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AN APPRECIATION OF SUKHOTHAI ART

ProFessor SiIpa Bhirasri

PUBLISHED BY

THE FINE ARTS DEPARTMENT
BANGKOK, T HAILAND
R.E. 2516

14

n. A. 2552

and graduated from the Royal Academy of Art of Florence. He also initiated the Bankok annual art . S N First 13~1 &11£. Professor Bhirasri devoted himself for over thirty years to the study of Thai art and is universally acknowledged as an authority. and his friends in Thailand.3 Edition 1962 Second Edition 1968 Third Edition 1973 C>~ Printed by K.r"••••na Pre••• Mr.. . AB Dean of the Faculties of Sculpture and Painting. He has to his credit a multitude of outstanding works chiefly in bronze such as the statue of King Yodfah at the Memorial Bridge and that of King Vajiravudh at Lumpini Park. and the Dushdi Mala medal. หอสมุดกลาง ก ั น ำ ส He died in Bangkok on May 14. modelling. etc. Professor Bhirasri will always retain an honored place in the affections of his many students. He did much to introduce Thai art to the world by writing extensively and with insight on the subject and by organizing a warmly received exhibition of Thai painting. Italy. Publi8h~r. Tipayanetr.exhibition. He entered the Thai Government service (Fine Arts Department) in 1924. in London in 1947. 1962 at the age of seventy. FerocO was born in Florence. In honor of his accomplishments and his service to Thai art he was awarded the Knight Grand Cross (First Class) of the Most Noble Order of the Crown of Thailand. Fine Arts University.Professor SiJpa Bhirasri (6.55 1111. he was the mainstay and livewire of art study in Thailand. P. bronze casting..

The Sukhothai period was the golden age of Thailand and the determining factors were national independence and religion. Indonesia. It is an immense production of many different styles. Thailand. one may better understand their greatest artistic creation. as it is now. No free people of the past have been ethically united without a common belief.AN APPRECIATION OF SUKHOTHAI ART Every important civilization bas a golden age when material. the Sukhothai image of the Lord Buddha. the image is a translation of a classic and honored specimen. The creation of a new style is possible only under special circumstances such as those prevailing in Sukhothai. Over a period of two thousand years in the Buddhist countries of India.nical forms and the sculptor's subtle modelling to rpveal the inward quality which IiTOUses our aesthetic and emotional feeling. In any image representing a super-human or divine figure there should be a sensitively balanced relation­ ship between the anato. for the Thai this belief was. ม ส ุดกลาง อ ห ก ั น ำ ส If one understands that the Thai embraced Hina­ yana Buddhism because they felt the doctrine of this doctrine in their own hearts. Ceylon. Japan and Tibet millions of Buddhist images have been made in any material that can be moulded or carved. intellectual and spiritual progress simul­ taneously reach a high level. ~3- . Indochina. It was this doctrine of the Buddha which met their spiritual needs and which they chose over the Mahayana Buddhism and Hinduism of the previous Khmer rulers. that of Hinayana Buddhism. As a rule. yet one will find that very few of these statues represent an individual interpretation of the figure of the Teacher. Burma.

<. or. the majority of statues in India. Sukhothai bronze sculpture is quite different from any stone model. When Hinduism arose again to be the dominating spiritual power of India its philosophy and literature inspired artists to conceive many gods and demi-gods in their various cosmic forms. with brick powder mixed with plaster of Paris. There was a great indivi­ dual demand for statuettes of these figures with the result that the art of bronze casting became very important south India anel.ociation of it with one's faith. On the other hand.It is possihle. First. in some measure. Pallava style. The figure i" then covered by various coats of sand and clay. Indonesia and Indochina were executed in stone. In Thailand. a heavy coat of wax is applied and modelled to bring out the form and the details. its true beauty brings out a spirituality that can be felt by all and is irrespective of religious creed. 10 The technique of bronze casting dictates certain style peculiarities. in the case of the Sukhothai image.images were few in number and imitated stone prototypes. but they still retain the peculiarity of the Gupta or post Gupta. as in Europe. However. Until the 12th century. When this is dry. หอสมุดกลาง ก ั น ำ ส Bronze . for example. in Ceylon. of course. almost all images of the Northern or Chiengsaen style are in bronze. The prepared model is 4 . that one may be inspired by a statue of poor proportions and crude workmanship by the as. a model of clay mixed with sand is prepared.

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simplified and idealized. This is the process khown as "cire perdu" or "lost wax". the wax melts and runs out from a special tube in the lower part of the mould. The Sukhothai images of the Buddha. whether sitting. The human forms. the Buddha belonged more to the sphere of Nirvana than to the Earth and therefore the Thai conceived an image in which this ethereal quality is perfectly realized. The technique of developing sculptural form by modelling the soft wax over the clay core permits subtly flowing masses and delicate. Yet this spirituality does not destroy the sculptural qualities of the statues. walking or reclining all have a particular undulating and soaring character which seems to render immaterial the heavy bronze of which they are made. This had not always been the case in the past. the muscles are relaxed. metal is poured into the mould and fills the space vacated by the melted wax. We feel that in some statues -5­ . The body is in com­ plete rest.baked. Then. and the face is serene with a faint smile reflecting a state of deep inward contentment. After His Enlightenment. are exquisitely modelled and there is no disharmony between the abstract idea and its material realization. sinuous lines far different from the style produced by a direct carving of resistant stone. หอสมุดกลาง ก ั น ำ ส The Conception A typical Sukhothai image represents the Gautama Buddha after His Enlightenment.

The representation of the image of the Buddha is. in fact. and 2. undulating lines of the mouth and the base of the nose and eyes emphasize this spirituality. the sculptural volumes appear too heavy to convincingly portray a transcendental and sacred figure. but one day I asked her what she felt in beholding the image.of the Gupta period. -6­ . This is the spiritual power of Sukhothai art. Their creations seem to master the tumult of human passions. a complex problem. Thus in con­ ceiving an image of the Buddha the artist must portray through the use of human forms a being who is removed from earthly matters. delicate. Mere tecbnique and artistic qualities are not sufficient because it is the essence of the Buddhist doctrine that the sculptural forms must convey. not the physical form of the Teacher which inspires the image. I am reminded of an episode which occurred during the second World War. One may note. and the faint smile tells us of hap­ piness and peace gained by subduing the earthly and primordial instincts. used to come to my house and remain in silence a few minutes before a head of a Buddha of the Sukhothai period. ม ส ุดกลาง อ ห ก ั น ำ ส The old sculptors of Sukhothai did solve this dilemma. She said that the serenity of that face was such as to restore her peace of mind. that the parallel. See comparative figures 1. An elderly lady. very much worried because her two sons were fighting in Europe. Indeed it is the Doctrine. technically. I did not dare to disturb the lady in her medi­ tation.

These peculiarities are particularly noticeablefrom the exaggera­ tion of the curve of the overlapped legs. and from the even length of the fi ngers of the hands. . 5 The bronze Buddha Phra Jinaraj in Phisanulok. late 15th century. having the characteristics of the late Sukhothai art.หอสมุดกลาง ก ั น ำ ส F ig. the lesser spiritual expression.

too strict fidelity of the old artists to the writlrtl iamography of Buddha's physical characteristics. slich ernj>/zasis was purposely made by the artist to g ive mol' roundness to the chest of the gu. 7 By cumparing the photagraph of thi statue lakt!ll m profile with that taken in front the exaggeration of I he attach­ tne1lt of the right arm is noticeable. . From the profile i.หอสมุดกลาง ก ั น ำ ส Fig. seell the emphasis of the j)rojecting heels due to a.re vheu it was se II from the f rontal angle because originally the statue "as p laced 17llo a niche and for this reason 'Was meant to be seen from the front only.

A. 14th century. Outline of the Sukhothai sitting images. -7­ . Ornament termed Lai Kanok. C. From a votive tablet of the Sukhoth ai period. B.หอสมุดกลาง ก ั น ำ ส Fig. 6 Diagram showing the universal undulating and soaring sense of the Thai art.

The representation of the walking Buddha had a special appeal for the artists of Sukhothai and they succeeded in creating several masterpieces of this type. in particular. The body has a graceful undulation. as for example. the sales are flat and the heels protrude markedly. are mo­ delled with a grace and elegance. The Sukhothai artist was perfectly capable of modelling any part of the human body in its normal proportions. Each detail. but with pious veneration. The hands. 5. that with a graceful gesture of the fingers symbolizing the turning of the Wheel of the Law. and the hanging arm rhythmically . the trunk swinging slightly to the side. The head is shaped like a lotus bud.following this curve. หอสมุดกลาง ก ั น ำ ส The toes on the wal king images are also of equal length. like the Phra Buddha linaraj in Phitsanulok. One should notice that in some images of the 15th century. and the neck spreading at its base merges harmo­ niously into the shoulder. Some of these statues have such a delicacy that they appear somewhat f('minine. These and other characteristics often appear exaggerated or even unaesthetic to some people. the Teacher is advancing to announce the Doctrine. This again is due to the veneration of the artist and his interpretation of a -8­ . When we behold a fine example of this image we have the impression of movement. fig. the delicate outline of the lobes of the ears which curve a little outwards serves to emphasize the harmony of the whole composition. he preferred to follow the ancient descriptions of the Lord Buddha's super-human appearance. lhe fingers of the hand are of equal length.

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It Large Buddha image at Sawankalok modelled in stucco. . The conventional posture of the walking Buddha is to be found in statues made in bronze and stucco as well as in round and bas-reliefs.หอสมุดกลาง ก ั น ำ ส Ing.

Should the statue be enshrined in a niche and placed somewhat higher than at present we would enjoy its extreme spiritual beauty according to its creator's conception. statues of Hindu Gods were also cast in Sukhothai. Fig. But now most of these statues have been หอสมุดกลาง ก ั น ำ ส removtcu from their original place and put here and there without consideration for the proper height. the large statue of the walking Buddha in Wat Benjamabophitr in Bangkok is one of the most spiritual and most exquisitely modellcd images of Thai art. It has always been the custom. Besides Buddha images. heavenly world where the characteristics of sex no longer exist. In order to appreciate the fine qualities of Thai sculpture we should look at the images from the angle that their masters intcnded they be seen. and indeed when we behold it from the front its superb qualities are shown to perfection. This does not imply any compromise of religious beliefs in that period. Once Gautama had achieved Enlightenment he belonged to an abstract. from the remote past to t4e present. The majority of the large Buddha images were enshrined in niches and accordingly were meant to be viewed from a frontal angle only.transcendental figure. but when we look at the same statue in profile we notice a certain disharmony in the attachment of the right arm. For example. position and light. 7. that the Buddhist kingdoms of Southeast Asia attached Brahmins to their courts to perform royal and -9­ .

animal. Ho\\'ever. 8. some of the statues. หอสมุดกลาง ก ั น ำ ส such as that illustrated in Fig. and mythical figures or ornaments. the soft material of the wax model. Since each is essentially a modelling technique the two materials produce I similar style results. such a result could not be otherwise because the Thai. Stucco Sukhothai images of the Buddha were cast in bronze or modelled in stucco in high and low relief and in full round. It was for this reason and purpose that Hindu Gods were cast in Sukhothai. as previously remarked. By and large. mouldings were done in the same material. And. believing in Buddhism. sand. Ayudhya and even in the Bangkok period. Stucco had a great importance in Dvaravati. composed of lime. This decoration consisted of the representation of human. Architectural monuments built in laterite or brick were plastered with stucco. Khmer and Thai arts.civil ceremonies. are exceptionally beauti­ ful both for spiritual and sculptural values. and finally the exquisite decoration was modelled. and juice of 10 . found Hinduism foreign to their conception of religion. the Hindu Gods cast in Sukhothai lack that cosmic force so evident in Indian statuary. Because stucco. or the stucco responds easily to the artist's fingers and gives him a better opportunity to convey his inner feelings than would resistant stone.

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the works in stucco made centuries ago would be in good condition today. The beauty of the decoration depends on the sensitive touch of the artist. particularly to rain. The beautiful stucco images of Wat Chedi Chet Taco in Sri Satchanalai have a particular religious and aesthetic value from their refined and sensitive modell­ ing. Indeed had it not been on account of the collapse of the monuments or the unscrupulous hands of men who destroyed many monuments and images in search of valuable objects. otherwise they may be mechanical and unexpressive.sugar-cane. Fig. the most impressive masterpiece - 12­ . หอสมุดกลาง ก ั น ำ ส The size of the images modelled in stucco did not prevent the old masters from attaining very good propor­ tions of idealized human forms. but in our opinion. although the work may be corrected by the addition of more stucco. I-luge statues such as that of Wat Sapan Hin in Sukhothai and the other of the Great Relic Monastery in Sawankalok appeal both for their sculptural harmony as well as for their spirituality. hardens in a few hours the artist must be very skilled and able to execute the work quickly. stucco becomes so hard that it may stand unal­ tered for a long time. if the ornaments were done by a talented man they have a striking vitality. This did not happen in the classic period of Sukhothai. 9. The difficulty of executing large statues in stucco is so great that often the result is unpleasing or almost grotesque. Exposed to the atmospheric agents.

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is the image of the walking Buddha in high relief in a niche of the Mondop of Wat Trapangtonglang in Sukho­ thai. Fig. in beholding this statue.'Cch. the understanding of sculptural volumes composition and modelling show that these smaller figures were made by less gifted artists. - 13­ . 10. purity of action. The idealized forms are most spiritual and the image seems to be a heavenly vision walking with a divine rhythm. receive a profound and lasting impression. The artistic difference between the Buddha image and the Hindu Gods. Indra and other celestial beings in a smaller scale. The image is flanked by the figures of Brahma. Any person with aesthetic feelings should. purity of spt. This feeling cannot be otherwise because the image truly embodies the very essence of the Buddhist doctrine: purity of thought. He seems to have felt that if he modelled the feet according to the given rules it would have affected the harmony of his creation. The sculptor who made this statue did not follow to the letter the poetical description concerning the physical proportions of the Teacher. the remembrance of this masterpiece หอสมุดกลาง ก ั น ำ ส gives us a renewed sensation of serenity and purity. It is to be regretted that the head of this image has been destroyed by treasure hunters in a search for precious articles that were s0metimes placed in sacred figures or monuments.

The stone engravings illustrating the life of the Buddha and Jataka stories in vVat Sri Jum in Sukhothai are certainly connected with painting. The visitor to Wat Sri Jum will notice that the engraved stone slabs are incorporated in a random man­ ner with the walls of the Mondop.Painting It is unfortunate that with the exception of some ornamental designs the painting in Sukhothai has been completely obriterated. These paintings were faithfully reproduced two years ago on the suggestion of the Director-General of the หอสมุดกลาง ก ั น ำ ส Fine Arts Dept. This would show that they wer~ originally done for some other religious structure which was either never erected or was des­ troyed. Dhanit Yupho. but some of the figuJ. Thai painting is a two dimensional art in contrast to the three dimensional one of the West. Mr. Fua Haribitak are most valuable because few traces of the original painting remains today. As holy works these pieces were saved and fixed into the walls of Wat Sri Jum. The fine reproduc­ tions by Mr."es show a Thai feeling and from this we presume that so~ Thai artists helped with the execution of the work. They are in an Indian style and may have been done by Singhalese monks who came from Ceylon to assist the Thais with the Hinayana doctrine. and much of its beauty depends on the expressiveness of the line. 14­ . However from some fragments in Wat Checli Chet Taeo in Sri Satchanalai we may trace this art from the end of the 13th century AD.

..all Inw""~ '-<p"... !-'""".".... !'QlUI"Y.nmg in li" .""E<..un/IIIg Buddha . I ..d lerra_. p... Up"".H .--uriud by a i~'r"'<I"i".... undulating .J.'<d..' Nin...... Cull«li"" oj H .......หอสมุดกลาง ก ั น ำ ส S".ollll< .. Y"gaza ..rr ~I a 'mall "hri_ '" g/.~·.1O.d"...bha.~ /JI""..i/-.r I "" . Aho 'hi' 'p<-'cimno " .hara.

22 Pottery. The fierce peculiarities of this mythological character have been transmitted in painting. . sculpture and theatrical masks up to modern time. Head of a demon in glazed terra-cotta. These scul­ ptures served either for decorating architectural structures or for religious and animistic purposes.Fig. but still retains the characteristics of the pachyderm. Many sta­ tuettes of celestial and human figures. The small elephant with its rider on the back is rendered with simplici­ ty. demons and animals u>ere produced in the kilns of Sukhothai and Sawankalok. หอสมุดกลาง ก ั น ำ ส Fig. %8 Pottery.

. IS Detail of a mural of a small chapel tOn Wat Chedi Chet T aeo in Srisatchallalai ( Sukhothai).Fig. From this spedmen it will be noticed that while the Buddha image has already definite characteristics of the Sukhothai statuary.15­ . the figures of the worshippers still retain the peculiarities of the Indian art. End of the 18th century.หอสมุดกลาง ก ั น ำ ส .

- 16­ . A. Pnifile of a woman of Sukhothai from which it can be noticed the strict relationship with the sculptured head. B. 14 The old masters of Suklwthai were such a cute observers of nature as to depict the very characteristics of the Thai race and transmit them in their statues.หอสมุดกลาง ก ั น ำ ส Fig. H'ofile of a bronze Buddha's head.

.... r """.".. "I " J.iirl ...J."".'f/( !tow Ih..'u.I.'.hl I 14th un I. .hQw.lI"'1 /v..ill'" 11« ". "-..1 I'-"'.1 ..'u~" ........_ %1 li~ s..wi "rl...t4.1rom .'orrlll'" 'If 1M TI"" .t/4n'tT'" ""t.'~i~/lr.)." ot..หอสมุดกลาง ก ั น ำ ส 1w. .". "'' "'. ct#ft""r"lity ".')"tf""hai .. ".

and a comparative portrait of a girl from Sukhothai showing how the old masters observed nature and transmitted the very characteristics of the Thai race in their statuary. 14th cen­ tury.หอสมุดกลาง ก ั น ำ ส Buddha's head of the Sukhothai art. 25 . Fig.

The artists of Sukhothai interpreted the parti­ cular qualities. we will notice the same anatomical characteristics as in the Sukhothai statues. 14. curving out­ lines of Sukhothai sculpture and the fineness of its details correspond to the physical structure and the tempera­ ment of the Thai race. and even in the facial lineaments of some people of Sukhothai we may trace the likeness with the old bronzes. white. The images of Buddha already have the peculiarities of the Sukhothai sculpture while many of the worshippers still retain the character of Ceylonese art. The graceful. it has some - 17 . หอสมุดกลาง ก ั น ำ ส What also strikes us in the paintings of Wat Chedi Chet Taeo is the difference of style between the Buddha images and that of the other figures. and black. The engravings are sepa­ rate compositions treating the life of Buddha and stories of His previous births. Figs. 24 and 25. physical and temperamental of the Thai race in both painting and sculpture.D.Between these engravings and our oldest recorded painting in Wat Chedi Chet Taeo in Sri Satcbanalai there is a great difference in style. . One may remark that in as much as the color seheme of Sukhothai painting is a monochromatic red. If we study the Thai people in their natural surroundings. Figs. 12 and 13. This theme became universal and was repeated till the end of the 16th century A. but the painting is a repetition of seated Buddha images flanked by worshippers in super imposed horizontal bands. This observation is of some importance m the understanding of Thai art.

Indeed. since the 15th century Ayudhya also imitated the sculptural style of Sukhothai it seldom reached the standard of the classical specimens. or a desire to create a neo-classisism. Fig. this statue may be considered one of the master­ pieces of Buddhist art. หอสมุดกลาง ก ั น ำ ส In the 14 th century the images of Sukhothai inspired a more spiritual and a finer anatomical modell­ ing in the nothern sculpture. and in some instances the result of the blending of the two schools is exceptionally good. but because the artists of Sukhothai imprinted in their art the very character of the Thai people. This is not due to deliberate imitation. The great influence Sukhothai had over all other styles of Thai art may Le noticed also in the sculpture of northern Thailand and in the production of the Ayudhya period. the images cast in Ayudhya are a more or less stereotyped imitation of the classic sculp­ ture of the previous period. Pottery Pottery is characterized by form and thus is related to sculpture. and as such it will exist forever. See comparative figures 18 and 19. Although. As the sculpture of Sukhothai is a great artistic expression.of the character of sculptural relief. See comparative figs. accordingly. The -18~ . Our example is the bronze image of a seated and meditating Buddha belonging to Wat Suthat in Bangkok. The distinctive Sukhothai style has had an influence on succeeding periods even including the modern. 15. so. is the pottery. 16 and 17. In fact. with few exception!'.

while primitive. but the production of Sukhothai and Sawan­ kalok is monochromatic and its beauty relies upon the fineness of its forms. Pottery had a wide range of use. and. triangular decorations for the ends of the roof ridge. Ceramic was also much used in connection with architecture: bluish-green glazed .ceramic of Ayudhya re (trred to as Bencharong is en­ riched with many colors and is related to both sculpture and painting. glazed figurines representing elephants and other animals are rendered with charming realism. Technically. figures of lions. from the tiny ones to contain perfumes or oint­ ments to huge water jars. The glazing was excellent. a delicate blue-green or grayish green tint - 19­ . ม ส ุดกลาง อ ห ก ั น ำ ส This ware.roof tiles. etc. makara figures to decorate the lower end of the gables. and especially the vessels from the kilns of Sukhothai and Sawankalok is outstanding for the balanced proportions and solidity of its forms. demons. Japanese connoisseurs collected our pottery in those days. Va3es. they have the appeal of spontaneity. There were also many small statuettes made for animistic ceremonies. The clay used was of good quality and when fired at a high temperature produced a very hard body. Some of the small. the pottery was so excellent that it competed in the foreign markets with the Chinese pro­ duction. were made in m~ny sizes and for various pur­ poses. For many vessels. the indes­ pensible quality of classic pottery of any age or country. for example. and today it is known all over the world. fitting the surface smoothly.

a broken yellow ochre. etc. 21. but the Sukhothai­ Sawankalok pottery with its simple.comparable to celadon was used. In a few cases. The different characteristics of Thai and Chinese pottery is due not so much to technique as· to the different artistic feelings of the two peoples•. SU. a shallow engraving or incising replaced the painted decoration.20­ M . Another glaze used in some examples is· pale. and the designs were­ painted in black or in a darker value of the tinted glaze. 23. however the artistic result· is eminently Thai. The details on these objects are painted in brown or black. classic forms has a universal appeal. demons. LIBRARY \1111 "11111111'''1111111111111 31256100010649 . black. but usually the white (broken with yellowish oxide) was used for sculpture such as the makaras. ม ส ุดกลาง อ ห ก ั น ำ ส said that the kilns of Sukhothai and Ii has been Sawankalok were started by Chinese potters.. lions. This is most probable and we certainly owe to the Chinese the technique of firing and glazing. Figs. 22. We may also remark that Chinese pottery and porcelain is made in an enormous variety of shapes and styles some of which can only appeal to a very specialized taste. In some cases the body is white and the design is in.T.

KHON MASKS 8. THAI IMAGES OF THE BUDDHA by Luang Boribal Buribhand & A. AN APPRECIATION OF SUKHOTHAI ART by Professor Sllpa Bhirasri 18. THAI TRADITIONAL PAINTING by Elizabeth Lyons 21. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NADONAL MUSEUMS IN THAILAND by DhanitYupho 25. THE PRELIMINARY COURSE OF TRAINING IN THAI THEA TRlCAL ART by Dhanit Yupho 14. THAI WOOD CARVINGS by Professor Silpa Bhirasri 13.00 each .B. THAI MUSIC IN WESTERN NOTATION by Phra Chen Duriyanga 17.THAI CULTURE. Griswold 19. NEW SERIES ALREADY PUBLISHED 1. THAI LACQUER WORKS 6.H.H. THE NATURE AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE THAI LANGUAGE by Phya Anuman Rajadhon II. Prince Dhanirfivat KromamUn Bidyalabh Bridhyakorn 4. THE ROYAL PALACES by H. 5. Griswold 3.B. CONTEMPORARY ART IN THAILAND by Professor Silpa Bhlrasri 9. Prince by Professor SUpa Bhirasri by Professor Silpa B:lirasri Dhaninivat KromamUn Bidyalabh Bridhyakorn & Dhanit Yupho by Dhanit Yupho หอสมุดกลาง ก ั น ำ ส 7. LAKON AND PIPHA T by Dhanit Yupho 12. DHARMACAKRA (THE WHEEL OF THE LAW) by Dhanit Yupho OTHER SUBJECTS IN PREPARATION Tcs. THE KHON by H.H. THE TOSACHAT IN THAI PAINTING by Elizabeth Lyons 23. Prince Dhaninivat Kromamiin Bidyalabh Bridhyakorn 24. THAI MUSIC by Phra 16. WHAT IS A BUDDHA IMAGE? by A. THAI LITERATURE IN RELATION TO THE DIFFUSION OF HER CULTURES by Phya Anuman Rajadhon 10. Griswold 20. THAI TRADITIONAL SAWTATION by Phya Anuman Rajadhon Chen Duriyanga IS. THE ROYAL MONASTERIES AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE by Luang Boribal Buribhand & A. THE NANG (SHADOW PLAY) by H. THET MAHA CHAT by Phya Anuman Rajadhon 22. THAI BUDDHIST ART (ARCHITECTURE) S. INTRODUCING CULTURAL THAILAND IN OUTLINE by Phya Anuman Rajadhon 2. THE CUSTOM AND RITE OF PAYING HOMAGE TO TEACHERS OF KHON.B.