by pressing [F] then
[+]. Check the trip LED to ensure it comes on.
Restoring password protection
To restore password protection (stopping changes to password-protected cells),
press and hold the [F] key for over 1 second then press and hold the [0] key for
over 1 second. Password protection will also be restored automatically 15 minutes
after the last key press. The alarm LED stops flashing to indicate that password
protection has been restored.
4.2.3

Liquid crystal display (LCD)


There are no in-built self test routines for the LCD. The display itself can be checked
by moving around the relay menu looking for pixels (the dots on the display used
to form the text) that are not working.
There is an integral backlight in the display that allows settings to be read in all
conditions of ambient lighting. It is switched on when any key on the frontplate is
momentarily pressed and is designed to switch off 10 minutes after the last key
press. Check that the backlight does switch off as it will impose an unnecessary
burden on the station battery if it stays on.

4.2.4

Field voltage supply


The relay generates a field voltage of nominally 48V that should be used to
energise the opto-isolated inputs. Measure the field voltage across terminals 7
and 8. Terminal 7 should be positive with respect to terminal 8 and the voltage
should be within the range 45V to 60V when no load is connected.

4.2.5

Capacitor trip voltage (KCEG 242 and KCEU 242 relays only)
The relay generates a capacitor trip voltage of nominally 50V. Measure the field
voltage across terminals 9 and 10. Terminal 9 should be positive with respect to
terminal 10 and the voltage should be within the range 45V to 55V when no load
is connected.

4.2.6

Input opto-isolators
This test is to check that all the opto-isolated inputs are functioning correctly.
The KCEG 112, KCGG 122 and KCGG 142 02 have only 3 inputs (L0, L1 and
L2) while the remaining KCEG 142/152/242, KCGG 142 01 and KCEU 142/
242 have the full 8 opto-isolated inputs (L0, L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, L6 and L7).
To allow the opto-isolated inputs to work, terminal 8 (field voltage supply negative)
should be linked to terminal 52 for all models and additionally to 55 where the
relay has 8 opto-isolated inputs.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 8
Page 8 of 28

The opto-inputs can then be individually energised by connecting terminal 7 (field


voltage supply positive) to the appropriate opto-isolated input listed in Table 4.
Note: The opto-isolated inputs may be energised from an external 50V battery in
some installations. Check that this is not the case before connecting the field
voltage otherwise damage to the relay may result.
Opto-isolator

L0

L1

L2

L3

L4

L5

L6

L7

Terminal number

46

48

50

45

47

49

51

53

Table 4: Opto-isolator connections

The status of each opto-isolated input can be viewed using cell [0020 Log Status].
When each opto-isolated input is energised one of the characters on the bottom
line of the display will change to indicate the new state of the inputs. The number
printed on the frontplate under the display will identify which opto-isolated input
each character represents. A 1 indicates an energised state and a 0 indicates a
de-energised state..
4.2.7

Output relays
This test is to check that all the output relays are functioning correctly.
With the password entered (use the [0002 Password]), set relay mask [0B0D CB
Trip] bit 0 to 1 and the rest (bits 1 to 7) to 0.
Connect an audible continuity tester across the terminals corresponding to output
relay 0 given in Table 5. Select the [0010 CB Control] cell and press the [+] key
until Trip CB is displayed. Press the [F] once followed by the [+] key to confirm
the change.
Operation of output relay 0 will be confirmed by the continuity tester sounding for
the duration of the trip pulse time in the [0906 tTRIP] cell.
Repeat the test for output relays 1 to 3 inclusive for a KCEG 112, KCGG 142 02
or KCGG 122 relay and relays 1 to 7 inclusive for the remaining KCEG 142/
152/242, KCGG 142 or KCEU 142/242 relays.
Output relay

[CB Trip] Mask setting

Terminal numbers

30 and 32

34 and 36

38 and 40

42 and 44

29 and 31

33 and 35

37 and 39

41 and 43

Table 5: Settings for output tests

If an output relay is found to have failed, an alternative relay can be temporarily


re-allocated until such time as the relay module can be repaired or a replacement
can be installed.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 8
Page 9 of 28

To restore password protection (stopping changes to password-protected cells),


press and hold the [F] key for over 1 second then press and hold the [0] key for
over 1 second. Password protection will also be restored automatically 15 minutes
after the last key press. The alarm LED stops flashing to indicate that password
protection has been restored.
4.2.8

Communications ports
This test should only be performed where the relay is to be accessed from a remote
location and a portable PC has not been used to read and change settings during
commissioning.
It is not the intention of the test to verify the operation of the complete system from
the relay to the remote location, just the relays K-bus circuitry and the protocol
converter.
Connect a portable PC running the appropriate software to the incoming (remote
from relay) side of the protocol converter and ensure that the communications
settings in the application software are set the same as those on the protocol
converter.
Check that communications with the relay can be established.

4.2.9

Current inputs
This test verifies the accuracy of current measurement is within the acceptable
tolerances.
All relays will leave the factory set for operation at a system frequency of 50Hz.
If operation at 60Hz is required then this must be set in cell [0009 Freq]. Press the
[+] key until the frequency is 60Hz, then press the [F] key once followed by the [+]
key to confirm the change.
Apply rated current to each current transformer input in turn, checking its
magnitude using a multimeter. Refer to Table 6 for the corresponding reading in
the relays MEASURE 1 column and record the value displayed. All measured
current values on the relay should equal the applied current multiplied by the
current transformer ratio set in the [0502 CT Ratio] cell for earth fault current
transformer inputs or [0602 CT Ratio] cell for phase current transformer inputs, as
applicable. The acceptable tolerance is 5%.
Current applied to

Menu cell

Terminals 21 and 22

[0201 Ia]

Terminals 23 and 24

[0202 Ib]

Terminals 25 and 26

[0203 Ic]

Terminals 27 and 28

[0204 Io]

KCGG 122/142
(KCEG 142/152/242,
)
and KCEU 142/242
KCGG 122/142
(KCEG 142/152/242,
)
and KCEU 142/242
KCGG 122/142
(KCEG 142/152/242,
)
and KCEU 142/242
112/142/152/242,
(KCGGKCEG
122/142 and KCEU 142/242)

Table 6: Current inputs and corresponding displayed values

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
4.2.10

R8551D
Chapter 8
Page 10 of 28

Voltage inputs (KCEG and KCEU relays only)


This test verifies the accuracy of voltage measurement is within the acceptable
tolerances for relays with directional protection functions.
Apply rated voltage to each voltage transformer input in turn, checking its
magnitude using a multimeter. Refer to Table 7 for the corresponding reading in
the relays MEASURE 1 column and record the value displayed. All measured
voltage values on the relay should equal the applied voltage multiplied by the
voltage transformer ratio set in the [0503 VT Ratio] cell for earth fault voltage
transformer inputs or [0603 VT Ratio] cell for phase voltage transformer inputs, as
applicable. The acceptable tolerance is 5%.
Voltage applied to

Menu cell

Terminals 17 and 20

[0208 Va]

(KCEG 142/242 and KCEU 142/242)

Terminals 18 and 20

[0209 Vb]

(KCEG 142/242 and KCEU 142/242)

Terminals 19 and 20

[020A Vb]

(KCEG 142/242 and KCEU 142/242)

[020B Vo]

(KCEG 112/152)

Table 7: Voltage inputs and corresponding displayed values

4.2.11

Energisation from line current transformers (KCEG 242 and KCEU 242 only)
This test ensures that the KCEG 242 or KCEU 242 relays will operate from the line
current transformers should the auxiliary voltage be unavailable or has failed. The
currents used in the tests are the minimum values for which the relay should
operate, regardless of setting.
Remove the auxiliary supply from the relay. Inject the current stated in Table 8 to
the relay terminals specified.
In each case the relay should power up correctly with the LCD showing the default
display and the green healthy LED illuminated.
Repeat the field supply and capacitor trip voltage tests (4.2.4 and 4.2.5
respectively) with the relay powered from the injected current.
Injected current
0.4 x In

0.2 x In

Terminals
Inject into
Link together
21 and 23
22 and 24
25 and 21
26 and 22
23 and 25
24 and 26
23 and 28
24 and 27

Table 8: Injected currents for line current transformer energisation tests

Note:

For 0.2 x In, the relay may chatter due to the loading effect of the
energised output relays. This is unlikely to occur when the relay is in
service because it will not be powered from the earth fault current only.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

Section 5.

R8551D
Chapter 8
Page 11 of 28

SETTING TESTS

The setting checks ensure that all the predetermined settings for the particular
installation (customers settings) have been correctly applied to the relay and that
the relay is operating correctly at those settings. If the customer settings are not
available, ignore sections 5.1 and 5.2 and perform the tests in section 5.3 at the
factory default settings.
5.1

Apply customer settings


There are two methods of applying the settings:
Downloading them to the relay using a portable PC running the appropriate
software via a KITZ protocol converter. If a KITZ is not installed as part of the
customers scheme, one will have to be temporarily connected to the K-Bus
terminals of the relay. This method is preferred as it is much faster and there is
less margin for error.
If a setting file has been created by the customer and provided on a diskette,
this will further reduce the commissioning time.
Enter them manually via the relays operator interface.

5.2

Check settings
The settings applied should be carefully checked against the customers desired
settings to ensure they have been entered correctly. However, this is not considered
essential if a customer-prepared setting file has been downloaded to the relay
using a portable PC.
There are two methods of checking the settings:
Extract the settings from the relay using a portable PC running the appropriate
software via a KITZ protocol converter and compare with the customers original
setting record. (For cases where the customer has only provided a printed copy
of the required settings but a portable PC is available).
Step through the settings using the relays operator interface and compare them
with the customers original setting record.

5.3

Demonstrate correct relay operation


This test, performed on a single element, demonstrates that the relay is functioning
correctly at the customers chosen settings.The test performed will depend on the
protection functions provided by the relay under test. The test is usually on stage 1
of the phase fault function, except KCEG 112 and KCEG 152 where stage 1 of
the directional earth fault function is tested.

5.3.1

Non-directional phase fault test (KCGG 122/142 relays)


This test demonstrates that stage 1 of the KCGG phase fault function [t>] operates
within the stated tolerance at the customer settings.

5.3.1.1 Connect the test circuit


Determine which output relay has been selected to operate when a t> trip occurs.
If the trip outputs are phase-segregated (ie. a different output relay allocated for
each phase), the relay assigned in cell [0B08 tA>] should be used. The associated
terminal numbers can be found either from the external connection diagram
(Appendix 3) or Table 5 above.
Connect the output relay so that its operation will trip the test set and stop the timer.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 8
Page 12 of 28

Connect the current output of the test set to terminals 21 and 22 (A phase current
transformer input) of the relay and ensure that the timer will start when the current
is applied to the relay.
5.3.1.2 Perform the test
Ensure that the timer is reset.
Apply a current of twice the setting in cell [0605 I>] to the KCGG and note the
time displayed when the timer stops.
5.3.1.3 Check the operating time
Check that the operating time recorded by the timer is within the range shown in
Table 9.
Curve

Operating time at 2Is and TMS=1


Nominal
Range

DT

[t>/DT] setting

na

SI30xDT

10.03

9.53 10.53

VI30xDT

13.50

12.83 14.18

EI10xDT

26.67

25.33 28.00

LTI30xDT

120.0

114.00 126.00

MI

7.61

7.23 7.99

VI

14.06

13.35 14.76

EI

19.04

18.09 20.00

STI30xDT

1.78

1.69 1.87

RECT

966

917 1014

Table 9: Characteristic operating times for I>

Note:

5.3.2

The operating given in Table 9 are for a TMS of 1. Therefore, to obtain the
operating time for other TMS settings, the time given in Table 9 must be
multiplied by the relays actual TMS setting. This setting can be found in
cell [0606 t>/TMS]). In addition, there is an additional tolerance of up to
0.04 second that should be taken into account.

Directional phase fault test (KCEG 142/242 and KCEU 142/242 relays)
This test demonstrates that stage 1of the KCEG or KCEU phase fault function [t>]
operates within the stated tolerance at the customer settings. If cell [0601 PF Links]
has been set to 0, stage 1 [t>] function has been set for non-directional operation
and hence should be tested as per a KCGG 142 (ie. use test 5.3.1).
If a KCEG 242 or KCEU 242 relay is being tested, it is recommended that the
relay is energised from an auxiliary voltage supply as this will reduce the burden
imposed by the relay on the current injection test set.

5.3.2.1 Connect the test circuit


Determine which output relay has been selected to operate when a t> trip occurs.
If the trip outputs are phase-segregated (ie. a different output relay allocated for
each phase), the relay assigned in cell [0B08 tA>] should be used. The associated
terminal numbers can be found either from the external connection diagram
(Appendix 3) or Table 5 above.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 8
Page 13 of 28

Connect the output relay so that its operation will trip the test set and stop the timer.
Connect the test equipment as shown in Figure 1. Care should be taken to ensure
that the correct polarities are connected to the phase angle meter. Adjust the phase
shifter so that the phase angle meter reads 0.

A
B
C
N

18
B
C

VBC
19

N
Phase
angle
meter

Relay

R
21

IA
22

Figure 1: Connections for directional phase fault tests

5.3.2.2 Perform boundary of operation test


Determine the relay characteristic angle (RCA) setting that has been applied to the
relay by referring to cell [060D Char Angle].
Apply rated volts and a current above the [060D I>] setting to the relay.
Monitor the forward start output contact, assigned in the relay mask
[0B06 I> Fwd], and the reverse start contact, assigned in the relay mask
[0B07 I> Rev], to indicate when the relay is in the operate region. The contact
status can be determined either by physically monitoring the output relay contacts
themselves using a continuity tester or observing cell [0021 Rly Status].
Note:

If the customer settings have no output relays assigned in relay masks


[0B06 I> Fwd] or [0B07 I> Rev] then an output relay should temporarily
be assigned in relay mask [0B06 I> Fwd]. This will allow the boundary
test to be performed.

Taking positive phase angles as the current leading the voltage and negative
phase angles as the current lagging the voltage, adjust the phase shifting
transformer so the phase angle meter reads 180+RCA. Check that the reverse
start contacts have closed and the forward start contacts are open.
Rotate the phase shifting transformer so the phase lag is decreasing or the phase
lead is increasing on the phase angle meter and continue until the forward start
contacts close and the reverse contacts open. Note the angle on the phase angle
meter and check it is within the 5% of either RCA90 or RCA+90. Rotate the
phase shifting transformer in the opposite direction to check the other operating
boundary.
If an output relay has been temporarily assigned in the relay mask [0B06 I> Fwd]
to allow the boundary test to be performed, return the mask to the customers
setting.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 8
Page 14 of 28

5.3.2.3 Perform the timing test


Ensure that the timer is reset.
Apply a current of twice the setting in cell [0605 I>] to the relay and note the time
displayed when the timer stops.
Check that the operating time recorded by the timer is within the range shown in
Table 9.
5.3.3

Directional earth fault function test (KCEG 112/152 relays)


This test demonstrates that stage 1 of the KCEG earth fault function (to>) operates
within the stated tolerance at the customer settings.

5.3.3.1 Connect the test circuit


Determine which output relay has been selected to operate when a to> trip occurs.
The associated terminal numbers can be found either from the external connection
diagram (Appendix 3) or Table 5 above.
Connect the output relay so that its operation will trip the test set and stop the timer.
Connect the test equipment as shown in Figure 2. Care should be taken to ensure
that the correct polarities are connected to the phase angle meter. Adjust the phase
shifter so that the phase angle meter reads 0.

V
A

A
B
C
N

19
B
C

Vo

20

N
Phase
angle
meter

Current
injection
test set

Relay

27

Io
28

Figure 2: Connections for directional earth fault tests

5.3.3.2 Perform boundary of operation test


Determine the relay characteristic angle (RCA) setting that has been applied to the
relay by referring to cell [050D Char Angle].
Apply a current above the [0505 Io>] setting and a polarising voltage above the
threshold voltage [050F Vop>] setting to the relay.
Monitor the forward start output contact, assigned in the [0B01 Io> Fwd] relay
mask, and the reverse start contact, assigned in the [0B02 Io> Rev] relay mask, to
indicate when the relay is in the operate region. The contact status can be
determined either by physically monitoring the output relay contacts themselves
using a continuity tester or observing cell [0021 Rly Status].

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Note:

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If the customer settings have no output relays assigned in relay masks


[0B01 Io> Fwd] or [0B02 Io> Rev] then an output relay should
temporarily be assigned in relay mask [0B01 Io> Fwd]. This will allow the
boundary test to be performed.

Taking positive phase angles as the current leading the voltage and negative
phase angles as the current lagging the voltage, adjust the phase shifting
transformer so the phase angle meter reads 180+RCA. Check that the reverse
start contacts have closed and the forward start contacts are open.
The correct polarity of connection for operation with forward current flow is current
flowing in through terminal 27 and out of terminal 28.
Rotate the phase shifting transformer so the phase lag is decreasing or the phase
lead is increasing on the phase angle meter and continue until the forward start
contacts close and the reverse contacts open. Note the angle on the phase angle
meter and check it is within the 5% of either RCA90 or RCA+90. Rotate the
phase shifting transformer in the opposite direction to check the other operating
boundary.
If an output relay has been temporarily assigned in the relay mask [0B01 Io> Fwd]
to allow the boundary test to be performed, return the mask to the customers
setting.
5.3.3.3 Perform the timing test
Ensure that the timer is reset.
Depending on the rating of the phase meter being used, it may be necessary to
short-circuit it with a wire link or remove it entirely to prevent thermal damage due
to the currents used for the timing test.
Apply a current of twice the setting in cell [0505 Io>] to the KCEG and note the
time displayed when the timer stops.
Check that the operating time recorded by the timer is within the range shown in
Table 9.

Section 6.

ON-LOAD CHECKS

Remove all test leads, temporary shorting leads, etc. and replace any external
wiring that has been removed to allow testing.
If it has been necessary to disconnect any of the external wiring from the relay in
order to perform any of the above tests, it should be ensured that all connections
are replaced in accordance with the relevant external connection or scheme
diagram.
The following on-load measuring checks ensure that the external (customer) wiring
to the current and voltage inputs is correct but can only be carried out if there are
no restrictions preventing the energisation of the plant being protected.
6.1

Check current and voltage transformer connections


(KCEG and KCEU relays)
These tests alone are not conclusive that the phase connections to the relay are
correct. A phase angle measurement is required for conclusive testing.

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6.1.1

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Voltage connections
Measure the voltage transformer secondary voltages to ensure they are correctly
rated and check that the system phase rotation is correct using a phase rotation
meter.
If a KCEG 112 or KCEG 152 is being tested, it will not be possible to check the
phase rotation as the directional earth fault protection functions are polarised from
an open-delta voltage transformer winding.
Compare the values of the secondary phase voltages with the relays measured
values, which can be found in the MEASURE 1 menu column.
If the voltage transformer ratios (cells [0503 VT Ratio] and [0603 VT Ratio] for
residual and phase voltages respectively) are set to 1:1, the displayed values are
in secondary volts. The relay values should be within 5% of the applied secondary
voltages.
Otherwise, if the voltage transformer ratios (cells [0503 VT Ratio] and [0603 VT
Ratio] for residual and phase voltages respectively) are set greater than 1:1, the
displayed values are in primary volts. In this case the relay values will be equal to
the applied secondary voltages multiplied by the appropriate voltage transformer
ratio setting. Again the relay values should be within 5%.
It should be noted that directional earth fault relays are not energised under normal
load conditions and it is therefore necessary to simulate a phase to neutral fault to
check the voltage transformer wiring.

6.1.2

Current connections
Measure the current transformer secondary values, and check that their polarities
are correct by measuring the phase angle between the current and voltage.
Ensure the current flowing in the neutral circuit of the current transformers is
negligible.
Compare the values of the secondary phase currents with the relays measured
values, which can be found in the MEASURE 1 menu column.
If the current transformer ratios (cells [0502 CT Ratio] and [0602 CT Ratio] for
earth and phase currents respectively) are set to 1:1, the displayed values are in
secondary amperes. The relay values should be within 5% of the applied
secondary currents.
Otherwise, if the current transformer ratios (cells [0502 CT Ratio] and [0602 CT
Ratio] for earth and phase currents respectively) are set greater than 1:1, the
displayed values are in primary amperes. In this case the relay values will be
equal to the applied secondary currents multiplied by the appropriate current
transformer ratio setting. Again the relay values should be within 5%.
It should be noted that directional earth fault relays are not energised under normal
load conditions and it is therefore necessary to simulate a phase to neutral fault.

6.2

Check current transformer connections (KCGG relays)


Measure the current transformer secondary values.
Ensure the current flowing in the neutral circuit of the current transformers is
negligible.
Compare the values of the secondary phase currents with the relays measured
values, which can be found in the MEASURE 1 menu column.

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If the current transformer ratios (cells [0502 CT Ratio] and [0602 CT Ratio] for
earth and phase currents respectively) are set to 1:1, the displayed values are in
secondary amperes. The relay values should be within 5% of the applied
secondary currents.
Otherwise, if the current transformer ratios (cells [0502 CT Ratio] and [0602 CT
Ratio] for earth and phase currents respectively) are set greater than 1:1, the
displayed values are in primary amperes. In this case the relay values will be
equal to the applied secondary currents multiplied by the appropriate current
transformer ratio setting. Again the relay values should be within 5%.
It should be noted that earth fault relays are not energised under normal load
conditions and it is therefore necessary to simulate a phase to neutral fault. It is
therefore necessary to temporarily disconnect one or two of the line current
transformer connections to the relay and short the terminals of these current
transformer secondary windings.

Section 7.

FINAL CHECKS

The tests are now complete.


Remove all test or temporary shorting leads, etc. If it has been necessary to
disconnect any of the external wiring from the relay in order to perform the wiring
verification tests, it should be ensured that all connections are replaced in
accordance with the relevant external connection or scheme diagram.
If the circuit breaker operations counter should be zero, reset it using cell [0310
Sum (ops)]. This will require the password to be entered in cell [0002 Password]
beforehand.
However, if a replacement relay has been fitted, the circuit breaker maintenance
counter cell [0310 CB (ops)] and current squared counters (displayed in cells
[0311 CBdutyA], [0312 CBdutyB] and [0313 CBdutyC]) may need to be
incremented to the values on the old relay. The counter for the number of circuit
breaker can be incremented manually by operating the relay the required number
of times. In a similar way, the current squared counters can be incremented by
applying a number of secondary injection current pulses to the current inputs of the
relay, but note that the counter will increment rapidly for large current values.
If a MMLG test block is installed, remove the MMLB01 test plug and replace the
MMLG cover so that the protection is restored to service.
Ensure that all event records, fault records, disturbance records, alarms and LEDs
have been reset before leaving the relay.
Replace the cover on the relay.

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Section 8.

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PROBLEM SOLVING

Before carrying out any work on the equipment, the user should be
familiar with the Safety Section and Chapter 2 Handling and
Installation, of this manual.
8.1

Password lost or not accepted


Relays are supplied with the password set to AAAA.
Only uppercase letters are accepted.
Password can be changed by the user, see Chapter 3, Section 3.
There is an additional unique recovery password associated with the relay which
can be supplied by the factory, or service agent, if given details of its serial
number.
The serial number will be found in cell [0008 Serial No.] and should correspond to
the number on the label at the top right hand corner of the frontplate of the relay.
If they differ, quote the one in cell [0008 Serial No.].

8.2

Protection settings

8.2.1

Settings for high sets not displayed


For Group 1 settings:
Set cell [0601 PF Links] link 1 to 1 to turn on I>> settings.
Set cell [0601 PF Links] link 2 to 1 to turn on I>>> settings.
Set cell [0501 EF Links] link 1 to 1 to turn on Io>> settings.
Set cell [0501 EF Links] link 2 to 1 to turn on Io>>> settings.
For Group 2 settings:
Set cell [0801 PF Links] link 1 to 1 to turn on I>> settings.
Set cell [0801 PF Links] link 2 to 1 to turn on I>>> settings.
Set cell [0701 EF Links] link 1 to 1 to turn on Io>> settings.
Set cell [0701 EF Links] link 2 to 1 to turn on Io>>> settings.

8.2.2

Second setting group not displayed


Set cell [0003 SD Links] link 4 to 1 to turn on the group 2 settings.

8.2.3

Function links can not be changed


Enter the password in cell [0002 Password] as these menu cells are protected.
Links are not selectable if associated text is not displayed.

8.2.4

Curve selection can not be changed


Enter the password in cell [0002 Password] as these menu cells are protected.
Curves may not have been selectable in the particular relay.

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8.3

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Alarms
If the watchdog relay operates, first check that the relay is energised from the
auxiliary supply. If it is, then try to determine the cause of the problem by
examining the alarm flags in cell [0022 Alarms]. This will not be possible if the
display is not responding to key presses. Having attempted to determine the cause
of the alarm it may be possible to return the relay to an operable state by resetting
it. To do this, remove the auxiliary power supply from the relay for approximately
10 seconds before re-establishing the supply. If the relay is powered from the CT
circuit as well, remove this source of supply also, possibly by withdrawing the
module from its case. The relay should return to an operating state.
Recheck the alarm status in cell [0022 Alarms] if the alarm LED is still indicating an
alarm state. The following notes will give further guidance:

8.3.1

Watchdog alarm
Auxiliary powered relays: the watchdog relay will pick up when the relay is
operational to indicate a healthy state, with its normally open contact closed.
When an alarm condition that requires some action to be taken is detected, the
watchdog relay resets and its normally closed contact will close to give an
alarm.
Note:

The green LED will usually follow the operation of the watchdog relay.

Dual powered relays: the watchdog relay operates in a slightly different way on
this version of the relay, because it does not initiate an alarm for loss of the
auxiliary power supply. This is because the auxiliary power supply may be taken
from an insecure source or the relay may be powered solely from the current
circuit. Operation of the watchdog is therefore inverted so that it will pick-up for a
failed condition, closing its make contact to give an alarm and in the normal
condition it will remain dropped-off with its break contact closed to indicate that
it is in a healthy state.
Note:

The green LED will usually operate in the opposite way to the watchdog
relay (ie. the LED will be on when the watchdog relay is de-energised and
vice versa).

There is no shorting contact across the case terminals connected to the break
contact of the watchdog relay. Therefore, the indication for a failed/healthy relay
will be cancelled when the relay is removed from its case.
If the relay is still functioning, the actual problem causing the alarm can be found
from the alarm records in cell [0022 Alarms] (see Chapter 3, Section 7.1).
8.3.2

Cell [0022 Alarms] link 0 = 1


For an Uncfg configuration alarm, the protection is stopped and no longer
performing its intended function as there will be an error in the factory
configuration settings.
To return the relay to a servicable state, the initial factory configuration will have to
be reloaded and the relay re-calibrated. It is recommended that the work be
carried out at the factory, or entrusted to an approved service centre.

8.3.3

Cell [0022 Alarms] link 1 = 1


For an Uncalib calibration alarm, the protection will still be operational but there
will be an error in its calibration that will require attention. It may be left running
provided the error does not cause any problems with incorrect tripping.

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To return the relay to a servicable state, the initial factory configuration will have to
be reloaded and the relay re-calibrated. It is recommended that the work be
carried out at the factory, or entrusted to an approved service centre.
8.3.4

Cell [0022 Alarms] link 2 = 1


A Setting alarm indicates that the area of non-volatile memory where the selected
protection settings are stored has been corrupted. The current settings should be
checked against those applied at the commissioning stage or any later changes
that have been made.
If a personal computer (PC) is used during commissioning then it is recommended
that the final settings applied to the relay are copied to a floppy disk with the serial
number of the relay used as the file name. The settings can then be readily loaded
back into the relay if necessary, or to a replacement relay.

8.3.5

Cell [0022 Alarms] link 3 = 1


The No Service alarm flag can only be observed when the relay is in the
calibration or configuration mode when the protection programme will be stopped.

8.3.6

Cell [0022 Alarms] link 4 = 1


The No Samples alarm flag indicates that there is no output from the analogue to
digital converter, although the relay will remain in service. If this flag should be set
to 1, please contact the factory or an approved service centre for advice.

8.3.7

Cell [0022 Alarms] link 5 = 1


The No Fourier alarm flag indicates that the Fourier analysis algorithm is no
longer running. If this flag should be set to 1, please contact the factory or an
approved service centre for advice.

8.3.8

Cell [0022 Alarms] link 7 = 1


The CB ops alarm flag indicates that, since the operations counter was last reset,
the circuit breaker has operated the number of times that has been set in cell
[0C07 CB Ops>].
The circuit breaker operations counter can be viewed and reset using cell
[0310 Sum (ops)].

8.3.9

Fault flags will not reset


These flags can only be reset when the flags Fn are being displayed or by resetting
the fault records (cell [0110 Clear=0]). For more details refer to Chapter 3,
Section 4.15.

8.4

Records

8.4.1

Problems with event records


Fault records will only be generated if RLY3 is operated as this relay is the trigger
to store the records.
Fault records can be generated in response to another protection operating if one
of its trip contacts is used to operate RLY3 via an opto-isolated input on the K relay.
This will result in the fault values, as measured by the K relay, being stored at the
instant RLY3 resets. The flag display (cell [0102 Fn G1]) will include a flag to
identify the auxiliary input that initiated the record.
Fault currents recorded are lower than actual values, as the fault is interrupted
before measurement is completed.

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Few fault records can be stored when changes in the state of logic inputs and relay
outputs are stored in the event records. These inputs and outputs can generate
many events for each fault occurrence and limit the total number of faults that can
be stored. Setting cell [0003 SD Links] Link 7 to 0 will turn off this feature and
allow the maximum number of fault records to be stored.
The event records are erased if the auxiliary supply to the relay is lost for a period
exceeding the hold-up time of the internal power supply.
Events can only be read via the serial communication port and not on the LCD.
Any spare opto-isolated inputs may be used to log changes of state of external
contacts in the event record buffer of the K relay. The opto-isolated input does not
have to be assigned to a particular function in order to achieve this (ie. it does not
have to be assigned in any of the input masks).
The oldest event is overwritten by the next event to be stored when the buffer
becomes full.
When a master station has successfully read a record, it usually clears it
automatically. When all records have been read, the event bit in the status byte
within the master station programme is set to 0 to indicate that there are no
longer any records to be retrieved.
8.4.2

Problems with disturbance records


Only one record can be held in the buffer and the recorder must be reset before
another record can be stored. Automatic reset can be achieved by setting function
link [0003 SD Links] link 6 to 1. It will then reset the disturbance recorder 3
seconds after a current, greater than the undercurrent setting, has been restored to
the protected circuit.
The disturbance records are erased if the auxiliary supply to the relay is lost for a
period exceeding the hold-up time of the internal power supply.
Disturbance records can only be read via the serial communication port. It is not
possible to display them on the LCD.
No trigger has been selected in cells [0C04 Logic Trig] or [0F05 Relay Trig] to
initiate the storing of a disturbance record.
The disturbance recorder is automatically reset on restoration of current above the
undercurrent setting for greater than 3 seconds. Change function link [0003 SD
Links] link 6 to 0 to select manual reset.
Post trigger (cell [0C03 Post Trigger]) is set to maximum value. Thus the relay is
missing the fault.
When a master station has successfully read a record, it will clear the record
automatically and the disturbance record bit in the status byte within the master
station programme will then be set to 0 to indicate that there is no longer a
record to be retrieved.

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8.5

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Circuit breaker maintenance records


When a replacement relay is fitted, it may be desirable to increment the circuit
breaker maintenance counter (cell [0310 CB (ops)]) to the values of that on the old
relay. The current squared counters (displayed in cells [0311 CBdutyA], [0312
CBdutyB] and [0313 CBdutyC], can be incremented by applying a number of
secondary injection current pulses to the current inputs of the relay, but note that
the counter will increment rapidly for large current values. The counter for the
number of circuit breaker operations (displayed in cell [0310 Sum (ops)]) can be
incremented manually by operating the relay the required number of times.
The circuit breaker trip time for the last fault (cell [010B CB Trip Time]) cannot be
cleared to zero. This is to enable the master station to interrogate the relay for this
value as a supervisory function.
The circuit breaker maintenance counters are not incremented when another
protection trips the circuit breaker. Add a trip input from the protection to an
auxiliary input of the K relay and arrange for relay RLY3 or RLY7 to operate
instantaneously in response to the input.

8.6

Communications
An address (cell [000B Rly Address]) cannot be automatically allocated if the
remote change of setting has been inhibited by cell [0003 SD Links] link 0 being
set to0. This must be first set to 1. Alternatively, the address must be entered
manually via the user interface on the relay.
An address (cell [000B Rly Address]) cannot be allocated automatically unless the
address is first manually set to 0. This can also be achieved by a global
command including the serial number of the relay.
Relay address set to 255, the global address for which no replies are permitted.

8.6.1

Measured values do not change


Values in the MEASUREMENTS (1) and MEASUREMENTS (2) columns are snapshots of the values at the time they were requested. To obtain a value that varies
with the measured quantity it should be added to the poll list as described in the
user manual for the access software being used.

8.6.2

Relay no longer responding


Check if other relays that are further along the bus are responding. If this is the
case, the relays communication processor should be reset by removing the
auxiliary supply from the relay for at least 10 seconds before re-energising it.
This should not be necessary as the reset operation occurs automatically when the
relay detects a loss of communication.
If relays further along the bus are not communicating, check to find out which are
responding to the master station. If some are responding, the position of the break
in the bus can be determined by deduction. If none is responding then check for
data on the bus or reset the communication port driving the bus with requests.
Check there are not two relays with the same address (cell [000B Rly Address]) on
the bus.

8.6.3

No response to remote control commands


Check that cell [0003 SD Links] link 0 is not set to 0 as this will inhibit the relay
from responding to remote commands. If this is the case set cell [0003 SD Links]
link 0 to1; a password will be required.

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System data function links settings can not be performed over the communication
link if the remote change of settings has been inhibited by setting cell
[0003 SD Links] link 0 to 0. Change [0003 SD Links] link 0 to 1 manually via
the user interface on the relay first.
Relay is not identified in the Circuit Breaker Control Menu of the Protection Access
Software and Toolkit if two auxiliary circuit breaker contacts have not been
connected to the opto-isolated inputs of the relay, to indicate its position via the
plant status word (cell [000C Plnt Status]). Check input masks [0A0E CB Closed]
and [0A0F CB Open] for correct opto-isolator allocations, and the connections to
the auxiliary contacts of the circuit breaker.
8.7

Output relays remain picked up


Relays remain picked-up when de-selected by link or mask.
If an output relay is operated at the time it is de-selected, either due to a software
link change or by de-selecting it in an output mask, it may remain operated until
the K relay is powered down and up again. After such changes, it is advisable to
remove the auxiliary supply from the relay for at least 10 seconds before reenergising it.

8.8

Thermal state

8.8.1

Thermal state reset to zero


If the thermal ammeters (displayed in cells [0404 IthA], [0405 IthB] and
[0406 IthC] are reset using an opto-isolated input allocated in cell
[0A11 Reset Ith], this will also reset the thermal state of the thermal protection.

8.8.2

Thermal ammeter time constants


The setting for the time constant (cell [0814 TC]) is shared between the thermal
ammeter and the thermal protection. Priority would normally be given to the
thermal protection.

8.9

Erratic operation at directional characteristic boundaries


If commissioning testing is carried out using a digital secondary injection test set,
there may be an apparent erratic operation at the boundaries of the directional
characteristic. This will be particularly noticeable when observing the operation of
the start relay contacts, which is the method described in the commissioning
instructions in Section 5.3. This is caused by the transitional errors when changing
direction or applying signals instantaneously due to the output quantities changing
in steps rather than linearly. This does not happen with all designs of digital
secondary injection test set.
The problem is easily overcome by using the t>, t>>, t>>>, to>, to>> or to>>>
outputs for indication of relay operation instead of I>. or Io>. These time delays
should then be set to a minimum of 20ms. See also the notes in Chapter 4, Section
6.10 of this manual.
The slight directional indecision of the start relays should not cause any problem as
it will be covered by the short time delays that are applied in the blocking
schemes.

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Section 9.
9.1

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MAINTENANCE

Maintenance period
It is recommended that products supplied by AREVA T&D
receive regular monitoring after installation. As with all products some
deterioration with time is inevitable. In view of the critical nature of many of these
products and in the case of protective relays, their infrequent operation, it is
desirable to confirm that they are operating properly at regular intervals.
The typical life of these products is about 20 years, although many are in
satisfactory service considerably longer than this.
Maintenance periods will depend on many factors, such as:
the operating environment
the accessibility of the site
the amount of available manpower
the importance of the installation in the power system
the consequences of failure
If a preventative maintenance policy exists within the customers organisation then
the recommended product checks should be included in the regular programme.
It should be noted that K Range Midos relays are self-supervising and so require
less maintenance than earlier designs of relay. Most problems will result in an
alarm so that remedial action can be taken. However, some periodic tests could be
done to ensure that the relay is functioning correctly.
The following sections suggest checks that can be performed either remotely over
the communications link using a PC running appropriate software or at site.

9.2

Maintenance checks
Before carrying out any work on the equipment, the user should be
familiar with the Safety Section and Chapter 2 Handling and
Installation, of this manual.

9.2.1

Remote testing
If the relay can be communicated with from a remote point via its serial port, then
some checks can be carried out without actually visiting the site.

9.2.1.1 Alarms
The alarm status should first be checked to identify if any alarm conditions exist.
The alarm records (cell [0022 Alarms]) can then be read to identify the nature of
any alarm that may exist
9.2.1.2 Measurement accuracy
The values measured by the relay can be compared with known system values to
check that they are in the approximate range that is expected. If they are, then the
analogue/digital conversion and calculations are being performed correctly.
9.2.1.3 Trip test
If the relay is configured to provide remote control of the circuit breaker then a trip
test can be performed remotely in several ways:

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1. If the relay provides phase overcurrent protection, read the load current on each
phase in the MEASURE 1 column. Reduce the stage 1 phase fault setting (cell
[0605 I>]) to a known value that is less than the load current. The relay should
trip in the appropriate time for the given multiple of setting current and time
multiplier setting (cell [0606 t>/TMS]).
The settings can then be returned to their usual value and the circuit breaker reclosed.
Note:

If setting group 2 is not being used for any other purpose, it could be used
for this test by having a lower setting pre-selected and issuing a command
to change the setting group that is in use to initiate the tripping sequence.

2. If the relay is connected for remote control of the circuit breaker then a trip/
close cycle can be performed. This method will not check as much of the
functional circuit of the relay as the previous method but it will not need the
settings of the relay changed.
If a failure to trip occurs, view cell [0021 Rly Status] whilst the test is repeated.
This will check that the output relay is being commanded to operate.
If the test trip is being performed using a trip/close cycle, the output relay assigned
in cell [0B0D CB Trip] should operate and not the main trip relay used by the
protection functions.
If the assigned output relay is not responding then an output relay allocated to a
less essential function may be re-allocated to the trip function to effect a temporary
repair, but a visit to the site may be needed to effect a wiring change. See Chapter
3, Section 4.14 for how to set output relay masks.
9.2.1.4 Circuit breaker maintenance
Maintenance records for the circuit breaker can be obtained at this time by
reading cells [0310 Sum (ops)], [0311 CBdutyA], [0312 CBdutyB], and
[0313 CBdutyC].
9.2.2

Local testing
When testing locally, similar checks to those for remote testing may be carried out
to ensure the relay is functioning correctly.

9.2.2.1 Alarms
The alarm status LED should first be checked to identify if any alarm conditions
exist. The alarm records (cell [0022 Alarms]) can then be read to identify the
nature of any alarm that may exist.
9.2.2.2 Measurement accuracy
The values measured by the relay can be checked against known values injected
into the relay via the test block, if fitted, or injected directly into the relay terminals.
Suitable test methods will be found in Section 4.2.9 and 4.2.10 of this chapter
which deals with commissioning. These tests will prove the calibration accuracy is
being maintained.
9.2.2.3 Trip test
If the relay is configured to provide a trip test via its user interface then this should
be performed to test the output trip relays. If the relay is configured for remote
control of the circuit breaker, the trip test will initiate the remote circuit breaker trip
relay (assigned in cell [0B0D CB Trip]) and not the main trip relay used by the

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KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 8
Page 26 of 28

protection functions. If the relay provides phase overcurrent protection, the main
trip relay should be tested by reducing the stage 1 phase fault setting (cell [0605
I>]) to a known value that is less than the load current. The relay should trip in the
appropriate time for the given multiple of setting current and time multiplier setting
(cell [0606 t>/TMS]). The settings can then be returned to their usual value and the
circuit breaker re-closed.
Note:

If setting group 2 is not being used for any other purpose, it could be used
for this test by having a lower setting pre-selected and issuing a command
to change the setting group that is in use to initiate the tripping sequence.

If the assigned output relay is not responding then an output relay allocated to a
less essential function may be re-allocated to the trip function to effect a temporary
repair. See Chapter 3, Section 4.14 for details on how to set output relay masks.
9.2.2.4 Circuit breaker maintenance
Maintenance records for the circuit breaker can be obtained at this time by
reading cells [0310 Sum (ops)], [0311 CBdutyA], [0312 CBdutyB] and [0313
CBdutyC].
9.2.2.5 Additional tests
Additional tests can be selected from the Commissioning Instructions as required.
9.3

Method of repair
Before carrying out any work on the equipment, the user should be
familiar with the Safety Section and Chapter 2 Handling and
Installation, of this manual. This should ensure that no damage is
caused by incorrect handling of the electronic components.

9.3.1

Replacing a PCB
Re-calibration is not usually required when a PCB is replaced unless it happens to
be one of the two boards that plugs directly on to the left hand terminal block as
these directly affect the calibration.

9.3.1.1 Replacement of user interface


Withdraw the module from its case.
Remove the four screws that are placed one at each corner of the front plate.
Remove the front plate.
Lever the top edge of the user interface board forwards to unclip it from its
mounting.
Pull the PCB upwards to unplug it from the connector at its lower edge.
Replace with a new interface board and re-assemble in the reverse order.
9.3.1.2 Replacement of main processor board
This is the PCB at the extreme left of the module, when viewed from the front.
To replace this board:
First remove the screws holding the side screen in place. There are two screws
through the top plate of the module and two more through the base plate.
Remove screen to expose the PCB.
Remove the two retaining screws, one at the top edge and the other directly below
it on the lower edge of the PCB.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Chapter 8
Page 27 of 28

Separate the PCB from the sockets at the front edge of the board. Note that they
are a tight fit and will require levering apart, taking care to ease the connectors
apart gradually so as not to crack the front PCB card. The connectors are designed
for ease of assembly in manufacture and not for continual disassembly of the unit.
Re-assemble in the reverse of the above sequence, making sure that the screen
plate is replaced with all four screws securing it.
9.3.1.3

Replacement of auxiliary expansion board


This is the second board from the left hand side of the module.
Remove the processor board as described in 9.3.1.2 above.
Remove the two securing screws that hold the auxiliary expansion board in place.
Unplug the PCB from the front bus as described for the processor board and
withdraw.
Replace in reverse order of the above sequence, making sure that the screen plate
is replaced with all four screws securing it.

9.3.2

Replacing output relays


The main processor and auxiliary expansion boards are removed and replaced as
described in Section 9.3.1.2 and 9.3.1.3 above respectively.
It should be noted when replacing output relays that the PCBs have through plated
holes. Care must therefore be taken not to damage these holes when a component
is removed, otherwise solder may flow through the hole to make a good
connection to the tracks on the component side of the PCB.

9.3.3

Replacing the power supply board


Remove the two screws securing the right hand terminal block to the top plate of
the module.
Remove the two screws securing the right hand terminal block to the bottom plate
of the module.
Unplug the back plane from the power supply board.
Remove the securing screws at the top and bottom of the power supply board.
Withdraw the power supply board from the rear, unplugging it from the front bus.
Re-assemble in the reverse order of the above sequence.

9.3.4

Replacing the back plane (size 4 and 6 cases)


Remove the two screws securing the right hand terminal block to the top plate of
the module.
Remove the two screws securing the right hand terminal block to the bottom plate
of the module.
Unplug the back plane from the power supply board.
Twist outwards and around to the side of the module.
Replace the PCB and terminal block assembly.
Re-assemble in the reverse order of the above sequence.

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
9.4

R8551D
Chapter 8
Page 28 of 28

Recalibration
Re-calibration is not usually required when a PCB is replaced unless it happens to
be one of the two boards that plugs directly on to the left hand terminal block as
this one directly affects the calibration.
Although it is possible to carry out recalibration on site, this requires test equipment
with suitable accuracy and a special calibration programme to run on a PC. It is
therefore recommended that the work is carried out at the factory, or entrusted to
an approved service centre.
After calibration, the relay will need to have all the settings required for the
application re-entered if a replacement board has been fitted. Therefore, it is useful
if a copy of the settings is available on a floppy disk. Although this is not essential,
it can reduce the time taken to re-enter the settings and hence the time the
protection is out of service.

Types KCGG 122, 142


KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242 and
KCEU 142, 242
Overcurrent and Directional Overcurrent
Relays
Service Manual

Appendix 1
Relay Characteristic Curves

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551C
Appendix 1
Contents

1.
Figure 1:
Figure 2:

TIME/CURRENT CHARACTERISTICS
Operating times KCGG I>>, I>>>, Io>> and Io>>>
Operating times KCEG I>>, I>>>, Io>> and Io>>>

1
1
1

2.
Figure 3:
Figure 4:

RELAY CHARACTERISTIC CURVES


IDMT curves: IEC and special application curves
IDMT curves: ANSI/IEEF curves

2
2
3

3.
Figure 4:

THERMAL TIME/CHARACTERISTIC WITH PREFAULT LOAD


Thermal time/current characteristic with prefault load

4
4

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

Section 1.

R8551C
Appendix 1
Page 1 of 4

TIME/CURRENT CHARACTERISTICS

150
135
Maximum

120
Operating time (ms)

Minimum
105
90
75
60
45
30
15
0
1

10

100

Multiple of setting (xIs)

Figure 1: Operating times KCGG I>>, I>>>, Io>> and Io>>>

150
135
Maximum

120

Operating time (ms)

Minimum
105
90
75
60
45
30
15
0
1

10
Multiple of setting (xIs)

Figure 2: Operating times KCEG I>>, I>>>, Io>> and Io>>>

100

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

Section 2.

R8551C
Appendix 1
Page 2 of 4

RELAY CHARACTERISTIC CURVES


10000

Rectifier
curve

Operating time (seconds)

1000

100

10

LTI 30xDT
SI 30xDT
1

EI 10xDT
VI 30xDT
STI 30xDT

0.1
1

10

LTI 30xDT

Long time inverse

SI 30xDT*

Standard inverse

EI 10xDT*

Extremely inverse

VI 30xDT*

Very inverse

STI 30xDT

Shot time inverse

*IEC standard characteristic

100

Multiples of setting

All characteristics are definite time above 30x except extremely inverse.

Figure 3: IDMT curves: IEC and special application curves

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551C
Appendix 1
Page 3 of 4

10000

Operating time (seconds)

1000

100

10

MI
1

VI

EI

0.1
1

10
Multiples of setting

MI

Moderately inverse

VI

Very inverse

EI

Extremely inverse

All characteristics are definite time above 30x except extremely inverse.

Figure 4: IDMT curves: ANSI/IEEF curves

100

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

Section 3.

R8551C
Appendix 1
Page 4 of 4

THERMAL TIME/CHARACTERISTIC WITH PREFAULT


LOAD

10.000

Time (x t)

1.000

0.100

No pre-fault load
Pre-fault load at
50% thermal state
Pre-fault load at
70% thermal state

0.010

Pre-fault load at
90% thermal state

0.001

Current (xlth>)

Figure 5: Thermal time/current characteristic with prefault load

Types KCGG 122, 142


KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242 and
KCEU 142, 242
Overcurrent and Directional Overcurrent
Relays
Service Manual

Appendix 2
Logic Diagrams

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Appendix 2
Contents

CONTENTS
Figure 1a:
Figure 1b:
Figure 2a:
Figure 2b:
Figure 3a:
Figure 3b:
Figure 4a:
Figure 4b:
Figure 5a:
Figure 5b:
Figure 6a:
Figure 6b:

Scheme logic diagram KCGG 122


Scheme logic diagram KCGG 122
Scheme logic diagram KCGG 142
Scheme logic diagram KCGG 142
Scheme logic diagram KCEG 112
Scheme logic diagram KCEG 112
Scheme logic diagram KCEG 142/242
Scheme logic diagram KCEG 142/242
Scheme logic diagram KCEG 152
Scheme logic diagram KCEG 152
Scheme logic diagram KCEU 142/242
Scheme logic diagram KCEU 142/242

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Appendix 2
Page 1 of 12

0A01 BLK to >


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

&

Io>

EF1
0

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

&

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Io>>

&

to>>

&

to>>>

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Io>>>

0B05 to>>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0A04 BLK t>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

&

I>

1
PF2
0
1

0B09 t>

t>

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

&

0A05 BLK t>>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

I>>

t>>

I>>>

&

t>>>

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Trip circuit breaker

0A08 L Close
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Close circuit breaker

0B0C t>>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

I<

RLY3
LOGA
0
1

LOG7
0
1

Io<

tBF

Io>

tClose
Reset

0B0E CB Close
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

LOG2
0
1

0B0F CB Fail
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Generate circuit breaker


maintenance records

Latch red trip LED

Stage 2
earth fault

Stage 3
earth fault

Stage 1
overcurrent
Start
overcurrent

Stage 2
overcurrent

Broken conductor
stage 3
overcurrent

Circuit breaker
control

LOG9
0
1

Start
earth fault

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

RLY7

I>

Stage 1
earth fault

0B0D CB Trip

tTrip

1
0A09 Ext. Trip

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0A06 BLK t>>>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0B06 I> Start

0B0B t>>

&

0A07 L Trip

1
SD2

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0B04 to>>

0A03 BLK to>>>

PF1
0

0B01 Io> Start

0A02 BLK to>>

1
EF2
0

0B03 to>

to>

Latch flags
Generate fault records &
copy to event records

Figure 1a: Scheme logic diagram KCGG 122 (continued in Figure 1b)

Breaker fail
protection

Fault record
and flag latch
initiation

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Appendix 2
Page 2 of 12

0A0A Aux1

0B10 Aux1

tAux1

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

I<

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

SD5
0

3Sec

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Recorder
stopped

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Recorder
stopped

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

LOGB
0

tAux3

0A0D Stg Grp 2

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Remote set Grp2

Reset
disturbance
recorder

LOG6
0
1

Io<

SD3
0
1

SD6
0

0B11 Aux2

tAux2

0A0C Aux3
LOG8
0
1

SD8
0

I<

Reset trip flags

0A0B Aux2
SD8
0
1
LOG3
0
1
LOG4
0
1

SD4
0
1

0B12 Aux3
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

LOG5
0
1

Change to
setting group 2

0A0E CB Closed Ind

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Auxiliary
timers

Cold load
start

Setting
control
group

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Load Shed Level 1

Plant
status
word

0B15 Level 2

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Load Shed Level 2

0B16 Level 3

Load Shed Level 3

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Load shedding
plant status

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

PF0
0

0B17 th Alarm

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Alarm
0A11 Reset Ith
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

LOG0
0
1

Loss of load
/stage 4 EP

0B14 Level 1

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0A10 CB Bus 2

Disturbance
recorder reset

Set 1
Reset 0

Remote reset Grp1

0D0F CB Open Ind

tAux1

0B18 th Trip

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Trip
Thermal
reset

Thermal
phase element

CB (ops) >
CB duty >

SD

EF1

LOG

EF2
F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0B19 CB Alarm

7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Circuit
breaker
alarms

PF1
PF2
F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Figure 1b: Scheme logic diagram KCGG 122

F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

0A01 Blk to>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

R8551D
Appendix 2
Page 3 of 12

&

to>

Io>

&
EF1

0A02 Blk to>>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

EF2

0A03 Blk to>>>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0
1

0
1

0B01 Io> Start


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Start
earth fault

&

to>>

0B04 to>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Stage 2
earth fault

&

to>>>

0B05 to>>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Stage 3
earth fault

Io>>>

&

t>

I>

>= 1

0
1

Stage 1
earth fault

Io>>

0A04 Blk t>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

PF1

0B03 to>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0A05 Blk t>>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

&

t>>

&

t>>>

&

>= 1

0B08 tA>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0B09 tB>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0B0A tC>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Stage 1
overcurrent

0B06 I> Start


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Start
overcurrent

0B0B t>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Stage 2
overcurrent

0B0C t>>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Broken conductor
Stage 3
overcurrent

I>>

PFC
0
1

PF2
0
1

SD2
0
1

&

I<

0A06 Blk t>>>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

>= 1
PF7

I>>>
0A07 L TRIP
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

>= 1

Trip circuit breaker


Close circuit breaker

0A08 L CLOSE
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

2/3
0B0D CB TRIP
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

tTRIP

>= 1
LOG9
>= 1

tCLOSE
Reset

0B0E CB CLOSE
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Circuit
breaker
control

0
1

LOG2
0A09 EXT. TRIP
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

>=1

RLY3
LOGA
0
1

I<

>=1

0
1

0B0F CB FAIL
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Io<

RLY7

LOG7
I>

>=1

Breaker fail
protection

Generate circuit breaker


maintenance records

>=1
>=1

0
1

tBF

Latch red trip LED

>=1

Latch flags generate fault


record and copy to event
records.

Io>

Figure 2a: Scheme logic diagram KCGG 142 (continued in Figure 2b)

Fault record
and flag latch
initiation

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

0A0A Aux1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

R8551D
Appendix 2
Page 4 of 12

PFD

0B10 Aux1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

tAux1

0
1

F<

SD5

I<

0
1

3sec
SD8

0A0B Aux2
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

LOG3
0
1

LOG4
0
1

LOG8

I<

&

>= 1

Recorder
stopped

Reset
disturbance
recorder

Io<

0B11 Aux2
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

tAux2
0

0A0C Aux3
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Disturbance
recorder
reset

>= 1

LOG6

tAux3

Loss of load
/stage 4 EF

LOGB
1

0B12 Aux3
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

LOG5

Cold load
start

0
1

SD4

0A0D Stg Grp 2


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
SD3

0
1

>= 1
Remote set Grp2

0
1

Set
Reset

Remote set Grp1

0D0F CB Open Ind


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0A10 CB Bus 2
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0
1

Plant
status
word

Load shed level 1

0B14 Level 1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Load shed level 2

0B15 Level 2
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Load shed level 3

0B16 Level 3
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Alarm

PF0
0A11 Reset Ith
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Change to
setting group 2

1
0

0A0E CB Closed Ind


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0
1

0
1

Recorder
stopped

0
1

LOG0

Reset trip flags

SD6

0
1

>= 1

SD8
0
1

Under
frequency

Trip
Thermal
reset

>= 1

0B17 th Alarm
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

>= 1

0B18 th Trip
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

CB(ops)>

0B19 CB Alarm
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

>= 1

CBduty>

SD

EF1

PF1

LOG

EF2

PF2

F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Figure 2b: Scheme logic diagram KCGG 142

F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Setting group
control

Load shedding
plant status

Thermal
phase element

Circuit
breaker
alarms

Auxiliary
timers

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

0A01 Blk to>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
EF3

Io>

R8551D
Appendix 2
Page 5 of 12

&
EF4

EF5

0
1

0B03 to>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

to>
0
1

&

0B01 Io> Fwd Start


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

&

0B02 Io> Rev Start


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

FWD
REV
0A02 Blk to>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
1

EF1

EF4
0

Io>>

EF2

EF5
0

Io>>>

&

to>>

0B04 to>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Stage 2
earth fault

&

to>>>

0B05 to>>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Stage 3
earth fault

FWD
0A07 L TRIP
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

>=1

TRIP CIRCUIT BREAKER

SD2
1
0

TRIP CIRCUIT BREAKER

0A08 L CLOSE
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0B0D CB TRIP
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

tTRIP

>=1

tCLOSE
Reset
>=1

0A09 EXT. TRIP


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Start
earth fault

FWD
0A03 Blk to>>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Stage 1
earth fault

0B0E CB CLOSE
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Circuit
breaker
control

LOG9
1
0

LOG2
>=1

>=1

Io<

tBF

1
0

0B0E CB FAIL
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Breaker fail
protection

RLY3

LOGA
1
0

Generate circuit breaker


maintenance records

>=1

Latch red trip LED

RLY7

LOG7
1
0

>=1

>=1

Io>

Latch flags
Generate fault records &
copy to event records

Figure 3a: Scheme logic diagram KCEG 112 (continued in Figure 3b)

Fault record
and flag latch
initiation

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Appendix 2
Page 6 of 12

0A0A AUX1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0A0B AUX2
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
SD8

0B10 AUX1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

tAUX1
SD6

SD8

>=1

1
0

1
0

Recorder
stopped Reset
disturbance
recorder

Recorder stopped

tAux1

Disturbance
recorder
reset

>=1
LOG4
1
0

tAUX2

0B11 AUX2
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Loss of load
/stage 4 EF

0B121 AUX3
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Cold load
start

Io<
LOG6
0

0A0C AUX3
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

>=1

LOGB
0

tAUX3

LOG8

LOG5

1
0

0A0D STG GRP 2


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

>=1
Remote set Grp2

SD3
1
0

0A0E CB CLOSED IND


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Plant
status
word

0A10 CB BUS 2
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

LOG0
1
0

CB (0ps)>

Change to
setting group 2

1
0

LOAD SHED LEVEL 1

0B14 LEVEL 1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

LOAD SHED LEVEL 2

0B15 LEVEL 2
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

LOAD SHED LEVEL 3

0B16 LEVEL 3
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0B19 CB ALARM
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

>=1

SD

EF1

PF1

LOG

EF2

PF2

F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Setting group
control

Set
1
Reset 0

Remote reset Grp1

0A0F CB OPEN IND


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

SD4

F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Figure 3b: Scheme logic diagram KCEG 112

F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Load shedding
plant status

Cicuit breaker
alarms

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

0A01 Blk to>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

&

EF3

Io>

R8551D
Appendix 2
Page 7 of 12

EF4

0
1

FWD

0B03 to>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

to>
EF5

0
1

0
1

&

REV

EF1
0
1

Io>>

EF2
0
1

Io>>>

EF4

&

to>>

EF5

&

to>>>

0B05 to>>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Stage 3
earth fault

Stage 1
overcurrent

&

0B08 tA>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0B09 tB>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0B0A tC>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

&

0B06 I> Fwd Start


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

&

0B07 I> Rev Start


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0
1

FWD

0A03 Blk to>>>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

EFE

FWD
REV

&

0A04 Blk t>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

&

t>

I>

PF3

PF4

PF5

FWD

0
1

I>>

PFF

REV

PFF

0
1

&

PF4
0

Fwd

PFF

t>>

&

PFF

PF1

Stage 2
earth fault

0A05 Blk t>>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Start
earth fault

0B02 Io> Rev Start


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0B04 to>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

&

0A02 Blk to>>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0B01 Io> Fwd Start


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Stage 1
earth fault

0B0B t>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Stage 2
overcurrent

0B0C t>>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Broken conductor
Stage 3
overcurrent

Start
overcurrent

PFC
0
1

&

I<

0A06 Blk t>>>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

PF2
0
1

I>>>

Fwd
Rev

PF5
PFE

&

PF7

t>>>

0
1

PFF
0
1

SD2
0
1

0A07 L Trip
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

>= 1

TRIP CIRCUIT BREAKER


CLOSE CIRCUIT BREAKER

0A08 L Close
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0B0D CB Trip
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

tTRIP

>= 1
LOG9
>= 1

tCLOSE
Reset

0B0E CB Close
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Circuit
breaker
control

0
1

LOG2
0A09 Ext. Ttrip
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

>=1

RLY3
LOGA
0
1

I<

>=1

0B0F CB Fail
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Io<
Generate circuit breaker
maintenance records

>=1
RLY7
>=1

LOG7
0
1

tBF

0
1

I>
Io>

>=1

Latch red trip LED

>=1

Latch flags
Generate fault records &
copy to event records

Figure 4a: Scheme logic diagram KCEG 142/242 (continued in Figure 4b)

Breaker fail
protection

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

0A0A Aux1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

R8551D
Appendix 2
Page 8 of 12

PFD

0B10 Aux1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

tAux1

0
1

F<
SD5

I<

0
1

3sec
SD8

0A0B Aux2
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0
1

>= 1

Reset trip flags

SD6
0
1

Recorder
stopped

SD8
0
1

LOG3
0
1

LOG4
0
1

I<

&

>= 1

Io<

0B11 Aux2
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

tAux2
0

>= 1

LOG6

tAux3

Loss of load
/stage 4 EF

Cold load
start

0
1

SD4

0A0D Stg Grp 2


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
SD3

0
1

>= 1
Remote set Grp2

0
1

Set
Reset

Remote set Grp1


V<

PF9

&

0D0F CB Open Ind


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0A10 CB Bus 2
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0
1

0B13 tV<
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

tV<

0
1

>= 1

Plant
status
word

Load shed level 1

0B14 Level 1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Load shed level 2

0B15 Level 2
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Load shed level 3

0B16 Level 3
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Alarm

PF0
0A11 Reset Ith
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Change to
setting group 2

1
0

0A0E CB Closed Ind


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0
1

0B12 Aux3
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

LOG5

0
1

LOG0

Disturbance
recorder
reset

LOGB

LOG8

0
1

Reset
disturbance
recorder

Recorder
stopped

0A0C Aux3
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

PF8

Under
frequency

Trip
Thermal
reset

>= 1

0B17 th Alarm
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

>= 1

0B18 th Trip
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

CB(ops)>

0B19 CB Alarm
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

>= 1

CBduty>

SD

EF1

PF1

LOG

EF2

PF2

F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Figure 4b: Scheme logic diagram KCEG 142/242

F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Setting group
control

Undervoltage

Load shedding
plant status

Thermal
phase element

Circuit
breaker
alarms

Auxiliary
timers

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

0A01 Blk to>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

&

EF3

Io>

R8551D
Appendix 2
Page 9 of 12

EF4

0
1

FWD

0B03 to>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

to>
EF5

0
1

0
1

&

EF1
0
1

EF4

&

to>>

EF5

&

to>>>

0B05 to>>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Stage 3
earth fault

0B08 tA>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0B09 tB>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0B0A tC>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Stage 1
overcurrent

&

Io>>

0
1

FWD

0A03 Blk to>>>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

EF2
0
1

Io>>>

FWD

0A04 Blk t>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

&

t>

I>
1
0A05 Blk t>> Rev
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

PF1
0
1

Start
earth fault

0B02 Io> Rev Start


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0B04 to>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

REV

0A02 Blk to>>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0B01 Io> Fwd Start


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Stage 1
earth fault

&

t>>

&

t>>>

&

0B06 I>
Start
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0B0B I>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Stage 2
earth fault

Start
overcurrent

Stage 2
overcurrent

I>>>

PFC
0
1

&

I<

0A06 Blk t>>>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

PF2
0
1

PF7

I>>>

SD2
0
1

0A07 L Trip
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

>= 1

Trip circuit breaker


Close circuit breaker

0A08 L Close
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

2/3
0B0D CB Trip
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

tTRIP

>= 1
LOG9
>= 1

0B0C t>>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

tCLOSE
Reset

0B0E CB Close
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Broken conductor
Stage 3
overcurrent

Circuit
breaker
control

0
1

LOG2
0A09 Ext. Trip
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

>=1

RLY3
LOGA
0
1

I<
Io<

>=1

0
1

0B0F CB Fail
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

RLY7

LOG7

I>
Io>

>=1

Breaker fail
protection

Generate circuit breaker


maintenance records

>=1
>=1

0
1

tBF

Latch red trip LED

>=1

Latch flags
Generate fault records &
copy to event records

Figure 5a: Scheme logic diagram KCEG 152 (continued in Figure 5b)

Fault record
and flag latch
initiation

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

0A0A Aux1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

R8551D
Appendix 2
Page 10 of 12

PFD

0B10 Aux1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

tAux1

0
1

F<

SD5

I<

0
1

3sec
SD8

0A0B Aux2
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

LOG3
0
1

LOG4
0
1

I<

0
1

&

>= 1

Io<

0B11 Aux2
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

tAux2
0

Disturbance
recorder
reset
Auxiliary
timers

>= 1

LOG6

tAux3

Loss of load
/stage 4 EF

LOG4
1

0B12 Aux3
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

LOG5

LOG8

Cold load
start

0
1

0
1

SD4

0A0D Stg Grp 2


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
SD3

0
1

>= 1
Remote set Grp2

0
1

Set
Reset

Remote set Grp1

0D0F CB Open Ind


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0A10 CB Bus 2
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0
1

Plant
status
word

Load shed level 1

0B14 Level 1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Load shed level 2

0B15 Level 2
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Load shed level 3

0B16 Level 3
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Alarm

PF0
0A11 Reset Ith
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Change to
setting group 2

1
0

0A0E CB Closed Ind


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0
1

Recorder
stopped

Reset
disturbance
recorder

Recorder
stopped

0A0C Aux3
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

LOG0

Reset trip flags

SD6

0
1

>= 1

SD8
0
1

Under
frequency

Trip
Thermal
reset

>= 1

0B17 th Alarm
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

>= 1

0B18 th Trip
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

CB(ops)>

0B19 CB Alarm
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

>= 1

CBduty>

SD

EF1

PF1

LOG

EF2

PF2

F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Figure 5b: Scheme logic diagram KCEG 152

F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Setting group
control

Load shedding
plant status

Thermal
phase element

Circuit
breaker
alarms

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

0A01 Blk to>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

&

EF3

Io>

R8551D
Appendix 2
Page 11 of 12

EF4

EF5

0B01 Io> Fwd Start


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

&
&

to>>

0B02 Io> Rev Start


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0B04 to>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

&

to>>>

0B05 to>>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Stage 3
earth fault

Stage 1
overcurrent

&

0B08 tA>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0B09 tB>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0B0A tC>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

&

0B06 I> Fwd Start


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

&

0B07 I> Rev Start


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

REV

0A02 Blk to>>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

EF1
0
1

Io>>

EF4
0

FWD

Io>>>

EF5
0

EFE

FWD
REV

&
&

t>

PF3

PF4

PF5

FWD

I>>>

PFF

PFF

0A05 Blk t>>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

REV

&

PF4
0

FWD

PFC

PFF

t>>

&

PFF

I>

Stage 2
earth fault

0A04 Blk t>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

PF1

Start
earth fault

0A03 Blk to>>>


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

EF2

Stage 1
earth fault

&

FWD

0B03 to>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

to>

0B0B t>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Stage 2
overcurrent

0B0C t>>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Broken conductor
Stage 3
overcurrent

Start
overcurrent

&

I<
0A06 Blk t>>>
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

PF2
0

I>>>

FWD
REV

1
PF5
PFE
0

&

t>>>

PF7

PFF

SD2

0A07 L Trip
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

>= 1

TRIP CIRCUIT BREAKER


CLOSE CIRCUIT BREAKER

0A08 L Close
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0B0D CB Trip
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

tTRIP

>= 1
LOG9
>= 1

tCLOSE
Reset

0B0E CB Close
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Circuit
breaker
control

LOG2
0A09 Ext. Ttrip
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

>=1

RLY3
LOGA
0
1

LOG7
0
1

I<
Io<

>=1

0B0F CB Fail
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

>=1

Generate circuit breaker


maintenance records
latch red trip LED

>=1

Latch flags
Generate fault records &
copy to event records

RLY7

I>

tBF

>=1

Io>

Figure 6a: Scheme logic diagram KCEU 142/242 (continued in Figure 6b)

Breaker fail
protection

Fault record
and flag latch
initiation

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Appendix 2
Page 12 of 12

0A0A Aux1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0B10 Aux1
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

tAux1
SD5

I<

3sec

Reset trip flags

0A0B Aux2
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

SD6

>= 1

SD8

SD8

Recorder
stopped

LOG3
0

I<

LOG4
0

&

>= 1

Io<

0B11 Aux2
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

tAux2
0

>= 1

LOG6

tAux3

Loss of load
/stage 4 EF

LOGB
1

0B12 Aux3
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

LOG5

LOG8

Cold load
start

SD4

0A0D Stg Grp 2


7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
SD3

>= 1
Remote set Grp2

Disturbance
recorder
reset

Recorder
stopped

0A0C Aux3
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

PF8

Reset
disturbance
recorder

Set
Reset

Remote set Grp1


V<

PF9

&

Change to
setting group 2

1
0
0B13 tV<
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

tV<

Setting group
control

Undervoltage

>= 1
0A0E CB Closed Ind
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0D0F CB Open Ind
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0A10 CB Bus 2
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Plant
status
word

PF0
0

Alarm
0A11 Reset Ith
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

LOG0
0

Trip
Thermal
reset

CB(ops)>
CBduty>

>= 1

>= 1

0B17 th Alarm
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

>= 1

0B18 th Trip
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

0B19 CB Alarm
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

SD F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

EF1 F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

PF1 F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

LOG F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

EF2 F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

PF2 F E D C B A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0

Figure 6b: Scheme logic diagram KCEU 142/242

Thermal
phase element

Circuit
breaker
alarms

Auxiliary
timers

Types KCGG 122, 142


KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242 and
KCEU 142, 242
Overcurrent and Directional Overcurrent
Relays
Service Manual

Appendix 3
Connection Diagrams

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551D
Appendix 3
Contents

CONTENTS
1.
2.

Connection diagrams for customising


Connection diagrams for relays as supplied

Figure 1:
Figure 2:
Figure 3:
Figure 4:
Figure 5:
Figure 6:
Figure 7:
Figure 8:
Figure 9:
Figure 10:
Figure 11:
Figure 12:
Figure 13:
Figure 14:
Figure 15:
Figure 16:
Figure 17:
Figure 18:
Figure 19:
Figure 20:
Figure 21:
Figure 22:

Typical application diagram: 2 phase overcurrent relay KCGG 122


Typical application diagram: 3 phase overcurrent and earth fault
relay KCGG 142 01
Typical application diagram: 3 phase overcurrent and earth fault
relay KCGG 142 02
Typical application diagram: directional earth fault relay KCEG 112
Typical application diagram: 3 phase overcurrent and directional
earth fault relay KCEG 142
Typical application diagram: 3 phase overcurrent and directional earth
fault relay KCEG 152
Typical application diagram: dual powered 3 phase overcurrent and
earth fault relay KCEG 242
Typical application diagram: directional 3 phase overcurrent and
sensitive wattmetric earth fault relay KCEU 142
Typical application diagram: directional 3 phase overcurrent and
sensitive wattmetric earth fault relay KCEU 242
Typical application diagram: KCEU 142 showing connection for
broken delta VT winding
Typical application diagram: KCEU 242 showing connection for
broken delta VT winding
Typical application diagram: 2 phase overcurrent and relay KCCG 122
Typical application diagram: 3 phase overcurrent and earth fault
relay KCGG 142 01
Typical application diagram: 3 phase overcurrent and earth fault
relay KCGG 142 02
Typical application diagram: directional earth fault relay KCEG 112
Typical application diagram: 3 phase directional earth fault relay
KCEG 142
Typical application diagram: 3 phase overcurrent and directional
earth fault relay KCEG 152
Typical application diagram: dual powered 3 phase overcurrent and
directional earth fault relay KCEG 242
Typical application diagram: directional 3 phase overcurrent and
sensitive wattmetric earth fault relay KCEU 142
Typical application diagram: directional 3 phase overcurrent and
sensitive wattmetric earth fault relay KCEU 242
Typical application diagram: KCEU 142 showing connection for
broken delta VT winding
Typical application diagram: KCEU 242 showing connection for
broken delta VT winding

1
12
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

14

18
20
22

24

26

28

13

17
19
21

23

25

27

SCN

29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55

30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56

Notes:

Pin terminal (pcb type).

(d)

CT shorting links make


before (b) and (c) disconnect.

(2) CT connections are typical only.


(3) Earth connections are typical only.

AC/DC
supply
Vx

L2

L1

L0

Logic input common (1)

Short terminals break before (c).


Long terminal

S1

(b)
(c)

(1) (a)

S2

P1

KCGG 122

RL0

52

50

48

46

28

26
27

24
25

RL3

RL2

RL1

Case earth
connection

SCN

56

54

44

42

40

38

36

34

32

30

22
23

21

14

13

Figure 1: Typical application diagram: 2 phase overcurrent relay KCGG 122

Module terminal blocks


viewed from rear
(with integral case earth strap)

4
6
8
10

1
3
5
7
9

P2

+48V field voltage

KBus communications port

Relay failed

Relay healthy

Section 1.

Case earth

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
R8551D
Appendix 3
Page 1 of 22

CONNECTION DIAGRAMS FOR CUSTOMISING

28

27

SCN

S2

Pin terminal (pcb type).

(d)

S1

P1

Logic input common (2)

L7

L6

L5

L4

L3

Logic input common (1)

L2

L1

L0

AC/DC
supply
Vx

55

53

51

49

47

45

52

50

48

46

28

26
27

24
25

22
23

KCGG 142 01

RL0

RL7

RL6

RL5

RL4

RL3

RL2

RL1

Case earth
connection

SCN

56

54

43

41

39

37

35

33

31

29

44

42

40

38

36

34

32

30

21

14

13

Figure 2: Typical application diagram: 3 phase overcurrent and earth fault relay KCGG 142 01

(3) Earth connections are typical only.

(2) CT connections are typical only.

Short terminals break before (c).


Long terminal

CT shorting links make


before (b) and (c) disconnect.

P2

(b)
(c)

(1) (a)

Notes:

Module terminal blocks


viewed from rear
(with integral case earth strap)

26

25

18
20

17

24

14

13

23

39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55

22

40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56

31
33
35
37

4
6
8
10

3
5
7
9

19
21

30
32
34
36
38

29

Case earth

C
B
Phase rotation

+48V field voltage

KBus communications port

Relay failed

Relay healthy

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
R8551D
Appendix 3
Page 2 of 22

28

27

SCN

53
55

51

56

52
54

S2

Long terminal

Pin terminal (pcb type).

(c)

(d)

S1

P1

Logic input common

L2

L1

L0

AC/DC
supply
Vx

52

50

48

46

28

26
27

24
25

22
23

KCGG 142 02

RL0

RL3

RL2

RL1

Case earth
connection

SCN

56

54

44

42

40

38

36

34

32

30

21

14

13

Figure 3: Typical application diagram: 3 phase overcurrent and earth fault relay KCGG 142 02

(3) Earth connections are typical only.

(2) CT connections are typical only.

Short terminals break before (c).

CT shorting links make


before (b) and (c) disconnect.

P2

(b)

(1) (a)

Notes:

Module terminal blocks


viewed from rear
(with integral case earth strap)

26

25

47
49

24

48
50

45

18
20

17

23

46

41

14

13

22

42
44

39

19
21

40

31
33
35
37

4
6
8
10

3
5
7
9

43

30
32
34
36
38

29

Case earth

C
B
Phase rotation

+48V field voltage

KBus communications port

Relay failed

Relay healthy

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
R8551D
Appendix 3
Page 3 of 22

14

18
20
22

24

26

28

13

17
19
21

23

25

27

SCN

29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55

30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56

da

L2

L1

L0

Logic input common (1)

AC/DC
supply
Vx

(2) CT connections are typical only.


(3) Earth connections are typical only.

Pin terminal (pcb type).

(d)

CT shorting links make


before (b) and (c) disconnect.

S1

Short terminals break before (c).


Long terminal

S2

P1

(b)
(c)

(1) (a)

Notes:

dn

P2

52

50

48

46

20

19

28

26
27

24
25

22
23

21

14

13

Figure 4: Typical application diagram: directional earth fault relay KCEG 112

Module terminal blocks


viewed from rear
(with integral case earth strap)

4
6
8
10

1
3
5
7
9

Case earth

C
B
Phase rotation

Direction of forward current flow

KCEG 112

RL3

RL2

RL1

RL0

Case earth
connection

SCN

56

54

44

42

40

38

36

34

32

30

+48V field voltage

KBus communications port

Relay failed

Relay healthy

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
R8551D
Appendix 3
Page 4 of 22

14

18
20
22

24

26

28

13

17
19
21

23

25

27

SCN

29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55

30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56

Pin terminal (pcb type).

(d)

Logic input common (2)

L7

L6

L5

L4

L3

Logic input common (1)

L2

L1

L0

14

13

55

53

SCN

54

51

Case earth
connection

43

41

39

37

56

RL7

RL6

35

33

31

29

44

42

40

38

36

34

32

30

49

47

45

52

50

48

46

20

RL5

RL4

18
19

RL3

KCEG 142

RL2

RL1

RL0

28
17

26
27

24
25

22
23

AC/DC
supply
Vx

S1
21

S2

P1

P2

Figure 5: Typical application diagram: 3 phase overcurrent and directional earth fault relay KCEG 142

(2) CT connections are typical only.


(3) Earth connections are typical only.

Short terminals break before (c).


Long terminal

CT shorting links make


before (b) and (c) disconnect.

(b)
(c)

(1) (a)

Notes:

Module terminal blocks


viewed from rear
(with integral case earth strap)

4
6
8
10

1
3
5
7
9

Case earth

C
B
Phase rotation

Direction of forward current flow

+48V field voltage

KBus communications port

Relay failed

Relay healthy

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
R8551D
Appendix 3
Page 5 of 22

14

18
20
22

24

26

28

13

17
19
21

23

25

27

SCN

29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55

30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56

da

Pin terminal (pcb type).

(d)

dn

P2
S2

S1

L2

L1

L0

AC/DC
supply
Vx

Logic input common (2)

L7

L6

L5

L4

L3

Logic input common (1)

P1

55

53

51

49

47

45

52

50

48

46

20

19

28

26
27

24
25

22
23

21

14

13

KCEG 152

Figure 6: Typical application diagram: 3 phase overcurrent and directional earth fault relay KCEG 152

(2) CT connections are typical only.


(3) Earth connections are typical only.

Short terminals break before (c).


Long terminal

CT shorting links make


before (b) and (c) disconnect.

(b)
(c)

(1) (a)

Notes:

Module terminal blocks


viewed from rear
(with integral case earth strap)

4
6
8
10

1
3
5
7
9

Case earth

C
B
Phase rotation

Direction of forward current flow

RL7

RL6

RL5

RL4

RL3

RL2

RL1

RL0

Case earth
connection

SCN

56

54

43

41

39

37

35

33

31

29

44

42

40

38

36

34

32

30

+48V field voltage

KBus communications port

Relay failed

Relay healthy

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
R8551D
Appendix 3
Page 6 of 22

14

18
20
22

24

26

28

13

17
19
21

23

25

27

SCN

29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55

30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56

P2

Pin terminal (pcb type).

(d)

S2

S1

P1

Logic input common (2)

L7

L6

L5

L4

L3

Logic input common (1)

L2

L1

L0

Supply to trip coil

AC/DC supply Vx

55

53

51

49

47

45

52

50

46
48

20

19

18

17

28

26
27

24
25

22
23

21

9
10

14

13

KCEG 242

Series
REG

Figure 7: Typical application diagram: dual powered 3 phase overcurrent and earth fault relay KCEG 242

(2) CT connections are typical only.


(3) Earth connections are typical only.

Short terminals break before (c).


Long terminal

CT shorting links make


before (b) and (c) disconnect.

(b)
(c)

(1) (a)

Notes:

Module terminal blocks


viewed from rear
(with integral case earth strap)

4
6
8
10

1
3
5
7
9

Case earth

C
B
Phase rotation

Direction of forward current flow

RL7

RL6

RL5

RL4

RL3

RL2

RL1

RL0

Case earth
connection

SCN

56

54

43

41

39

37

35

33

31

29

44

42

40

38

36

34

32

30

+48V field voltage

KBus communications port

Relay healthy

Relay failed

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
R8551D
Appendix 3
Page 7 of 22

14

18
20
22

24

26

28

13

17
19
21

23

25

27

SCN

29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55

30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56

Pin terminal (pcb type).

(d)

S1

P1

Logic input common (2)

L7

L6

L5

L4

L3

Logic input common (1)

L2

L1

L0

AC/DC
supply
Vx
14

13

55

53

51

49

47

45

52

50

48

46

20

19

18

28
17

26
27

24
25

KCEU 142

RL7

RL6

RL5

RL4

RL3

RL2

RL1

RL0

Case earth
connection

SCN

56

54

43

41

39

37

35

33

31

29

44

42

40

38

36

34

32

30

Figure 8: Typical application diagram: directional 3 phase overcurrent and sensitive wattmetric earth fault relay KCEU 142

(2) CT connections are typical only.


(3) Earth connections are typical only.

Short terminals break before (c).


Long terminal

S2

22
23

P2

P1

21

P2

CT shorting links make


before (b) and (c) disconnect.

(b)
(c)

(1) (a)

Notes:

Module terminal blocks


viewed from rear
(with integral case earth strap)

4
6
8
10

1
3
5
7
9

Case earth

C
B
Phase rotation

Direction of forward current flow

+48V field voltage

KBus communications port

Relay failed

Relay healthy

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
R8551D
Appendix 3
Page 8 of 22

14

18
20
22

24

26

28

13

17
19
21

23

25

27

SCN

29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55

30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56

Pin terminal (pcb type).

(d)

P2

P1 P2
S2

S1

L2

L1

L0

Supply to
trip coil

AC/DC
supply Vx

Logic input common (2)

L7

L6

L5

L4

L3

Logic input common (1)

P1

55

53

51

49

47

45

52

50

48

46

20

19

18

KCEU 242

RL7

RL6

RL5

RL4

RL3

26
27
28
17

RL2

RL1

22
23
24
25

RL0

Series
REG

21

9
10

14

13

Case earth
connection

SCN

56

54

43

41

39

37

35

33

31

29

44

42

40

38

36

34

32

30

Figure 9: Typical application diagram: directional 3 phase overcurrent and sensitive wattmetric earth fault relay KCEU 242

(2) CT connections are typical only.


(3) Earth connections are typical only.

Short terminals break before (c).


Long terminal

CT shorting links make


before (b) and (c) disconnect.

(b)
(c)

(1) (a)

Notes:

Module terminal blocks


viewed from rear
(with integral case earth strap)

4
6
8
10

1
3
5
7
9

Case earth

C
B
Phase rotation

Direction of forward current flow

+48V field voltage

KBus communications port

Relay failed

Relay healthy

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
R8551D
Appendix 3
Page 9 of 22

14

18
20
22

24

26

28

13

17
19
21

23

25

27

SCN

29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55

30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56

Pin terminal (pcb type).

(d)

S1

P1

dn

Logic input common (2)

L7

L6

L5

L4

L3

Logic input common (1)

L2

L1

L0

AC/DC
supply
Vx
14

13

55

53

51

49

47

45

52

50

48

46

20

19

18

28
17

26
27

24
25

KCEU 142

Figure 10: Typical application diagram: KCEU 142 showing connection for broken delta VT winding

(2) CT connections are typical only.


(3) Earth connections are typical only.

Short terminals break before (c).


Long terminal

S2

22
23

P2

P1

21

P2

CT shorting links make


before (b) and (c) disconnect.

da

(b)
(c)

(1) (a)

Notes:

Module terminal blocks


viewed from rear
(with integral case earth strap)

4
6
8
10

1
3
5
7
9

Case earth

C
B
Phase rotation

Direction of forward current flow

RL7

RL6

RL5

RL4

RL3

RL2

RL1

RL0

Case earth
connection

SCN

56

54

43

41

39

37

35

33

31

29

44

42

40

38

36

34

32

30

+48V field voltage

KBus communications port

Relay failed

Relay healthy

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
R8551D
Appendix 3
Page 10 of 22

14

18
20
22

24

26

28

13

17
19
21

23

25

27

SCN

29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55

30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56

dn

Pin terminal (pcb type).

(d)

P1 P2
S2

Direction of forward current flow

S1

L2

L1

L0

Supply to
trip coil

AC/DC
supply Vx

Logic input common (2)

L7

L6

L5

L4

L3

Logic input common (1)

P1

55

53

51

49

47

45

52

50

48

46

20

19

18

KCEU 242

RL7

RL6

RL5

RL4

RL3

26
27
28
17

RL2

RL1

22
23
24
25

RL0

Series
REG

21

9
10

14

13

Figure 11: Typical application diagram: KCEU 242 showing connection for broken delta VT winding

(2) CT connections are typical only.


(3) Earth connections are typical only.

Short terminals break before (c).


Long terminal

CT shorting links make


before (b) and (c) disconnect.

da

(b)
(c)

(1) (a)

Notes:

Module terminal blocks


viewed from rear
(with integral case earth strap)

4
6
8
10

1
3
5
7
9

Case earth

C
B
Phase rotation

P2

Case earth
connection

SCN

56

54

43

41

39

37

35

33

31

29

44

42

40

38

36

34

32

30

+48V field voltage

KBus communications port

Relay failed

Relay healthy

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
R8551D
Appendix 3
Page 11 of 22

14

18
20
22

24

26

28

13

17
19
21

23

25

27

SCN

29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55

30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56

Notes:

Logic input common (1)

Block t>>>/to>>> L2

Block t>>/to>> L1

Pin terminal (pcb type).

(d)

CT shorting links make


before (b) and (c) disconnect.

(2) CT connections are typical only.


(3) Earth connections are typical only.

AC/DC
supply
Vx

Change setting group L0

Short terminals break before (c).


Long terminal

S1

(b)
(c)

(1) (a)

S2

P1

52

50

48

46

28

26
27

24
25

22
23

21

14

13

Figure 12: Typical application diagram: 2 phase overcurrent and relay KCCG 122

Module terminal blocks


viewed from rear
(with integral case earth strap)

4
6
8
10

1
3
5
7
9

P2

KCGG 122

RL3

RL2

RL1

RL0

Case earth
connection

WD

WD

SCN

56

54

44

42

40

38

36

34

32

30

+48V field voltage

KBus communications port

Trip (to>/to>>/to>>>/aux 1)
(t>/t>>/t>>>)

AR initiate (to>/to>>/to>>>)
(t>/t>>/t>>>)

Start I>

Start Io>

Relay failed

Relay healthy

Section 2.

Case earth

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
R8551D
Appendix 3
Page 12 of 22

CONNECTION DIAGRAMS FOR RELAYS AS


SUPPLIED

28

27

SCN

S2

Pin terminal (pcb type).

(d)

S1

P1

Logic input common (2)

CB open indication L7

CB closed indication L6

Initiate auxiliary timer 3 L5

Initiate auxiliary timer 2 L4

External trip L3

Logic input common (1)

Block t>>>/to>>> L2

Block t>>/to>> L1

Change setting group L0

AC/DC
supply
Vx

55

53

51

49

47

45

52

50

48

46

28

26
27

24
25

22
23

21

14

13

KCGG 142 01

Figure 13: Typical application diagram: 3 phase overcurrent and earth fault relay KCGG 142 01

(3) Earth connections are typical only.

(2) CT connections are typical only.

Short terminals break before (c).


Long terminal

CT shorting links make


before (b) and (c) disconnect.

P2

(b)
(c)

(1) (a)

Notes:

Module terminal blocks


viewed from rear
(with integral case earth strap)

26

25

18
20

17

24

14

13

23

39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55

22

40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56

31
33
35
37

19
21

30
32
34
36
38

29

4
6
8
10

3
5
7
9

Case earth

C
B
Phase rotation

RL7

RL6

RL5

RL4

RL3

RL2

RL1

RL0

Case earth
connection

WD

WD

SCN

56

54

43

41

39

37

35

33

31

29

44

42

40

38

36

34

32

30

+48V field voltage

KBus communications port

Control CB trip

Control CB close

CB fail/backtrip

thAlarm/CB alarm/CB fail

Trip (to>/to>>/to>>>/aux 1)
(t>/t>>/t>>>)

AR initiate (to>/to>>/to>>>)
(t>/t>>/t>>>)

Start I>

Start Io>

Relay failed

Relay healthy

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
R8551D
Appendix 3
Page 13 of 22

28

27

SCN

S2

Pin terminal (pcb type).

(d)

S1

P1

Logic input common

Block t>>>/to>>> L2

Block t>>/to>> L1

Change setting group L0

AC/DC
supply
Vx

52

50

48

46

28

26
27

24
25

22
23

21

14

13

KCGG 142 02

Figure 14: Typical application diagram: 3 phase overcurrent and earth fault relay KCGG 142 02

(3) Earth connections are typical only.

(2) CT connections are typical only.

Short terminals break before (c).


Long terminal

CT shorting links make


before (b) and (c) disconnect.

P2

(b)
(c)

(1) (a)

Notes:

Module terminal blocks


viewed from rear
(with integral case earth strap)

26

25

18
20

17

24

14

13

22

39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55

23

40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56

31
33
35
37

19
21

30
32
34
36
38

29

4
6
8
10

3
5
7
9

Case earth

C
B
Phase rotation

RL3

RL2

RL1

RL0

Case earth
connection

WD

WD

SCN

56

54

44

42

40

38

36

34

32

30

+48V field voltage

KBus communications port

Trip (to>/to>>/to>>>/aux 1)
(t>/t>>/t>>>)

AR initiate (to>/to>>/to>>>)
(t>/t>>/t>>>)

Start I>

Start Io>

Relay failed

Relay healthy

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
R8551D
Appendix 3
Page 14 of 22

14

18
20
22

24

26

28

13

17
19
21

23

25

27

SCN

29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55

30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56

da

Logic input common (1)

Block to>>> L2

Block to>> L1

Change setting group L0

AC/DC
supply
Vx

(2) CT connections are typical only.


(3) Earth connections are typical only.

Pin terminal (pcb type).

(d)

CT shorting links make


before (b) and (c) disconnect.

S1

Short terminals break before (c).


Long terminal

S2

P1

(b)
(c)

(1) (a)

Notes:

dn

P2

52

50

48

46

20

19

28

26
27

24
25

22
23

21

14

13

Figure 15: Typical application diagram: directional earth fault relay KCEG 112

Module terminal blocks


viewed from rear
(with integral case earth strap)

4
6
8
10

1
3
5
7
9

Case earth

C
B
Phase rotation

Direction of forward current flow

KCEG 112

RL3

RL2

RL1

RL0

Case earth
connection

WD

WD

SCN

56

54

44

42

40

38

36

34

32

30

+48V field voltage

KBus communications port

Trip (to>/to>>/to>>>/aux 1)

AR initiate (to>/to>>/to>>>)

Start (Io>REV)

Start (Io>FWD)

Relay failed

Relay healthy

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
R8551D
Appendix 3
Page 15 of 22

14

18
20
22

24

26

28

13

17
19
21

23

25

27

SCN

29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55

30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56

Logic input common (2)

(2) CT connections are typical only.


(3) Earth connections are typical only.

55

53

SCN

54

51

Case earth
connection

43

41

39

37

35

56

RL7

RL6

RL5

33

31

29

44

42

40

38

36

34

32

30

49

47

45

52

50

48

46

20

19

RL4

18

RL2
RL3

KCEG 142

RL1

RL0

WD

WD

28
17

26
27

24
25

Figure 16: Typical application diagram: 3 phase directional earth fault relay KCEG 142

CB open indication L7

Pin terminal (pcb type).

CB closed indication L6

Initiate auxiliary timer 3 L5

Initiate auxiliary timer 2 L4

External trip L3

Logic input common (1)

Block t>>>/to>>> L2

Block t>>/to>> L1

Change setting group L0

(d)

22
23

14

13

AC/DC
supply
Vx
21

S1

S2

P1

Short terminals break before (c).


Long terminal

CT shorting links make


before (b) and (c) disconnect.

P2

(b)
(c)

(1) (a)

Notes:

Module terminal blocks


viewed from rear
(with integral case earth strap)

4
6
8
10

1
3
5
7
9

Case earth

C
B
Phase rotation

Direction of forward current flow

+48V field voltage

KBus communications port

Control CB trip

Control CB close

CB fail/backtrip

thAlarm/CB alarm/CB fail

Trip (to>/to>>/to>>>/aux 1)
(thTrip/t>/t>>/t>>>)

AR initiate (to>/to>>/to>>>)
(t>/t>>/t>>>)

Start (Io> REV/I> REV)

Start (Io> FWD/I> FWD)

Relay failed

Relay healthy

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
R8551D
Appendix 3
Page 16 of 22

14

18
20
22

24

26

28

13

17
19
21

23

25

27

SCN

29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55

30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56

da

Pin terminal (pcb type).

(d)

dn

P2
S2

External trip L3

Logic input common (1)

Block t>>>/to>>> L2

Block t>>/to>> L1

Change setting group L0

AC/DC
supply
Vx

Logic input common (2)

CB open indication L7

CB closed indication L6

Initiate auxiliary timer 3 L5

Initiate auxiliary timer 3 L4

S1

P1

55

53

51

49

47

45

52

50

48

46

20

19

28

26
27

24
25

22
23

21

14

13

KCEG 152

Figure 17: Typical application diagram: 3 phase overcurrent and directional earth fault relay KCEG 152

(2) CT connections are typical only.


(3) Earth connections are typical only.

Short terminals break before (c).


Long terminal

CT shorting links make


before (b) and (c) disconnect.

(b)
(c)

(1) (a)

Notes:

Module terminal blocks


viewed from rear
(with integral case earth strap)

4
6
8
10

1
3
5
7
9

Case earth

C
B
Phase rotation

Direction of forward current flow

RL7

RL6

RL5

RL4

RL3

RL2

RL1

RL0

Case earth
connection

WD

WD

SCN

56

54

43

41

39

37

35

33

31

29

44

42

40

38

36

34

32

30

+48V field voltage

KBus communications port

Control CB trip

Control CB close

CB fail/backtrip

thAlarm/CB alarm/CB fail

Trip (to>/to>>/to>>>/aux 1)
(thTrip/t>/t>>/t>>>)

AR initiate (to>/to>>/to>>>)
(t>/t>>/t>>>)

Start (Io>REV)

Start (Io>FWD)

Relay failed

Relay healthy

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
R8551D
Appendix 3
Page 17 of 22

14

18
20
22

24

26

28

13

17
19
21

23

25

27

SCN

29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55

30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56

P2

Pin terminal (pcb type).

(d)

S2

S1

P1

Logic input common (2)

CB open indication L7

CB closed indication L6

Initiate auxiliary timer 3 L5

Initiate auxiliary timer 3 L4

External trip L3

Logic input common (1)

Block t>>>/to>>> L2

Block t>>/to>> L1

Change setting group L0

Supply to trip coil

AC/DC supply Vx

55

53

51

49

47

45

52

50

46
48

20

19

18

17

28

26
27

24
25

22
23

21

9
10

14

13

KCEG 242

Series
REG

RL7

RL6

RL5

RL4

RL3

RL2

RL1

RL0

Case earth
connection

WD

WD

Figure 18: Typical application diagram: dual powered 3 phase overcurrent and directional earth fault relay KCEG 242

(2) CT connections are typical only.


(3) Earth connections are typical only.

Short terminals break before (c).


Long terminal

CT shorting links make


before (b) and (c) disconnect.

(b)
(c)

(1) (a)

Notes:

Module terminal blocks


viewed from rear
(with integral case earth strap)

4
6
8
10

1
3
5
7
9

Case earth

C
B
Phase rotation

Direction of forward current flow

SCN

56

54

43

41

39

37

35

33

31

29

44

42

40

38

36

34

32

30

+48V field voltage

KBus communications port

Control CB trip

Control CB close

CB fail/backtrip

thAlarm/CB alarm/CB fail

Trip (to>/to>>/to>>>/aux 1)
(thTrip/t>/t>>/t>>>)

AR initiate (to>/to>>/to>>>)
(t>/t>>/t>>>)

Start (Io>REV/I>REV)

Start (Io>FWD/I>FWD)

Relay healthy

Relay failed

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
R8551D
Appendix 3
Page 18 of 22

14

18
20
22

24

26

28

13

17
19
21

23

25

27

SCN

29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55

30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56

Pin terminal (pcb type).

(d)

AC/DC
supply
Vx

Logic input common (2)

CB open indication L7

CB closed indication L6

Initiate auxiliary timer 3 L5

Initiate auxiliary timer 2 L4

External trip L3

Logic input common (1)

Block t>>>/to>>> L2

Block t>>/to>> L1

Change setting group L0

P1
14

13

55

53

51

49

47

45

52

50

48

46

20

19

18

28
17

26
27

24
25

KCEU 142

RL7

RL6

RL5

RL4

RL3

RL2

RL1

RL0

Case earth
connection

WD

WD

SCN

56

54

43

41

39

37

35

33

31

29

44

42

40

38

36

34

32

30

Figure 19: Typical application diagram: directional 3 phase overcurrent and sensitive wattmetric earth fault relay KCEU 142

(2) CT connections are typical only.


(3) Earth connections are typical only.

Short terminals break before (c).


Long terminal

S1

22
23

S2

P2

21

P1

Direction of forward current flow

CT shorting links make


before (b) and (c) disconnect.

(b)
(c)

(1) (a)

Notes:

Module terminal blocks


viewed from rear
(with integral case earth strap)

4
6
8
10

1
3
5
7
9

Case earth

C
B
Phase rotation

P2

+48V field voltage

KBus communications port

Control CB trip

Control CB close

CB fail/backtrip

thAlarm/CB alarm/CB fail

Trip (to>/to>>/to>>>/aux 1)
(thTrip/t>/t>>/t>>>)

AR initiate (to>/to>>/to>>>)
(t>/t>>/t>>>)

Start (Io> REV/I> REV)

Start (Io> FWD/I> FWD)

Relay failed

Relay healthy

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
R8551D
Appendix 3
Page 19 of 22

14

18
20
22

24

26

28

13

17
19
21

23

25

27

SCN

29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55

30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56

Pin terminal (pcb type).

(d)

P1 P2
S2

Direction of forward current flow

External trip L3

Logic input common (1)

Block t>>>/to>>> L2

Block t>>/to>> L1

Change setting group L0

Supply to
trip coil

AC/DC
supply Vx

Logic input common (2)

CB open indication L7

CB closed indication L6

Initiate auxiliary timer 3 L5

Initiate auxiliary timer 2 L4

S1

P1

55

53

51

49

47

45

52

50

48

46

20

19

18

KCEU 242

RL7

RL6

RL5

RL4

RL3

26
27
28
17

RL2

24
25

RL1

22
23

Case earth
connection

WD

WD

RL0

Series
REG

21

9
10

14

13

SCN

56

54

43

41

39

37

35

33

31

29

44

42

40

38

36

34

32

30

Figure 20: Typical application diagram: directional 3 phase overcurrent and sensitive wattmetric earth fault relay KCEU 242

(2) CT connections are typical only.


(3) Earth connections are typical only.

Short terminals break before (c).


Long terminal

CT shorting links make


before (b) and (c) disconnect.

(b)
(c)

(1) (a)

Notes:

Module terminal blocks


viewed from rear
(with integral case earth strap)

4
6
8
10

1
3
5
7
9

Case earth

C
B
Phase rotation

P2

+48V field voltage

KBus communications port

Control CB trip

Control CB close

CB fail/backtrip

thAlarm/CB alarm/CB fail

Trip (to>/to>>/to>>>/aux 1)
(thTrip/t>/t>>/t>>>)

AR initiate (to>/to>>/to>>>)
(t>/t>>/t>>>)

Start (Io> REV/I> REV)

Start (Io> FWD/I> FWD)

Relay failed

Relay healthy

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
R8551D
Appendix 3
Page 20 of 22

14

18
20
22

24

26

28

13

17
19
21

23

25

27

SCN

29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55

30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56

Pin terminal (pcb type).

(d)

AC/DC
supply
Vx

dn

Logic input common (2)

CB open indication L7

CB closed indication L6

Initiate auxiliary timer 3 L5

Initiate auxiliary timer 2 L4

External trip L3

Logic input common (1)

Block t>>>/to>>> L2

Block t>>/to>> L1

Change setting group L0

P1
14

13

55

53

51

49

47

45

52

50

48

46

20

19

18

28
17

26
27

24
25

Figure 21: Typical application diagram: KCEU 142 showing connection for broken delta VT winding

(2) CT connections are typical only.


(3) Earth connections are typical only.

Short terminals break before (c).


Long terminal

S1

22
23

S2

P2

21

P1

Direction of forward current flow

CT shorting links make


before (b) and (c) disconnect.

da

(b)
(c)

(1) (a)

Notes:

Module terminal blocks


viewed from rear
(with integral case earth strap)

4
6
8
10

1
3
5
7
9

Case earth

C
B
Phase rotation

P2

KCEU 142

RL7

RL6

RL5

RL4

RL3

RL2

RL1

RL0

Case earth
connection

WD

WD

SCN

56

54

43

41

39

37

35

33

31

29

44

42

40

38

36

34

32

30

+48V field voltage

KBus communications port

Control CB trip

Control CB close

CB fail/backtrip

thAlarm/CB alarm/CB fail

Trip (to>/to>>/to>>>/aux 1)
(thTrip/t>/t>>/t>>>)

AR initiate (to>/to>>/to>>>)
(t>/t>>/t>>>)

Start (Io> REV/I> REV)

Start (Io> FWD/I> FWD)

Relay failed

Relay healthy

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
R8551D
Appendix 3
Page 21 of 22

14

18
20
22

24

26

28

13

17
19
21

23

25

27

SCN

29
31
33
35
37
39
41
43
45
47
49
51
53
55

30
32
34
36
38
40
42
44
46
48
50
52
54
56

dn

Pin terminal (pcb type).

(d)

P1 P2
S2

Direction of forward current flow

Supply to
trip coil

AC/DC
supply Vx

External trip L3

Logic input common (1)

Block t>>>/to>>> L2

Block t>>/to>> L1

Change setting group L0

P1

Logic input common (2)

CB open indication L7

CB closed indication L6

Initiate auxiliary timer 3 L5

Initiate auxiliary timer 2 L4

S1

55

53

51

49

47

45

52

50

48

46

20

19

18

KCEU 242

RL7

RL6

RL5

RL4

RL3

26
27
28
17

RL2

24
25

RL1

22
23

Case earth
connection

WD

WD

RL0

Series
REG

21

9
10

14

13

Figure 22: Typical application diagram: KCEU 242 showing connection for broken delta VT winding

(2) CT connections are typical only.


(3) Earth connections are typical only.

Short terminals break before (c).


Long terminal

CT shorting links make


before (b) and (c) disconnect.

da

(b)
(c)

(1) (a)

Notes:

Module terminal blocks


viewed from rear
(with integral case earth strap)

4
6
8
10

1
3
5
7
9

Case earth

C
B
Phase rotation

P2

SCN

56

54

43

41

39

37

35

33

31

29

44

42

40

38

36

34

32

30

+48V field voltage

KBus communications port

Control CB trip

Control CB close

CB fail/backtrip

thAlarm/CB alarm/CB fail

Trip (to>/to>>/to>>>/aux 1)
(thTrip/t>/t>>/t>>>)

AR initiate (to>/to>>/to>>>)
(t>/t>>/t>>>)

Start (Io> REV/I> REV)

Start (Io> FWD/I> FWD)

Relay failed

Relay healthy

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
R8551D
Appendix 3
Page 22 of 22

Types KCGG 122, 142


KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242 and
KCEU 142, 242
Overcurrent and Directional Overcurrent
Relays
Service Manual

Appendix 4
Commissioning Test Record

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112, 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551C
Appendix 4
Contents

1.

COMMISSIONING TEST RECORD

2.

SETTING RECORD

REPAIR FORM

11

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

Section 1.

R8551C
Appendix 4
Page 1 of 12

COMMISSIONING TEST RECORD

Date
Station

Circuit
System Frequency

Front plate information


Multifunctional overcurrent relay type

KC________

Model number
Serial number
Auxiliary Voltage Vx
Polarising Voltage Vn
Rated Current In

*Delete as appropriate
4

Product checks

4.1

With the relay de-energised

4.1.1

Visual inspection
Module and case damaged?

Yes/No*

Model numbers on case and front plate match?

Yes/No*

Serial numbers on case and front plate match?

Yes/No*

Rating information correct for installation?

Yes/No*

All current transformer shorting switches closed?

Yes/No*

Case earth installed?

Yes/No*

4.1.2

Insulation resistance correct?

Yes/No/Not Tested*

4.1.3

External wiring
Wiring checked against diagram?

Yes/No*

Test block connections checked?

Yes/No/na*

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
4.1.4

Watchdog contacts
With auxiliary supply off

4.1.5

Auxiliary supply

4.2

With the relay energised

4.2.1

Watchdog contacts
With auxiliary supply on

4.2.2

4.2.3

4.2.4

4.2.5

4.2.6

R8551C
Appendix 4
Page 2 of 12

Terminals 3 and 5

Open/Closed*

Terminals 4 and 6

Open/Closed*
______V ac/dc*

Terminals 3 and 5

Open/Closed*

Terminals 4 and 6

Open/Closed*

Light emitting diodes


Relay healthy (green) LED working?

Yes/No*

Alarm (yellow) LED working?

Yes/No*

Trip (red) LED working?

Yes/No*

Liquid crystal display


All pixels working?

Yes/No*

Backlight switches on and off?

Yes/No*

Field supply voltage


Relay energised from auxiliary supply

______V dc

Relay energised from line current transformers


(Section 4.2.11 KCEG 242 and KCEU 242 only)

______V dc/na*

Capacitor trip voltage


Relay energised from auxiliary supply

______V dc

Relay energised from line current transformers


(Section 4.2.11 KCEG 242 and KCEU 242 only)

______V dc/na*

Input opto-isolators
Input L0 working?

Yes/No*

Input L1 working?

Yes/No*

Input L2 working?

Yes/No*

Input L3 working?

Yes/No/na*

Input L4 working?

Yes/No/na*

Input L5 working?

Yes/No/na*

Input L6 working?

Yes/No/na*

Input L7 working?

Yes/No/na*

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
4.2.7

R8551C
Appendix 4
Page 3 of 12

Output relays
Output RL0 working?

Yes/No*

Output RL1 working?

Yes/No*

Output RL2 working?

Yes/No*

Output RL3 working?

Yes/No*

Output RL4 working?

Yes/No/na*

Output RL5 working?

Yes/No/na*

Output RL6 working?

Yes/No/na*

Output RL7 working?

Yes/No/na*

4.2.8

K-Bus communications working?

Yes/No/na*

4.2.9

Current inputs

4.2.10

4.2.11

CT ratio (phase currents)

_______:1A

CT ratio (Zero sequence current)

_______:1A/na*

Input CT

Applied value

Relay value

Ia
Ib
Ic
Io

_______A/na*

_______A

_______A/na*

_______A

_______A/na*

_______A

_______A/na*

_______A

Voltage inputs (KCEG and KCEU relays only)


VT Ratio (phase voltages)

_______:1V/na*

VT Ratio (residual voltage)

_______:1V/na*

Input VT

Applied value

Relay value

Va

_______V/na*

_______V

Vb

_______V/na*

_______V

Vc

_______V/na*

_______V

Vo

_______V/na*

_______V

Energisation from line current transformers


(KCEG 242 and KCEU 242 relays only)
Record results under Sections 4.2.4 and 4.2.5

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551C
Appendix 4
Page 4 of 12

Setting checks

5.1

Customers settings applied?

Yes/No*

If settings applied using a portable computer


and software, which software and version was used?

____________________

5.2

Settings on relay verified?

Yes/No*

5.3

Protection function timing tested?

Yes/No*

Function tested

t>/to>

6.1.1

Polarising voltage

(KCEG/KCEU relays only)

_________V/na*

Characteristic angle

(KCEG/KCEU relays only)

_________/na*

Operating boundary 1 (KCEG/KCEU relays only)

_________/na*

Operating boundary 2 (KCEG/KCEU relays only)

_________/na*

Applied current

_________A

Expected nominal operating time

_________s

Actual operating time

_________s

On-load checks
Test wiring removed?

Yes/No/na*

Disturbed customer wiring re-checked?

Yes/No/na*

On-load test performed?

Yes/No*

VT wiring checked? (KCEG/KCEU relays only)

Yes/No/na*

VT ratio (Phase voltages)

____:1V/na*

VT ratio (Residual voltage)

____:1V/na*

Phase rotation correct

Yes/No*

Voltages:

Applied value

Relay value

Va

_______V/na*

_______V

Vb

_______V/na*

_______V

Vc

_______V/na*

_______V

Vo

_______V/na*

_______V

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

6.1.2

R8551C
Appendix 4
Page 5 of 12

CT wiring checked?

Yes/No/na*

and 6.2 CT ratio (Phase currents)

____:1A/na*

CT ratio (Earth fault currents)

____:1A/na*

Currents:

Applied value

Relay value

Ia
Ib
Ic
Io

_______A/na*

_______A

_______A/na*

_______A

_______A/na*

_______A

_______A/na*

_______A

Final checks
Test wiring removed?

Yes/No/na*

Disturbed customer wiring re-checked?

Yes/No/na*

Circuit breaker operations counter set/reset?

Set/Reset/na*

If set, value counter set to:

________/na*

Current squared counters set/reset?

Set/Reset/na*

If set, value counter set to:

(A phase)

________A2/na*

(B phase)

________A2/na*

(C phase)

________A2/na*

Event records reset?

Yes/No*

Fault records reset?

Yes/No*

Disturbance records reset

Yes/No*

Alarms reset?

Yes/No*

LEDs reset?

Yes/No*

Commissioning Engineer

Customer Witness

Date

Date

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

Section 2.

R8551C
Appendix 4
Page 6 of 12

SETTING RECORD

Date

Engineer

Station

Date

Circuit

System Frequency

Front plate information


Multifunctional overcurrent relay type

KC________

Model number
Serial number
Auxiliary Voltage Vx
Polarising Voltage Vn
Rated Current In

0000SYSTEM DATA
0002

Password

0003

SD Links

0004

Description

0005

Plant

0006

Model

0008

Serial No.

0009

Frequency

000A

Comms Level

000B

Rly Address

0011

Software Ref.

D C B

0 0 0 0 0

A 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
0 0

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551C
Appendix 4
Page 7 of 12

0500

EARTH FLT 1

F E D C

A 9 8

0501

EF Links

0 0

0 0

0502

CT Ratio

0503

VT Ratio

0504

Curve

0505

Io>

0506

to/TMS

0507

to/DT

0508

toRESET

0509

Io>>

050A

to>>

050B

Io>>>

050C

to>>>

050D

Char Angle

050E

Io<

050F

Vop>

0600

PHASE FLT 1

F E

D C B A

0601

PF Links

0602

CT Ratio

0603

VT Ratio

0604

Curve

0605

I>

0606

t/TMS

0607

t/DT

0608

tRESET

0609

I>>

060A

t>>

060B

I>>>

060C

t>>>

060D

Char Angle

060E

I<

060F

V<

0610

tV<

0611

F<

0612

th> Alarm

0613

Ith> Trip

0614

TC

7 6 5 4 3

2 1 0

0 0

9 8 7 6 5 4

3 2

1 0

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

0700
0701

EARTH FLT 2
EF Links

0702

CT Ratio

0703

VT Ratio

0704

Curve

0705

Io>

0706

to/TMS

0707

to/DT

0708

toRESET

0709

Io>>

070A

to>>

070B

Io>>>

070C

to>>>

070D

Char Angle

070E

Io<

070F

Vop>

0710

Po>

0800

PHASE FLT 2

0801

PF Links

0802

CT Ratio

0803

VT Ratio

0804

Curve

0805

I>

0806

t/TMS

0807

t/DT

0808

tRESET

0809

I>>

080A

t>>

080B

I>>>

080C

t>>>

080D

Char Angle

080E

I<

080F

V<

0810

tV<

0811

F<

0812

th> Alarm

0813

Ith> Trip

0814

TC

R8551C
Appendix 4
Page 8 of 12

F E D C
0
0 0

B A 9
0 0 0

8 7 6 5 4 3 2
0 0

0
0

B A 9

8 7 6 5 4 3 2

E D C

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551C
Appendix 4
Page 9 of 12

0900

LOGIC

E D C B

A 9

8 7 6 5 4 3

2 1 0

0901

LOG Links

0 0 0 0

0902

tBF

0903

tAUX1

0904

tAUX2

0905

tAUX3

0906

tTRIP

0907

tCLOSE

0908

CB ops>

0909

CB duty>

090F

Display

0A00

INPUT MASKS F

A 9

8 7 6 5 4 3

2 1 0

0A01

Blk to>

0 0 0 0

0 0

0A02

Blk to>>

0 0 0 0

0 0

0A03

Blk to>>>

0 0 0 0

0 0

0A04

Blk t>

0 0 0 0

0 0

0A05

Blk t>>

0 0 0 0

0 0

0A06

Blk t>>>

0 0 0 0

0 0

0A07

L Trip

0 0 0 0

0 0

0A08

L Close

0 0 0 0

0 0

0A09

Ext Trip

0 0 0 0

0 0

0A0A

Aux 1

0 0 0 0

0 0

0A0B

Aux 2

0 0 0 0

0 0

0A0C

Aux 3

0 0 0 0

0 0

0A0D

Set Grp 2

0 0 0 0

0 0

0A0E

CB Closed

0 0 0 0

0 0

0A0F

CB Open

0 0 0 0

0 0

0A10

Bus2

0 0 0 0

0 0

0A11

Reset Ith

0 0 0 0

0 0

E D C B

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551C
Appendix 4
Page 10 of 12

0B00

RELAY MASKS

0B01
0B02

Io> Fwd
Io> Rev

0B03

E D C

B A 9

8 7 6 5 4 3 2

0 0 0 0

0 0

0 0 0 0

0 0

to>

0 0 0 0

0 0

0B04

to>>

0 0 0 0

0 0

0B05

to>>>

0 0 0 0

0 0

0B06

0 0 0 0

0 0

0B07

I>Fwd
I>Rev

0 0 0 0

0 0

0B08

tA>

0 0 0 0

0 0

0B09

tB>

0 0 0 0

0 0

0B0A

tC>

0 0 0 0

0 0

0B0B

t>>

0 0 0 0

0 0

0B0C

t>>>

0 0 0 0

0 0

0B0D

CB Trip

0 0 0 0

0 0

0B0E

CB Close

0 0 0 0

0 0

0B0F

CB Fail

0 0 0 0

0 0

0B10

Aux 1

0 0 0 0

0 0

0B11

Aux 2

0 0 0 0

0 0

0B12

Aux 3

0 0 0 0

0 0

0B13

tV<

0 0 0 0

0 0

0B14

Level 1

0 0 0 0

0 0

0B15

Level 2

0 0 0 0

0 0

0B16

Level 3

0 0 0 0

0 0

0B17

thAlarm

0 0 0 0

0 0

0B18

thTrip

0 0 0 0

0 0

0B19

CB Alarm

0 0 0 0

0 0

0C00

RECORDER

B A 9

0C01

Control

0C02

Capture

0C03

Post Trigger

0C04

Logic Trig

0C05

Relay Trig

E D C

8 7 6 5 4 3 2

1 0

1 0

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242

R8551C
Appendix 4
Page 11 of 12

REPAIR FORM
Please complete this form and return it to AREVA T&D with the
equipment to be repaired. This form may also be used in the case of application queries.

AREVA T&D
St. Leonards Works
Stafford
ST17 4LX,
England
For:

After Sales Service Department

Customer Ref:

________________________

AREVA Contract Ref: ________________________


Date:
1.

Model No:
Serial No:

__________________
__________________

________________________

What parameters were in use at the time the fault occurred?


AC volts

_____________ Main VT/Test set

DC volts

_____________ Battery/Power supply

AC current

_____________ Main CT/Test set

Frequency

_____________

2.

Which type of test was being used? ____________________________________________

3.

Were all the external components fitted where required?


(Delete as appropriate.)

4.

List the relay settings being used

Yes/No

____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
5.

What did you expect to happen?


____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

continued overleaf

SERVICE MANUAL
KCGG 122, 142
KCEG 112 142, 152, 242
KCEU 142, 242
6.

R8551C
Appendix 4
Page 12 of 12

What did happen?


____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

7.

8.

When did the fault occur?


Instant

Yes/No

Intermittent

Yes/No

Time delayed

Yes/No

(Delete as appropriate).

By how long?

___________

What indications if any did the relay show?


____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

9.

Was there any visual damage?


____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

10. Any other remarks which may be useful:


____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

______________________________________
Signature

_______________________________________
Title

______________________________________
Name (in capitals)

_______________________________________
Company name

____________________________________________________________________________

Publication: R8551E
AREVA T&D's Automation & Information Systems Business www.areva-td.com
T&D Worldwide Contact Centre online 24 hours a day: +44 (0) 1785 25 00 70 http://www.areva-td.com/contactcentre/