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COAXIAL CABLE MODELING AND

VERIFICATION
by
Luyan Qian

Zhengyu Shan

A Thesis for the Degree of


BACHELOR OF SCIENCE
in
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
Blekinge Institute of Technology
Karlskrona, Sweden
2012

Supervisor: Anders Hultgren


Blekinge Institute of Technology, Sweden

ABSTRACT
In this paper, analysis of coaxial cable is used to reveal how an electromagnetic wave
propagates in an electrical conductor, and a new modeling language, MODELICA is
introduced. Some transmission line properties, such as propagation delay, reflection
coefficient, attenuation, are all verified by comparing the results from MATLAB and
MODELICA. The models we simulated are different types of coaxial cables,
including lossless cables and lossy cables. It can be shown that MODELICA, a very
powerful and convenient tool, can process complex physical systems.

NOTATION
Capacitance
Inside diameter of the shield
Outside diameter of the enter conductor
Relative dielectric constant
Free space dielectric constant
Dielectric constant of the insulator
Inductance
Relative permeability
Permeability of free space
Magnetic permeability of the insulator
Resistance
Length of the conductor
Cross-section area of the conductor
Electrical resistivity of the material
Conductance
Voltage
Current
Wavenumber
Angular frequency
Function represents a wave traveling from left to right
Function represents a wave traveling from right to left
Characteristic impedance
Position in transmission line
Time
Propagation speed
Velocity factor
The speed of light
State vector
Output vector
Input vector
State matrix
Input matrix
Output matrix
Feedthrough matrix,
The differential equation of
Reflection coefficient
Electric field strength of the reflected wave
Electric field strength of the incident wave
Impedance toward the load
Magnitude of reflection coefficient
Transmitted power
Reflected power
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The time signal enters cable


The time signal exits cable
Propagation time
Voltage of incident wave
Voltage of reflected wave
Signal attenuation constant
Phase constant
Propagation constant
Wavelength

ABBREVIATION
PVC
AC
KCL
KVL
VSWR
RL
RF

Polyvinyl chloride
Alternating current
Kirchhoffs current law
Kirchhoffs voltage law
Voltage stand wave ratio
Return loss
Radio frequency

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT ..................................................................................................................................... 3
NOTATION ..................................................................................................................................... 5
ABBREVIATION............................................................................................................................ 6
TABLE OF CONTENTS ................................................................................................................ 7
1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................................ 9
2 BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................................ 13
2.1 Cable Background ............................................................................................................. 13
2.2 Technique Background...................................................................................................... 14
3 THEORIES ................................................................................................................................. 19
3.1 Transmission Line Theory................................................................................................. 19
3.1.1 The structure of cable..................................................................................................... 19
3.1.2 Fundamental electrical parameters ............................................................................... 20
3.1.3 Telegraphers equation ................................................................................................... 21
3.1.4 Characteristic impedance .............................................................................................. 24
3.1.5 Wave propagation........................................................................................................... 26
3.1.6 Attenuation in transmission line ..................................................................................... 27
3.2 Methods Used to Solve Circuits ........................................................................................ 30
3.2.1 Kirchhoffs circuit laws .................................................................................................. 30
3.2.2 State space form ............................................................................................................. 30
3.3 Reflection Theory.............................................................................................................. 28
4 MODELING METHODS.......................................................................................................... 33
4.1 Simple Circuit Solution ..................................................................................................... 33
4.1.1 Lossless transmission line terminated in open-circuit ................................................... 34
4.1.2 Lossless transmission line terminated in short-circuit ................................................... 36
4.1.3 Lossless transmission line terminated in matched load ................................................. 38
4.1.4 Lossy transmission line .................................................................................................. 40
4.1.5 Two different lossless cables connected ......................................................................... 41
4.2 MATLAB Modeling and Simulat1ion............................................................................... 45
4.3 MODELICA Modeling and Simulation ............................................................................ 47
5 VERIFICATION AND ANALYSIS .......................................................................................... 53
5.1 Lossless Coaxial Cable ..................................................................................................... 53
5.1.1 Propagation Time ........................................................................................................... 53
5.1.2 Reflection Coefficient and Analysis................................................................................ 58
5.2 Lossy Coaxial Cable ......................................................................................................... 65
5.2.1 Propagation constant ..................................................................................................... 65
5.2.2 Lossy coaxial cable verification for 2 conditions........................................................... 67
5.2.3 Analysis for lossy cable in other conditions ................................................................... 71
6 CONCLUSION .......................................................................................................................... 73
REFERENCE ................................................................................................................................ 75
APPENDICES ............................................................................................................................... 77
7

1 INTRODUCTION
How does signal propagates through a transmission line? Can we know it before
doing the measurements? The answer is yes, and in this report, you could get the
answer.
Transmission line is widely used to transport signals and electric power so that the
research on it is important, since it could help people to understand thoroughly
characteristics of transmission lines and how they behave in the data and energy
delivery. According to this, we can make the response measures in order to improve
the transmission efficiency, which plays a significant role in modern technological
and sustainable world.

Figure 1.1, Transmission Lines in some Applications

Our thesis is developed based on the coaxial cable project of course Modeling and
Verification, which is an experiment performed on an electrical cable to reveal how
an electromagnetic wave travels in an electrical conductor. And in that project, we just
need to use MATLAB to model one of several conditions.
When we reviewed that course, we are interested in accomplishing all tasks of the
cable connection situations in that project to see what will happen as the result.
Additionally, as some neoteric modeling software come out such as MODELICA and
Scilab, all of which are developing very quickly, we also desire to try one by
ourselves which is totally new for us.
Therefore, in this paper, we introduced the modeling language MODELICA, which
can simulate the electrical circuits in a more convenient way. We built different
models and analyzed the results from OpenModelica, comparing them with the results
given by MATLAB.

Figure 1.2, The open windows of MATLAB(2009a) and OpenModelica

The following conditions of coaxial cable are made:


1) a RG58 coax cable and the terminator end is open
2) a RG58 coax cable with short end
3) a RG58 coax cable terminated in matched load
4) a RG58 coax cable with RG59 coax cable in the end
5) lossy coax cable terminated with open circuit.
To verify the propagation delay and reflection coefficient for lossless cables and
attenuation for lossy cables, we introduced some transmission line theories such as
wave propagation, characteristics impedance, reflection coefficient, applied some
powerful method to model the system.
In Chapter 2, we will tell BACKGROUND of the Cables and Techniques that are
used in this project.
The necessary THEORIES are discussed in Chapter 3 including Transmission Line
Theory, Methods Used to Solve Circuits and Reflection Theory.
In Chapter 4 MODELING METHODS, the detailed modelling solutions are shown
in terms of Simple Circuit, MATLAB and MODELICA Modeling and Simulation
separately which describes how we did this software computation.
Then we lead the reader to Chapter 5 VERIFICATION AND ANALYSIS, in which
part, the characteristics of Lossless Coaxial Cable and Lossy Coaxial Cable are
analyzed and the results from MATLAB and MODELICA are compared using
theories.
After these, we will make discussion over all of this report in Chapter 6
CONLUSION.

10

Chapter 2
Background

Transmission
Line
Chapter 3
Theories

Circuit
Calculation

Reflection

Matlab
Simple
Circuit

Chapter 3
Modeling
Methods
Modelica

Lossless
Cable

Chapter 5
Verification
Analysis

Chapter 6
Conclusion

Figure 1.3, Overview of the reports structure

11

Lossy
Cable

12

2 BACKGROUND
2.1 Cable Background
There are several types of transmission lines whose losses are small: coaxial cable,
microstrip, stripline, balanced line, single-wire line, waveguide, optical fiber. One
advantage of coax over other types of radio transmission line is that in an ideal
coaxial cable can be installed next to metal objects such as gutters without the power
losses that occur in other types of transmission lines. It has a large frequency range
which allows it to carry multiple signals. Coaxial cable also provides protection of the
signal from external electromagnetic interference. However, coaxial cable is more
expensive to install, and it uses a network topology that is prone to congestion. [1]
In recent years, coaxial cables have become an essential component of our
information superhighway. They are applied in a wide variety of residential,
commercial and industrial installations. Coaxial cables serve as transmission line for
radio frequency signals. They are applied in feedlines connecting radio transmitters
and receivers with their antennas, computer network connections, and distributing
cable television signals. Short lengths of coaxial cables are also used for connecting
devices with test equipment, like signal generator. [1]
Coaxial cable is perhaps the most commonly used transmission line type for RF and
microwave measurements and applications. In 1894 Heaviside, Tesla and others
received patents for coaxial line and related structures. A development of coax theory
is often provided as part of basic physics and engineering equation, which are
generally used for transmission line and macroscopic electromagnetic analysis.
Accordingly, the analysis, measurement and application of coax are usually
considered to be quite mature and complete. [2]
Coaxial cable is typically identified or classified based on its impedance or RG-type.
Coaxial cables that conform to U.S. Government specifications are identified with an
RG designation.

Figure 2.1, Meaning of some letters

The RG series was originally used to describe the types of coax cables for military use,
and the specification took the form RG plus two numbers. The RG designation stands
for Radio Guide, the U designation stands for Universal. The current military standard
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is MIL-SPEC MIL-C-17.MIL-C-17 numbers. However, the RG-series designations


were so common for generations that they are still used. [1]
In this paper we emphasis on modeling coaxial cable RG-58 and RG-59.
RG-58 is a coaxial cable that is used for wiring purpose. The insulation surrounding
the RG-58 cable carries a low impedance of around 50 or 52 ohms. It generally serves
for generating signal connections that are of low power. The RG-58 cable is most
often used for the Thin Ethernet when the maximum length required is about 185
meters. The RG-58 cable frequency acts as a generic carrier of power signals. These
signals are generated in physical laboratories. The RG-58 cable is specially designed
to work with most two-way radio systems. This communication system is different
from the usual broad cast receiver since the latter can receive data from one end only.
In case of the two-way radio system, it can be generated by the RG-58 cable, where
content travels in both directions. The radio can receive and transmit data at the same
time. The RG-58 can also be used for higher frequencies. The range, however,
remains fairly moderate. The Ethernet wiring for which the RG-58 cable is used is
sometimes termed cheapernet, since it draws low-power signal connections. [3]
The RG-59 cable is a type of coaxial cable that is used to generate low power video
connections. The RG-59 cable conducts video and radio frequency at an impedance of
around 75 ohms. The RG-59 cable is used for generating short-distance
communication. The cable can be applied in baseband video frequencies, which are
measured from the lowest count of zero and continue to the highest signal frequency.
Baseband refers to a collection of signals and frequencies varying over a wide range.
The RG-59 cable cannot be used over long distance due to its high-frequency power
losses. The RG-59 cables are comparatively less expensive than other cables. One of
the greatest uses of the RG-59 cable is synchronization between two digital audio
devices. The coaxial cable coordinates between the digital signals that are responsible
for producing sound. The digital audio devices are used for storage, conversion, and
transmission of the auto signals. The RG-59 cable maintains a unique coordination
between these devices. The RG-59 cable undergoes a small amount of signal
reduction, which is owing to the shielding on the cable. The low cost of the RG-59
coaxial cable has made it easily accessible and usable. [4]
2.2 Technique Background
MATLAB
MATLAB is a programming language for technical computing. MATLAB is used for
algorithm development, model prototyping, data analysis and exploration of data,
visualization and numeric computation.
MATLAB was first conceived as a teaching tool by Moler who was at the University
of New Mexico in the late 1970s. Moler wanted his students to have access to
Linpack and Eispack matrix software without having to use the Fortan programming
language, which was complex; he came up with the MATLAB system to solve this
14

problem. [5] The original MATLAB was designed specifically to handle computations
with matrices and mathematics. Little and Steve Bangert developed PC MATLAB by
porting Molers code from FORTRAN to C, adding user-defined functions, improved
graphics, and libraries of MATLAB routines, the toolboxes.
There is general agreement in the technical computing community that the main
reasons for MATLABs success are its intuitive, concise syntax, the use of complex
matrices as the default numeric data object, the power of the built-in operators, easily
used graphics, and its simple and friendly programming environment, allowing easy
extension of the language. [6]
It has been widely used by engineers, mathematicians and scientists. MATLAB boats
more than 1 million users around the word. MATLAB now has been used in such
varied areas as automobiles, airplanes, hearing aids, cellphones, financial derivative
pricing and academics. [5]

Figure 2.2, MATLAB window environment

MODELICA
Object-Oriented modeling is a fast-growing area of modeling and simulation that
provides a structured, computer-supported way of doing mathematical and
equation-based modeling. MODELICA is today the most promising modeling and
simulation language in that it effectively unifies and generalized previous
object-oriented modeling languages and provides a sound basis for the basic concepts.
[7]
15

The MODELICA design effort was initiated in September 1996 by Hilding Elmqvist.
The goal was to develop an object-oriented language for modeling of technical
systems in order to reuse and exchange dynamic system models in a standardized
format. [8]
The four most important features of MODELICA are: [9]

MODELICA is based on equation instead of assignment statements. This permits a


causal modeling that gives better reuse of classes since equations do not specify a
certain data flow direction. Thus a MODELICA class can adapt to more than one
data flow context.

MODELICA has multi-domain modeling capability, meaning that model


components corresponding to physical objects from several different domains
such as electrical, mechanical, thermodynamic, hydraulic, biological and control
applications can be described and connected.

MODELICA is an object-oriented language with a general class concept that


unifies classes, genericsknown as templates in C++, and subtyping into a single
language construct. This facilitates reuse of components and evolution of models.

MODELICA has a strong software component model, with constructs for creating
and connecting components. Thus the language is ideally suited as an architectural
description language for complex physical systems and to some extent for
software systems.

OpenModelica
The OpenModelica environment is an open-source environment for modeling,
simulation, and development of MODELICA applications. The current version of the
OpenModelica environment allows most of expression, algorithm and function parts
of MODELICA to be executed interactively, as well as equation models and
MODELICA functions to be compiled into efficient C code. The generated C code is
combined with a library of utility functions, a run-time library, and a numerical DAE
solver. An external function library interfacing a LAPACK subset and other basic
algorithms is under development. [10]
The OpenModelica environment has several goals: [10]

Providing an efficient interactive computational environment for the MODELICA


language.

Development of a complete reference implementation of MODELICA in an


extended version of MODELICA itself.

Providing an environment for teaching modeling and simulation.

Language design to improve abstract properties such as expressiveness,


orthogonality, declarativity, reuse, configurability, architectural properties, etc.
16

Improved implementation techniques, e.g. to enhance the performance of


compiled MODELICA code by generating code for parallel hardware.

Improved debugging support for equation based languages such as MODELICA,


to make them even easier to use.

Easy-to-use specialized high-level user interfaces for certain application domains.

Visualization and animation techniques for interpretation and presentation of


results.

Application usage and model library development by researches in various


application areas.

Figure 2.3, OpenModelica window environment

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18

3 THEORIES
3.1 Transmission Line Theory
In communications and electronic engineering, a transmission line is a specialized
cable designed to transfer alternating current of radio frequency, that is, currents with
a frequency high enough that their wave nature must be taken into account.
Transmission lines are used for purposes such as connection radio transmitters and
receivers with their antennas, distributing cable television signals, and computer
network connections. Transmission lines can be realized in number of ways. Common
examples are the coaxial cable and the parallel-wire line. [11]
3.1.1 The structure of cable

Figure 3.1, Inner structure of the cable

Coaxial cables are the interconnections that transmit pulses from one end to another,
protecting the information in the signal. A cable can be treated as a transmission line if
the length is greater than 1/10 of the wave length.
Coaxial cable has a core wire, surrounded by an insulation jacket which is a PVC
material. Normally the shield is kept at ground potential. Then it is surrounded by a
copper mesh which is often constituted by braided wires. The inner dielectric
separates the core and the shielding apart. The central wire carries the RF signal and
the outer shield is considered to prevent the RF signal from radiating to the
atmosphere and to keep outside signals from interfering with the signal carried by the
core. The electrical signal always travels along the outer layer of the central conductor,
and as a result, the larger the central conductor, the better signal will flow. Coaxial
cable is a good choice for carrying weak signals that cannot tolerate interference from
the environment or for higher electrical signals that must not be allowed to radiate or
couple into adjacent structures or circuits. [12]

19

Table 3.1, Physical parameters for typical cables

Cable Type

Core (mm)

Dielectric
(mm)

Shield (mm)

Jacker(mm)

RG-58

0.9

2.95

3.8

4.95

RG-213

2.26

7.24

8.64

10.29

LMR-400

2.74

7.24

8.13

10.29

3/8 LDF

3.1

8.12

9.7

11

3.1.2 Fundamental electrical parameters


Generally, a transmission line has these four parameters: capacitance, resistance,
conductance and inductance.
Shunt capacitance C per unit length, in farads per meter. [13]

Where: d is the outside diameter of the enter conductor (millimeters)


D is the inside diameter of the shield (millimeters)
is the relative dielectric constant
is the free space dielectric constant
is the dielectric constant of the insulator, which equal to
Series inductance L per unit length, in henrys per meter. [13]

Where:

is the relative permeability, it almost always be 1


is the permeability of free space
is the magnetic permeability of the insulator, which equal to

Series resistance R per unit length, in ohms per meter. This parameter is the resistance
of the inner conductor and the shield. Resistance primarily depends upon two factors:
the material it is made of, and its shape. Another factor, which affects this parameter,
is the skin effect, wherein the propagating microwave signal is intend to confine itself
on the top layer or the 'skin' of the conductor, thus increasing the effective resistance.
Assume the current density is totally uniform in the conductor, the resistance R can be
computed as: [14]

20

Where:

is the length of the conductor (meters)


is the cross-section area of the conductor (square meters)
is the electrical resistivity of the material (ohm-meters)

Shunt conductance G per unit length, in siemens per meter. The shunt conductance
happens due to the dielectric loss of the insulator used. An insulating material with
good dielectric properties will have a low shunt conductance.
Assume the current density is totally uniform in the conductor, the conductance G can
be computed as: [14]

3.1.3 Telegraphers equation


Telegraphers equations are a pair of linear differential equations which characterize
the voltage and current on an electrical transmission line with distance and time. We
can derive characteristic impedance and wave speed from the telegraphers equation.
Lossless transmission model

Figure 3.2, Equivalent circuit model of a lossless transmission line

In lossless transmission line, it possesses a certain series inductance

. If

is

the current through the wire, the voltage across the inductance is

denotes the voltage at position


and time . We have that the charge in
voltage between the ends of the piece of wire is:
(3.1)
Further that current can escape from the wire to ground through the capacitance
.
Because the charge of capacitor is
, the amount of the current escapes
from the capacitor is

. We have the charge in current is:


(3.2)

Both side of equation (3.1) and (3.2) are divided by


21

, get the difference equation:

(3.3)
(3.4)
From

and
(3.5)
(3.6)

Putting

to equation (3.5)
(3.7)

To get similar equation for the current, using

and
(3.8)
(3.9)

Putting

to equation (3.9)
(3.10)

So, the telegraphs equations for the lossless transmission line are:
(3.11)

(3.12)

Lossy transmission model

Figure 3.3, Equivalent circuit model of a lossy transmission line

The components for the model of a lossy transmission line are the series
22

inductance
, shunt capacitance
, series resistance
, and shunt
conductance
. For a homogeneous transmission line, those parameters are
distributed evenly along the length of the line.
The change in voltage between the ends of the piece of wire is:
(3.13)
We have the charge in current is:
(3.14)
Both side of equation (3.13) and (3.14) are divided by

, get the difference equation:


(3.15)
(3.16)

From

and

get:
(3.17)
(3.18)

Putting

,
to equation (3.17)

(3.19)
(3.20)
(3.21)
To get similar equation for the current, using

and
(3.22)
(3.23)

Putting
23

to equation (3.23)
(3.24)
(3.25)
(3.26)
So, the telegraphs equations for the lossless transmission line are:
(3.27)

(3.28)

3.1.4 Characteristic impedance


Characteristic impedance refers to the equivalent resistance of a transmission line if it
were infinitely long, it is due to distributed capacitance and inductance as the voltage
and current waves flow along its length at a propagation velocity equal to some large
fraction of light speed. The inductance increases with increasing spacing between the
conductors, and the capacitance decreases with increasing spacing between the
conductors. Hence a line with closely spaced large conductors has low characteristic
impedance. [12]
Characteristic impedance for lossless transmission line can be derived by lossless
telegraphs equation

There are two solutions for the traveling wave: one forward and one reverse. The
solution for the wave equation can be written as: [15]

Where: k is the wavenumber (radians/meter)


is the angular frequency (radians/second)
and
can be any function,
represents a wave traveling from left to
right in positive x direction, while
represents a wave traveling from right to left
Since the current is related to the voltage by the telegraphers equations, we can write:
[15]
The differential equation for
24

(3.29)
And the first order differential equation for

:
(3.30)

Comparing telegraphs equation

with the result of

equation (3.29) divided by equation (3.30), we can get the characteristic impedance:
(3.31)
We have calculated the relationship between

and

, putting

to

equation (3.31)

Thus, the expression of characteristic in lossless transmission line is:

To calculate the characteristic impedance for lossy transmission line, we replace each
time derivative by a factor
for lossy telegraphs equation (3.27) and express them
in frequency domain, the equations become:
(3.32)
(3.33)
Where

and

Mathematically, we can solve the equations for a lossy transmission line in exact the
same way as we did for lossless line. The characteristic impedance for lossy
transmission line is:

Matched load
A line terminated in a purely resistive load equal to the characteristic impedance is
said to be matched. In a matched transmission line, all the power is transmitted over a
transmission line. It minimizes signal distortion in transmission lines, prevents wave
from reflections and pulse. [12]

25

3.1.5 Wave propagation


Propagation speed for lossless transmission line can be derived by lossless telegraphs
equation

We have mentioned the solution for the wave equation can be written as:

We can get the first differential equation by using


(3.34)
Using

of equation (3.34) to get secondary differential equation


(3.35)

Using the same method to get secondary differential equation for


(3.36)
One can easily show by comparing telegraphs equation
with the result of equation (3.35) divided by equation (3.36), the velocity with which
the electromagnetic energy propagates along this lossless line is given by:

The propagation speed for lossy cable can be calculated with the similar solution
which used to solve the characteristic impedance for lossy cable by replacing
and
:

Velocity of propagation
The velocity factor is the speed at which RF signal travels through a material
compared to the speed the same signal travels through a vacuum. The higher the
velocity factor, the lower the loss through a coaxial cable. Velocity factor is a
parameter that characterizes the speed at which an electrical signal passes through a
medium. It varies from 0 to 1. The velocity of light is the speed limit for electrical
signals and is never reached in coaxial cable, the range of velocity factor is from 66
percent to 86 percent for typical flexible coaxial cable. The type of dielectric material,
determines the dielectric constant, which is the primary determinant of the velocity of
the cable. [16]
26

Where:

is the velocity factor

Dielectric materials
Dielectric material is the material between the center and outer conductors. There is a
variety of materials that can be successfully used as dielectrics in coax cables. Each
has its own dielectric constant, and as a result, coax cables that use different dielectric
materials will exhibit different velocity factors.
Table 3.2, Dielectric constants and velocity factors of some common dielectric materials used in
coax cables

MATERIAL

DIELECTRIC
CONSTANT

VELOCITY
FACTOR

Polyethylene

2.3

0.659

Foam polyethylene

1.3 1.6

0.88 0.79

Solid PTFE

2.07

0.695

For a lossless transmission line: [17]

Where c is the speed of light (meters/second)


3.1.6 Attenuation in transmission line
Every transmission has some losses, since the resistance of the conductors and power
is consumed in the dielectric which used for insulating the conductors. Power lost in a
transmission line is not directly proportional to the line length, but varies
logarithmically with the length. And line losses are usually presented in terms of
decibels per unit length. Losses in transmission line arise from sources: radiation,
dielectric loss, skin effect loss. [18]
Skin effect loss
Skin effect occurs in conductors carrying an AC current. As the frequency increases,
the current tends to be concentrated near the surface of the conductor, and the skin
effect becomes more pronounced and the loss in conductors increases dramatically.
Skin effect loss is the resistance aggravated by the inhomogeneous current
distribution that caused by the skin effect. For a perfect coaxial cable, the skin
27

resistance is proportional to the square root of the frequency. [18]


Dielectric loss
Dielectric loss is due to the electric absorbing energy as it is polarized in each
direction. It occurs when the conductance is non-zero. Dielectrics have losses increase
when increasing the voltage on the conductors. Dielectric losses also increase with the
frequency since the shunt conductance increase approximately linearly with frequency.
[18]
Radiation loss
Radiation loss occurs in two wire lines since the fields from one line do not completed
cancel out those from the other line. If the conductors form a tight electromagnetic
system with the outer conductor have a thickness greater than 5 times the skin depth
then radiation is negligible. If outer conductor is a loose braid, it will result in
radiation. Special types of coax with multiple braids, or a solid outer conductor have
no measureable radiation losses. [18]

3.2 Reflection Theory


A signal travelling along an electrical transmission line will be partly, or wholly,
reflected back in the opposite direction when the travelling signal encounters a
discontinuity in the transmission line, or when a transmission line is terminated with
other than its characteristic impedance. [19]
Reflection Coefficient
Reflection coefficient describes the ratio of reflected wave to incident wave at point
of reflection, where circuit parameter has sudden change. This value varies from -1
(for short load) to +1 (for open load), and becomes 0 for matched impedance load.
The reflection coefficient is defined as:
[20]
Where:

is the electric field strength of the reflected wave


is the electric field strength of the incident wave
The reflection coefficient may also be established using circuit quantities:

Where:

is the impedance toward the load


is the impedance toward the source

28

Figure 3.4, Simple circuit configuration showing measurement location of reflection coefficient

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR)


Voltage standing wave ratio is the ratio of maximum to minimum voltage amplitude
in standing wave pattern. It varies from 1 to plus infinite. VSWR is used as an
efficiency measure for transmission lines, electrical cables that conduct radio
frequency signals, used for purposes such as connecting radio transmitters and
receivers with their antennas, and distributing cable television signals. Impedance
mismatches in the cable causes radio waves to reflect back toward the source end of
the cable. VSWR measures the relative size of these reflections. An ideal transmission
line would have a VSWR of 1:1, with all the power reaching the destination and no
reflection. An infinite VSWR represents complete reflection, with all the power
reflected back down the cable. [21]
VSWR is related to the reflection by:

Where

, the magnitude of reflection coefficient

Return Loss
Return loss is the reflection of signal power resulting from the inserting of a device in
a transmission line or optical fiber. Return loss is a convenient way to characterize the
input and output of signal sources. Return loss is a measure of how well devices or
lines are matched. A large positive return loss indicates the reflected power is small
relative to the incident power, which indicates good impedance match from source to
load. This loss value become 0 for 100% reflection and become infinite for ideal
connection.
It is usually expressed as a ratio in dB relative to the transmitted signal power:

Where:

is the power transmitted by the source


is the power reflected by the source

Return lose also is the negative of the magnitude of the reflection coefficient in dB.
29

Since power is proportional to the square of the voltage, it is given by:


[22]

3.3 Methods Used to Solve Circuits


In order to use Simulink in MATLAB to model the systems, we should at first
calculate the ABC matrices using Kirchhoffs Laws and State Space Form.
3.3.1 Kirchhoffs circuit laws
Kirchhoffs circuit laws are two equations that deal with the conservation of charge
and energy in electrical circuits. [23]
Kirchhoffs current law (KCL)
KCL: At any node (junction) in an electrical circuit, the sum of currents introducing
into that node is equal to the sum of currents extracted from that node, or the algebraic
sum of currents in a network of conductors meeting at a point is zero.
This principle can be stated as: [23]

Where n is the total number of branches with currents flowing towards or away from
the node
Normally, current is signed positive when its direction towards the node.
Kirchhoffs voltage law (KVL)
KVL: The directed sum of the electrical potential differences around any closed loop
is zero, in other words, the algebraic sum of the products of the resistances of the
conductors and the currents in them in a closed loop is equal to the total emf available
in that loop. [23]

3.3.2 State space form


State space refers to the space whose axes are state variables. A state space form
provide the dynamics as a set of first-order differential equations in a set of internal
variables known as state variables, together with a set of algebraic equations that
combine the state variables into physical output variables. To extract from the number
of inputs, outputs and states, the variables are expressed as vectors. Additionally, if
the dynamical system is linear and time invariant, the differential and algebraic
equations may be presented in matrix form. The state space representation provides a
convenient and compact way to model and analyze systems with multiple inputs and
outputs. The state variables are an internal interpretation of the system which
completely characterizes the system state at any time . [24]
30

The most general state-space representation of a linear system with


outputs and
state variables is written in the following form: [24]

Where:

inputs,

is called the state vector


is called the output vector
is called the input vector
is the
state matrix
is the
input matrix
is the
output matrix
is the
feedthrough matrix, in cases where the system model does
not have a direct feedthrough,
Is the zero matrix
is the differential equation of

31

32

4 MODELING METHODS
4.1 Simple Circuit Solution
To find out the ABC-matrix which will be used in MATLAB, we need to apply state
space form to solve the transmission line.
Transmission line can be modeled based on state space method. It provides a method
with the exact accuracy to effectively calculate the state space models. In this case,
the number of state variables
is equal to the number of independent energy storage
elements in the system. In the following circuits, except the last one, there are two
independent energy storages, the capacitor which stores energy in an electric field and
the inductor which stores energy in magnetic field. The state variables are
and .
The energy storage elements of a system make the system dynamic. The flow of
energy into or out of a storage element occurs at a finite rate and is presented by a
differential equation.
So the vector of the inductors current and capacitors voltage can be expressed as the
state vector
,
denotes the vector of source voltage and
is the vector of
output voltage. The matrices and
are properties of the system and determined
by the system structure and elements. The matrices
and
are determined by the
particular choice of output variables.
Damped harmonic oscillation phenomenon
When we used MATLAB and OpenModelica to model the lossless cable, we applied
the LC-circuit to these modeling languages. And there will be a special phenomenon
appears in the results.

Figure 4.1, One section of lossless cable in model

In the results, electric charge oscillates back and forth just like the position of a mass
on a spring oscillates, in other words, damped harmonic oscillation, the amplitude
vibrates at its eigenfrequency.

33

Figure 4.2, Damped harmonic oscillation

Angular oscillation frequency

Where

can be calculated by: [37]

is the inductance in each section,


is the capacitance in each section,

The value of eigenfrequency will be influenced by the number of sections, the greater
the number of sections, the greater the eigenfrequency will be. So we prefer to use a
large set of sequences to achieve more precise results when making the models in
MATLAB and OpenModelica.
4.1.1 Lossless transmission line terminated in open-circuit
Suppose we have three sections in this circuit, and for convenience, we assumed the
value of inductors and capacitors are constant along the line.

Figure 4.3, Circuit of 3-section transmission line terminated in open

34

First, we applied Kirchhoffs current law (KCL) to three nodes to get equations which
are related to current. And assume the direction current flow toward the node is
positive. KCL says that the net current outflow vanishes at any vertex of the graph.
The current of capacitor is equal to

At node :

(4.1)

At node :

(4.2)

At node :

(4.3)

Then we applied Kirchhoffs voltage law (KVL) to three loops to get equations
related to voltage. The voltage of capacitor is equal to

In loop I:

(4.4)

In loop II:

(4.5)

In loop III:

(4.6)

Rearrange equations (4.1), (4.2), (4.3), (4.4), (4.5), (4.6) to put the derivative of the
state variables ,
on the left side.
,
(4.7)
(4.8)
(4.9)
(4.10)
(4.11)
(4.12)
We can also write as state space representation:

35

The results matrices A, B, C, D are:

From the above matrixes, it can be concluded that nth elements has:

A=

B=

C=

D=0

4.1.2 Lossless transmission line terminated in short-circuit

Figure 4.4, Circuit of 3-section transmission line terminated in short


36

In this circuit, the current flow out


will not pass , it will directly enter the short
line. This circuit can be transforms to the following equivalent circuit.

Figure 4.5, Circuit of 3-section transmission line terminated in short

Then we used the same method to get A, B, C, D matrix.


At node :

(4.13)

At node :

(4.14)

In loop I:

(4.15)

In loop II:

(4.16)

In loop III:

(4.17)

Rearrange equations (4.13), (4.14), (4.15), (4.16), (4.17) to put the derivative of the
state variables ,
on the left side.
,
(4.18)
(4.19)
(4.20)
(4.21)
(4.22)
The results matrices A, B, C, D are:

37

From the above matrixes, it can be concluded that nth elements has:

A=

B=

C=

D=0

4.1.3 Lossless transmission line terminated in matched load

Figure 4.6, Circuit of 3-section transmission line terminated in matched load

At node :

(4.23)

At node :

(4.24)

At node :

(4.25)

In loop I:

(4.26)
38

In loop II:

(4.27)

In loop III:

(4.28)

Rearrange equations (4.23), (4.24), (4.25), (4.26), (4.27), (4.28) to put the derivative
of the state variables ,
on the left side.
,
(4.29)
(4.30)
(4.31)
(4.32)
(4.33)
(4.34)
The results matrices A, B, C, D are:

From the above matrixes, it can be concluded that nth elements has:

A=

B=

C=

D=0

39

4.1.4 Lossy transmission line


Suppose the circuit consists of these components: source voltage V, inductance
,
, resistance ,
,
,
, capacitance ,
,
and conductance
, .

,
,

Figure 4.7, Circuit of 3-section lossy transmission line terminated in open

The total current at node is equal to the sum of current at node , and the
direction of current are opposite:
(4.35)
The same situation for node and
(4.36)
At node :

(4.37)

In loop I:

(4.38)

In loop II:

(4.39)

In loop III:

(4.40)

Rearrange equations (4.35), (4.36), (4.37), (4.38), (4.39), (4.40) to put the derivative
of the state variables ,
on the left side.
,
,
,
(4.41)
(4.42)
(4.43)
(4.44)
40

(4.45)
(4.46)
The results matrices A, B, C, D are:

From the above matrixes, it can be concluded that nth elements has:

A=

B=

C=

D=0

4.1.5 Two different lossless cables connected

Figure 4.8, Circuit of two 3-section lossless transmission lines connected

There are six sections in this circuit, the form three sections have the same elements
41

and they are different with the last three sections. Suppose
,
,
,
. The state variables are
,
,
.

At node :

(4.47)

At node :

(4.48)

At node :

(4.49)

At node :

(4.50)

At node :

(4.51)

At node :

(4.52)

In loop I:

(4.53)

In loop II:

(4.54)

In loop III:

(4.55)

In loop IV:

(4.56)

In loop V:

(4.57)

In loop VI:

(4.58)

Rearrange equations (4.51)


on the left side

(4.58) to put the derivative of the state variables

,
(4.59)
(4.60)
(4.61)
(4.62)
(4.63)
(4.64)
(4.65)
(4.66)

42

(4.67)
(4.68)
(4.69)
(4.70)
We can also write as state space representation:

The results matrices A, B, C, D are:

43

When the output voltage is the voltage of the last capacitor of the first cable:

When the output voltage is the voltage of the last capacitor of the last cable:

From the above matrixes, it can be concluded that nth elements has:

A=

B=

44

D=0

4.2 MATLAB Modeling and Simulat1ion


MATLAB
MATLAB is a software package for high performance computation and visualization.
The combination of analysis capabilities, flexibilities, reliability and powerful
graphics makes MATLAB the premier software package for engineers and scientists.
MATLAB provides an iterative environment with mathematical functions. These
functions provide solution to a broad range of mathematical problems including:
Matrix Algebra, Complex Arithmetic, Linear Systems, Differential Equations, Signal
Processing, Optimization and other types of scientific computations. [23]
Simulink
Simulink is an environment for multidomain simulation and Model-Based Design for
dynamic and embedded systems. The system may be both linear and nonlinear; they
can also be continuous or discrete. It provides an interactive graphical environment
and a customizable set of block libraries that let you design, simulate, implement, and
test a variety of time-varying systems, including communications, controls, signal
processing, video processing, and image processing. [24]
In this paper, we used Simulink which is offered as a toolbox in the MATLAB to
simulate different type of cables. And we modeled these transmission lines with the
state space parameters which we have calculated.

Figure 4.9, Normal electrical circuit model

45

Figure 4.10, Parameters for step voltage

In this model, we assumed the input voltage as step-voltage and its final value is 1 .
It connected with two state-space blocks which transfer the original signal to input
signal and output signal with different value of C. Since C is decided according to
which output voltage we choose. The Clock block outputs the current simulation time
at each simulation step. It displays and provides the simulation time. Normally, the
time period we use is between 0 and 2 10-6s.
Then we combined this model with the MATLAB codes. We defined the
representation of matrixes A, B, C, D and set stop time to make the specified Simulink
model to be executed. Last, we plotted the figure with the signals transmitted with
time in voltage amplitude.
For lossless cable RG58, the capacitance equals to 101 10-12 F/m and the inductance
equals to 252 10-10 H/m. And for lossless cable RG59, capacitance is 67 10-12 F/m
and inductance is 376 10-9 H/m.
For lossy cable in different conditions, values we set the same capacitance and
inductance as cable RG58. In Heaviside condition, the value of resistance and
conductance are 0.2 and

respectively. In low loss condition, resistance and

inductance are equal to 252 10-6 and 101 10-8 S. Furthermore, we run all the
models with the number of sections 200.

Figure 4.11, Solver options in MATLAB


46

For numerical method in Simulink, MATLAB has several for different systems. As we
did in course Modeling and Verification, ode45, the default solver in MATLAB, is
good enough to calculate this system.
Ode45 is automatic step size Runge-Kutta-Fehiberg integration methods, using a 4th
and 5th order pair for higher accuracy. [38]
4.3 MODELICA Modeling and Simulation
MODELICA
MODELICA is a non-proprietary, object-oriented, equation based language to
conveniently model complex physical systems containing, e.g., mechanical, electrical,
electronic, hydraulic, thermal, control, electric power or process-oriented
subcomponents. MODELICA is a modeling language rather than a conventional
programming language. MODELICA is designed to be domain neutral and, as a result,
is used in a wide variety of applications, such as fluid system, automotive applications
and mechanical systems. [25]
OPENMODELICA
OpenModelica is an open-source MODELICA-based modeling and simulation
environment intended for industrial and academic usage. The goal of the
OpenModelica project is to create a complete MODELICA modeling, compilation
and simulation environment based on free software distributed in binary and source
code form. [26]
In OpenModelica, there exist many electrical components. We can connect them and
form the circuit.

Figure 4.12, Oline in MODELICA

Figure 4.13, Inner components of Oline


47

As can be seen from Figure 4.13, the lossy transmission line Oline consists of series
of resistances, inductances, conductance and capacitances. To get a symmetric line
model, there are resistors and inductors in both beginning and end positions. Since
the inside components of Oline are terminated with an inductance, we need to connect
a capacitance to node p2 when connecting circuit for Lossless cable. So we can treat it
as a cable by setting some parameters to it.
Following are the circuits we connected for different cables in OpenModelica.

Figure 4.14, Circuit model for open-terminated coaxial cable

Figure 4.15, Circuit model for short-terminated cable

48

Figure 4.16, Circuit model for matched-load

Figure 4.17, Circuit model for two coaxial cables

As we want to compare the results from MATLAB and OpenModelica, we should


make them in same situations. Therefore, the properties of step voltage are same as
that in MATLAB. Here are the basic parameters of inductance and capacitance in
Olines in MODELICA, which are also exactly the same as what we used in MATLAB.
The first one is for RG58 and second is for RG59 cable.

Figure 4.18, Properties of the Olines in Model of MODELICA for Lossless Transmission Line
49

As an additional capacitor, which is also regarded as an element, is terminated at the


end, we should use 199 elements in Oline to make the sections the same as MATLAB.
For Lossy Transmission Line, as to make it the same as the circuit model we used in
MATLAB, we should add a capacitor and conductor parallel across the Oline and
ground like the graph below.

Figure 4.19, Circuit model for lossy cable

The following two tables describe the properties of the components we used in two
conditions. The left one is for Heaviside condition and the right is the one in Low loss
condition, both of which we will explain in details in the Analysis part later.

Figure 4.20, properties for Lossly Cable modeling in Oline at MODELICA

In Simulation on OpenModelica, we tried different Integration Methods such as dassl,


dassl2, rungekutta and euler. By comparing the results, we choose the differential
algfebraic system solver, dassl, as the numerical method for OpenModelica modeling.
50

Because we think the figures got from this default method is good enough.

Figure 4.21, Simulation method in OpenModelica

In order to get model more smooth curve instead of zigzag ones, we changed the
value of Tolarance to 0.000001, which can be seen in Figure 4.21. Besides, from the
previous modeling, we know that time period 2 10-6s is sufficient and on the other
hand it also should be same as that of MATLAB simulation.

51

52

5 VERIFICATION AND ANALYSIS


In this part, the verification and analysis on results from MATLAB and MODELICA
will be discussed in terms of Lossless Coaxial Cable and Lossy Coaxial Cable
separately via different perspectives.
5.1 Lossless Coaxial Cable
For Lossless Cables, We analyze the simulation results on Propagation Time and
Reflection Coefficient, which will be explained in detail within this section on the
basis of theories and graphs.
5.1.1 Propagation Time
Supposed a RG58 cable is connected by a RG59 cable in a circuit, MATLAB and
MODELICA are used to model this circuit condition to plot the voltage figures
corresponding to different capacitance, considered as the three specific nodes in the
transmission process, to check the signal propagation time in these two types of
cables.
Theoretical Calculation of Propagation Time
Coaxial cable serves as the transmission line to carry RF signals, the time it takes for
a signal to travel from one end of the cable to the other is usually presented as smaller
units such as milliseconds, microseconds, or nanoseconds, since RF signals travel so
fast. The time delay can be considered as following:

Figure 5.1, Signal propagation time through a cable

The propagation time, in other words, the difference between

Where:

is the time signal enters cable (seconds)


is the time signal exits cable (seconds)
is the length of cable (meters)

and

is the velocity of factor (meters/second)


53

and

is:

c is the speed of light (meters/second)


v is the phase velocity (meters/second), which we have mentioned in
previous part.
These two tables below show the parameters and calculated velocities of RG58 and
RG59, in whose light, the theoretical values of propagation time can be calculated
with the formula given above.
Table 5.1, Parameters for lossless cable RG58

Length
()

Inductance
(L)

Capacitance
(C)

Impedance
( )

100 m

252 10-9 H/m

101 10-12 F/m

50

1.98216 108 m/s

Time delay for this type of cable (RG58) can be regarded approximately as
504.5 ns
Table 5.2, Parameters for lossless cable RG59

Length
()

Inductance
(L)

Capacitance
(C)

Impedance
( )

25 m

376 10-9 H/m

67 10-12 F/m

70

1.99236 108 m/s

According to the data in Table 5.2, we can get the propagation time of RG59 is
125.48 ns
Time Delay Analysis in MATLAB
In MATLAB, we simulated a two connected cables model and obtained graphics of
the voltage for the very beginning and the last capacitors of the first cable RG58 and
that for the very last capacitor in the second cable RG59 in time direction. We can
mark points where waves begin to flow into the corresponding capacitors so that the
values of time for each line are easily to find.
To show the wave propagation in different nodes of cables more clearly, we plotted
the outcome figures respectively.

54

Figure 5.2, Simulation result of the input signal (x:Voltage, y:Time)

Figure 5.3, Simulation result of signal at middle point (x:Voltage, y:Time)

Figure 5.4, Simulation result of signal at the end (x:Voltage, y:Time)

The red line represents the signal passing the very first capacitor in RG58 cable,
considered to be the input signal. And the green curve describes the voltage crossing
55

the terminator end of RG58, which is come out from the connection node between
RG58 and RG59, while the blue wave shows signal in the last capacitor of RG59
cable, known as the signal output at the end.
In the model, when two coaxial cables connect together, the incident wave (red line)
will occur two times reflection, the green line reflects once, and the amplitude and
time interval for reflection is similar to the second reflection of the red one. The red,
green and blue lines will finally concentrate to 1V which is the value of source
voltage.

Figure 5.5, Result for the voltage of capacitors in different positions (x:Voltage, y:Time)

We marked the first impulse points of these three curves to see the time (x-axis) when
the signal arrives at them the first time.

x1 = 3.797 ns, x2 = 515 ns, x3 = 640.7 ns,


t1 = 515 3.797 = 511.203 ns,

t2 = 640.7 515 = 125.7 ns

t1 is the time delay for cable RG58 and t2 is the propagation time for cable RG59.
Time Delay Analysis in MODELICA
In MODELICA, we cannot mark the point in the figure like what we did in MATLAB
part. Although, since we knew the voltage values of the points we took from
MATLAB, we can zoom in the area of these points to show more precise value of the
voltage and time.
The following curves gotten from MODELICA show input signal, signal come out
from the connection node between RG58 and RG59 cables and the signal out of from
end with the same colors as those in MATLAB.

56

Figure 5.6, Modeling result from MODELICA (x:Voltage, y:Time)

According to Figure 5.6, we estimated time values (x-axis) of the points:

x1 = 6.87 ns, x2 = 518.28 ns, x3 = 649.1 ns,


t1 = 518.28 6.87 = 511.41ns,

t2 = 649.1 518.28 = 130.82 ns,

where t1 is the time delay for cable RG58 and t2 is the propagation time for cable
RG59.
Comparison and Verification
We made a form to compare the values of Propagation Time in Theoretical
Calculation, MATLAB and MODELICA like this.
Table 5.3, Propagation time of different cable calculated by different methods

Time
Delay

Cable

Theoretical

MATLAB

MODELICA

RG58

504.5ns

511.203ns

511.41ns

RG59

125.48ns

125.7ns

130.82ns

In line with Table 5.3, we can see it is very clear that the values of time delay, given
by Theoretical Calculations via cables parameters, simulation in MATLAB and
modeling in MODELICA, are very close. Although there are some slight differences,
generally they are so small that the errors can be neglected. Thus, validated, the
results are proved to be correct.

57

5.1.2 Reflection Coefficient and Analysis


We use RG58 as an example; consider that a RG58 cable is terminated in some typical
conditions. With the aid of MATLAB and MODELICA, we can just plot the incident
waves to verify their reflection coefficients and discuss the wave propagations. It is
possible to find the amplitude of initial signal and voltage after reflection from the
following figures.
RG58 cable in open circuit
The graphs of the input signal at the very beginning of cable RG58, given by
MATLAB and MODELICA, are brought forward.

Figure 5.7, Input signal in open-circuit condition simulated by MATLAB (x:Voltage, y:Time)

Figure 5.8, Input signal in open-circuit condition simulated by MODEILCA (x:Voltage, y:Time)

We have mentioned eigenfrequency in chapter 4.1.


In RG58 cable,
H/m,
58

F/m, the length of cable

equal to 100m, and there are 200 elements inside the cable, then we can calculate the
eigenfrequency:
rad/s

rad/s
In MATLAB and MODELICA, the incident waves float near 0.5V, and then they
jump and fluctuate near 1V, which is caused by the reflection from end point. The
reflection coefficient is:

Where
wave.

represents the voltage of incident wave and

is the voltage of reflected

In this condition, reflection coefficient equals to 1, VSWR is 0 and return loss is 0,


which means all the energy is be reflected and it causes maximum losses.
Then we took the time periods before the waves begin to reflect back towards in light
of the figures above:
Table 5.4, Propagation time it takes before the wave reflected back

Reflection Starting
Time

MATLAB

MODELICA

1016.954 ns

1019.935 ns

The time it takes before the reflection starting is equal to that for signal to travel round
the cable, which is double of delay time. And in RG58, time delay is 504.5 ns, so as a
result, the theoretical result is about 1009 ns, which is very close to both the results
from MATLAB and MODELICA.
RG58 cable in short circuit
Here shows the figures of the input signal coming into cable RG58, which is
connected to a short end.

59

Figure 5.9, Input signal in short-circuit condition simulated by MATLAB (x:Voltage, y:Time)

Figure 5.10, Input signal in short-circuit condition simulated by MODELICA (x:Voltage, y:Time)

According to the graphics, incident wave floats near 0.5V, and then it diminishes to
zero.
The reflection coefficient is:

In this condition, reflection coefficient equals to -1, VSWR equals to 0 and return loss
is 0. It is similar to the open-circuit condition, all the power is reflected and it has
maximum losses.
When the transmission line is terminated in open circuit or with a short end, the power
reaching the end of the line is reflected back toward the source. In both of these two
conditions, the reflected voltage amplitudes are equal to 0.5 V. And in open circuit,
the reflected voltage wave is in phase with the incident voltage wave at the plane of
the load.
Besides, in short-circuit condition, voltage at the end of the line goes to zero, and the
incident voltage disappears at the short. The reflected voltage wave is equal in
60

magnitude to the incident voltage wave and be 180 degrees out of phase with it at the
plane of the load.
RG58 cable with matched load
Figure 5.11 and Figure 5.12 represent that signal waves at beginning of RG58
connected with a 50 Ohm load.

Figure 5.11, Input signal in matched load condition simulated by MATLAB (x:Voltage, y:Time)

Figure 5.12, Input signal in matched load condition in MODELICA (x:Voltage, y:Time)

In above figures, curves always float near 0.5V. It is very clear that the reflection
coefficient is 0 and VSWR is 1, while return loss will be infinite. It indicates there is
no reflection in matched load. All the power is transmitted.
When the transmission line is linked to its characteristic impedance, no reflected
signal occurs, as what we can see from the figure above, and the power is transferred
outward from the source until it reaches the load at the end, where it is completely
absorbed. As a result, although there is some impulse and noise, no standing waves
will be developed along the line. The voltage through the line remains a constant, half
of the source.
61

RG58 cable connected by RG59


The figures of this situation have already been showed in previous part 5.1.1. Now we
just separate the input signal lines from both MATLAB and MODELICA.

Figure 5.13, Input signal simulated by MATLAB (x:Voltage, y:Time)

Figure 5.14, Input signal simulated by MODELICA (x:Voltage, y:Time)

As can be seen from the figures, in this case, the incident wave jumps twice. And the
same as what we found before, the periods it takes before the reflections begin are
double of these two cables delay time.
In the course Modeling and Verification, we did the measurement on the
two-cable-connected condition in laboratory. By using CSV format files to save the
data from oscilloscope, we plot the result of input signal in the system in MATLAB as
following. When we focus on the reflections, they increase smoothly instead of
jumping immediately. So we mark the time points when they start to rise. The first
point represents the step impulse time.

62

Figure 5.15, Input signal result from the experiment (x:Voltage, y:Time)

In the measurement result above, the curve is almost smooth any time even if it has
some noises while there are severe vibrations at every impulse in the previous two
graphs from MATLAB and OpenModelica simulations. The reason is that we separate
the circuit into many sections of inductor and capacitor which may lead to eigen
frequency, which we have already explained in chapter 4.1 and chapter 5.2.1.
When calculating the first reflection coefficient, we can regard the characteristic
impedance of the second cable which is 75 as a load. Then the reflection coefficient
will be:

Since the last cable is terminated in open-condition, the second reflection coefficient
equals to 1.
Then we can process the data values and calculate time periods before the first
reflections and second reflections, as well as the first and second reflection
coefficients in Theoretical way, MATLAB and MODELICA.
Table 5.5, data calculated by different methods

Method

First reflection
interval

Second reflection
interval

First reflection
coefficient

Sencond
reflection
coefficient

Theoretical

1009 ns

250.96 ns

0.2

MATLAB

1018.203 ns

250 ns

0.218

1.02

MODELICA

1022.37 ns

275.38 ns

0.218

1.02

Experiment

1033 ns

275 ns

0.15

0.67

63

It is obvious that all these values at the same line of first three rows are very similar to
each other so that we can conclude that modeling results from MATLAB and
OpenModelica are almost correct.
Moreover, in Experiment results, the time periods are close to the Theoretical values
although there are some disparities, since they are just about 20 ns (10-9s) which are
such small.
However, the first and second reflection coefficients of measurement results are both
around 30% less than the theoretical answers respectively. We think this phenomenon
may be caused by the loss in the real cables for they are not ideal as well as
interferences around.
RG58 with different resistor load
Next, we want to study how the load the cable is terminated with affects on the
reflection. We illustrate two conditions which the RG58 cable is end with 20 ohm
resistor and 70 ohm resistor.

Figure 5.16, Input signal when RG58 cable terminated with 20 ohm resistor (x:Voltage, y:Time)

Figure 5.17, Input signal when RG58 cable terminated with 70 ohm resistor (x:Voltage, y:Time)
64

From these two curves, we can easily find that, when the terminating resistance is not
equal to its characteristic impedance which is 50 Ohm here, the termination absorbs
only part of the power reaching it. And the remainder goes back along the line toward
the source. By comparing Figure 5.16 and Figure 5.17, we found the amplitude
decreased more in Figure 5.16 than it jumped in Figure 5.17. It indicates that the more
the terminating resistance differs from characteristic impedance, the larger the
percentage of the incident power that is reflected. When the terminating resistance is
less than the characteristic impedance, the reflected wave is 180 degrees out of phase
with the incident wave at the plane of the load, and it is in phase with the incident
voltage wave at the plane of the load in opposite way.
5.2 Lossy Coaxial Cable
For the lossy cables, we will assume some parameters which are derived based on
RG58 cable and analyze the propagation constant in some specific conditions. To
simplify the modeling system, we assumed the values of both additional resistance
and conductance are constant.
5.2.1 Propagation constant
The propagation constant of an electromagnetic wave is a measure of the change
undergone by the amplitude of the wave as it flows in a given direction. The quantity
measured, such as voltage, is expressed as a sinusoidal phasor. The phase of the
sinusoid varies with distance which contributes the propagation constant being a
complex number, the imaginary part being caused by the phase change. [29]
The general propagation constant of a lossy line is:

Where
describes the signal attenuation, and
along the line.
From the definition of wavenumber [29]:

describes the wave propagation

Where
is wavelength
Then the wave phase velocity can also be expressed as:

The propagation constant will have the following solutions when the values of
resistance and conductance are under these two conditions.
Low loss transmission line
In low loss transmission line, assume
value of
and
in this condition.

and

65

and we can get the

(5.1)
(5.2)
(5.3)
(5.4)
(5.5)
Since

and

, then we can ignore the value of

(5.6)
Then we can make a Taylor series expansion, which is:
(5.7)
When
We set

is tend to zero, then it can be expressed as


, and apply the Taylor series equation to equation (5.6):
(5.8)
(5.9)
(5.10)
(5.11)

Where

is the characteristics impedance when

And equate real and imaginary parts in equation (5.11) to give:


(5.12)
(5.13)
The propagation velocity of the wave
Distortionless transmission line
If the different frequencies that comprise a signal travel at different velocities, that
signal will arrive at the end of a transmission line distorted. We call this phenomenon
66

signal dispersion. In an opposite way, if the phase velocity is independent of


frequency, then no dispersion will occur.
Heaviside found that a transmission line would be distortionless if the line parameters
exhibited the following ratio [30]:

The complex propagation constant

can be expressed as:


(5.14)
(5.15)

Since

, propagation constant can be rewritten as:


(5.16)

Thus real and imaginary parts are:


(5.17)
(5.18)
The propagation velocity of the wave
The propagation velocity is independent of frequency, so this lossy transmission line
is not dispersive.
Typically

, and to make a line meet the Heaviside condition the four primary

constants need to be adjusted. G could be increased, but this is highly undesirable


since G will have significant influence in the loss. Decreasing R is sending the loss in
right direction, but this is still not a satisfactory solution since it makes the cable much
more bulky and cost much. Decreasing C also makes the cable more bulky but is not
so costly as increasing the copper content. This leaves increasing L which is the usual
solution adopted. It is achieved by adding series inductors periodically along the
transmission line. [30]
5.2.2 Lossy coaxial cable verification for 2 conditions
We use MATLAB and MODELICA to analyze lossy cable in 2 specific conditions:
Heaviside condition and low loss approximation.
Heaviside condition
Consider a cable has the following parameters.

67

Table 5.6, Parameters for a lossy cable which fulfill Heaviside condition

Length
()

Inductance
(L)

Capacitance
(C)

Impedance
( )

Resistance
(R)

100 m

252 10-9
H/m

101 10-12
F/m

50

0.2

Conductance
(G)

Velocity

1.98216 108 m/s

Propagation Time for this kind of cable can be calculated,


504.5 ns

Figure 5.18, Simulation result from MATLAB in Heaviside condition (x:Voltage, y:Time)

Figure 5.19, Modeling result from MODELICA in Heaviside condition (x:Voltage, y:Time)

The upper figures indicate there is no dispersion occurs when C, L, G, R has this
relation:
68

Unfortunately, this ideal property lossy cable does not exist since the R, L, G and C
are sufficiently frequency dependent.
The figures show that the speed of propagation is the same for all angular frequency.
Time delay for this condition is equal to lossless condition which is 504.5ns.
From the figure, we can see that the output signal arrive about 0.7V in the end and the
final amplitude of the input signal is little higher than the output signal. There are
some losses in this kind of cable. The shape of the signal with respect to position
remains constant although it gradually gets smaller with the attenuation. And we can
calculate attenuation through attenuation coefficient :
.
Further, we can calculate the value of gain and the number of dB loss of that cable
over a length l00m:

In MATLAB and MODELICA, the source voltage is 1V.


Then we put all the results that have been calculated above into the form to contrast
outcomes in different method.
Table 5.7, Results concluded in Heaviside condition

Methods

Theoretical

MATLAB

MODELICA

Time delay

504.5 ns

469.6 ns

469.3 ns

LossdB

3.474 dB

3.462 Db

3.533 dB

In the line with Table 5.7, the numbers in each rows are close to each other which can
be considered as they are mostly correct.
Low loss coaxial cable (

and

Consider a lossy cable has the following parameters:

69

Table 5.8, Parameters for a lossy cable which fulfill Low loss approximation

Length
()

Inductance
(L)

Capacitance
(C)

Impedance
( )

Resistance
(R)

Conductance
(G)

100 m

252 10-9
H/m

101 10-12
F/m

50

252 10-6

101 10-8 S

Velocity

1.98216 108 m/s

Time delay for this kind of cable can be calculated,

Figure 5.20, Simulation result from MATLAB in low loss condition (x:Voltage, y:Time)

Figure 5.21, Modeling result from MODELICA in low loss condition (x:Voltage, y:Time)

In upper two figures, the amplitude of the output signal almost arrives about 1V. The
losses are so slight that we cannot find from the figures. Since the value of resistance
and conductance are very small, the effect of these two components is very slight on
the wave propagation and signal attenuation.
70

Under

and

condition, the attenuation coefficient:


.

The same as what we did before, we made a table to integrate the data.
Table 5.9, Results concluded for low loss condition

Methods

Mathematics

MATLAB

MODELICA

Time delay

504.5 ns

465.6 ns

465.33 ns

0.024 dB

0 dB

0 dB

It is clear that every row has three similar values. Therefore, we can obtain the
conclusion that according to verification, the results are almost correct.
5.2.3 Analysis for lossy cable in other conditions
Following conditions are dispersion phenomenon, which signal arrives at the end of
transmission line distorted. Dispersion can be a problem if the lines are very long and
just a small difference in phase velocity can result in significant difference in
propagation delay. The values of length, L and C we set to run MODELICA are the
same as RG58 cable.

Figure 5.22, Result from MODELICA when R=0.5 and G is negligible (x:Voltage, y:Time)

When R is not very small and neglects the value of G, this kind of loss is result from
the skin effect. This causes sharp edged pulses to become rounded and distorted. We
71

can find that the attenuation is very slight in this condition since the output signal
finally arrive 1V in the end.

Figure 5.23, Simulation result from MODELICA when R=0.5 and G=0.00005 (x:Voltage, y:Time)

When conductance is added, the line has significant losses even the value of G is very
small since it has both skin-effect losses and dielectric losses. The contribution of
addition conductance to the losses is very obvious. The output signal does not overlap
the input signal at the end. And it also has the dispersion phenomenon.

Figure 5.24, Simulation result from MODELICA when R=0.05 and G=0.0002 (x:Voltage, y:Time)

In this case, the cable has both resistor and conductor components, and the value of
conductor is a little bigger than the former conditions, but the waves have a huge
difference with the former conditions. The former condition waves increase gradually,
then stop at some point and propagate smoothly. In this condition, the waves decrease
gradually, then stop at some point and propagate smoothly. Even the value of
resistance is less than the former conditions, it has more losses. It reveals that the
dielectric losses influence the attenuation more easily.

72

6 CONCLUSION
At first, comparing the results from modeling simulation between MATLAB and
OpenModelica we have shown in previous parts, they are very closed to each other
separately. And we achieve our goals and requirements on studying on the
propagation time of the voltage waves, the signal amplitudes and reflections in the
coaxial cables. Thus, we can say the project has been finished properly as the
behaviors shown by the modeling from two types of software and theoretical answers
are essentially the same.
Secondly, about convenience and time used. The way that MATLAB and Simulink
model the cable is more complicated when compared with MODELICA.
In MATLAB and Simulink, we need to first solve the transmission line circuit and
find the matrix of ABC-model. But in MODELICA, we can connect the components
to form the circuit and plot the figure which describe the performance of wave in
different components, which is a more simple and convenient than MATLAB. Though
the results MODELICA achieved is not exactly the same as the results from
MATLAB, the difference between them is very tiny and normally we can neglect it.
So the precision of MODELICA is reliable.
For the time the software took to run the simulation, e.g. when we modeled the
lossless cable terminated in open-circuit. MATLAB took 13.948832 seconds to run
the program, while OpenModelica took 5 minutes and 34.7 seconds to process the
model. It is very obvious that OpenModelica spent much more time on running the
program than MATLAB. Even though, as what we discussed before, it also took much
time for us on calculating the ABC matrices, making simulink and typing the code to
build models when we applied MATLAB. So we can regard the time MATLAB and
OPENMODELICA spend are similar.
Since a cable consists of a high number of lumped elements, we need to set the
number of element in these two kinds of software. We can set the number up to 1000
for MATLAB, while it will be hard for computer to run the program when the number
is set beyond 250 for MODELICA. MODELICA is a very new modeling language
and it is just developed recently, who still has a great room to improve.
For the version OpenModelica-1.8.0, it can only run 12 elements as maximum,
whereas for the latest version which was issued 6 months later, it can run up to 250
elements. We think the developers will make it more and more in the future.
Price is also very important for users. For the official price of MATLAB & Simulink
Student Version is 89 USD while OpenModelica is totally free and all things that we
mentioned before, OpenModelica is a software that worthy looking forward to.
In our thesis project, we only study on a special transmission line: coaxial cable with
short length. But when the lines have long distance especially the bus structure and a
higher frequency signal line with large intensity, crosstalk may occur. In addition,
73

since there are various kinds of transmission line as what we have mentioned in
Background part, all of which have distinct features to separate with each other, as
well as some other common one which are also proverbially applied such as 3 -phase
transmission lines.

74

REFERENCE
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]

[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]
[16]
[17]
[18]
[19]
[20]
[21]

Wikipedia, Coaxial cable


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coaxial_cable
Glenn Elmore, Introduction to the Propagation Wave on a Single Conductor,
Corridor System Inc., 20090727.
Tech-FAQ, RG-58
http://www.tech-faq.com/rg-58.html
Tech-FAQ, RG-59
http://www.tech-faq.com/rg-59.html
Tom Gresham, History of Matlab, eHow Contributor, June 29, 2011
http://www.ehow.com/info_8665330_history-matlab.html
Rob Schreiber, MATLAB, Scholarpedia, 2007
http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/MATLAB
Peter Fritzson, Principles of object-Oriented Modeling and Simulation with
Modelica 2.1, ISBN-0-471-47163-1, February 2004, Wiley-IEEE Press
Wikipedia, Modelica
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modelica
Peter Fritzson, Introduction to Modelica, September 3, 2001
Peter Fritzson, Peter Aronsson, Hkan Lundvall, Kaj Nystrm, Adrian Pop,
Levon Saldamli, David Broman, The OpenModelica Modeling, Simulation
and Development Environment, Linking University, Computer Science Dept.
Wikipedia, Transmission line
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transmission_line
Prof.Dr.Sandro M.Radicella, Pro.Dr.Ryszard Struzak, Radio Laboratory
Handbook 2004, chapter 2: Transmission Line
Transmission line analysis for a coaxial system
http://www.rfcables.org/articles/14.html
Wikipedia, Electrical resistance and conductance
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Electrical_resistance_and_conductance
Wikipedia, Telegraphers equation
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telegrapher's_equations
P.Coiner, Calculating the Propagation delay of coaxial cable, S&M
department, 20110125
Wikipedia, Wave propagation speed
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wave_propagation_speed
Electrical Characteristics of Transmission lines, 20060126
Wikipedia, Reflections of signals on conducting lines
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_space_(controls)
Wikipedia, Reflection coefficient
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reflection_coefficient
Wikipedia, Standing wave ratio
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standing_wave_ratio
75

[22]
[23]
[24]
[25]
[26]
[27]
[28]
[29]
[30]
[31]
[32]

[33]

[34]
[35]

[36]

[37]
[38]

VSWR, Reflection coefficient, Return loss, s11/s22, Signal Processing


Group Inc., Technical memorandumRF-0909
Wikipedia, Kirchhoffs laws
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kirchhoff's_circuit_laws
Wikipedia, State space (controls)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_space_(controls)
Matlab, Mathworks
http://www.mathworks.se/products/matlab/
Simulink, Mathworks
http://www.mathworks.se/products/simulink/
Wikipedia, Modelica
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modelica
OpenModelica
http://www.openmodelica.org/
Wikipedia, Propagation constant
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Propagation_constant
Wikipedia, Heaviside condition
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heaviside_condition
Murray Thompson, Transmission Lines, Physics 623, Sept. 1,1999.
H. Riege, HIGH-FREQUENCY AND PULSE RESPONSE OF COAXIAL
TRANSMISSION CABLES WITH CONDUCTOR, DIELECTRIC AND
SEMICONDUCTOR LOSSES, European organization for nuclear research,
Proton Synchrotron Department, 4 Feb, 1970
P. Fonseca, A.C.F. Santos and E.C. Montenegro, A very simple way to
measure coaxial cable impedance, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do
Rio de Janeiro
Transmission lines, University of Liverpool, PHYS370- Advanced
Electromagnetism
Mohazzab JAVED, Hussain AFTAB, Muhammad QASIM, Mohsin SATTAR,
RLC Circuit Response and Analysis (Using State Space Method), IJCSNS
International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, VOL.8 NO.4,
April 2008
Eric Bogatin, Mike Resso, Steve Corey, Practical Characterization and
Analysis of Lossy Transmission Lines, DesignCon 2001, 2002 Agilent
Technologies, Inc.
Richard Fitzpatrick, Oscillations and Waves, Professor of Physics, The
Univeristy of Texas at Austin
MATLAB Reference Guide, COPYRIGHT 1984-93 by The MathWorks,
October 1992

76

APPENDICES
Matlab file to model lossless RG58 cable terminated in open-circuit
clear all
close all

n=200;
CC=(101e-12)*100/n;
L=(252e-9)*100/n;
R=50;
A=zeros((2*n),(2*n));
B=zeros((2*n),1);
C=zeros(1,(2*n));
B((n+1),1)=1/L;
C(1,n)=1;
D=0;

for i=1:n;
A(i,(i+n))=1/CC;
A((i+n),i)=-1/L;
end;

for i=1:(n-1);
A(i,(i+n+1))=-1/CC;
A((i+n+1),i)=1/L;
end;
A((n+1),(n+1))=-R/L;

C0=zeros(1,2*n);
C0(1,1)=1;

sim('short',0.000002);
figure(1)
plot(time,u0,'r');
hold on
plot(time,u1,'g');
grid on,title('open circuit');
xlabel('time(s)');
ylabel('voltage(V)');
legend('input signal','output signal');

Matlab file to model lossless RG58 cable terminated in matched load:


clear all

77

close all

n=200;
CC=(101e-12)*100/n;
L=(252e-9)*100/n;
R=50;
A=zeros((2*n),(2*n));
B=zeros((2*n),1);
C=zeros(1,(2*n));
B((n+1),1)=1/L;
C(1,n)=1;
D=0;

for i=1:n;
A(i,(i+n))=1/CC;
A((i+n),i)=-1/L;
end;

for i=1:(n-1);
A(i,(i+n+1))=-1/CC;
A((i+n+1),i)=1/L;
end;
A(n,n)=-1/(R*CC);
A((n+1),(n+1))=-R/L;

C0=zeros(1,2*n);
C0(1,1)=1;

sim('short',0.000002);
figure(1)
plot(time,u0,'r');
hold on
plot(time,u1,'g');
grid on,title('matched circuit');
xlabel('time(s)');
ylabel('voltage(V)');
legend('input signal','output signal');

Matlab file to model lossless RG58 cable terminated in short-circuit:


clear all
close all

n=200;

78

CC=(101e-12)*100/n;
L=(252e-9)*100/n;
R=50;
A=zeros((2*n+1),(2*n+1));
B=zeros((2*n+1),1);
C=zeros(1,(2*n+1));
B((n+1),1)=1/L;
C(1,n)=1;
D=0;

for i=1:n;
A(i,i+n)=1/CC;
A(i,i+n+1)=-1/CC;
A(i+n,i)=-1/L;
A(i+n+1,i)=1/L;
end;

A((n+1),(n+1))=-R/L;

C0=zeros(1,2*n+1);
C0(1,1)=1;

sim('short',2e-6);
figure(1)
plot(time,u0,'r');
hold on
plot(time,u1,'g');
grid on,title('short circuit');
xlabel('time(s)');
ylabel('voltage(V)');
legend('input signal','output signal');

Matlab file to model a RG58 cable terminated in matched load


clear all
close all

n=200;
CC=(101e-12)*100/n;
L=(252e-9)*100/n;
R=50;
A=zeros((2*n),(2*n));
B=zeros((2*n),1);
C=zeros(1,(2*n));

79

B((n+1),1)=1/L;
C(1,n)=1;
D=0;

for i=1:n;
A(i,(i+n))=1/CC;
A((i+n),i)=-1/L;
end;

for i=1:(n-1);
A(i,(i+n+1))=-1/CC;
A((i+n+1),i)=1/L;
end;
A(n,n)=-1/(R*CC);
A((n+1),(n+1))=-R/L;

C0=zeros(1,2*n);
C0(1,1)=1;

sim('short',0.000002);
figure(1)
plot(time,u0,'r');
hold on
plot(time,u1,'g');
grid on,title('matched circuit');
xlabel('time(s)');
ylabel('voltage(V)');
legend('input signal','output signal');

Matlab file to model a circuit which RG58 cable connected with RG59 cable:
clc
clear all
close all
n=400;
A=zeros(2*n,2*n);

CC1=(101e-12)*100/n*2;
L1=(252e-9)*100/n*2;
CC2=(67e-12)*25/n*2;
L2=(376e-9)*25/n*2;
R=50;

for i=1:1:(n/2-1);

80

A(i,i+n/2+1)=-1/CC1;
end;
for i=1:1:n/2;
A(i,i+n/2)=1/CC1;
end;
for i=(n/2+1):1:n;
A(i,i-n/2)=-1/L1;
end;
for i=(n/2+2):1:n;
A(i,i-n/2-1)=1/L1;
end;
for i=(n+1):1:(3*n/2-1);
A(i,i+n/2+1)=-1/CC2;
end;
for i=(n+1):1:3*n/2;
A(i,i+n/2)=1/CC2;
end;
for i=(3*n/2+1):1:2*n;
A(i,i-n/2)=-1/L2;
end;
for i=(3*n/2+2):1:2*n;
A(i,i-n/2-1)=1/L2;
end;
A((n/2+1),(n/2+1))=-R/L1;
A(n/2,(3*n/2+1))=-1/CC1;
A((3*n/2+1),n/2)=1/L2;
B=zeros(2*n,1);
B((n/2+1),1)=1/L1;

C0=zeros(1,2*n);
C0(1,1)=1;

C1=zeros(1,2*n);
C1(1,n/2)=1;

C2=zeros(1,2*n);
C2(1,3*n/2)=1;

D=0;

clear CC1
clear CC2
clear L1
clear L2

81

clear R
clear i
clear n

sim('coax',2e-6);
figure(1)
plot(time,input,'r');
hold on
plot(time,y1,'g');
plot(time,y2,'b');
grid on,title('two coaxial cable');
xlabel('time(s)');
ylabel('voltage(V)');
legend('input signal','signal at middele','output signal');

Matlab file to model a lossy cable:


clear all
close all

n=100;
CC=(101e-12)*100/n;
L=(252e-9)*100/n;
R=50;
R1=252e-6*100/n;
G=101e-8*100/n;
A=zeros((2*n),(2*n));
B=zeros((2*n),1);
C=zeros(1,(2*n));
B((n+1),1)=1/L;
C(1,n)=1;
D=0;

for i=1:n;
A(i,i)=-G/CC;
A(i,(n+i))=1/CC;
A((i+n),i)=-1/L;
end;

for i=1:(n-1);
A(i,(i+n+1))=-1/CC;
A((i+n+1),i)=1/L;
end;

82

for i=(n+2):2*n;
A(i,i)=-R1/L;
end;
A((n+1),(n+1))=-(R+R1)/L;

C0=zeros(1,2*n);
C0(1,1)=1;

sim('endwith',0.000006);
figure(1)
plot(time,u0,'r');
hold on
plot(time,u1,'b');
grid on,title('lossy cable');
grid on,title('lossy cable');
xlabel('time(s)');
ylabel('voltage(V)');
legend('input signal','output signal');

MODELICA notebook to model lossless RG58 cable terminated in open-circuit

model coaxcable
Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Lines.OLine oline1(r = 0, l = 2.52e-007, g = 0, c = 1.01e-010,
length = 100, N = 199)
annotation(Placement(visible = true, transformation(origin = {13.0751,50.3632}, extent =
{{-12,-12},{12,12}}, rotation = 0)));
Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Basic.Resistor resistor1(R = 50) annotation(Placement(visible
= true, transformation(origin = {-38.2567,50.8475}, extent = {{-12,-12},{12,12}}, rotation
= 0)));
Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Basic.Ground ground1 annotation(Placement(visible = true,
transformation(origin = {-72.6392,-39.7094}, extent = {{-12,-12},{12,12}}, rotation = 0)));

83

Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Sources.StepVoltage stepvoltage1(V = 1)
annotation(Placement(visible = true, transformation(origin = {-72.6392,11.6223}, extent
= {{-12,12},{12,-12}}, rotation = -90)));
Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Basic.Capacitor capacitor1(C = 1.01e-010)
annotation(Placement(visible = true, transformation(origin = {60.5327,11.138}, extent =
{{-12,12},{12,-12}}, rotation = -90)));
equation
connect(oline1.p3,ground1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{13.0751,38.3632},{13.5593,38.3632},{13.5593,-28.5714},{-72.6392,-28.5714},{-72.6392,
-27.7094}}));
connect(capacitor1.n,ground1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{60.5327,-0.861985},{61.0169,-0.861985},{61.0169,-28.5714},{-72.6392,-28.5714},{-72.6
392,-27.7094}}));
connect(oline1.p2,capacitor1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{25.0751,50.3632},{61.0169,50.3632},{61.0169,23.138},{60.5327,23.138}}));
connect(resistor1.n,oline1.p1) annotation(Line(points =
{{-26.2567,50.8475},{0.484262,50.8475},{0.484262,50.3632},{1.07506,50.3632}}));
connect(stepvoltage1.n,ground1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{-72.6392,-0.377724},{-72.6392,-0.377724},{-72.6392,-27.7094},{-72.6392,-27.7094}}));
connect(resistor1.p,stepvoltage1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{-50.2567,50.8475},{-73.1235,50.8475},{-73.1235,23.6223},{-72.6392,23.6223}}));
end coaxcable;

MODELICA notebook to model lossless RG58 cable terminated in short-circuit:

model short
Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Basic.Ground ground1 annotation(Placement(visible = true,
transformation(origin = {-84.058,-63.7681}, extent = {{-12,-12},{12,12}}, rotation = 0)));
Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Basic.Resistor resistor1(R = 50) annotation(Placement(visible
= true, transformation(origin = {-52.657,36.715}, extent = {{-12,-12},{12,12}}, rotation
= 0)));

84

Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Lines.OLine oline1(r = 0, l = 2.52e-007, g = 0, c = 1.01e-010,


length = 100, N = 199) annotation(Placement(visible = true, transformation(origin =
{-2.41546,36.715}, extent = {{-12,-12},{12,12}}, rotation = 0)));
Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Basic.Capacitor capacitor1(C = 1.01e-010)
annotation(Placement(visible = true, transformation(origin = {28.9855,-8.21256}, extent
= {{-12,12},{12,-12}}, rotation = -90)));
Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Sources.StepVoltage stepvoltage1(V = 1)
annotation(Placement(visible = true, transformation(origin = {-84.058,-6.28019}, extent
= {{-12,12},{12,-12}}, rotation = -90)));
equation
connect(stepvoltage1.p,resistor1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{-84.058,5.71981},{-84.058,5.71981},{-84.058,37.1981},{-64.657,37.1981},{-64.657,36.7
15}}));
connect(stepvoltage1.n,ground1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{-84.058,-18.2802},{-84.058,-18.2802},{-84.058,-51.7681},{-84.058,-51.7681}}));
connect(oline1.p2,ground1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{9.58454,36.715},{67.6329,36.715},{67.6329,-52.657},{-84.058,-52.657},{-84.058,-51.76
81},{-84.058,-51.7681}}));
connect(capacitor1.n,ground1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{28.9855,-20.2126},{28.9855,-20.2126},{28.9855,-52.1739},{-84.058,-52.1739},{-84.058,
-51.7681}}));
connect(oline1.p2,capacitor1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{9.58454,36.715},{29.4686,36.715},{29.4686,3.78744},{28.9855,3.78744}}));
connect(oline1.p3,ground1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{-2.41546,24.715},{-2.41546,24.715},{-2.41546,-51.6908},{-84.058,-51.6908},{-84.058,51.7681}}));
connect(resistor1.n,oline1.p1) annotation(Line(points =
{{-40.657,36.715},{-14.4928,36.715},{-14.4928,36.715},{-14.4155,36.715}}));
end short;

MODELICA notebook to model a RG58 cable terminated in matched load

85

model matched
Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Basic.Ground ground1 annotation(Placement(visible = true,
transformation(origin = {-81.6425,-59.4203}, extent = {{-12,-12},{12,12}}, rotation = 0)));
Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Basic.Resistor resistor1(R = 50) annotation(Placement(visible
= true, transformation(origin = {-54.5894,28.5024}, extent = {{-12,-12},{12,12}}, rotation
= 0)));
Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Lines.OLine oline1(r = 0, l = 2.52e-007, g = 0, c = 1.01e-010,
length = 100, N = 199) annotation(Placement(visible = true, transformation(origin =
{-16.9082,28.5024}, extent = {{-12,-12},{12,12}}, rotation = 0)));
Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Sources.StepVoltage stepvoltage1(V = 1)
annotation(Placement(visible = true, transformation(origin = {-82.1256,-12.5604}, extent
= {{-12,12},{12,-12}}, rotation = -90)));
Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Basic.Capacitor capacitor1(C = 1.01e-010)
annotation(Placement(visible = true, transformation(origin = {12.0773,-7.24638}, extent
= {{-12,12},{12,-12}}, rotation = -90)));
Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Basic.Resistor resistor2(R = 50) annotation(Placement(visible
= true, transformation(origin = {46.8599,-4.34783}, extent = {{-12,12},{12,-12}}, rotation
= -90)));
equation
connect(resistor2.n,ground1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{46.8599,-16.3478},{45.8937,-16.3478},{45.8937,-47.343},{-81.6425,-47.343},{-81.6425,
-47.4203}}));
connect(oline1.p2,resistor2.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{-4.90821,28.5024},{47.343,28.5024},{47.343,7.65217},{46.8599,7.65217}}));
connect(capacitor1.n,ground1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{12.0773,-19.2464},{12.0773,-19.2464},{12.0773,-46.8599},{-81.6425,-46.8599},{-81.642
5,-47.4203}}));
connect(oline1.p2,capacitor1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{-4.90821,28.5024},{12.0773,28.5024},{12.0773,4.75362},{12.0773,4.75362}}));

86

connect(oline1.p3,ground1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{-16.9082,16.5024},{-16.4251,16.5024},{-16.4251,-47.343},{-81.6425,-47.343},{-81.6425
,-47.4203}}));
connect(resistor1.n,oline1.p1) annotation(Line(points =
{{-42.5894,28.5024},{-30.4348,28.5024},{-30.4348,28.5024},{-28.9082,28.5024}}));
connect(stepvoltage1.p,resistor1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{-82.1256,-0.560386},{-82.1256,-0.560386},{-82.1256,28.5024},{-66.5894,28.5024},{-66.
5894,28.5024}}));
connect(stepvoltage1.n,ground1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{-82.1256,-24.5604},{-81.6425,-24.5604},{-81.6425,-47.4203},{-81.6425,-47.4203}}));
end matched;

MODELICA notebook to model a circuit which RG58 cable connected with


RG59 cable:

model bicoax
Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Basic.Resistor resistor1(R = 50) annotation(Placement(visible
= true, transformation(origin = {-45.0363,36.3196}, extent = {{-12,-12},{12,12}}, rotation
= 0)));
Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Lines.OLine oline1(r = 0, l = 2.52e-007, g = 0, c = 1.01e-010,
length = 100, N = 199) annotation(Placement(visible = true, transformation(origin =
{-5.32688,35.8354}, extent = {{-12,-12},{12,12}}, rotation = 0)));
Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Lines.OLine oline2(r = 0, l = 3.76e-007, g = 0, c = 6.7e-011,
length = 25, N = 199) annotation(Placement(visible = true, transformation(origin =
{53.2688,35.3511}, extent = {{-12,-12},{12,12}}, rotation = 0)));

87

Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Basic.Ground ground1 annotation(Placement(visible = true,


transformation(origin = {-77.4818,-47.9419}, extent = {{-12,-12},{12,12}}, rotation = 0)));
Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Sources.StepVoltage stepvoltage1(V = 1)
annotation(Placement(visible = true, transformation(origin = {-77.9661,-8.88178e-016},
extent = {{-12,12},{12,-12}}, rotation = -90)));
Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Basic.Capacitor capacitor2(C = 1.01e-010)
annotation(Placement(visible = true, transformation(origin = {21.3075,-2.66454e-015},
extent = {{-12,12},{12,-12}}, rotation = -90)));
Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Basic.Capacitor capacitor1(C = 6.7e-011)
annotation(Placement(visible = true, transformation(origin = {79.4189,0.968523}, extent
= {{-12,12},{12,-12}}, rotation = -90)));
equation
connect(capacitor1.n,ground1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{79.4189,-11.0315},{78.9346,-11.0315},{78.9346,-35.8354},{-77.4818,-35.8354},{-77.481
8,-35.9419}}));
connect(oline2.p3,ground1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{53.2688,23.3511},{53.753,23.3511},{53.753,-35.8354},{-77.4818,-35.8354},{-77.4818,-3
5.9419}}));
connect(capacitor2.n,ground1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{21.3075,-12},{21.7918,-12},{21.7918,-35.8354},{-77.4818,-35.8354},{-77.4818,-35.9419
}}));
connect(oline1.p3,ground1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{-5.32688,23.8354},{-4.84262,23.8354},{-4.84262,-35.8354},{-77.4818,-35.8354},{-77.48
18,-35.9419}}));
connect(stepvoltage1.n,ground1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{-77.9661,-12},{-77.4818,-12},{-77.4818,-35.9419},{-77.4818,-35.9419}}));
connect(oline2.p2,capacitor1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{65.2688,35.3511},{79.9031,35.3511},{79.9031,12.9685},{79.4189,12.9685}}));
connect(oline1.p2,oline2.p1) annotation(Line(points =
{{6.67312,35.8354},{41.1622,35.8354},{41.1622,35.3511},{41.2688,35.3511}}));
connect(oline1.p2,capacitor2.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{6.67312,35.8354},{21.3075,35.8354},{21.3075,12},{21.3075,12}}));
connect(resistor1.n,oline1.p1) annotation(Line(points =
{{-33.0363,36.3196},{-8.23245,36.3196},{-8.23245,35.8354},{-17.3269,35.8354}}));
connect(resistor1.p,stepvoltage1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{-57.0363,36.3196},{-77.4818,36.3196},{-77.4818,12},{-77.9661,12}}));
end bicoax;

MODELICA notebook to model a lossy cable:

88

model lossy
Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Basic.Ground ground1 annotation(Placement(visible = true,
transformation(origin = {-73.6077,-43.0993}, extent = {{-12,-12},{12,12}}, rotation = 0)));
Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Basic.Resistor resistor1(R = 50) annotation(Placement(visible
= true, transformation(origin = {-44.0678,49.8789}, extent = {{-12,-12},{12,12}}, rotation
= 0)));
Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Lines.OLine oline1(r = 0.005, l = 2.52e-007, g = 2e-006, c =
1.01e-010, length = 100, N = 199) annotation(Placement(visible = true, transformation(origin
= {2.90557,49.8789}, extent = {{-12,-12},{12,12}}, rotation = 0)));
Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Sources.StepVoltage stepvoltage1(V = 1)
annotation(Placement(visible = true, transformation(origin = {-74.092,8.71671}, extent =
{{-12,12},{12,-12}}, rotation = -90)));
Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Basic.Capacitor capacitor1(C = 1.01e-010)
annotation(Placement(visible = true, transformation(origin = {44.0678,20.339}, extent =
{{-12,12},{12,-12}}, rotation = -90)));
Modelica.Electrical.Analog.Basic.Conductor conductor1(G = 2e-006)
annotation(Placement(visible = true, transformation(origin = {72.6392,20.339}, extent =
{{-12,12},{12,-12}}, rotation = -90)));
equation
connect(conductor1.n,ground1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{72.6392,8.33898},{72.6392,8.33898},{72.6392,-31.477},{-73.6077,-31.477},{-73.6077,-3
1.0993}}));
connect(capacitor1.n,ground1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{44.0678,8.33898},{44.0678,8.33898},{44.0678,-31.9613},{-73.6077,-31.9613},{-73.6077,
-31.0993}}));
connect(oline1.p2,conductor1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{14.9056,49.8789},{72.6392,49.8789},{72.6392,32.339},{72.6392,32.339}}));

89

connect(oline1.p3,ground1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{2.90557,37.8789},{3.38983,37.8789},{3.38983,-31.477},{-73.6077,-31.477},{-73.6077,-3
1.0993}}));
connect(oline1.p2,capacitor1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{14.9056,49.8789},{44.0678,49.8789},{44.0678,32.339},{44.0678,32.339}}));
connect(resistor1.n,oline1.p1) annotation(Line(points =
{{-32.0678,49.8789},{-9.20097,49.8789},{-9.20097,49.8789},{-9.09443,49.8789}}));
connect(resistor1.p,stepvoltage1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{-56.0678,49.8789},{-74.092,49.8789},{-74.092,20.7167},{-74.092,20.7167}}));
connect(stepvoltage1.n,ground1.p) annotation(Line(points =
{{-74.092,-3.28329},{-73.6077,-3.28329},{-73.6077,-31.0993},{-73.6077,-31.0993}}));
end lossy;

90