You are on page 1of 218

University American College Skopje

Thesis

Masters

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgment..............................................................................................................7
Abstract..............................................................................................................................8
1. Introduction................................................................................................................9
1.1

Research objectives..........................................................................................9

1.2

Working hypothesis...........................................................................................9

1.3

Methodology.....................................................................................................10

1.4

Expected results.............................................................................................. 10

2. Analysis of the current strategic marketing positioning of Ohrid ...................11


2.1. Market research.............................................................................................. 18
2.1.1. Demographic and Lifestyle Trends....................................................18
2.1.2. Economic Conditions............................................................................ 19
2.1.3. Laws and Government Actions...........................................................19
2.1.4. Technology..............................................................................................20
2.1.5. Competition............................................................................................20
2.1.6. SWOT Analysis.......................................................................................24
2.2. Segmenting, targeting and positioning...................................................... 25
2.2.1. Segmentation.........................................................................................25
2.2.1.1. Approaching Segmentation..................................................26
2.2.1.2. Product Related Segmentation............................................ 28
2.2.1.3. Demand-Based Segmentation.............................................28
2.2.1.4. Behavioral Segmentation......................................................29
2.2.2. Targeting................................................................................................. 29
2.2.2.1. Marketing objectives for each target market ...................30
2.2.3. Positioning...............................................................................................31
2.2.3.1. Effective Positioning...............................................................32
2.2.3.2. Positioning Intangibles...........................................................32
2.2.3.3. The positioning process.........................................................33
2.2.3.4. Market Positioning.................................................................. 33
2.2.3.5. Psychological Positioning...................................................... 35
2.2.3.6. Objective Positioning............................................................. 36
2.2.3.7. Subjective Positioning............................................................37
2.2.4. Positioning Approaches......................................................................37
2.2.4.1. Positioning by attribute, feature, or customer benefit ...37

................

University American College Skopje


Thesis

Masters

2.2.4.2. Positioning by Price Value..................................................... 37


2.2.4.3. Positioning with respect to use or application .................38
2.2.4.4. Positioning according to the users or class of users .......38
2.2.4.5. Positioning with respect to a product class ......................38
2.2.4.6. Positioning vis-a-vis the competition..................................38
2.3. Product policy and branding......................................................................... 39
2.3.1. Location and Accessibility - Place...................................................... 40
2.3.2. Product Development........................................................................... 40
2.3.3. Valorization of Cultural Heritage........................................................ 42
2.3.4. Branding...................................................................................................43
2.3.4.1. Ohrid brand development process ........................................44
2.4. Price policy........................................................................................................46
2.4.1. Ohrids price policy on the tourism market.....................................47
2.5. Promotion policy.............................................................................................. 48
2.5.1. Sales and Promotion..............................................................................49
2.5.2. Public Relations...................................................................................... 50
2.5.3. Direct Marketing.....................................................................................51
2.5.4. Personal Selling......................................................................................52
2.5.5. Sponsorship Tourism............................................................................. 52
2.6. Distribution and sales policy.........................................................................52
2.6.1. Distributing Ohrid tourism product .................................................... 55
2.6.2. Distributionsystems...............................................................................55
2.6.3. Compilinga distribution strategy........................................................ 55
2.6.4. Commondistribution methods............................................................. 56
2.6.5. Affiliations with booking agents..........................................................56
2.6.6. Direct sales through the Internet........................................................56
2.6.7. Distributors and their commission rates...........................................56
2.6.8. Thelink between distribution and promotion ...................................57
3. Comparative study with Bled................................................................................. 58
3.1. Tourist-geographical position....................................................................... 58
3.1.1. Ohrid.......................................................................................................58
3.1.2. Bled.........................................................................................................60
3.1.3. Comparison of the tourist-geographical position of Ohrid and
Bled.................................................................................................................... 62
3.2. Approach towards the natural factors as an integrative part in the
tourist product......................................................................................................... 62

University American College Skopje


Thesis

Masters

3.2.1. Ohrid.......................................................................................................62
3.2.1.1. Geomorphologic tourism potential..................................... 63
3.2.1.2. Climate-tourism potential..................................................... 65
3.2.1.3. Hydrographic tourism potential...........................................66
3.2.1.4. Natural rarities as tourism potential.................................. 70
3.2.2. Bled.........................................................................................................71
3.2.2.1. Geomorphologic tourism potential..................................... 72
3.2.2.2. Climate Tourism Potential..................................................... 75
3.2.2.3. Hydrographic tourism potential...........................................76
3.2.2.4. Natural rarities and values...................................................78
3.2.3. Comparison of the natural factors approach of Ohrid and Bled
.............................................................................................................................79
3.3. Anthropogenic factors....................................................................................79
3.3.1. Ohrid.......................................................................................................79
3.3.1.1. Cultural and historical monuments.................................... 80
3.3.2. Bled.........................................................................................................88
3.3.3. Comparison of the anthropogenic factors of Ohrid and Bled ....91
3.4. Receptive factors............................................................................................ 92
3.4.1. Ohrid.......................................................................................................92
3.4.2. Bled.........................................................................................................93
3.4.3. Comparison of the receptive factors in Ohrid and Bled ..............93
3.5. Accomplished results..................................................................................... 93
3.5.1. Ohrid.......................................................................................................93
3.5.2. Bled.........................................................................................................94
3.5.3. Comparison of the accomplished results between Ohrid and
Bled.................................................................................................................... 94
3.6. Tourist structure.............................................................................................. 94
3.6.1. Ohrid.......................................................................................................95
3.6.2. Bled.........................................................................................................95
3.6.3. Comparison of the tourist structure in Ohrid and Bled ...............95
3.7. Income realized............................................................................................... 96
3.7. 1. Ohrid......................................................................................................96
3.8. Development of selective kinds of tourism...............................................96
3.8.1. Ohrid.......................................................................................................97
3.8.2. Bled.........................................................................................................99
3.8.3. Comparison of the possibilities for development of selective
kinds of tourism in

................

University American College Skopje


Thesis

Masters

Ohrid and Bled..................................................................................................99


3.9. Perspectives for development......................................................................99
3.9.1. Ohrid..................................................................................................... 100
3.9.2. Bled.......................................................................................................102
3.9.3. Comparison of the perspectives for development between Ohrid
and Bled...........................................................................................................102
4. Conclusions and recommendations.....................................................................103
5. Bibliography..............................................................................................................107
List of tables
Table 1.: High priority issues of tourist products in Ohrid .....................................22
Table 2.: SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities & Threats) analysis of
the
tourism in Ohrid............................................................................................................. 24
Table 3.: Functions of the tourism distribution channel ........................................ 54
Table 4.: Tourist structure visiting the city of Bled................................................. 95
List of figures
Figure 1.: Distribution Channel Options between International Traveler and the
Ohrid Travel Industry.....................................................................................................57

................

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

Acknowledgment
I would like to acknowledge and extend my heartfelt gratitude to the
persons who have made the completion of this Dissertation possible. This
dissertation could not have been written without Dr. Bojadziev who not
only served as my supervisor but also encouraged and challenged me
throughout the making of this masters dissertation. He and the other
commission members, Dr. Petrovska, Dr. Miladinovski and especially Dr.
Marinoski guided me through the dissertation process, never accepting
less than my best efforts. Their hospitality and support during the period
this research took place is greatly acknowledged. I thank them all.
Most especially to my family and friends, words alone cannot express
what I owe them for their encouragement and whose patient love enabled
me to complete this Masters Dissertation. A special thanks to my father
for feeding me with positive energy and helping me throughout the whole
process of making this dissertation. And to my mother and brother for
going the extra mile with the kind of feedback that put flesh on the bones.
And especially to God, who made all things possible.

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

Abstract
Since the 1950s, the tourism industry has played an increasingly
prominent role in urban economies. Its expansion has been driven by an
increase in demand and in the efforts of suppliers. The growth of tourist
travel has been attributed to numerous factors. These include the rise of
global, decentralized corporations, as well as the thickening of linkages
among people around the world through shared publications, the Internet,
immigration, the prevalence of English as a second language, and a
common discourse around interests that transcend local, and even
national boundaries. In response to this surge in demand, cities have vied
with each other to capture part of the growing tourism market.
This paper provides an outline of principal marketing strategy issues and
their application in promoting Ohrid as a tourist destination. It provides an
overview of the literature used in preparation of this thesis, the analysis of
the 4Ps of the marketing (price, product, promotion, distribution) in the
tourism industry and in Ohrid in particular as well as the comparative
study with Bled and conclusions and recommendations. In the context of
the tourist industry, the 'product' is an experience achieved through the
combination of a diverse range of products and services. Nowadays
tourism destinations face new and increasing marketing challenges arising
from changing tourist behavior and environmental conditions. Strategies
are needed to suit the changing and more demanding competitive
environment. The first section addresses the imperative for careful
environment analysis and assessment, highlights the main aspects of
strategy formulation and implementation, and provides a brief overview of
the appropriate functions of the marketing, an issue of special interest in
strategic marketing. In the next section a critical evaluation of the
strategic planning model is performed, highlighting its merits, weaknesses
and limitations, as well as the comparative study for Ohrid and the city of
Bled as a destination similar to Ohrid. Conclusions and recommendations
contributing to the effective implementation of a marketing strategy in
destination marketing are presented in the last section. At the end
outlined is the context of the literature.

................

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

1. Introduction
Tourism is one of the fastest growing service industries that contributes
significantly to the growth of many national, regional, and local
economies. In an economy such as Macedonian, in which a significant part
of export revenues should be due to foreign tourism, it is important for
policymakers to understand the sensitivity of foreign tourism demand with
respect to its main determinants.
The capacity of tourism to promote economic expansion stems from the
fact that, as an export industry, it induces new spending within the local
economy. This new direct spending generates new jobs and secondary
economic activity as new dollars ripple throughout the economy. In
addition to these possible economic benefits, proponents of tourism
redevelopment argue that, in celebrating local culture, these projects
engender a sense of civic pride and cultural ascendancy that may elicit
feelings of solidarity and well-being in the local populace. They also
maintain that tourism redevelopment may result in enhanced services,
improved infrastructure, and greater opportunities for entertainment and
recreation.
1.1 Research objectives
The research objectives of this thesis are to determine the current tourist
offer that Ohrid has, how and where it is positioned in our country and
abroad, also which strategy is being used to penetrate other markets. This
paper will also be of use to reveal the price, product, promotion and
distribution policy of the city of Ohrid towards the tourism. It has to be
stressed that this is a comparative study in which Ohrid is being compared
to Bled in many fields in order to see the relationship or the differences
between these tourist centers. It will reveal where Ohrid is at the moment,
which are the objectives that needs to be achieved and where the tourism
should strive to be positioned and which strategies to be used in order to
achieve positive results.
1.2 Working hypothesis
The working hypothesis for this master dissertation is to define the
strategic marketing positioning approach that Ohrid has to have in order

to know where and to whom (targeting and positioning) to offer its


natural, cultural and other attractions and by that to become a desired
tourist destination. In order that to be done, a comparative case study
with the city

................

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

of Bled will be conducted. By doing that comparative case study,


conclusions will be driven in order to see what improvements can be done
and in which field, whether would that be the pricing policy, the product
policy, the promotion or even the distribution and sales policy, as well as
which tourist factors have to be improved.
1.3 Methodology
Since

this

is

comparative

study,

the

comparative

case

study

methodology shall be used, meaning that several key factors in the field
of tourism shall be researched and compared. That needs to be done in
order to get a clear picture of the tourist offer that is present at the
moment. Some of the key factors are the following: Tourist-geographical
position, Approach towards the natural factors as an integrative part in
the

tourist

product,

Anthropogenic

factors,

Receptive

factors,

Accomplished results, Tourists structure, Income realized, Development of


selective kinds of tourism, Perspectives for development.
1.4 Expected results
From the research and the literature consulted, the results expected are
that Ohrid as a destination will improve its tourist offer, the target market
will be defined, as well as the target segmentation. Also, it is expected to
gather more knowledge about the future positioning of Ohrid on the
tourist map, as well as defining the strategic marketing approach which
should be used in order to penetrate in new markets and position
strategically on the existing ones.

................

10

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

2. Analysis of the current strategic marketing positioning of Ohrid


The tourism product is an experience achieved through the combination
of a diverse array of products and services (Heath & Wall, 1994; Scott,
Parfitt & Laws, 2000). For visitors, the product is the total experience,
covering the entire amalgam of all aspects and components of the
product, including attitudes and expectations. According to Middleton &
Clarke (2001), the overall tourism product is a package, and might be
defined in terms of five main components, namely: destination attractions;
destination

facilities

and

services;

accessibility

of

the

destination

(including transport); images, brands and perceptions; price to the visitor.


Hence, destination is a provider of experiences.
Destinations can increasingly be seen as clusters or aggregations of
businesses, consisting of mainly Small Medium-sized Tourism Enterprises
(SMTEs). Destination marketing thus involves many stakeholders and a
complex product offer (Goodall & Ashworth, 1997). Through new web
technology tools and interoperability, SMTEs can develop an integrated
infrastructure and assist each other in providing the customer with a
complete experience, including the delivery of complementary products
(Buhalis, 2005). Destinations are among the most difficult entities to
manage and market, owing to the complexity of relationships between
stakeholders

(Buhalis,

2000;

Pike,

2004).

Virtually

all

Destination

Management Organizations (DMOs) and tourism industry enterprises have


recognized their interdependence, and work together in some form or
other to market tourism to their home countries or regions. Complexity
and interdependency among stakeholders have resulted in the creation of
many local tourism marketing alliances and partnerships between the
private and public sectors (Palmer & Bejou, 1995; Selin & Myers, 1998).
These forms of cooperative marketing are particularly efficient in the
destination marketing. Effective collaborative marketing efforts require
more than strong leadership and administrative support. A number of
internal factors including a shared vision, goal accomplishment, and open
communication
collaboration

between

and

member

members

will

satisfaction.

contribute
A

well-known

to

effective

example

of

destination marketing partnership is Maison de France. This body has the

responsibility of coordinating French tourism marketing and is generally


recognized as a model of good practice (Varvaressos & Soteriades, 2005).

................

11

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

There is an increased demand for destination marketing, due to rising


customer expectations and growing competition between destinations
(Pike, 2004; Scott et al., 2000). In response, more sophisticated marketing
is used including product development, enhanced promotional imagery
and targeting of specific market segments. Destination marketing
partnerships are important because most destinations have to compete
on a global level. The preponderance of small businesses in destinations
and the diversity of objectives in larger organizations is an impediment to
the implementation of strategic destination marketing (Scott et al., 2000).
Additionally, destination marketing functions and activities must be
supported by a DMO, a structure aiming at: managing the tourism system;
improving the competitiveness of the regional tourism industry; improving
destination

attractiveness;

enhancing

destination

performance;

and

increasing marketing effectiveness. A good example of successful DMO is


Tourismo de Barcelona, an organizational structure that enabled the City
of Barcelona to acquire a shared vision and common strategy, thus
leading to remarkable results (Loukaras, 2005).
Recent studies have stressed the crucial role that knowledge management
and information and communication technology (ICT) could play in these
partnerships and other joint schemes in the field of destination marketing
(You, OLeary & Fesenmaier, 2000; Scott et al., 2000; Pyo, Uysal & Chang,
2002; Riege, Perry & Go, 2002; Mistilis & Daniele, 2005). It is obvious that
the strategic marketing approach makes the coordinated marketing of all
actors involved feasible. This includes inter-relating the tourist attractions,
activities, facilities and services and the various and increasingly
fragmented tourist markets.
Marketing and strategic approach - Marketing is a managerial process
involving several activities (Kotler, 2008): establishing marketing goals
and

objectives,

formulating

marketing

strategy,

preparing

and

implementing plans. According to Tribe (1997) Strategy [is] the


planning of a desirable future and the design of suitable ways of bringing
it about. Marketing strategy specifies the long-term goals and objectives
of an organization, identifying opportunities and the scope of activities
................

needed to realize them. Strategies therefore show how objectives may be


pinpointed. Calver (1994) pointed out that the use of the term strategy
as a description of longer-term planning is helpful, but may prove equally
ineffective unless it provides the right guideposts. The strategic plan
should provide a blueprint for action that can be interpreted at any
organizational level. Marketing strategy is therefore an action-based
discipline and must provide clear indications of which markets
1
2

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

are to be targeted and the means by which they will be targeted in the
long term. The two terms marketing strategy and marketing planning
are often used interchangeably. A marketing strategy offers an overall
analysis of a given organization and provides its environment with a
means of achieving overall objectives. On the other hand, a marketing
plan should be prepared for the long term, with clear guidelines for action
and tactical details for implementation, dealing with specific marketing
activities.
Strategies may therefore be regarded as substantial preface to plans.
From the above brief discussion, it might be pointed out that: (a) Strategy
shows how to pinpoint objectives; (b) Strategic marketing entails a stream
of

decisions

and

actions,

which

lead

to

the

development

and

implementation of effective strategy (Crawford-Welch, 1996);


(c) Strategy is not only about deciding on future direction but also the
actual implementation at operational level. The crucial point is how to
convert strategy into action; and (d) Strategic marketing is as much an art
as a science and is not a panacea or a prescription for success (Kotler,
2008).
Marketing strategy in the tourism industry faces a particular challenge as
it deals with a multifaceted, poorly standardized product, and a volatile,
fastidious customer (Middleton & Clarke, 2001). To be successful in the
tourism markets, DMOs must be able to interpret the needs of their
visitors, identify appropriate ways of segmenting the markets in which
they compete, develop and launch the appropriate products and
effectively communicate with potential visitors. These issues are closely
interrelated, as they form the basis of the marketing interface between
the DMO and its business and market environment. Tourism takes place in
a complex, dynamic and constantly changing environment that must be
monitored and adapted to by all tourism enterprises.
The industry today faces a set of new and increasing challenges arising
from changing tourist behavior and environment conditions (Calver, 1994;
Crawford-Welch,

1996;

Middleton

&

Clarke,

2001;

Varvaressos

&

Soteriades, 2005). These challenges include (a) the reconciliation of the


................

need to consolidate the industrys service offerings to the consumer and


maintain a market position with the need to remain flexible enough to
respond to changes in its operational environment; and (b) to design and
properly deliver products and services corresponding to the needs of the
various markets. It is estimated that only those destinations that
recognize the changes occurring in the marketplace and proactively
respond to these challenges will continue to be successful in the future
(Chon & Singh,
1
3

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

1995). These tasks require a strategic marketing approach, as well as


more reliable information through proper long-term strategic planning and
decision-making. It should be noted that information is the basis of
planning and decision-making, and is needed in order to develop
meaningful and effective strategies. Thus, a marketing information system
becomes a valuable tool and an essential support for the decision-making
process in DMOs, complementing intuition and entrepreneurial ability.
The importance of monitoring and analyzing the tourism environment and
its dynamics has been documented by several authors (among others
Porter, 1995; Middleton & Clarke, 2001; Varvaressos & Soteriades, 2005).
Scanning the environment for trends that dictate strategic postures is a
necessary and vital part of strategic marketing. The one certainty of the
future is that change will continue and those tourism destinations which
are both aware of economic, social and technological changes, and
develop effective responses to them, will achieve longer-term viability
(Moscardo, Faulkner & Laws, 2000). Predictions are that the industry will
continue to be volatile, consolidation will continue, consumer satisfaction
will become even more important and technology will play an increasingly
more important role (Matovic & McCleary, 2003). Therefore, environment
and resource analysis and assessment are essential if DMOs are to
identify and respond to changes incurring in any field and undertake the
appropriate marketing actions. A strategic approach is of paramount
importance to all significant areas of marketing function. Strategies allow
the DMO to address the more demanding competitive environment. As for
implementation, it is worth noting that: (i) in order to implement a
strategic marketing approach effectively, appropriate marketing systems information, planning, and evaluation - are required; (ii) one aspect of
strategy implementation is resource planning, at both the organizational
and operational levels. The former refers to the allocation of resources
within the various parts of the organization to support the strategy. The
later refers to the identification of critical success factors needed at the
operational level; and (iii) there is a need to develop and implement
action plans in all related fields, such as human resources and quality
................

(Varvaressos & Soteriades, 2005). Recent studies have suggested


innovative approaches; for example, Edgell, Ruf & Agarwal (1999)
proposed a new approach to strategic marketing planning in the tourism
industry,

emphasizing

quality,

efficiency

and

effectiveness

in

the

marketing process. The authors recommend a six-step approach to


strategic marketing planning, including needs analysis, research and
analysis, creative infusion, strategic
1
4

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje


positioning,

marketing

plan

development,

as

well

as

training,

implementation, evaluation and adjustment. The suggested framework is


designed to provide a road map for almost any tourism organization or
destination and to help improve their marketing efforts. While being a
strategic marketing system, it is also action-oriented to benchmark and
counter competitors strategies.
In closing this section, it is worth noting the following issues: (i) DMO must
ensure that an efficient marketing information system informs the
strategic planning process and that the organizational culture is able to
respond to market trends and be proactive in the identification of new
strategic directions (Ritchie & Ritchie, 2002); (ii) Segmentation is a
valuable marketing strategy. In the tourism industry, the diversity of
destinations, products and customers has justified the intensive use of
segmentation methods as strategic tools. Among these techniques,
benefit segmentation has extensive use in tourism research, and seems to
receive wide approval by academics and practitioners alike (Frochot &
Morrison, 2000); and (iii) Over the past two decades, tourism destinations
have implemented product differentiation and branding strategies in
response to their own maturation. This issue has not been addressed on
Ohrid yet. Within this framework, it seems that DMOs could benefit from
ICTs by adopting a strategic approach.
Evaluating the strategic planning model - The strategic planning
model

is

an

approach

having

various

merits.

Without

strategy,

organizations are susceptible to strategic drift a consequence of failure


to monitor and respond to the changing external environment. Tribe
(2005) argue that organizations that do not use strategic planning tend to
make ad hoc decisions and be reactive rather than proactive to events.
This is more relevant to destinations, which are not single organizations
but rather represent a coalition of interested parties. This approach is
useful where decisions are taken in terms of the direction of the product
offering and the markets to target. It provides an effective framework for
the consideration of these issues, while also planning clear advantages for
resorts (Cooper, 1995), e.g. take proactive decisions about their product
................

and

market

portfolios.

This

involves

choosing

facilities

to

offer,

anticipating the demands and changing tastes of their visitors and


attempting to influence the nature of their experiences. This proactive
approach contrasts to the often ad hoc, opportunistic entrepreneurial
responses that characterized the early development of many resorts
(Laws, 1995). Laws & Cooper (1998) stress that the process of goal
setting provides a common sense of ownership and
1
5

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

direction for the many stakeholders in the resort, whilst at the same time
sharpening the guiding objectives. The coherence provided by the
approach

provides

framework

for

joint

initiatives

between

the

commercial and public sectors and demands the clear identification of


roles and responsibilities. However, the strategic model encompasses
some pitfalls and limitations. First, the traditional approach to destination
marketing strategy has been derived from the literature on organizational
strategy. However, there is a fundamental weakness in an approach to
destination management, which relies on the assumption of strong
leadership and clear goal-driven decisions to which all participants
adhere. Destinations are conglomerates of attractions, operators and
agencies which each have individual objectives. Often these are in direct
conflict, and managers may regard competition with local organizations as
their main policy concern. In contrast to the classical organizational
strategy paradigm of clarity and consensus based on a rational process of
analysis, destinations experience tension between operators, they seldom
have strong leadership and lack cohesion in the way in which the area
promotes its image externally (Scott et al., 2000). Secondly, it seems that
organizational models of strategic thinking and action are inadequate. The
heart of the problem for destinations is their complex nature, resulting in
policy/implementation

conflicts

between

operators.

Typically,

the

destination experience for visitors comprises the products of a wide range


of organizations of differing scales and levels of business sophistication
presented within a general ambience derived from a combination of the
areas primary attractions and the ways in which tourists perceive its
image (Laws, 1995). Not only are destinations complex, but they lack the
formal relationship frameworks between operational departments that
enable large organizations to act consensually. Approaches to strategic
marketing differ on two dimensions, the outcomes of the strategy (profit
maximizing or pluralistic) and the processes by which strategy is made
(deliberate contrast with emergent styles). Thirdly, it should be noted that
the success of a strategy depends on the accuracy of much of the analysis
................

contained in the plan. Much of the analysis involves forecasting and the
future is notoriously unpredictable. Moreover, the classical approach to
strategy assumes a particular rationality of those working in organizations
that cannot always be relied upon. Tribe (2005) notes that in the real
world strategy is a contested concept and a messy business. Destinations
generally operate under a coordinating body to which only some of the
total tourism operators belong, raising the issue of leadership in
promoting destination through marketing
16

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

partnerships, as noted above. Nevertheless, the preponderance of small


businesses in resorts and the diversity of objectives of the larger
organizations is an impediment to the implementation of strategic
destination marketing (Palmer, 1998). Finally, with regard to electronic
marketing, DMO needs to be able to offer a full service to any user, and its
web pages need to act as a portal for those operators, attractions and
accommodation providers that exist within its region (Ryan, 2005).
However, many DMOs have scarce resources. A range of competing
motives also drives them. Ryan (2002) describes the political framework
within which DMOs operate. In brief, in spite of calls for strategic and
rational planning regimes, the nature of both the funding and the
stakeholders often means that DMOs are flexible and inconsistent in
marketing.
In common, the marketing mix, or strategy, should be viewed as a
package of offerings designed to attract and serve the customer or visitor.
Ohrid should develop both external and internal marketing mixes for
different target markets. In terms of the internal mix, marketing services
such as recreation and tourism differ from marketing tangible products.
Ohrid must direct as much attention at marketing to customers on site to
attracting them. In this respect, internal marketing is important because
dissatisfied customers can effectively cancel out an otherwise effective
marketing strategy.
The

success

of

internal

marketing

is

dependent

on

creating

an

atmosphere in which employees desire to give good service and sell the
business/community to visitors.
To create such an atmosphere requires the following four important
elements:
(1)

Hospitality and Guest Relations---An organization wide emphasis on

hospitality and guest relations, including a customer oriented attitude on


the part of the owners and managers as well as the employees. If the
owner/manager is not customer sensitive, it is unlikely the lower paid
employees will be.
(2)

Quality Control---A program which focuses on improving both the

technical quality (the standards associated with what the customer


receives) and the functional quality (the standards associated with how

the customer receives the service). All employees who come into contact
with customers should receive hospitality training.
(3)Personal Selling---Training the staff in the selling aspects of the property
(business) or community. This also includes rewarding them for their
efforts. By being informed about the marketing objectives, and their role
in accomplishing those objectives, they can help increase sales.

................

17

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

(4) Employee Morale---Programs and incentives aimed at maintaining


employee morale. The incentives can be both monetary and nonmonetary.
A customer oriented atmosphere usually results in customers that are
more satisfied, do less complaining and are more pleasant to serve. This
helps build employee morale, their desire to provide good service and
their efficiency.
The external marketing mix includes product/service, price, place/location,
and promotion which will be reviewed later on.
2.1. Market Research
According to the observation from previous experience, it has to be
stressed out that Ohrid has so far attempted to market itself as tourist
destination without accurate information about its resources (facilities,
services, staff), image (projected vs. actual), and how well its customers
are satisfied. Without this information, it is difficult to make other
decisions in the planning process. Included should be such things as
recreational and entertainment facilities, cultural and historic sites,
overnight accommodations, restaurants, shopping opportunities, special
events and activities, staff size, and transportation. Each item of the
"inventory" should also be assessed in terms of quality and availability.
In the past decade, a new situation has emerged on the international
tourist market. Technological development and advances have brought
changes to the market structure, as well as to the use of marketing, thus
allowing for a concentration of service providers. With pressure from ever
growing competition, as well as the battle for market share, service
providers have entered into vertical and horizontal integrations, which
make them cost effective and competitive in terms of quality. Smaller
market players have been forced to find their place in market niches.
One crucial thing when conducting a market research is to assess the
impact of environmental factors (such as economic, social and political) on
present and future markets. Changes in these factors can create
marketing opportunities as well as problems.

................

18

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje


2.1.1. Demographic and Lifestyle Trends

Changing demographics and lifestyles are having a major impact on


recreation and tourism participation. An assessment of these trends is
important to understand how they will likely affect Ohrid tourism.
Some of the important trends that bear watching (Edgell, D. L., Ruf, K. &
Agarwal, A., 1999):
(1)

population growth and movement;

(2)

rural community growth compared to metropolitan areas;

(3)

number of adult women employed outside the home;

(4) the number of households is growing, especially non family and single
parent households, but family size is decreasing;
(5)

the impact of two wage earner households on real family income;

(6)

the number of retired persons with the financial ability to travel;

(7)

better health to an older age; and

(8) continued aging of the population (we are becoming a middle aged
society).
2.1.2. Economic Conditions
According to Edgell, D. L., Ruf, K. & Agarwal, A. (1999), overall economic
conditions can have significant impacts on recreation and tourism
markets. A marketing strategy that is effective during periods of low
unemployment

rates

may

have

to

be

significantly

adjusted

if

unemployment increases. The local and national communities should


monitor and assess the likely impact of factors such as unemployment
rates, real family income, rate of inflation, credit availability, terms and
interest rates. Consideration should also be given to the prices of
complementary products, such as lodging, gasoline and recreation
equipment.
2.1.3. Laws and Government Actions
As a complex industry, tourism is significantly affected both positively and
negatively by laws and by actions of governmental agencies. For instance,
rulings on such things as liability issues or decisions regarding building and
health codes may change or possibly prevent the construction of a proposed
facility. If a public facility changes the prices of its services, this could affect

the service offerings of associated private businesses. These actions may


have both positive and negative effects on the marketing efforts of the
authorities. To avoid

................

19

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

wasting valuable resources it is important that Ohrid and the authorities


continually monitor and evaluate governmental actions (Edgell, D. L., Ruf,
K. & Agarwal, A., 1999).
2.1.4. Technology
Technological

developments

are

increasing

rapidly.

New

recreation

products, such as all-terrain vehicles, provide new ways for people to


satisfy their recreational preferences. New production technologies and
materials offer recreation and tourism businesses ways to reduce costs
and improve the quality of their products/services (Ryan, C., 2005).
Advances in telecommunications have and will continue to create new
promotional opportunities. Technological innovations, in relation to jobs
and the home, have resulted in increased leisure time for many people.
2.1.5. Competition
Ohrid must identify and analyze existing and potential competitors. The
objective of the analysis is to determine the strengths and weaknesses of
the competition's marketing strategies. According to (Porter, 1995), the
analysis should include the competition's:
(1)

product/service features and quality;

(2)

location relative to different geographic markets;

(3)

promotional themes and messages;

(4)

prices; and

(5)

type of customer they are attracting.

The EURO and Internet have made it easier to compare destinations


and prices; they have reduced the time necessary to collect information
and have allowed for simple direct booking.
Standardization

on different

levels

of

the price-service ratio

is

increasingly becoming more and more present in the hotel industry. The
attractiveness of standardization from the buyers perspective is based on
a

few

advantages:

effectiveness,

the

ability

to

calculate

costs,

comparability, predictability and control.


There are many diverse strategies which hotels offer to provide for a

more specialized offer


(all-inclusive, wellness, romantic holidays, club-style holidays
holidays,
for
art or food
lovers, specialized offers for singles, nudist, or
aficionado (tenni
various sports
s
s, golf,
................

20

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

equestrian), day care/childrens centers). The classic one-purpose hotel


may soon be a thing of the past.
The competitiveness in the global market of capital investments
in tourism is increasing by the day. As the flow of venture capital
progressively moves to the global level, the competition between
destinations in this field grows. The crucial factor is a return on
investment which may come as a result of lower costs, more lenient
regulations,

available

incentives,

or

other

things. Investment into

improved quality and reduced seasonality of the tourism product will


result in a growth of return on investment, and consequently, an increase
in the interest of investors, i.e. a shift in capital flow into the area of
higher yields.
More complex travel incentive packages - In addition to the main
incentives (swimming, rest & relaxation, culture, etc.), new incentive
packages are turning up for travelers which include: extreme pleasures,
outdoor activities, an increased need for adventure, emotions, sensuality,
recreation, and health. In general, tourists would like to experience worlds
which clearly differ from their everyday environment and ordinary
circumstances.
Greater expectations of tourists are in part supported by the media and
advanced telecommunications, by higher education level, prior personal
experiences, and knowledge. These same factors also have influence on
the quicker transfer of information and the growing power of word-ofmouth marketing.
Innovative offerings and settings, on top of the basic standards,
enable unique experiences, surprises and stimulation. Tourists benefit
from an atmospheric or emotional added value (ambience, experience,
entertainment, adventure, and contact with other guests).
Changes in the needs of potential tourists - With the increase in the
standard of living, people have more and more disposable funds available
and increasingly less free time, which are two basic preconditions for their
integration into the tourism flow. The results of these changes are the
growing popularity of short trips and cruises.
................

As a response to the rate of the contemporary urban way of life, the


demand for untouched, ecologically clean areas is increasing. Personal
safety has become one of the main criteria, while a trend towards
personal healthcare (wellness, fitness) has increased.
Diversification of target groups - Recently, a mere affiliation to a
social and demographic group has proven to be too general to classify the
tourism market, even though the trend of the ageing demographic group
should

not

be

overlooked.

The

market

is

becoming

increasingly

fragmented and broken into subgroups which are defined by life


21

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

style, personal propensity, needs and living situation.


Today's tourists are more experienced and demanding than ever before.
The tourist market is dynamic. Its supply and demand are mutually
dependant and change accordingly. On the one hand, supply follows the
changes in demand preferences. On the other hand, demand, which is
accustomed to having its wishes and needs met, has seen a growth in
expectations and they are becoming increasingly difficult to satisfy. To
improve the tourism offerings, many destinations are raising the
standards and in turn this increases the level of tourist expectations. The
favorable Value for Money ratio is increasingly more implicit and no
longer sufficient for a successful and good holiday. Tourists expect
Experience for Money, in other words, Emotion for Money. All destinations
which intend to maintain their market share are moving in this direction.
Moreover, Ohrid must also follow this direction should it hope to become a
quality tourist destination and profit from tourism in the long term.
Table 1. High priority issues of tourist products in Ohrid
- Convention and incentive tourism
- Rural tourism activities
- All-Inclusive
- Outdoor activities
- Diving
- Nautical tourism activities
- Fishing
- Outdoor / nature activities
- Cycling
Source: Marinoski, N. (2001). Turisticka Geografija na Republika
Makedonija, p.245-248 Besides the above mentioned themes, the sun and
lake continue to be the main motivation for tourists coming to Ohrid.
Package tours are also becoming more and more significant. Except for
urban environments, O h r i d possesses high quality natural resources for
the development of different forms of adventure tourism.
As said above, the most important tourism potential in Ohrid is the O h r i
d L a k e . According to Marinoski, N. (2001), the unique characteristics of
the water (crystal clear and clean) and coastline (length and indentation
approximately 20 km. long) together with a mild climate have long been
recognized and used as the main comparative advantages of Oh rid

tourism.
The distinctly indented coastline and a host of picturesque sites boasting
rich cultural and

................

22

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

historical heritage offer the ideal preconditions for beach tourism (sun
and lake). The coast also lends itself to tapping into untapped market
niches in areas of culture, adventure, etc. This study has revealed that the
basic motif for coming to Ohrid is for the sun and lake for over 90% of
guests. It is important to mention that relatively few tourists come to
Ohrid because of its other attractions and offerings, such as culture or
ecotourism, which confirms the necessity to define, shape and adequately
promote these forms of tourism offer.
Some culturally renown landmarks, which have international recognition,
have been only partly exploited as unique selling points, e.g. the Old part
of the Town. They give an identity to the Ohrid tourism, which makes it
stand out from its other competitors.
Tourism may become one of the basic drivers of development, especially
in areas where it has so far been marginalized, providing that there exists
a tourism potential. Each and every s u b j e c t i n t o u r i s m must
concentrate on the development of the tourism offerings which will have
the greatest influence on increasing the gross domestic product and
employment, which are attractive to investors, and in particular those
which can utilize the uniqueness of the local potential.

................

23

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje


2.1.6. SWOT Analysis

Based on the analysis of the market research, and the examination of


basic world tourist trends, I have come up with the basic advantages,
weaknesses, opportunities, and threats to the future development of the
tourism in Ohrid.
Table 2. SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities & Threats)
analysis of the tourism in Ohrid
Strengths
- Natural beauty of the Lake Ohrid and i t s s h o r e , as well as
tourism potential in

Weaknesses
- The image of a lower quality summer tourist destination and the
image of a country

the continental part (monasteries, churches, protected areas, etc.)

from the war-torn Balkans.


- Lagging behind in terms of concepts and technology and a low
average level of

- Ecologically clean and natural surroundings.


- Personal safety, in terms of both accommodation and
destination

quality of accommodation facilities


- An extremely small presence of
international brands

- A rich, cultural and historical heritage with globally

- An unsatisfactory choice of quality events and variety of

recognized and protected locations

services; insufficient hospitality and charm


- An overall poor transit infrastructure and inadequate connections on
all levels (i.e.
airlines, etc.)
- Low level of occupancy rates of facilities,
highly

pronounced seasonality
and

low average rates with respect to international competitors.


- Liquidity problems and insolvency of a
majority
of tourist companies
- Lack of professional management
Opportuni
ties
- Continuous growth in interest of emitive markets for
destinations reach

Threa
ts

with preserved culture and nature


- Availability of quality coastal area: due to a stagnation period,
excessive
development has never come about, and therefore, beautiful and
unspoiled nature

- Non-stimulating macroeconomic framework


- Natural potential is jeopardized due to forest fires, owing to
insufficient care of waste

has been largely preserved.


- Thanks to its geographical location, along with an adequate transit
infrastructure,
Ohrid can increase its share of individual guests, and coach tours.
- Tourism can stimulate a faster growth of production and trade, by
way of tourist
companies selling Macedonian products, especially if they are
competitive both in
price and quality, and thus contributing to the place-specific tourism
supply.
- Unpolluted soil suitable for cultivating organically grown food.

- Conflicting development options.

waters and unlicensed garbage dumps and uncontrolled fishing


- Intensive development of international competition in the sense of
new concepts,
higher quality, and better performance of business operations.
- Due to unfavorable demographics and total economic
development in
Western Europe, demand could stagnate at a high level.
- Inefficiency of spatial plan implementation and bending of zoning
regulations
- Unplanned usage and speculative purchases of building land
may appreciate
building land prices which in turn may dissuade potential investors.
- Possible lack of close cooperation at all political, administrative,
economic and social
levels.
- Extra long privatization process may delay the start of the
investment process.

From the SWOT analysis it can be pointed out that the strengths should be
maximally used in order to gain and retrieve customers. But, also the
opportunities should be carefully followed and used in future. The

weaknesses that Ohrid has, has to be improved each and one by one,
especially the infrastructure, the image of low quality summer destination
and so on. Regarding the threats, attention should be driven to minimize
them and not letting them to stand as a factor which will slow or stop the
development of the tourism in Ohrid.

................

24

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje


2.2. Segmenting, targeting and positioning

The approach towards these three postulates of successful marketing is of


high importance for every subject in tourism. That is the case with Ohrid
as well. Because of the lack of expertise in the making of the tourism
policy for the city of Ohrid by the subjects involved, here is given a
broader view of these three postulates and how Ohrid should form its
tourist offer and to whom to offer it.
2.2.1. Segmentation
Market segmentation can be defined as the process through which people
(both tourism providers and consumers) with similar needs, wants and
characteristics

are

business/organization

grouped
can

together

use

greater

so

that

precision

in

tourism

serving

and

communicating with these groups (marketing) (Pike, 2004). There are


associated benefits of segmentation (e.g. identifying partnerships to
promote networking and guiding research and development) but the
bottom line is that it enables better marketing decisions, and promotes
more viable operations. In more general terms, segmentation comes down
to ties that connect two or more individuals (or businesses) together; it
could be their age, their love of certain music, the magazines they read,
or what their son or daughter is doing in school. The possibilities are
endless.
In terms of its current market segmentation, from the previous research
that was conducted, Ohrid has made a mistake of attempting to be all
things to all people. It is difficult, and risky, to develop marketing
strategies for the mass market. Strategies designed for the "average"
customer often results in unappealing products, prices, and promotional
messages. For example, it would be difficult to develop a campground that
would

be

equally

attractive

to

recreational

vehicle

campers

and

backpackers or promote a property to serve both snowmobilers and


nature oriented cross country skiers.
The major markets segments for Ohrid should include free independent
travelers, outdoor adventurers, and cultural/heritage enthusiasts. As with
................

most tourism regions, the market and regional markets make up the large
majority of visitors.
After several years of modest increases in visitors during the early 2000s,
Ohrid has seen strong attendance increases since 2004.
Recognition and awareness of Ohrid itself is very low, even amongst key
travel markets. Many regional visitors come to the area for its outdoor
adventure experiences, but most
2
5

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

long-haul and international visitors are in transit to other destinations,


including many Europeans on the Greek coast. The number of destinationoriented tourism visitors is low but the potential for this market is
excellent and growing.
National and international tourism trends show that visitor markets and
the industry continue to change. Visitor motives for travel are becoming
more attraction-oriented and fundamentally different from the sociallyoriented free independent traveler of the past. Most visitors are also
seeking more convenience, more learning and educational experiences
and outdoor recreation activities where the experience is a safe one (i.e.
soft adventurers).
Marketing

is

strongly

based

on

market

segmentation

and

target

marketing. According to Kotler (2008), market segmentation is the process


of:
(1)

taking existing and/or potential customers/visitors (market) and

categorizing them into groups with similar preferences referred to as


"market segments;"
(2)

selecting the most promising segments as "target markets;" and

(3)designing "marketing mixes," or strategies (combination of the 4 Ps),


which satisfy the special needs, desires and behavior of the target
markets.
2.2.1.1. Approaching Segmentation
There is no unique or best way to segment markets, but ways in which
customers can be grouped are:
(1)

location of residence---instate, out-of-state, local;

(2)

demographics---age, income, family status, education;

(3) equipment
snowmobiles;

ownership/use---RV's,

sailboats,

canoes,

(4)

important product attributes---price, quality, quantity; and

(5)

lifestyle attributes---activities, interests, opinions.

tents,

To be useful, the segment identification process should result in segments


that suggest marketing efforts that will be effective in attracting them and
................

at least one segment large enough to justify specialized marketing efforts.


Market segmentation can be approached from two broad directions:
supply side (e.g. grouping similar products together) or the demand side
(e.g. demographics and behavioral patterns of tourists). The objective is
consistent: trying to reach out to potential customers in a more cost
effective manner. The levels of segmentation can be broad (e.g.
2
6

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

businesses offering an outdoor experience) or narrow (e.g. a segment of


the population in a set geographical boundary, who have a certain
medical condition, with children, in a particular income bracket).
The approach to segmentation is important however. There is a debate
about Product Push versus Market Pull. The former is designing a
product and packaging it and hoping that there is a market for it, while the
latter attempts to find a niche market, identifying the needs and wants of
individuals within that market, and designing a product to meet those
needs. Generally it is more effective to undertake the market pull
approach, but at the same time it is important to understand the
strengths of a regions product. This is especially important when it comes
to developing partnerships and products that fit with local community and
cultural values. A mixed approach - market pull and manipulated or
value-added product push - is likely to be valuable when developing new
product lines.
Characteristics that are commonly used to divide markets into segments
include:
Supply Side

Demand Side

Product related
economic

Demographic and Socio-

Geographic

Behavioral and Psychographic

Channels of distribution

Purpose of Trip

Geographic
The following comments focus on the three main bases for market
segmentation: product related, demographic and behavioral.
Generally the more defined a market segment, the easier it is to reach out
to individuals. Whichever approach is used, the segments (or niche
markets) should be at least one of two things - Focused or Targetable preferably both.
Focused: the stronger the ties that link people together the better; not
just age and income but expectations, passions, habits, affiliations etc.
The niche market does not have to be small to be focused, but usually the
................

larger the market the weaker the ties.


Targetable: The easier it is to reach people in a niche market, the better. It
is better if they are all receiving the same newsletter or visit the same
location on a regular basis.
An example of a focused market is students. This niche is also targetable
because it has its own specific newsletters, associations and conferences.
An example of a niche market that is not particularly focused but is
targetable is the
2
7

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

family people segment. It is not focused as the only connection is the


name; individuals are likely to have disparate interests and passions. With
todays technology, however, it is a targetable audience.
2.2.1.2. Product Related Segmentation
Without listing all the subgroups, typical product-related segmentation
may be along the lines of the following:
Accommodations (from camp grounds to high end wilderness lodges)
Adventure Operators/Organizers (from family adventures and motorcycle
tours to hunting and bird-watching)
Attractions (from museums and theme parks to sports clubs and
festivals) Transportation and Services (from train and van tours to
restaurants and gas stations)
Another product-related segmentation strategy is based on seasons, for
example grouping winter or summer activities. For those with an outdoor
theme the product segmentation is often similar to the above, or even
broader. One promotes the four choices of:
-Land Travel
-Water
-Winter
-Mixed Activities
2.2.1.3. Demand-Based Segmentation
Demographics - Understanding demographics is imperative to product
development and segmentation, especially with regard to understanding
trends in the market place. Demography (the study of age, sex, education,
family status, life cycle etc.) is an excellent tool for product developers
and marketers. The subject therefore plays a key-role in decision-making
regarding demand for tourism products.
Age in particular is an important example. According to Welch & S. Calver,
generally, t he baby-boom generation (born between 1947 and 1966) is of
prime importance due to its size and characteristics. It is well educated
................

with above average income. Here it should be pointed out that this is not
the case in Ohrid and Macedonia because of the income that this
generation receives. The front end is also approaching (within 10 years)
retirement age and will therefore have the money and the time to travel.
The echo generation (children
28

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

of the boomers) are also creating peak demands on certain products and
services. Born between 1980 and 1995, the front end is into their twenties
and taking part in independent, adventure travel. They are also much
more technologically advanced and have been brought up in a generation
with strong concerns for the environment. Other sub sectors and age
cohorts also need to be understood to more effectively communicate with
them.

2.2.1.4. Behavioral Segmentation


Peoples activities, interests and opinions (AIOs) also play a key role in
decision-making and travel habits. These behavioral characteristics (also
known as psychographics), when used in conjunction with demographics,
provide a much stronger marketing tool for tourism businesses and
planners.

By

understanding

peoples

AIOs

and

their

subsequent

motivations, certain sub-groups can be targeted more effectively, as well


as reflected in new product lines.
2.2.2. Targeting
After segments have been identified "target markets must be selected,
those segments which offer them the greatest opportunity. Target
marketing is the decision to identify the different groups that make up a
market and to develop products and marketing mixes for selected target
markets (Kotler, 2008). When determining target markets, consideration
should be given to:
(1)

existing and future sales potential of each segment;

(2)

the amount and strength of competition for each segment;

(3) the ability to offer a marketing mix which will be successful in


attracting each segment;
(4)

the cost of servicing each segment; and

(5) each
segment's
contribution
business/community objectives.

to

accomplishing

overall

It is often wiser to target smaller segments that are presently not being
served, or served inadequately, than to go after larger segments for which
there is a great deal of competition. In that concern, attention should be

driven to researchers in the cultural heritage field, geographers, and


people with special interest in health conservation in natural conditions
and so on.

................

29

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

Given the small size of the local industry, it will only take incremental
increases in visitor volumes to have a significant impact on tourism
revenues. The best opportunities for attracting those visitors are among
regional and short-haul markets, first, because they represent the bulk of
existing visitors and second, because they are much easier to reach and
appeal to.
The long-term outlook for tourism in Ohrid is positive. In the short-term,
the best opportunities are in the regional and short-haul markets,
including Europe touring travelers. Visitors most likely to be attracted to
the region (older-aged, wealthy touring travelers) are looking for
amenities and soft-adventures.
2.2.2.1. Marketing objectives for each target market
Marketing objectives which contribute to the accomplishment of the
overall objectives should be established for each target market. According
to Middleton, V. with Clarke, J. (2001), objectives serve a number of
functions including:
(1) guidance for developing marketing mixes for different target
markets;
(2) information for allocating the marketing budget between target
markets;
(3) a basis for objectively evaluating the effectiveness of the marketing
mixes (setting standards); and
(4)a framework for integrating the different marketing mixes into the
overall marketing plan.
The target market objectives should:
(1)

be expressed in quantitative terms;

(2)

be measurable;

(3)

specify the target market; and

(4)

indicate the time period in which the objective is to be accomplished.

For example, increase the number of overnight stays by people from the
Kosovo market over the next two years by twenty percent.
It is important to rank objectives by priority and carefully evaluate them to
ensure that they are reasonable given the strength of the competition and
resources available for marketing.

................

30

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje


2.2.3. Positioning

Position is a form of market communication that plays a vital role in


enhancing the attractiveness of a tourism destination (DiMingo, 1988).
Here are described the different parts of the positioning process and
applies it to the case of positioning Ohrid on the tourist map.
One of the most effective tools in tourism marketing is positioning. The
objective of positioning is to create a distinctive place in the minds of
potential customers, a position that evokes images of a destination in the
customers mind; images that differentiate the destination from the
competition and also as a place that can satisfy their needs and wants.
Positioning is a communications strategy that is the natural follow-through
of market segmentation and target marketing (DiMingo, 1988). Since
market segmentation is based on the notion that different tourism
destinations appeal to different types of tourists, target market segments
must be selected before tourism marketers can begin to entice these
potential

customers.

competitive

edge

to

An
a

effective
destination

positioning
that

is

strategy
trying

to

provides
convey

a
its

attractiveness to the target market.


The purpose of this part is to discuss the vital role played by positioning in
tourism marketing and to present various approaches to positioning a
tourism destination, i.e. Ohrid. Positioning is more than just image
creation. This important form of market communication helps to
distinguish Ohrid from similar destinations so that customers can choose
Ohrid as the most attractive. Thus, true positioning differentiates a
destination from its competitors on attributes that are meaningful to
customers and gives it a competitive edge. However, this is a complex
process that requires careful analysis of the attributes that Ohrid
possesses and the needs of the target markets. Selection of a positioning
strategy that creates a distinctive place in customers' minds is essential in
preventing the following pitfalls (Lovelock, 1991):
1.Ohrid is forced into a position of competing directly with a stronger
competitor. For example, a destination that is further from the
source of its visitors may be relegated to a secondary or tertiary
level of competition with destinations that are closer to the market.

2.Ohrid's position is so unclear that its target market does not


recognize the message that is being sent to them. This often
happens when a destination tries to be all things to all people.

................

31

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

3.Ohrid has no identity or has a negative image in customers' minds


and does not create customer demand.
2.2.3.1. Effective Positioning
According to the basic principles of marketing, products and services are
created to solve customer "problems" (i.e., to satisfy needs and wants)
and provide benefits. Thus, to be effective, positioning must promise the
benefit the customer will receive, create the expectation, and it offers a
solution to the customer's problem. If at all possible, the solution should
be different from, and better than the competition's solution set,
especially if the competitors are already offering a similar solution
(DiMingo, 1988).
Positioning should be a single-minded concept, an umbrella from which
everything else flows. Properly targeted, single-minded positioning affects
everything a destination does or stands for, not only advertising, but also
all of its promotions. Positioning also affects policies and procedures,
employee attitudes, customer relations, complaint handling, and the
myriad of other details that combine to make the tourism experience.
Tourism services compete on more than just image, differentiation, and
benefits offered. There must be a consistency among the various offerings
and it is the positioning statement that guides this consistency. Likewise,
although positioning can be applied for an entire country, a given area, or
a specific city, tourism officials should develop a consistent message if the
city of Ohrid plans to use one market to generate business for another.
There are two tests of effective positioning. First, the position must be
believable in the tourist's mind. Second, the destination must deliver that
promise on a consistent basis.
2.2.3.2. Positioning Intangibles
One of the biggest challenges faced by tourism marketers is that the
product is largely intangible. Some would argue otherwise, because what
is more important than the hotel room, the meal, the beach, the lake, and
................

the mountains? These are all tangible aspects of the tourism destination.
However, these tangibles are what is being "sold", but not what is being
"marketed". If we were selling beaches or mountains, what difference
would it make where the tourist went, assuming a comparable level of
quality?
'What we are marketing, of course, are intangibles. The tangibles are
essential and necessary but as soon as they reach a certain level of
acceptance, they become secondary.
32

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

Because they are so difficult to differentiate, to be competitive, the


intangibles have to be marketed. Even as tangibles, mountains and
beaches have a measure of intangibility because they are experienced
rather than possessed (Ryan, 2005).
If tourism products are mostly intangible, they have to be marketed with
tangible evidence. This is what is referred to as "tangibilizing the
intangible." However, this is a complicated process. By emphasizing the
concrete elements one may fail to differentiate oneself from the
competition,

and

since

the

intangible

elements

are

abstract,

by

emphasizing the abstract one compounds the intangibility. Thus, the


positioning of Ohrid should focus on enhancing and differentiating
abstract realities by manipulating the tangible clues.
Unfortunately, being aware of this need does not ease the problem. It is
still difficult to find meaningful tangible evidence that supports intangible
constructs. What must be done, is to create a "position" in the tourist's
mind. That is why positioning relies heavily on target marketing. The
mental constructs held by the target market must be known, as well as
the tangible evidence that sustains them. Positioning, then, is a relative
term. It is not simply how the destination is perceived, but how the
perceived image performs in relation to competing images. It is the
customer's mental perception which may, or may not, differ from the
actual physical characteristics. It is most important when, the product is
an intangible and there is little difference among the competition
regarding the physical characteristics.
2.2.3.3. The positioning process
The positioning process consists of the various steps needed to develop
an effective positioning strategy. This process must be continuous to keep
up with changes in the environment including the changing needs of the
customer and the competitors tactics (DiMingo, 1988). Developing a
positioning strategy for Ohrid to attract visitors from the neighboring
countries and Europe will be used as a test case to illustrate the steps in
the positioning process.

2.2.3.4. Market Positioning


Market positioning is the first step and is defined as the process of
identifying and selecting markets or segments that represent business
potential, to determine the criteria for competitive success (DiMingo,
1988). This must be based on a thorough knowledge of the
................

33

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

needs, wants, and perceptions of the target market, along with the
benefits offered by the destination. To do this, a few crucial questions
must be answered. These are:
1.What is important to the target market?
2.How does the target market perceive Ohrid as a destination?
3.How does the target market perceive the competition?
4.What attributes should Ohrid as a destination use to differentiate itself
to make the best use of its limited resources?
The reality of the matter is that if the target market doesn't perceive the
image, the image does not exist. If the target market does not believe
that what the destination has to offer is a benefit, it isn't a benefit. If the
target market doesn't believe that the benefit can be delivered, promises
are meaningless. If the benefit isn't important to the target market, it isn't
important. If the benefit is not perceived as being different from that of
the competition, then differentiation has not succeeded. In short, images,
benefits, and differentiation are solely the perception of the tourist, not
the perceptions of tourism officials or the tourism marketer.
According to observations from the previous experience, the following
shows the top ranked activities identified by foreign visitors:
1. Sightseeing of the lake
2. Shopping
3. Dining out
4. Guided tours
5. Visiting landmarks
6. Taking pictures
7. Beach activities
8. Swimming
9. Visiting galleries.
The three highest ranked activities (Sightseeing of the lake, Shopping, and
Dining out in Restaurants) seem to provide an advantage to Ohrid
because these are readily available. In addition, foreign visitors who are
planning to travel to Ohrid, initially, do not have specific places to visit.
Instead, they search for a trip that has several attributes similar to those
listed below:

Some place where other people went

................

34

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

Reasonable price.
As many places as possible to cover.
Minimum contact with local community.
Good food.
Absolutely free.
Combining these attributes with the top activities listed above, an
indication can be made of the needs of foreign visitors. During the trip
they like to go to places that have been previously visited by others and
where they have opportunities for sightseeing, shopping, and dining. They
are very concerned about personal safety, not interested in associating
with the local community, and like to eat good food.
Market positioning research also requires an evaluation of the image that
customers have for Ohrid as a tourism destination. This can be used to
identify the vital elements which comprise the benefits. The beauty of
Ohrid, the architecture of the city, and the historic artifacts, museum and
cultural heritage as a whole are examples of attributes that may produce
a benefit, or may be a tangible representation of an intangible benefit, but
are not themselves the benefit. The benefit itself is what the attributes do
for the visitor, for instance, a sensation of grandeur, an aura of prestige,
or the gaining of knowledge. The credibility of these benefits may diminish
rapidly if expectations are not fulfilled. The impression of grandeur loses
credibility if visitors feel that their personal safety is threatened. It is the
fulfillment of expectations or the inability to, which creates the perception
of deliverability for the tourist. Benefits, like positioning, exist in the mind
of the customer and are determined only by asking the customer. Only
after this information is obtained, can a destination match its strengths to
the visitors' needs and the benefits sought. This knowledge will also
provide a basis for the development of a credible differentiation strategy.
Then it can be proceeded to the next step in the positioning process,
namely psychological positioning.
2.2.3.5. Psychological Positioning
This step utilizes communications to convey Ohrids identity and image to
the target market. It converts customer needs into images and positions a

destination in the visitors minds.

................

35

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

Psychological positioning is a strategy employed to create a unique


product image with the objective of creating interest and attracting
visitors (DiMingo, 1988). Since it exists solely in the mind of the visitor, it
can occur automatically without any effort on the part of the marketer and
any kind of positioning may result. Two very dissimilar destinations may
be perceived as the same; two similar destinations may be perceived as
different. What the marketer hopes to do is to control the positioning, not
just let it happen. Moreover, failure to select a position in the marketplace,
to achieve, and to hold that position may lead to various consequences,
all undesirable, as pointed out earlier. There are two kinds of psychological
positioning in marketing: objective positioning and subjective positioning.
Each has its appropriate place and usage.
2.2.3.6. Objective Positioning
Objective positioning is concerned, almost entirely, with the objective
attributes of the physical product. It means creating an image about the
destination that reflects its physical characteristics and functional
features. It is usually concerned with what actually is, what exists.
However, objective positioning neednt always to be concrete. It may be
more abstract.
Objective positioning can be very important and is often used in the
tourism industry. If a destination has some unique feature, that feature
may be used to objectively position the destination, to create an image,
and to differentiate it from the competition. If objective positioning is to be
used to position Ohrid among foreign visitors or tour operators any of the
unique scenic landmarks, such as the Ohrid Lake or mountain Galicica,
could be used to show the size and magnitude of these attractions.
However, this needs to be linked with other attributes and expectations of
the foreign visitor including "seeing as many places as possible" and
especially, "where others have been before."
Less successful objective positioning occurs when the feature is not
unique. This is why many destination promotions with pictures of beaches
fail to create a distinct image or successfully differentiate the product.
Other unsuccessful approaches may include a picture of two people

looking at a mountain that looks like any other mountain or lying on a


beach that looks like any other beach. One of the first rules of effective
positioning is uniqueness.

................

36

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje


2.2.3.7. Subjective Positioning

Subjective positioning is concerned with subjective attributes of the


destination. Subjective positioning is the image, not of the physical
aspects of the destination, but other attributes perceived by the tourist,
(i.e., they do not necessarily belong to the destination but to the tourist's
mental perception). These perceptions and the resulting images may not
necessarily

reflect

the

true

state

of

the

destination's

physical

characteristics. They may simply exist in the tourist's mind and not all
tourists' imaging agrees with a particular perception or image. Using the
previous example of the Ohrid Lake or mountain Galicica, subjective
positioning would emphasize the awe-inspiring feelings experienced at
these natural attractions rather than their physical attributes. Thus, a visit
to the Ohrid Lake becomes a far greater experience than viewing the
physical lake formation. What the marketer hopes is that the people in the
target market will agree on a favorable image whether or not the image is
true. This is the test of effective subjective positioning.
2.2.4. Positioning Approaches
This is the final step in the positioning process, and there are several
different approaches to positioning any tourism destination (Aaker and
Shamsby, 1982). 'While psychological positioning creates an image, this
positioning approach completes the picture, using visual and words, to
reinforce what the destination does best and what benefits are offered.
Tourism marketers may decide to select the most appropriate of the
following approaches, depending on the information gathered during
market and psychological positioning.
According to (DiMingo, 1988), the following types of positioning can be
identified:
2.2.4.1. Positioning by attribute, feature, or customer benefit
For this strategy, emphasis is placed on the benefits of the particular
features or attributes of the destination. For example, Thailand promotes
the friendliness of its people with the statement "The world meets in the
land of smiles."

2.2.4.2. Positioning by Price Value


Some tourism destinations are not usually positioned on the basis of price
because lower prices may be perceived as connoting lower quality.
However, value offered

to visitors can be effectively utilized as

exemplified by Malaysia which claims "Malaysia gives more natural


................

37

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

value." With this positioning statement Malaysia is appealing not only to


the sense of value (more for the money) but also to its natural attractions.
2.2.4.3. Positioning with respect to use or application
Here a destination is positioned based on the reasons for visiting it.
Bermuda

positions

itself

to

the

American

meetings

market

with

"Sometimes you have to leave the country to get any work done" which
promises productive meetings in a relaxed environment. Cancun, Mexico
is positioned as "The meeting place for sun worshipers."
2.2.4.4. Positioning according to the users or class of users
In this case, positioning features the people who should visit Ohrid. Hong
Kong appeals to the incentive travel market with the statement 'When
they've reached the top, send them to the peak," referring to Victoria
Peak, a major tourist site in Hong Kong: Fisher Island, a luxury residential
development in Florida, positions itself as the place "where people who
run things can stop running."
2.2.4.5. Positioning with respect to a product class
This technique is often used to associate a destination with experiences
that are extraordinary and/or unique. For example, the Principality of
Monaco is positioned as "The fairy tale that does not end at midnight," or
holding a convention in Thailand is "Smooth as silk where the sky's the
limit, or "If youre looking for an ideal meeting place, here's one that's
close to heaven" for Israel.
2.2.4.6. Positioning vis-a-vis the competition
This approach is used when it is necessary to meet the competition headon; to bring out differences between destinations. This approach is not
used frequently in tourism destination marketing since it may involve
negative statements about another country or region. However, it is
regularly employed in product and services marketing. For example, Visa
credit cards compete with American Express by showing examples of
places from around the world that do not accept American Express and

only Visa cards are accepted. Ritz-Carlton Hotels is a little more subtle
when they say, 'After a day of competition, you deserve a hotel that has
none."

................

38

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

Any of these approaches could be used to position Ohrid in the minds of


foreign visitors. For example, since foreign visitors want to go where other
tourists have already been, positioning according to users or a class of
users may be appropriate. By developing a creative campaign, an
operator can market the fact that many foreign visitors have been to the
Ohrid Lake, and were impressed by its awe-inspiring presence. This may
include testimonials from previous visitors or tour operators who can
make a direct appeal to the target market. However, since the feeling of
awe is an intangible construct, positioning statements must show a
tangible example to illustrate this feeling.
Positioning is the ultimate weapon in niche marketing. Stripped of all its
trappings, positioning analysis answers the following questions:
What position does a destination own now? (In the mind of the target
market.)
'What position does the destination want to own? (Look for positions or
holes in the marketplace.)
'Who must the destination outposition? (Manipulate what's already in
the mind.) How can it be done? (Select the best approach that will
work for the target market.)

Positioning is a valuable weapon for tourism marketers. To position


successfully requires recognizing the marketplace, the competition, and
tourists' perceptions. Positioning analysis on a target market basis
provides the tools to identify opportunities for creating the desired image
that differentiates a destination from its competitors and for serving the
target market better than anyone else.
2.3. Product policy and branding
According to Tribe (2005), the principal products that tourism provides are
recreational experiences and hospitality. The factors that create a quality
recreational experience often differ among people. A quality experience
for one skier might include an un-crowded, steep slope. To another it
might be a good restaurant and a chance to socialize. Decisions on what
facilities, programs and services to provide should be based on the needs
................

and desires of the target market(s). They should not be based on the
preferences of the stakeholders or necessarily on what the competition is
providing.
Recognize that a recreational/tourism experience includes five elements:
trip planning and anticipation; travel to the site/area; the experience at
the site; travel back home; and recollection. Businesses should look for
ways to enhance the quality of the overall
39

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

experience during all phases of the trip. This could be accomplished by


providing trip planning packages which include maps, attractions en route
and on site, and information regarding lodging, food and quality souvenirs
and mementos.
Ohrid should also view its service/product in generic terms. Thinking of
products/services in this manner helps focus more attention on the
experiences desired by customers and also the facilities, programs and
services that will produce those experiences. For example, campgrounds
are the business of providing recreational "lodging" not just campsites to
park an RV or set up a tent. Marinas should provide recreational "boating"
experiences, not just slippage.
2.3.1. Location and Accessibility - Place
Ohrid, like many other tourism destinations fail to recognize their role in
improving travel to and from their areas. They focus instead on servicing
the customer once they arrive at the site/community. A bad experience
getting to or leaving tourism site can adversely affect a person's travel
experience. Ways to help prevent this include (Tribe, 2005):
(1)

providing directions and maps;

(2) providing estimates of travel time and distances from different


market areas;
(3)

recommending direct and scenic travel routes;

(4) identifying attractions and support facilities along different travel


routes; and
(5)

informing potential customers of alternative travel methods to the

area such as airlines and railroads.


2.3.2. Product Development
Ohrid has traditionally been regarded and developed as a beach and
cultural heritage destination. While these are likely to remain its core
tourism products for the immediate future, Ohrid can also offer a wide
range of other tourism products, (such as mountaineering, rock climbing,
diving, etc.), while the richness and variety of its cultural heritage adds a
further dimension to its competitive edge. There are opportunities too for
the further development and promotion of local handicrafts such as wood

carving, painting and drawing on pergament papery which can help to


spread tourism benefits more widely into the local community. Similarly, a
range of eco-tourism and community-based projects

................

40

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

can form part of a diversified and enhanced tourism product, including


home stays, visits to rural villages, cultural heritage research projects, etc.
Potential also exists for spreading tourism to new areas away from the
most-visited and at times crowded destinations to include, for example,
village Velestovo, Skrebatno with good and preserved nature, all apart
from the centre which could be well-positioned to attract business for
meetings, conferences, exhibitions and incentive travel from domestic,
regional and other major source markets (Marinoski, 2001).
On the shore of the lake, policy should be directed towards achieving a
better

balance

between

the

supply

of

and

demand

for

tourist

accommodation in order to halt and eventually reverse the downward


spiraling of revenue, occupancy and service standards. Efforts shall focus
on

reversing

Ohrids

image

of

mass

tourism

and

poor

quality

accommodation, improving operational quality and increasing numbers to


this core product segment. Repositioning Ohrids image as a cultural and
beach destination (also offering adventure, activity and eco-tourism
opportunities) shall help revitalize coastal tourism, leading to a gradual
shift from high volume: low value tourism to higher-value premier tourism.
However, it is recognized that volume is still needed in order to fill beds
and to provide employment.
In addition, free and fair but regulated access for local service providers
will be provided to improve the diversity, quality and pricing of products
locally available to the tourist.
A gradual change from being unknown to distinctive tourism destination,
especially by the lake and cultural heritage must be done, by increasing
demand

through

marketing

recovery

plans;

assessment

of

hotel

properties to see which would benefit from refurbishment; facilitating the


provision of soft loans for refurbishment to three-star standard or higher;
and introducing a moratorium on new development unless high standard
and conformity with planning policy are assured. In the short and medium
term, as Ohrid starts re-building its capacity to deliver high quality and
more diversified tourism products, it shall continue to rely on a blend of
high and low-volume markets. Once demand has recovered sufficiently,
and facilities and services have been improved, prices can gradually be

raised to a level sufficient to attract a higher value tourist clientele.


Quality of products should be emphasized at every stage of product
development and the related services.

................

41

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

A clear identification of product opportunities and market requirements


highlight strength and weaknesses, enable appropriate market positioning
and product development strategies and therefore maximize resource
allocation. It also focuses spatial planning and identification of investment
opportunities (Tribe, 2005).
The key product opportunities for Ohrid are: Sun and lake; diving; ecotourism; adventure; culture and entertainment. These products are based
upon three broad themes:
Water-based tourism experiences;
Nature based tourism experiences; and
People and urban environment based experiences.
These themes will also provide the platform for product development and
tourism marketing (Tribe, 2005).
In order to compete internationally Ohrid must upgrade its current
provision of products and services and aim new product development at
international standards.
It should be taken into consideration areas for tourism development
targeted at a broad range of international, regional and domestic markets,
and allocate resources accordingly.
The following should be realized:
Support for repackaging and quality improvement of existing poorly
planned facilities including the upgrading and refurbishing of coastal
resorts accommodation and other products;
Support for eco-tourism as a development priority, including promotion
of the eco-tourism as a products; and
Support for the improvement of design, marketing and packaging skills
of craft producers; co-operatives product development.
2.3.3. Valorization of Cultural Heritage
Tourism can be a tool to preserve cultural values and to increase national
civic pride in culture and heritage by embracing the direct and indirect
utilitarian values, recreational and aesthetic values and intrinsic spiritual

and ethical values of cultural assets (Tribe, 2005). Ohrid has a rich and
unique cultural diversity.

................

42

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

Its people and the tangible and intangible historical-cultural heritage


inform Ohrids cultural identity that implicitly adds value to the Ohrid
tourism experience. Strategic positioning of cultural elements alongside
the nature based tourism experiences (e.g. beach, wildlife and scenic
beauty) will build the strength of Ohrid as a tourism destination.
The cultural resources of Ohrid should be effectively promoted and that
will increase the awareness among nationals and tourists about cultural
values and places of historical and cultural importance and will position
culture as a key feature in the tourism experience. Also, it should be
followed by:
Working in close collaboration with the Ministry of Culture, conserve,
develop and promote Ohrids cultural heritage as an integral part of the
tourism product;
Facilitate and undertake co-ordinated research into all aspects of the
countrys cultural heritage;
Facilitate the establishment of legislation to protect the countrys
cultural patrimony; and
Seek corporate sponsorship and other funding for the restoration and
conservation of historic and cultural sites.
2.3.4. Branding
During the past years, people were not aware that Ohrid has the potential
and resources to become brand recognizable in the region, in Europe and
even worldwide. Because of that, so little was done in order to create and
increase the awareness amongst people about the Ohrid brand. Its cultural,
natural heritage, unspoiled nature and certainly the Ohrid Lake are more than
enough to create an image and brand that would be highly recognizable.
Maybe, thats because the term brand is often misunderstood. The term
destination brand is used to refer to a destinations competitive identity.
It is what makes a destination distinctive and memorable. It differentiates the
destination from all others. It is the foundation of the destinations
international competitiveness. This is one postulate that Ohrid must refer to
and use it on the national and international market as well. It is so because
the destination brand represents the

core essence

and

enduring

characteristics of a destination. A destination can change its moods and the


way in which it presents itself to different market segments. But its core
brand characteristics, like someones personality, are essentially always the
same. Ohrid Lake, the cultural heritage and the untouched nature are the
DNA

................

43

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

that defines Ohrid as a destination. It should run through every act of


marketing communication and behavior by the Government and the
destinations stakeholders. Also, the above said as a representative of the
destination brand represents a dynamic interaction between the
destinations core assets and the way in which potential visitors perceive
them. It really only exists in the eyes of others. It is the sum of their
perceptions, feelings and attitudes towards the destination, based on the
way in which they have experienced Ohrid or on how it has presented
itself to them.
A destination brand generally cannot be manufactured like a consumer
product brand. It inherits its core assets: its landscape, people, culture
and history. It exists in the way in which these assets are perceived by
potential visitors and the emotional value they attach to experiencing
them (Ryan, 2002).
2.3.4.1. Ohrid brand development process
What needs to be done is to follow the brand development process in
order to improve the image that Ohrid has and by that create a brand for
Ohrid as a destination. It can be said that branding is for everyone. It is
not the preserve of high-spending destinations. All destinations can, and
should, develop a brand, regardless of the size of their marketing budgets.
Destination

brand

communications,

values

whether

should
simple

run

website

through

all

pages,

public

marketing
relations

messages or expensive TV advertising. Ohrid should focus on its core


market segments when developing a brand. Their perception will define
the brands core characteristics. It is therefore essential to understand
how

they

perceive

Ohrid

through

targeted

consumer

research.

Qualitative research is the most effective way to identify consumer


perceptions of the destination. Peoples psychological needs and travel
motivation must be explored in sufficient depth to reveal their true
motivation for travel, identify the experiences they are seeking, and to
understand what kind of destination would satisfy them. This requires
much deeper psychological investigation than merely establishing visitors
likes and dislikes. Also, stakeholders (e.g. political, commercial, travel

businesses and residents) should be involved from the outset in


developing the brand. This is the best way to obtain their buy-in to the
concept, as well as secure their active participation as advocates of the
brand in how they talk about the destination and how they behave
towards visitors. This can also reinforce national/civic pride amongst
residents. A fine balance is required to enable the creative flexibility

................

44

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

necessary to appeal to different market segments while still maintaining a


coherent destination brand that is universally recognizable.
Today, every city that has intention to become well known brand must
compete with every other for its share of the worlds commercial, political,
social and cultural transactions in what is virtually a single market. As in
any busy marketplace, brand image becomes critical: almost nobody has
the time, the patience or the expertise to understand the real differences
between the offerings of one destination and another, and so people fall
back on their fundamental beliefs and prejudices about those destinations
to help them make their decisions. Just as in the commercial marketplace
that brand image provides a short cut to an informed buying decision
(Ryan, 2002).
Destinations with a reputation for being poor, uncultured, backward,
dangerous or corrupt will find that everything they or their citizens try to
achieve outside their own neighborhood is harder (among which Ohrid is
seen at the moment), while destinations that are lucky or virtuous enough
to have acquired a positive reputation find everything easier. Their brand
goes before them like a calling card that opens doors, creates trust and
respect, and raises the expectation of quality, competence and integrity.
In this way, the reputation of a destination has a direct and measurable
impact on just about every aspect of its engagement with other
destinations, and plays a critical role in its economic, social, political and
cultural progress.
For the travel and tourism industry, destination image is fundamentally
important. The tourist stakeholders need to sell the destination i.e. Ohrid
to a vast international audience of ordinary consumers as well as a highly
informed professional cadre of tour operators and other influencers, and
the background reputation of the destination ultimately determines
whether that selling process is easy or difficult, expensive or cheap,
simple or complex and whether it gets gradually easier and more
efficient over time, or whether it remains forever a struggle. A
destinations reputation determines whether its messages are welcomed,
and whether they are believed.
................

This is the reason why the concept of destination branding has become so
important. The idea of brand equity sums up the idea that if a place,
product or service acquires a positive, powerful and solid reputation, this
becomes an asset of enormous value probably more valuable, in fact,
than all its tangible assets, because it represents the ability of the place or
organization to continue to trade at a healthy margin for as long as its
brand image stays
45

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

intact. Brand equity also represents the permission given by a loyal


consumer base for the destination to continue producing and developing
its product range, innovating, communicating and selling to them (Ryan,
2002).
Put simply, a destination with a powerful and positive image needs to do
less work and spend less money on promoting itself to the marketplace,
because the marketplace already believes what it is telling them. It merely
has to help buyers find and purchase the product. This is the target for
Ohrid in the distant future.
But destinations with powerful brands have a different task, one that
destinations with weak brands do not have. Just like any respected
corporation, a highly regarded place has a big responsibility to ensure that
the reality always lives up to its reputation. Indeed, in order to protect
itself against competitors, such a place must exceed expectations
through constant innovation. This task can of course be just as costly and
just as challenging as building a reputation in the first place, but having a
good reputation means already created positive mental image and trust in
the perception of current and potential customers.
2.4. Pricing policy
According to Scott, N., Parfitt, N. & Laws, E. (2000), price is one of the
most important and visible elements of the marketing mix. When setting
prices it is important to take into consideration all of the following:
(1)

business and target market objectives;

(2)

the full cost of producing, delivering and promoting the product;

(3) the willingness of the target market to pay for the product or service
you provide;
(4) prices charged by competitors offering a similar product/service to the
same target market(s);
(5)the availability and prices of substitute products/services (for example,
campgrounds, motels, and bed and breakfast are all substitutes for
lodging);
(6)

the economic climate (local and national); and

(7)the possibility of stimulating high profit products/services (such as


boats) by offering related services (such as maintenance) at or below

cost.
Destination competition within the tourism economy represents the ability
of reaching market success through constant adaptation to changes on
the global tourism market. The notion "competition advantage" is mostly
connected to the price and quality of goods.

................

46

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

Today, the basis for successful business operations of a destination within


the tourism economy is found in acceptable price, suitable goods quality,
understanding and satisfying the needs of tourists and in the application
of information technology.
The price is not the only factor of competition advantage of a company on
the tourism market, but it also represents an unavoidable and crucial
factor. The competition based on the price is becoming more and more
present due to different elasticity of tourism demand of certain segments.
The price is one of the most significant phenomena of every economy. It
represents one of the marketing mix instruments which should enable the
realization of business goals when combined with other marketing mix
instruments. The price is an instrument (tool) and not the goal of
marketing activity. In the marketing theory, prices are studied as a
significant means of competition and unavoidable instrument of marketing
activity.
2.4.1. Ohrids price policy on the tourism market
When establishing prices, it should be given attention to pricing strategies
which may encourage off season and non-peak period sales, longer stays,
group business, and the sale of package plans (combination of room,
meals, and recreational facilities). This especially is important for Ohrid
and must be implemented in practice.
The policy of forming prices chosen for a tourism product is often in direct
connection with the future tourism demand (Scott, N., Parfitt, N. & Laws,
E., 2000). Determining the right price is also crucial for the profitability of
a tourism destination, i.e. Ohrid. Reaching decisions on price formation is
considered to be the most difficult in relation to decisions dealing with the
other marketing mix instruments. That is why, when forming prices of a
tourism product, one should take into account the complexity created by
the seasonal character of demand and the impossibility to stock a tourism
product. Reducing tourism product prices has a greater influence on the
consumption than average price reduction in the majority of other sectors.
Also there are significant differences among segments within tourism,
................

such as between tourists who travel for business or personal reasons. The
stated segments have different elasticity of demand and price sensitivity
is conditioned by different factors.
Tourism product price is formed depending on the seasonal business, type
and category of accommodation and additional elements such as
atmosphere, location and the like (Scott,
47

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

N., Parfitt, N. & Laws, E., 2000). Hotels in tourism destination form prices
so that they are the highest during the peak season and significantly low
during the low season. This statement represents a kind of paradox
because prices are the highest when demand is the greatest, whereas in
low season when the intensity of using the capacities decreases, prices
are significantly lower. The price in tourism economy is an extremely
important

element

which

determines

consumer

preferences

and

represents the means for competition on the tourism market.


According to Scott, N., Parfitt, N. & Laws, E., (2000), the focus of interest is
how the increase or decrease of a price influences the intensity of tourism
demand. The price increase in tourism service, primarily the basic tourism
services of accommodation, catering and travel expenses, negatively
reflects on the dynamics and intensity degree of tourism services
demand. When defining the price policy, companies in the tourism
economy should specifically and cautiously delve into the influence of the
degree of demand elasticity for tourism services in relation to price
movement, that is to say, delve into the influence of this elasticity on
different groups of tourism service consumers and the time period in
which these price changes are being done with extreme cautiousness.
Also, when defining the price policy, one must not neglect a relevant fact
that there is a possibility to substitute tourism services with other
destinations of the tourism economy which can have a negative influence
on their business and competition position. What is specific about the
tourism demand in Ohrid is its heterogeneity, with the needs of their
bearers on one hand and the possibility to meet those needs on the other.
This fact is extremely important for conducting and conceptualizing an
adequate business policy especially when it comes to consumer i.e. tourist
segmentation into smaller homogenous groups with the obligation to
respect certain specific points and variables which serve as the basis for
their segmentation according to different characteristics.
2.5. Promotion policy
Promotion provides target audiences with accurate and timely information
to help them decide whether to visit Ohrid. According to Gretzel, U., Yuan,

Y-L. & Fesenmaier, D. (2000), the information should be of importance and


practical use to the potential or existing visitor and also accurate.
Misrepresentation

often

leads

to

dissatisfied

customers

and

poor

recommendations. Don't make claims you cannot live up to.

................

48

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

Developing a promotional campaign is not a science with hard and fast


rules. Making decisions regarding which type or combination of promotion
types to use (personal selling, advertising, sales promotions, or publicity)
is not always easy. If, however, a logical process is being followed and the
necessary research done, chances for success will be improved. It will be
necessary to make decisions regarding:
(1)

Target audience---the group Ohrid is aiming at;

(2) Image---that which your community or business wants to create or


reinforce;
(3)

Objectives---those of the promotional campaign;

(4)

Budget---the amount of money available for promotion;

(5)

Timing---when and how often should promotions appear;

(6)Media---which methods (television, radio, newspaper, magazine) will


most effectively and efficiently communicate the message to the target
audience; and
(7) Evaluation---how can the effectiveness of the promotional campaign
be determined.
2.5.1. Sales and Promotion
Sales promotion consists of short- term incentives to encourage the
purchase or sales of a product/service. In order to follow our project
objective which is tourism, in this part we will discuss briefly about how
promotion is linked to tourism in general, whether and how promotion is
influencing tourism? We are all aware of the fact that due to this current
financial crisis, the number of incoming guests is diminishing. Tourism is a
source of income in some countries today. Cumulative attraction, an
accepted principle in tourism development, says that a cluster of
proximate facilities is likely to result in greater visitation (Gretzel, U., Yuan,
Y-L. & Fesenmaier, D., 2000).

................

49

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

According to previous experience, here is a list with how Ohrid should


promote and improve its current tourism status?
Advertise

through

radios,

television,

magazines,

newspapers,

brochures and many others;


Encourage internal tourism the very important part of internal
tourism is internal consumption.
Preserve the existing attractions
Improve on accommodation and health services in order to attract
the tourists.
Train tour guides and hotel workers for easy communication and
good service
Improve on transport facilities by purchasing modern tour vehicles,
and modernize roads to tourist attractions.
Organize package tours and improve on security in order to promote
peace hence tourist attractions.
Publicize the country - build up an attractive and interesting website
2.5.2. Public Relations
According to Gretzel, U., Yuan, Y-L. & Fesenmaier, D. (2000), public
relations involves building good relations with the citys various publics by
obtaining favorable publicity, building up a good image, and handling or
heading off unfavorable rumors, stories and events.
Success in todays competitive market place requires commitment and
dedication to the complete traveler experience visitors perception and
feelings about a destination must be positive to ensure their continuing
loyalty and affection. Third party endorsement, through strategic and
effective public relation, is critical to the success of Ohrid hotels,
attractions, destinations, transportations modes and restaurants.
PR opportunities for individual properties

................

50

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

In order Ohrid to improve its tourism as a whole, the town itself in order to
increase the current attractiveness of the tourism should definitely
consider undertaking these particular measures:
1.The stakeholders in Ohrid are isolating minimal funds for the roads. If
you want tourists to come in Ohrid and spend a lot of money hiring
cars. The roads are scary. It doesnt give a good impression of a
well-run country.
2.Wadding of proper sign posts to all tourist attractions and beaches.
There is nothing worse than driving around aimlessly trying to find
something.
3.Give incentives to people and encourage them to start quality and
innovative tourist attractions and thereby increase the number of
tourists.
4.Upgrading and enrichment of the service quality within the tourism
sector all over
Ohrid in the hotels, bars, restaurants, tourist attractions etc
everywhere that serves or deals with people. Every day we can hear
rumors and complaints about the attitudes and bad manners of
people working in the service industry in Ohrid.
5.Tourism oriented, not guests origin.
2.5.3. Direct Marketing
Nowadays, majority of travelers research on the internet before they buy,
and most of them, now actually make their purchase online. Hotels and
restaurants owners in Ohrid should focus more on direct marketing,
without using traditional channels such as TV, newspapers and radio. They
should start practicing direct marketing, concentrate on direct mail shots
to group travel organizers, informing agencies worldwide and potential
customers online about what Ohrid is offering this summer and why
tourist should visit this particular town. By implementing this direct

marketing program hotels and tourism businesses in Ohrid can certainly


bring a significant growth of revenues and provide an outstanding return
of their investment.

................

51

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

2.5.4. Personal Selling


Because of the inseparable nature of tourism and service providers,
organizational front staff (receptionist, travel consultants, etc) in Ohrid
should capitalize on the promotional tool of personal selling. Staff should
be trained in the relevant techniques, such up-selling and cross-selling. All
front line staff in hotels and restaurants should know the prices of services
and products. Its important that consumer can identify frontline
employees, usually achieved by the use of well-designed and attractive
uniforms.
2.5.5. Sponsorship Tourism
The key to successful tourism sponsorship is finding a property that ties
you citys assets, marketing message, and target audiences interest
together. In our case, we can link sponsorship with the various summer
events that Ohrid is hosting, such as volleyball contests which was
sponsored by our University, American College Skopje and the winners
were awarded with scholarships from UACS. This tournament not only
helps the volleyball as a sport but also helps Ohrid and needs to become
an annual event. Despite of the sport happenings, there is also the Ohrid
Summer Festival which managed through the past 49 years to gain its
affirmation as one of the most important cultural manifestations in Ohrid
and in the Republic of Macedonia.
2.6. Distribution and sales policy
Distribution channels are increasingly regarded as one of the most critical
elements in marketing, as they determine the competitiveness and
profitability of organizations. Tourism distribution channels attract more
attention by contemporary researchers and strategists. Their purpose is
twofold: to provide information for prospective tourists and intermediaries
as well as to establish a mechanism which would enable consumers to
make, confirm and pay for reservations. In tourism, the position of the
distribution sector is much stronger: trade intermediaries (travel agents
and tour operators of course, but also charter brokers, reservation
systems and other travel distribution specialists) have a far greater power

to influence and to direct demand than their counterparts in other


industries do. Since they do, in fact, control demand, they also have
increased bargaining power in their relations with suppliers of tourist
services and are in a position to influence their pricing, their product
policies and their promotional activities.

................

52

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

Several scholars attempt to define the tourism distribution channel


concept. Middleton (1994) proposes that a distribution channel is any
organized and serviced system, created or utilized to provide convenient
points of sale and/or access to consumers, away from the location of
production and consumption, and paid for out of marketing budgets.
However, this definition ignores the promotional and marketing research
activities undertaken by the channels, while it underestimates their
information provision function. It also excludes local outlets, such as box
offices or incoming travel agencies at destinations. Furthermore, McIntosh
defines tourism distribution channels, as an operating structure, system
or linkages of various combinations of travel organization, through which a
producer of travel products describes and confirms travel arrangements to
the buyer (Mill and Morrison, 1985). The promotional element is still
ignored but, the information provision function is highlighted. Moreover,
the World Tourism Organization (WTO, 2001) suggests that a distribution
channel can be described as a given combination of intermediaries who
co-operate in the sale of a product. It follows that a distribution system
can be and in most instances is composed of more than one distribution
channel, each of which operates parallel to and in competition with other
channels.
Several generic functions and benefits are therefore enhanced by the
tourism distribution channel, as illustrated in Figure 1. Consumers may
purchase various components directly from producers, while numerous
distribution and sales intermediaries are involved in promoting and
distributing the tourism product. There are endless variations of the
tourism distribution channel, depending on each particular industry
structure and external environment. Often ad-hock partnerships are
established between channel members to satisfy specific demand or to
provide services requested by consumers. The literature often refers to
two different types of intermediaries, i.e., tour operators (wholesalers) and
outgoing travel agencies (retailers). Leisure tourism distribution channels
normally include some more members. For example, incoming/handling
travel agencies based at destinations undertake the handling of incoming
................

groups.

Moreover,

national

or

regional

tourist

organizations

and

Destination Management Organizations are used by both tourists and


travel

trade

classification
promotion,

for

additional

and

inspection

and

special

information,
of

tourism

arrangements.

support
products,

Furthermore,

documentation,
co-operation
a

number

in
of

organizations offer ancillary services and may also be considered as


tourism

distribution

channel

members.

These

include

specialty

intermediaries, clubs, credit card


53

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

companies, special privileged user cards, societies, religious groups and


organizations (Mill and Morrison, 1985; Middleton, 1994).
Middleton (1994) highlights that paradoxically, the inability in travel and
tourism to create physical stocks of products, adds to rather than reduces
the importance of the distribution process. In marketing practice, creating
and manipulating access for consumers is one of the principal ways to
manage demand for highly perishable products. Contemporary channels
not only distribute tourism products, but also influence all the other
elements of the marketing mix. For example, channels often determine
the price by assessing real-time demand and available supply; manipulate
and formulate tourism products by combining and tailoring products
according to customers needs and wishes; and finally facilitate promotion
by targeting specific markets and establishing communication. Hence,
tourism distribution decisions are critical for tourism enterprises, as they
influence their entire marketing mix.
Suitable intermediaries should be utilized by suppliers, as they influence
both branding and image of tourism products. Tourism distribution
channels vary according to products, industry structures and countries.
Although similar principles normally apply there are several significant
differences which prevent generalizations.
Table 3. Functions of the tourism distribution channel
Identify
consumers
needs,
requests
and
expected
experiences
Assemble tourism products from different providers according
to customer expectations
Provision of coordinated and seamless tourism products
Facilitate the selling process by reserving and issuing travel
documents
Reduction of prices by negotiating and pre-purchasing tourism
products in bulk
Ameliorate inventory management by managing demand and
supply
Issue and deliver travel documentation, i.e., ticketing,
vouchers, etc.
Assessment of quality of facilities and products
Assistance in legal requirements for consumers (e.g., visas)
and suppliers
Facilitate communications between consumers and suppliers
especially in multilingual and multicultural environments
Reduce the perceived risk for consumers

Provision of information by using leaflets, maps, brochures,


video, CDs
Consumers guidance/advice/consultation
Undertake pre- and post- experience marketing research
Facilitation of access to often remote tourism products, for
both bookings and purchasing

................

54

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

Establish a clearing system where each channel member


receives payments for their services
Spreading the commercial risk involved between channel
members
Arranging details and ancillary services, such as insurance,
visa, currency, etc.
Assume risk when pre-purchasing tourism products
Promotion of particular products or packages, in co-operation
with suppliers
Promotion of distressed capacity in low period and at the last
minute
Complaint handling for both customers and industry
Source: World Tourism Organisation (2000). Marketing tourism
destinations online: strategies for the information age. P.93
2.6.1. Distributing Ohrid tourism product
No matter how impressive Ohrid products are, their success relies on
customers knowing that they exist in the marketplace. Choosing the most
effective distribution system to reach and then sell to the target
audiences will help Ohrid succeed.
Edgell, D. L., Ruf, K. & Agarwal, A. (1999) have developed several
distribution systems which are explained below and applicable in the
situation with Ohrid.
2.6.2. Distributionsystems
A distribution system uses a variety of channels/intermediaries to not only
raise product profile but also extend the points of sale, so that purchases
can be made in locations other than the actual point of operation.
An efficient product distribution strategy should facilitate product sales in
advance of their actual use. This is significant if the target audiences
include international visitors travelling on a structured pre-paid itinerary;
or domestic travelers who prefer to confirm their itineraries prior to travel.
2.6.3. Compilinga distribution strategy
Analyzing which distribution channels will be the most profitable is crucial
to an effective distribution strategy. Major considerations include:
How do the target markets currently purchase t h i s type of product and
how does Ohrid go about establishing a relationship with them?

What distribution methods would appeal to and reach t he identified


audiences?
What sort of costs will be incurred by using these particular distributors?

................

55

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

Are these proposed distributors enthusiastic about Ohrids product, and


potentially good sales ambassadors?
Are these proposed distributors familiar with the product that Ohrid offers?
If not, what are the costs involved in developing product familiarity?
What sort of incentive Ohrid offers a distributor to encourage sales of
itsproduct? (An over-ride commission, i.e. an additional 2-3% on top of
existing commission rates.)
2.6.4. Commondistribution methods
Distribution channels are dependent on target markets. One option may
include working with intermediaries like wholesalers; or more simply,
using promotional material to not only spread the word about the product
but to serve as a sales tool.
2.6.5. Affiliations with booking agents
Establishing a relationship with an existing tourism based booking agency
selling a range of local tourism product can be a cost efficient distribution
channel. These agents are used by travel planners (wholesalers, inbound
tour operators etc.) and directly by individuals.
2.6.6. Direct sales through the Internet
Many independent travelers conduct extensive destination research prior
to travel. In particular the younger traveler (backpacker for example)
regularly uses the Internet for this purpose. Consider investigating the
costs, resources and security measures required to establish a website on
the Internet; or alternatively to advertise or establish links with major
tourism authorities websites. As part of this process i t s h o u l d b e
considered how the user will find Ohrid on the Internet and the most
obvious means of searching for its product. The Internet is developing as a
useful promotion tool, as well as an additional direct booking and sales
facility.
2.6.7. Distributors and their commission rates
Commission rates paid to tourism intermediaries vary depending on the

channel of distribution, and are only paid after a sale of your product is
made. Industry standards for commissions paid from the usual retail price
are generally
10-15% of the retail price for retail agents

................

56

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje


20-25% of the retail price for wholesalers
25-30% of the retail price for inbound operators

Inbound operators receive this level of commission to pay overseas


intermediaries on your behalf, and to allow for their own profit margin.
2.6.8. Thelink between distribution and promotion
The extent of the sales relies not only on the most effective distribution of
sales intermediaries but also associated product promotions and where
these are distributed. Promotions must be placed in locations that
guarantee extensive exposure to the target markets. If compiled and
distributed effectively advertising, brochures, and publicity featured in
targeted publications (including travel guide books and maps) can
successfully project the product and stimulate sales.
Figure 1. Distribution Channel Options between International
Traveler and the Ohrid Travel
Industry
Located in International
marketplace

Located in
Ohridmarketplace

Option 1
Traveler

Retail Travel
Agent

Tour Wholesaler

Retail Travel
Agent

Tour Wholesaler

Inbound Tour
Operator

Travel Supplier (up to 30%


commission)

Option 2
Traveler
Option 3
Traveler

Travel Supplier (up to 20%


commission)

Retail Travel
Agent

Travel Supplier (10%


commission)

Option 4
Traveler

Travel Supplier (no commission)

Option 5
Traveler
Option 6
Traveler

Retail Travel Agent

Travel Supplier (10%


commission)
Travel Supplier (no commission)

Source: Edgell, D. L., Ruf, K. & Agarwal, A. (1999). Strategic


marketing planning for the tourism industry p. 111-120

................

57

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje


3. Comparative study with Bled

The motives and desires for tourist travel that occur in humans can be
achieved only if there are objective (leisure, means) and subjective
conditions. Those conditions moving into the factors rise if people become
tourists, and they could work towards developing tourism. They are
spacious, natural and anthropogenic factors. The spatial environment
factors that make tourist-geographical position, natural factors as
elements

(relief,

climate,

hydrographic,

flora

and

fauna),

and

anthropogenic factors are mainly the result of human activities (cultural


and

historical

monuments,

ethnographic

values,

art

works)

and

socioeconomic achievement (settlements, communications, economic


aspects, etc.). Of all the factors referred to specifically important, and
often constitute the main prerequisite for tourism development in a
certain space: spatial (tourist-geographical position) and natural factors
(Laws, 1995).
3.1. Tourist-geographical position
According to Marinoski (2001), the tourist-geographical position especially
towards the emitive countries is very important because if the other
motives are on the same level, tourists will travel to the nearest tourist
destination. In that way, the parameters regarding the most emitive zones
should be monitored constantly in order to get more information and
knowledge about the habits and manners of the travelers from those
countries.
3.1.1. Macedonia and Ohrid
The main determinant of the value of the geopolitical position of the
Republic of Macedonia, which covers an area of 25.713 km2 is its position
in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula, with many favorable attributes
in many spatial components of regional and international links. The
territory of the Republic of Macedonia has expressed very important
natural factors visible through heterogeneous mosaic of relief, various
climatic conditions, numerous hydrographic facilities, diverse flora and
fauna and many interesting motifs in particular anthropogenic cultural-

historical and ethnographic motives, values the diversity created as


settlements, tourist facilities, and communications and so on. These
factors offer great opportunities for development of various tourism
activities throughout the year (Marinoski, 2001).

................

58

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

In the development of the tourism in Macedonia, still insufficient benefits


from the advantages provided by tourist-geographical position for more
intense development of tourist flows are present. In this respect
insufficient opportunities are used to connect to all neighboring countries,
despite very favorable transit flows and created favorable political
relations. Through the middle part of the Republic goes international line
which starts from S. and SW. which goes to Europe and the Middle East
and S. Africa. Wider importance has the transversal line that connects the
Adriatic and the Black Sea and our best winter sports centers and tourist
attractions that in Europe there is evident interest for. These are
potentials that the Republic has and can be a great opportunity for
tourism development. It is assumed that in future a large part of the
European tourist flows will be directed largely towards the Mediterranean
coasts respectively to the warm seas. Within this area important tourist
motives are our natural lakes: Ohrid, Prespa and Dojran. Similar trends are
expected among the domestic tourists, i.e. the domestic tourist market
demand.
According to Marinoski, (2001), Republic of Macedonia has a very
important geopolitical and international interregional position expressed
with particular predisposition for the development of transit tourism.
Towards this I would add the obvious great interest in Europe and
especially mountain winter sports centers about this issue. In this sense
for many European tourists especially those from highly industrialized and
urbanized areas will be a significant desire for their discovery of many
new areas, especially those who are still in original condition (preserved)
and naturalness with which we have a large number, and of different
nature.
Today the Republic of Macedonia regarding the emitive areas is still very
remote. It is one of restrictive factors for development of tourism.
However, the impact factor can easily be overcome by improving
transport links (Marinoski, 2001).
Macedonia may have major constellations in European tourist perspective.
It is assumed that the interest and application areas with special natural
................

beauty, areas preserved in a natural state and unpolluted areas in


Western Europe will be over there because they will have less and less. It
is therefore very important how to organize and use the space for
development of tourism and recreation and how to make sense and skills
to perform excellent for this kind of purpose which may at any time be
outstanding impetus for the development of foreign tourism. From this
comes the geo-political situation of the Republic of Macedonia in
functional terms can be estimated as: transit, contacts and polyvalent.
The
59

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

fact that about 14 million passengers with about 8 million foreign tourists
a

year

transit

through

the

country

in

certain

periods

of

time,

unambiguously confirms the conclusion that it has a large tourist-transit


function. It is assumed that the realization of all transit corridors in the
country regarding travel will become even more frequent.
The contact geopolitical position of the Republic of Macedonia is also
reflected by the openness of all its external borders because today there
are good neighborly relations with all neighboring countries. It is also a
positive element for successful tourism development and opportunities for
further development of near the border kind of tourism.
Polyvalence of tourism is reflected in the diversity of our territory
(dynamic terrain, diverse climate, hydrographic, flora and fauna, rich
landscape, cultural and historical monuments, etc.). It is significant that
on such little space, there is a large concentration of numerous and
diverse tourism resources with complexity and attractiveness which offer
a high degree of charm and great opportunities to develop more types of
tourism.
Ohrid is doubtless one of the most attractive tourist cities in Republic of
Macedonia, with population of 41.146 inhabitants. It's built over the
northeast coast of the Lake of Ohrid, on altitude above sea level of 693750m, in the southwest part of the Republic.
But, beside its peripheral position, it's said that all roads lead to Ohrid.
The city is connected to all important highway directions in the country.
We can reach Ohrid from Skopje by three main communication lines:
Skopje-Tetovo-Gostivar-Kicevo-Ohrid;

Skopje-Tetovo-Gostivar-Mavrovo-

Debar-Ohrid and Skopje-Veles-Prilep-Bitola-Resen-Ohrid. The first one is


the shortest, long 168 km. The most attractive is the second one, which
leads through the valley of one of the most vivid rivers on the Balkan, the
river Radika.
The point that gives the city the attribute of most affirmative tourist
centre, besides other values, is the beautiful Lake Ohrid. This lake is really
the most valuable pearl not only on the Balkan, but in Europe too. The city
and the Lake Ohrid are localities under protection of UNESCO (Marinoski,
2001).

3.1.2. Slovenia and Bled


According to Benedik, (2003), Slovenia is situated in Central Europe
touching the Alps and bordering the Mediterranean. The Alps including
the Julian Alps, the Kamnik-Savinja Alps and the Karavanke chain, as well
as the Pohorje massif dominate Northern Slovenia along

................

60

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje


its

long

border

to

Austria.

Slovenia's

Adriatic

coastline

stretches

approximately 43 km (27 mi) from Italy to Croatia.


The term "Karst" originated in southwestern Slovenia's Karst Plateau
(Slovene: Kras), a limestone region of underground rivers, gorges, and
caves, between Ljubljana and the Mediterranean.
On the Pannonian plain to the East and Northeast, toward the Croatian
and Hungarian borders, the landscape is essentially flat. However, the
majority of Slovenian terrain is hilly or mountainous, with around 90% of
the surface 200 meters or more above sea level.
Slovenia has submediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate
with mild to hot summers and cold winters on the plateaux and in the
valleys to the east. Precipitation is high away from the coast, with the
spring being particularly prone to rainfall. Slovenia's Alps have frequent
snowfalls during the winter.
A short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region adjacent to
Italy and Austria, mixed mountain and valleys with numerous rivers to the
east.
There is only one natural island in Slovenia: Bled Island in Lake Bled in the
country's northwest.
With immense natural beauty, Bled, together with its surroundings, ranks
among the most beautiful alpine resorts, renowned for its mild, healing
climate and thermal lake water. The beauty of the mountains reflected on
the lake, the sun, the serenity and the fresh air arouse pleasant feelings in
visitors throughout the year, guaranteeing an ideal base or a relaxing
break or an active holiday. Bled attracts businessmen, artists, athletes,
explorers, sport enthusiasts, the old and the young, from all over the
world, enchanting them to return again and again.
Basic information
Altitude: 501 m., Castle Hill: 604 m., Mt. Straa: 646 m. Number of
inhabitants: 5476. Tourist capacity: approximately 5000 beds. Lake:
altitude 475 m, length 2120 m, width 1380 m, area 144 ha, maximum
depth 30.6 m, maximum annual water temperature is 26C.
Climate
Bled's is a mild, healthy sub-Alpine climate with the longest swimming

season of any Alpine resort. The ridges of the Julian Alps and the
Karavanke protect it from the chilly northern winds. During the summer
months there is no fog. The average monthly temperature in July

................

61

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

is 19C and in January -1.7C (Naravnogeografske znacilnosti Bleda,


accessed June 2 2010, http://www.bled.si/default.asp?id=855).
3.1.3. Comparison of the tourist-geographical position of Ohrid
and Bled
As for the first point of this comparative study it can be concluded that
both countries Macedonia and Slovenia are surrounded with mountains
from all sides; dont have terrain under sea-side, but both have a pearl of
a city. For Macedonia that is Ohrid, and for Slovenia that is Bled. It is a fact
that the infrastructure is much more developed in Slovenia and therefore
the transitness is on much higher level. Macedonia on the other hand has
low quality of infrastructure, low level of transitness and as an implication
low income and multiplicative function.
Ohrid on the other hand is easily accessible via three different roads, but
the infrastructure is on the low level of quality. Improvements are needed
urgently. The geographical position of Ohrid is favorable; its climate is in
some way Mediterranean and has mild winter and warm summer.
Bled as well is easily accessible, and its climate is under influence of the
Alps, so the temperature is lower than in Ohrid, but still pleasant.
So, it can be concluded that both destinations are in favorable position in
terms of accessibility, but Ohrid with urgency of improvement of the
infrastructure to the city and in the city itself.
3.2. Approach towards the natural factors as an integrative part
in the tourist product
Natural factors are one of the main ingredients of the tourist product. It is
widely known that the natural factors are the main attractor for tourist
who want to rest and enjoy in nature, climate, geology as well as
hydrograph factors (Marinoski, 2001).
3.2.1. Ohrid
Tourist potentials in general can be divided into two categories, if his
criteria are taken into the manner of their occurrence. They are natural
................

and anthropogenic (created) Tourism potentials (Marinoski, 2001). This


section will consider only natural potentials, with which Ohrid is rich and
who represent a solid basis for the development of many types of tourism.
The existing tourist valorization still does not match the true value of
tourism tourist
6
2

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

potential here because there is enough space tourist resort expansion. A


number of our tourist potentials, the larger or smaller areas are still in
original condition, with a high degree of preservation, greater road
connectivity and opportunities for complementary development of many
types of tourism in a small space. In Ohrid there is a different density and
very specific spatial differentiation of the tourist potentials. Some spatial
units are very large while others with much less tourist potentials, i.e.
some regions, zones and sites have International and others regional,
national or local importance.
All tourist potential here, like the territorial complexes have linear or group
differentiation. The forms of phenomena and types of tourism are caused
mostly by natural potentials, from:
Geomorphologic tourism potential
Climate tourism potential
Hydrographic tourism potential and
Natural rarities and values of tourism potential
The differentiation of these potentials and their shapes appear very
diverse throughout the city.
3.2.1.1. Geomorphologic tourism potential
Potentials of utmost importance for tourism development are mountains,
ravines, caves, and specific micro forms of relief.
Mountains
The main impetus for the development of mountain tourism in the first
time was because every time health residing in the mountain is the only
ways to treat some diseases. Besides this motif in the mountains, today
the motifs are increasingly developed: recreational and tourism in nature
where

human

mentally

and

physically

enjoy

natural

phenomena,

landscapes and beauty, then winter recreation (skiing), hunting tourism


and more. So stay in the mountains means enjoy the mountain landscape
but also an opportunity to improve personal health, because the
................

mountainous areas reflect positively on the heart-and blood system and


have a beneficial effect on the human psyche. Always recreational
activities of mountain hiking, alpinism, winter recreational sports, picnics,
visits of the monuments are an opportunity for physical and psychological
recovery of the human organism and to
63

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

establish a balance and to eliminate negative consequences of the work.


But the changes that occurred and in life habits, the emergence of free
time and need more people to be active in nature, impose a need for
finding, creating and editing the mountain areas for tourism development
(Marinoski, 2001).
In general, the relief in Ohrid is very attractive and provides vast
opportunities for tourism development. Lately, more and more in the city
is developing so-called Cultural tourism, which includes visits to national
parks, strict nature reserves, etc., as well as visit and meditation in
nature.
Of all the geomorphologic potential for tourism here, the mountains are
most prevalent. Namely, Ohrid has the physiognomy of mountainous
character with a very large vertical and horizontal development of the
relief.
Tourism value of mountain Galicica - The main characteristic, especially in
the high mountains like Galicica is to:
Extremely favorable configuration structure, suitable for almost all
possible winter and summer resort and recreational activities
Large preserved nature
Existence of mixed forest-grass surface without the rocky parts, without
vivid avalanche zones, suitable for mountain walks
Clean air and high transparency in the atmosphere
The fauna on Mount Galicica is diverse, with some 170 vertebrate species:
40 mammals, 124 recorded birds, 10 amphibians and 18 reptiles.
Therefore, mountain Galicica, especially the sites have great opportunities
to engage in the modern tourism cycles, even to be competitive by
offering summer and winter mountain content as areas using domestic
and foreign markets. Galicica Mountain has great opportunities for
development of winter tourism. This will confirm the results of diversity
analysis, to develop winter sports of the highest quality. For the people:
the season of use, the thickness of snow cover, its duration, climate, soil
quality, exposure, slope of terrain, position, traffic connection and an array
of other elements.
According to detailed studies of areas for winter sports of our mountains,

seeing that they can form winter sports centers in which the total length
the tracks would be around 2750 m (Atanasovski,1998).

................

64

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje


Caves

According to Marinoski, (2001), karst areas in Macedonia occupy about


2440 km2, representing 9.4% of the total area. With speleological
research, about 250 caves and pits have been investigated. The most
studied morphology, hydrograph and in some caves and lower and upper
Pliocene fauna. All caves are mostly short (1 km), without imposing any
size, with a specific construction of canals, with little cave decorations
with a specific craggy hydrograph and some paleontological findings.
Caves are very attractive for guests, especially important for use in
tourism, sports and recreation, scientific, cultural and other purposes. In
Ohrid there are several, Samoska Galicica long gap of 301 m, Naum cave
is located in the coastal area of Lake Ohrid and other. Most of these caves
are small in size, without a greater presence of decoration, but many
specific morphology of their interior which with external travel patterns
are a tourist attraction. Interesting development of tourism can be a lot
smaller caves only if they are in close proximity to other important tourist
motives.
3.2.1.2. Climate-tourism potential
Climate of some region is determined as a synthesis of weather types for
determined period of time and that climate depends on circulation, solar,
geographic and anthropological factors.
As a result of its geographic location, closeness of Adriatic Sea and
existence of orographic barriers, the climate of Ohrid Lake basin is mostly
determined by Mediterranean influences (from south), as well as
continental ones (from north).
Specific

climatic

characteristics

of

Ohrid

region

are

significantly

conditioned by the influence of Ohrid Lake which appears as a climatic


modifier (Marinoski, 2001).
Air temperature
Thermic regime of Ohrid region is specific and conditioned by the heat
capacity of the lake and its thermoregulatory influence which is especially
felt in winter months and in direct coastal area. Average mean annual air

temperature in Ohrid is 11.1C. The highest mean monthly values are in


July and August, and the lowest values are in January, noting that they
have positive values.

................

65

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

In regard to the greater elevation the greater amplitudes in mean monthly


temperatures should be expected, but because of the lake influence the
temperature is 19.0C.
Mean monthly maximum temperatures in Ohrid are between 27C in
August and 5.4C in January, and 26.9 C in July. Many years
measurements in Ohrid have shown that air temperature values for 30
year period have not exceeded absolute maximum of 36.7 C and
absolute minimum of -20.0 C.
Precipitation
In

regard

to

precipitation

arrangement

the

region

belongs

to

Mediterranean pluviometric regime which is characterized by main


maximum of monthly sum of precipitation in November and December,
and secondary maximum in late spring, which is in May. The main
minimum of precipitation is in July and August. Annual sum of
precipitation in Ohrid is 703.1 mm. Monthly sums of the most precipitative
months in Ohrid - November is 94.6 (Avramoski, O.,Kycyku S., Naumoski,
T.,Panovski, D.,Puka V., Selfo, L. & Watzin, M., 2003). By the monthly
precipitation patterns it can be seen that the winter period has in
abundance the most precipitation, and quantities which are over 50% of
total annual sum. As a result of configuration of the terrain, as well as
influence of mentioned factors, number of precipitative days and quantity
of precipitation are expressively changeable in space and time and have
tendency of increasing not only by increasing of elevation but in the
direction south-north, that is by removing from the lake surface.
Detailed investigation of pluviometric regime cause increasing of number
of measuring points, as well as their even arrangement in vertical
direction.
Relative humidity, insulation and cloudiness
According to Avramoski, O.,Kycyku S., Naumoski, T.,Panovski, D.,Puka V.,
Selfo, L. & Watzin, M., (2003), relative humidity in Ohrid region comes
under the regime of conduct of relative humidity of temperate latitude,
which means that in the annual passage, maximum of relative humidity

(79% for Ohrid) appears in the coldest months and by stabilization of


weather conditions towards July and August relative humidity decreases
and reaches the minimum (61% for Ohrid) in the hottest months. Average
annual relative humidity in Ohrid is 70%.

................

66

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

Annual sum of duration of solar radiation is 2257 hours. Monthly sum of


insolation gradually increases from spring toward summer reaching the
maximum in July (309,4 hours), and then it decreases toward autumn and
winter reaching its minimum in December (78.5 hours).
Cloudiness in its annual passage coincides with the annual passage of
relative humidity, and in opposite passage with insolation. Annual mean
value of cloudiness quantity in tens is 5.0 in Ohrid, with maximum values
in January and December 6.5 in Ohrid and minimum 2.7.
Wind direction and speed
Ohrid region is characterized by special wind regime conditioned by
presence of lake surface. Beside the winds which appear as a result of
atmospheric circulation, there are also local winds arisen from unequal
heating of land and water. In regard to natural geographic location, it is
normal dominant flows in the direction north-south to be expected.
Winds from the north (297%o) and south-west and south direction (179
and 176%o) have the greatest frequency and they are registered in Ohrid.
It is represented at the graphic of frequencies of directions and mean
speeds by directions in the enclosed wind roses for Ohrid.
Region of continental climate affects Ohrid valley where the impact of the
lake and pool is strongly felt. Because of suitable climatic conditions here
affects the development of lake tourism and before the summer due to
the large number of sunny hours (Ohrid in 2352 and over 12 hours
through the summer).
Because of this, climate factors offer great potential for tourism
development. However, it has to be emphasized that so far climate
tourism value has not been the subject of special research. Therefore,
proper research and assessment of climate as a tourism value is
necessary that will show how climate affect the human organism. Only in
this way would be contributed to a climate-tourist offer.
3.2.1.3. Hydrographic tourism potential
Many significant tourism potential are hydrographic facilities in particular:
springs, rivers, lakes and spas, because the water in combination with the

sun, landscape, environment and other characteristics is a basic motive of


attracting tourists especially for tourism development stationary. It
specifically looks at the use of our natural lakes, and some places spa
artificial reservoirs.

................

67

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

Springs
In Ohrid there are many areas with poor capacity, and with average
capacity. Among them is the source of St. Naum, with an average capacity
of 11 m3/sec. Then follows the Biljana Springs. Most of the sources along
with their immediate environment are or may be significant tourist
motives, because some of them such as source have long been known as
picnic areas (Marinoski, 2001).
Lake Ohrid
The Ohrid Lake is the most significant, most visited and attractive
potential, so as a major tourist motives tourism potential in the city.
According to Marinoski (2001), Lake Ohrid is a very ancient lake, which
lies in a deep trench formed by tectonic subsidence in the late Tertiary
period 3.5 to 4 million years ago. It is 31 km long by 14.5 km wide, 289m
deep with an average depth of 164m and an area of 358 sq. km, 229.9
sq.km of which are in the Macedonia. Its watershed of 3,921 sq. km
extends over three countries. It draws almost half its water via shoreline
or underwater springs from Lake Prespa which lies on the other side of
Mount Galichica east of the lake. This lake, which is partly in Greece, is
158 meters higher in level, is almost as large as Lake Ohrid, and greatly
enlarges the catchment area. The strongest spring, at Sveti Naum on the
southeast coast of Lake Ohrid, has 15 outlets which spring above and 30
which rise below the water level, providing a quarter of the lakes total
inflow. It is therefore fairly free from enriching sediments and is extremely
clear, with a very slow water turnover rate of 60-70 years and
temperatures at depth of around 6C, conditions which until last century
had not changed for millennia. However the catchment was enlarged by
diversion of the Sateska river in the north into the lake. This was formerly
a tributary of the main outflow stream, the Black Drim. It now contributes
a high sediment load to the lake from riverbed sand and gravel workings.
The town of Ohrid on the lakes northeast shore adjoins the National Park
of Mt. Galichica, a massive ridge of porous limestone karst rising above
the lake to 2255m, dividing Lake Ohrid from Lake Prespa.

................

68

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje


Vegetation
Despite

creeping

eutrophication,

the

lake

is

still

oligotropic.

Its

phytoplankton productivity is low because of the low concentration of


phosphates and nitrates, most of its water coming from springs, and its
shores, which are being cleared of reeds, being stony. The zooplankton is
also low and monotonous in species composition. The littoral is
nevertheless a rich biotope for waterbirds and young fish. These are
flanked by belts dominated by Potomogeton and then by Chara which
rings the lake bed between 6-15m deep. Neighboring Galichica National
Park contains more than 1,500 species of plants on the slopes of Mount
Galichica, amongst them numerous relict and at least 11 endemic forms
and some 100 species of plants which are gathered for medical use
(Avramoski et al. 2003).
Fauna
Two main ecological communities are found in the lake: littoral or near
shore and pelagic or offshore. As one of the oldest lakes in the world Lake
Ohrid is a natural museum possessing endemic primeval flora and fauna
extinct elsewhere. Its geographic isolation, and the unchanging nature of
its environment have preserved large numbers of relict freshwater
organisms from the Tertiary period in the pelagic zone, whose close
relatives can be found only as fossils, and has encouraged prolific
speciation among them. In this it resembles Lake Baikal on a much
smaller scale. A very high proportion of its invertebrate species is endemic
and includes freshwater shells, crabs and sponges, one being the round
Lake Ohrid sponge Ohridspongia rotunda. 146 endemic species have been
identified. Endemism among these species is 90% of snails, 88% of
parasitic infusoria, 71% of flat worms, 66% of small crabs, and 60% of
fish. Five of the endemic species are restricted even within the lake to
micro-ecosystems. Ten of the lakes 17 fish species are endemic. They
include the salmonid Ohrid trout Salmo letnica (VU) and belvica
Acantolingua ohridana (VU). The other species include 12 Cyprionidae, 2
Cobititidae and one Anguillid (Marinoski, 2001).

Cultural heritage
Neolithic settlements have been found on the lake shores and a town
known as Lychnidos existed on the site in classical and Hellenistic Greek
times. It was peopled by ancestrial Phrygians and Illyrians before
subjugation by Macedonians and then by Rome. It was

................

69

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

important as a major crossroads on the Roman Via Egnatia from the


Adriatic to Constantinople.
3.2.1.4. Natural rarities as tourism potential
Ohrid abounds with a number of extremely valuable natural rarities. It
results from high differentiated, expressed relief and its natural beauty
and diverse geological composition, the specific climatic conditions and an
array of other factors. They create spaces with an extraordinary, natural
beauty, and then the possibilities for the occurrence of many relict and
endemic plant and animal species, the presence of many objects as
phenomena of nature are preserved in original state as well as many other
values that create artificial entities with outstanding natural beauty
(Marinoski, 2001).
National Park Galicica
According to Atanasovski, (1998), National Park Galicica is part of the
mountain, which in 1958 because of its exceptional natural beauty and
characteristic flora and fauna of forests and forest areas was declared as a
national park, covering an area of 22,750 ha. The mountain Galicica is
typical horst rising between Ohrid and Prespa depression, which attaches
particular

importance.

In

morphological

terms,

the

top

part

is

fluviodenudacional surface with three prominent ridges and a large


number of karst fields and hollows. The park is rich with diverse flora,
from which certain species are very rare or there are no other on the
surrounding mountains. A number of species are endemic and unique to
this mountain, some of which are endemic to Macedonia, and others are in
many Balkan endemic species. Same way, many trees of Galicica reach
their ultimate limit of expansion on this part of the Balkan Peninsula. The
park has very attractive and curiosity geological, geomorphological and
hydrological natural values, such as geological profile in the village
Ljubanista, specific sections under the peaks and varnishing peak Magaro,
most of surface and underground karst forms, the island city, the source
of the monastery Ss. Nahum, coastal lake areas and more.

................

70

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

Monuments of nature
According to Marinoski, (2001), the most important monuments of nature
are:
Ohrid Lake, which covers an area of 348 km2, out of which 229.9 km2
belong to Macedonia, and 118.9 km2 to Albania. It is 30.5-km long and
5.14 km wide. In Peshtani region reaches greatest depth of 289 m and is
the deepest lake in the Balkan Peninsula. It features a striking coastline
development. Eastern coastline of Ohrid to the village Pestani is low and
flat, south of it is high and steep sections cliff, which between villages
Trpejca and Ljubanista reaches height of over 100 meters. The lake can be
seen in two vivid bays (Ohrid and Ljubanishkiot), more peninsulas: Trpejca,
Uchkale, Gorica and Gradiste and more typical hills. The flow of water in
the lake is dominated by the large number of coastal springs and river
flows, with a small catchment area and flow. The favorable hydrographic
conditions and its geographic isolation allow saving and living about 146
endemic species of organisms. One of them today are living fossils, almost
unchanged from the tertiary period, for example, endemic sponge, relict
types of snails (about 27), of which about 86% are endemic, then several
relict species of intestinal worms, the Ohrid trout, Belvica and other
species endemic to the character, and a number of relict plant species.
Because of the abundance of natural values and because of the significant
cultural and historical values in the wider area (150 archaeological sites,
10 old basilicas, 25 churches from 17-19 century, more than 2000 m2
frescos over 1000 icons from 11-19 century), Ohrid lake in the year of
1980 was nominated and entered in the list of world cultural heritage as
Ohrid natural and cultural-historic area.
All natural rarities have and will have a great picnic and tourist value for
their scientific, cultural, educational, educational, and other aesthetic
significance. Therefore, natural rarities are a function of future tourism
development with the aspects of protection and improvement in the
economic aspects will have priority.
3.2.2. Bled
As for the city of Bled, according to Benedik (2003), the forms of
phenomena and types of tourism are caused mostly by natural potentials,

from:
Geomorphologic tourism potential
Climate tourism potential
Hydrographic tourism potential and

................

71

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

Natural rarities and values of tourism potential


3.2.2.1. Geomorphologic tourism potential
Potentials of utmost importance for tourism development are mountains,
ravines, caves, and specific micro forms of relief.
Mountains
The Julian Alps are the southeastern most section of the great Alpine arc.
They extend over the northwestern part of Slovenia and cover a surface
area of around 4400 km2. The mountain range is divided into two large
sections: the Eastern Julian Alps and the Western Julian Alps. There are
approximately 150 mountains over 2000 meters high in the Slovene Julian
Alps; 25 of these are over 2500 meters high. The Sava and the Soa are
the two major rivers rising in the Julian Alps.
The Julian Alps take their name from the Julian dynasty that ruled on the
southern side of the Alps and were first mentioned in ancient times. The
Julian Alps are built of Mesozoic marine sediments. Tectonic forces created
fractures and folding and carved out magnificent rock faces and peaks.
The varied flora and fauna rightly enjoy considerable fame. Natural riches,
plentiful water sources and a favorable climate created conditions for
early settlement in this wonderful corner of Europe. The Julian Alps are
one of the world's treasures - a challenge to every climber and a source of
pleasure for every traveler.
A view of the Soa and the upper Sava river valleys spreads below Mount
Triglav, Slovenias highest mountain. Lying between the two rivers is
Triglav National Park, which protects numerous endemic animal and plant
species in a region of high rocky mountains, deeply cut river gorges, highmountain karst shafts, and attractive low mountains as well as the
traditions of the once difficult life of mountain farmers and alpine
dairymen.
To the south is the Soa Valley and the gorges of its tributaries. The spots
beside the emerald river attract seekers of tranquility as well as those
................

seeking adrenalin challenges. Here, numerous water sports are available,


from kayaking and canoeing to rafting and canyoning. Visitors can also
experience the valley with parachutes, hang-gliders, and mountain bikes.
Slovenias highest ski center on Mount Kanin is accessible from the valley
where the majority of accommodations and restaurants are to be found in
Bovec, Kobarid,
72

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

and Tolmin. Roads lead along the Idrijca River toward Cerkno and Idrija.
Idrija is the home of a famous bobbin lace tradition, and visitors are also
invited to tour the once world-important mercury mine and Gewerkenegg
Castle with its museum collections. The Posoje region, where every step
reveals exceptional natural, also holds emotional memories of the most
terrible battles of World War I. They are presented in the Kobarid Museum,
which has received numerous awards for excellence. In the upper part of
the valley is the picturesque village of Trenta, which hosts the Triglav
National Park Information Office, a museum, and the Julijana Botanical
Garden, Slovenias most important alpine botany center.
In the north side of the Mount Triglav kingdom is the Upper Sava Valley.
The popular tourist destination Kranjska Gora attracts summer visitors
with

opportunities

for

recreation

and

sport

in

nature

(hiking,

mountaineering, bicycling, horseback riding, paragliding, fishing) and


winter visitors with its excellent trails for different kinds of skiing as well
as with other winter delights (dog-sledding, night descents on sleds from
Mount Vri, snowmobiling). Guests in Kranjska Gora also enjoy its casino
and wellness programs, while children enjoy the original country of the
childrens book hero Kekec. In nearby Planica, the best ski jumpers in the
world compete each year in the shelter of two-thousand-meter mountains.
The Julian Alps are bejewelled by two picturesque lakes. Bled with its
legendary island in the middle of the lake, overlooking castle, hot springs,
and beneficial climate has attracted numerous cosmopolitan visitors for
centuries. Organized swimming areas, hotels with pools, walking paths,
tennis and golf courses, a casino, rowing regattas, a sports airport in
Lesce, and the nearby natural and cultural sites provide plenty of reasons
for a visit. The Bohinj region with its unspoiled high-mountain lake inspires
visitors not only with the beauties of the nature and the Vogel, Kobla, and
Sorika planina ski centers but also with its rich ethnological heritage and
many interesting cultural and sacral sites. The nearby Pokljuka plateau is
a paradise for hikers, mushroom hunters, and cross-country skiers and is
the site of major world biathlon competitions (Benedik, 2003).
Ravines

According to Benedik, (2003), there are two significant ravines in Bled, the
Vintgar Gorge and the Pokljuka one.

................

73

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

The Vintgar gorge


This ravine in the immediate vicinity of Gorje, approximately 4 km northwest of Bled, was discovered by Jakob umer, the Major of Gorje, and the
cartographer and photographer Benedikt Lergetporer in February 1891.
The discovery was accidental and took place at a time when the water
level of the Radovna River which flows through Vintgar was very low. They
started their exploration in Spodnje Gorje and headed towards Blejska
Dobrava. They made it through, the otherwise impassable ravine with
great difficulty and discovered so much natural beauty that they decided
to establish a construction committee. The gorge was arranged for visits,
especially for visitors to Bled. It was opened to the public on 26th August
1893. The 1.6 km long Vintgar gorge carves its way through the vertical
rocks of the Hom and Bort hills and is graced by the Radovna with its
waterfalls, pools and rapids. The path leads you over bridges and umers
galleries, and ends with a bridge overlooking the mighty 16 m high um
waterfall. Due to its natural beauty, Vintgar was classified among the
more important tourist sites in Slovenia and the number of visitors
increases every year. From the um waterfall you can take the opportunity
of walking up a picturesque footpath through Hom to St. Catherine-a
historical church with a beautiful view. At the entrance, and at the um
waterfall there are cafes serving refreshments. Access by car and buses is
possible as far as the parking area in front of the entrance to the ravine.
The Pokljuka ravine
The Pokljuka ravine lies above the valley of the Radovna River and is only
1 km away from the village of Krnica, 2 km from Gorje and 7 km from
Bled. You can reach these places by bus, but if travel via private transport
note that you can go as far as the entrance to the ravine above Krnica, or
alternatively access is also possible from Zatrnik. The ravine is 2 km long
and 40 m deep in its most picturesque part. It was carved into limestone
by water flowing from the Pokljuka glaciers, the only reminder of which is
the Ribica stream, a tributary of the Radovna River. Paths for visitors
lead into the most beautiful central part of the ravine. The main path runs
along its bottom, while side branches lead to the edges of the ravine and

connect it with Zatrnik.


There are numerous natural sights. These include: a tributary gorge with a
22 m waterfall when it rains, the Pokljuka Luknja a spacious rocky cave
with a fallen ceiling, a large

................

74

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

natural bridge 24 m above the bottom of the ravine, and small round
fields called vrtci (little gardens) by the locals. You can get through the
very narrow straits in order to reach the most beautiful little garden and
a small natural bridge by way of wooden galleries. Above them, a path will
lead you through a partisan crossing, the only passage through this deep
ravine. A diversity of vegetation, from ferns to forest and mountain
flowers, grows in its bottom and on its rocky walls. The paths are similar to
mountain trails we recommend good footwear. To make walking easier,
Pokljuka walking sticks are available.
Caves
The cave under "Babji zob"
This approximately 300 m long cave is adorned with beautiful stalactite
formations. A special feature of this cave is spiral stalactites, so-called
helectites, and large calcite crystals which are rear in Slovenia. The
tradition of visiting this cave dates back to the 19th century and has
continued to the present day through the Bled Society for Cave Research.
The Society in co-operation has arranged paths and electrical lighting to
enable safe access to the cave (Benedik, 2003).
3.2.2.2. Climate Tourism Potential
According to Benedik, (2003), Bled, in northwest Slovenia in the Julian
Alps, has a mild, sub-alpine climate. It enjoys warm summers and cool to
cold winters with moderate rainfall year round. The attraction of Bled is in
its stunning, mountainous landscape and vast glacial lake, which is frozen
for ice-skating in the winter and warm enough for swimming in the
summer. Climate change has seen the weather in Bled become
increasingly unpredictable.
Summer in Bled, from June till August, has pleasant average highs in the
mid 20s with chilly evenings around 13C. Rainfall is at its highest high,
though it is frequent throughout the year, seeing an average of around
thirteen days on which rain falls each month. This is a fantastic time to
................

visit Bled due to the beauty of the lake and surrounding mountains; but
also because Bleds attractions are so easily accessible in this season. The
lake becomes a busy place as people flock to swim and sail or walk and
cycle around it. Hiking in the surrounding mountains and up to Bled Castle
are activities that benefit from the relative warmth in comparison to other
times of the year, but also from the coolness of higher altitudes in
comparison to those nearer the lake. Summers in Bled do not get
unbearably
75

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

hot. It is advisable to take clothing suitable for cool temperatures due to


the drop in temperature at night and at higher altitudes.
Autumn

in

Bled,

from

September

till

November,

sees

daytime

temperatures drop from a pleasant 20C to a chilly 8C. Many of the trees
in bled are evergreen, but dotted about the landscape clusters of trees
start to turn, putting on a muted but beautiful display of fiery colors.
Rainfall remains quite high and night times are generally considerably
colder than the days. By November night times are nearly freezing and
frosts sometimes occur.
Winter, from December till February, sees temperatures drop with day
time temperatures around 5C and night times getting just below freezing
around -3C. The snow-clad landscape is breathtaking. December sees the
beginning of Bleds ski season and skating on the lake is possible when it
gets cold enough for the lake to freeze over. February is Bleds driest
month and also sees the beginning of the thaw. However, it still gets down
to below freezing at night and this can often produce treacherous, icy
conditions.
Spring begins in March and sees the end of the ski season as
temperatures continue to rise. Marchs average low temperature is not
below freezing, and by April the days are quite warm seeing average
highs of 16C, with night times at around 4C. By May temperatures in the
low 20s are not unheard of, though, as at all times of year, night time is
considerably cooler. This is the wettest season in Bled seeing seventeen
or eighteen days on average per month.
Bleds Climate can be attributed to its altitude at 500m above sea level,
which keeps it mild, and also to the surrounding mountains that protect it
from cold northern winds and stop it from getting any colder.
3.2.2.3. Hydrographic tourism potential
The "Iglica" Waterfall
In the abyss caves of Iglica, just above Bohinjska Bela, hides an 18 m high
waterfall on the Suha stream. It falls over a vertical wall of Permian
limestone.

Lake Bled
The lake was formed after the recession of the Bohinj glacier. It is up to
2120 m long and up to 1380 m wide, its maximum depth being 30.6 m
and tectonic in origin. After the last Ice

................

76

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

Age, the Bohinj glacier deepened the natural tectonic hollow and gave
into its present form. The basin was filled with water when the ice melted.
The lake has no large natural tributaries; it is fed only by a few springs.
The thermal springs in its north-eastern part are led into three swimming
pools - Grand Hotel Toplice, Hotel Park and Hotel Golf. The picture-like
image of Lake Bled is highlighted by the island in the western part of the
lake. The lake is situated in a picturesque environment, surrounded by
mountains and forests. A medieval castle stands above the lake on the
north shore. The lake surrounds Bled Island, the only natural island in
Slovenia. The island has several buildings, the main one being the
Pilgrimage Church of the Assumption of Mary, built in the 15th century,
where weddings are held regularly. The church has a 52-metre tower and
there is a stairway with 99 steps leading up to the building.
The lake is also well known among rowers because it has very good
conditions for the sport. It hosted the World Rowing Championships in
1966, 1979, and 1989. It will host the World Rowing Championship again
in 2011.
The lake is 35 kilometers from the Ljubljana International Airport and 55
km from the capital city Ljubljana (Blejsko jezero z otokom, accessed June
2 2010, http://www.bled.si/default.asp?id=141).
Hills around the lake
Straa - This is the finest Bled viewpoint rising above the south-eastern
lake shore. Mala and Velika Straa, covered with stand of linden aok and
spruce trees offer a magnificent panorama. The Rikli Fitness Trail runs
through meadows and wooded areas (Blejsko jezero z otokom, accessed
June 2 2010, http://www.bled.si/default.asp?id=141).
Osojnica - Take a winding trail from Velika Zaka to Mala Osojnica (685m).
This peak offers the finest view of Lake Bled and its outlying areas, with
the Karavanke, the Kamnik alps and the Gorenjsko plain in the distance.
This is one of the fdavourite viewopints for photographers. All the well
known panoramas of Bled have been shot from there. Another 20
minutes of walking separates us from the top of Velika Osojnica (756m)m,

affording an even more sweeping view than Mala Osojnica (Blejsko jezero
z otokom, accessed June 2 2010, http://www.bled.si/default.asp?id=141).

................

77

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

3.2.2.4. Natural rarities and values


Triglav National Park
According to Benedik, (2003), The Triglav National Park, the only national
park in Slovenia, lies in the immediate vicinity of Bled. It comprises one of
the most beautiful and attractive areas of Slovenia, almost the entire
Slovenian part of the Julian Alps. The territory of the National Park is very
picturesque and varied. The highest mountain in Slovenia, Triglav (2864
m), after which the park was named, lies in its centre. From Triglav, deep
and sharply cut valleys, mainly of glacial origin, open on all sides in the
form of a fan.
The valleys and plateaux are covered by a carpet of green forests and
meadows. Bold, high pointed mountain peaks rise above them, with dark
and deep abysses. Clear mountain streams and small rivers run in the
numerous gorges and beautiful ravines and troughs (Vintgar, Mlinarica,
Mostnica) and flow into two larger rivers the Sava and the Soa. The
watershed between the Adriatic and the Black Sea runs between them.
There are mountain lakes (the Triglav Lakes, Krika Lakes, etc.) high in the
mountains, and Lake Bohinj, the largest permanent natural lake in
Slovenia. This magnificent and rugged landscape is inhabited by an
extremely rich variety of flora and fauna with numerous rare and
protected plant and animal species. At the edge of the park, where man
has been master for many centuries, history and human culture have left
their traces.
In more remote places you can find old farms and homes characteristic to
this landscape, and mountains of interest, on many of which cattle still
grayed the farms in this area are well known for their cheese production.
The tides of World War I and II also surged into the Triglav National Park.
During World War I, the present-day National Park was part of the longlasting Soa Front. The front line ran high in the mountains (over the
peaks of Rombon and Krn) and through the valley of the river Soa. In
World War II, this area was known for its well-organized and popular
Partisan movement.
Many sights in the Triglav National Park are described in detail in his book
................

and can be visited by tourists, since they are accessible to many sights:
Vintgar, Pokljuka Ravine, Lake Bohinj, Vrata valley, Vri, Trenta, Pokljuka,
etc. Well-marked footpaths and mountain trails and numerous mountain
huts enable hikers to visit the higher areas of the National Park. Such trips
are easier and safer if guided by experienced mountain guides.
The Triglav National Park (TNP) is the only Slovenian national park. The
park was named after Triglav, the highest mountain in the heart of the
park, which is also the highest summit
78

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

in Slovenia (2864 m). The origin of the name Triglav is rather uncertain.
Triglav (three-headed) owes its name to its characteristic shape as seen
from the south-east side or to the highest Slavic deity who was supposed
to have its throne on the top of the mountain. The mountain is a true
national symbol and is featured on the national coat of arms and the flag.
The Triglav National Park extends along the Italian border and close to the
Austrian border in the north-west of Slovenia, that is, in the south-eastern
section of the Alps. Its territory is nearly identical with that occupied by
the Eastern Julian Alps. The park covers 880 square kilometers, or 3% of
the territory of Slovenia. The Triglav National Park is among the earliest
European parks; the first protection dates back to 1924 when the Alpine
Conservation Park was founded. The principal task of the Triglav National
Park Public Institution is the protection of the park, but it also carries out
specialist and research tasks.
3.2.3. Comparison of the natural factors approach of Ohrid and
Bled
Regarding the natural factors as an integrative part of the tourist product,
it can be concluded that: in terms of the national factors and potentials it
could be said that the Ohrid Lake is the engine that motivates tourists to
come and visit Ohrid. This statement can be understood as negative in
some way, because the other natural potentials such as the mountain
Galicica, the caves, the national park Galicica and other forms of relief are
not valorized and promoted in the way that the lake is. So, it can be
concluded that Bled promotes the lake, but also promotes the Julian Alps
and the national park Triglav and includes them into the tourist offer.
3.3. Anthropogenic factors
Anthropogenic factors are not far behind of the natural factors. In fact,
tourists are attracted by the cultural heritage as their main motive for
travel and visit of a destination. These are manmade attractions which
have stayed intact for centuries and are legacy for the future generations.
3.3.1. Ohrid
The anthropogenic tourist potentials in Ohrid because of their strong

representation and spatial differentiation value do not stand behind the


natural potentials, but they form them
................

79

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

indivisible whole. It is therefore necessary that from the tourist complexity


aspect to be analyzed and wherever it is possible to be complementally
valorized. Rich cultural heritage in some places and tourist sites has not
only locally but also regionally and nationally, even worldwide tourism
value. From prehistory to the present days, due to favorable spatial
position of Ohrid, it created such importance and significance of cultural
heritage, which is a great base for tourism development. Once it will add
modern monumental achievements as a memorial complex, urban work,
then folklore and culinary specialties and tourist events will certainly
confirm the general basis for the formation of rich tourist offer of domestic
and foreign tourism markets. The modern world many actively uses
cultural heritage in tourism, so it is inevitable that we do that too.
Marinoski, (2001) identifies that the anthropogenic tourist potentials of
Ohrid consist of:
- Cultural and historical monuments;
- Ethnographic values;
- Ambient units;
- City neighborhoods;
- Museums, galleries and collections memory;
- Gastronomy;
- Tourist events
3.3.1.1. Cultural and historical monuments
The monument tourist values have the greatest significance for the
development of tourism. They appear as independent (complex) and
complimentary tourism potentials. Here are included objects from the first
traces of human activity on the territory of Ohrid to contemporary works.
These tourist potentials are numbered:
a) Archaeological sites, Tzar Samoils fortress b) Monasteries c) Churches
and d) Islamic architecture
Archaeological sites and Tzar Samoils Fortress
Trebeniste - Trebeniste necropolis is 9 km. northwest of Ohrid, on the left
and right under the route of the road Ohrid-Kicevo-Skopje, near the Ohrid
Airport. After the accidental discovery of two "kings" graves by the

Bulgarian soldiers in 1918, systematic excavations were begun and were


founded objects of great importance: gold masks, numerous gold

................

80

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

ornaments, bronze helmet, glass and ceramic vases and other deadly
material which comes from the abundant 6th century BC. This necropolis,
from the scientific world is treated as the Iron-archaic and Hellenistic
culture.
St. Erasmus - 5 km. from Ohrid, along the motorway Ohrid-Kicevo, on the
archaeological site was excavated St.Erazmo, an early Christian basilica of
5 or 6 century. The basilica was dedicated to Erasmus Martyr of Antioch,
who, in the late 3rd century resided in Ohrid. This building has three
domes, a narthex and atrium. In the apse was discovered crypt. The
central dome and narthex have mosaic floors with geometric, plant and
animal motifs.
Tzar Samoils fortress - Most of the Ohrid Fortress is from the time of
Tzar Samuel, 10/11 century. However, the Roman historians speak of
Lychnidos as fortified town since 5th century. The latest research
discovered the remains of walls older than four centuries. Today the
remains of a wall have height of 10 to 16 meters, and 18 towers and three
gates - Upper, Lower and Main Gate are saved.
Monasteries
St. Panteleimon-Imaret - South of Samuel's Fortress in Ohrid in the
zone called Imaret, is situated Clement's Monastery, dedicated to St.
Pantelejmon.
This monastery is considered the first monument in Slavic Macedonia.
From the sacred objects noted in this space the three domed church is
significant and which the first Slavic bishop, St. Clement restored around
893

rd

year. On the south side of the church is the tomb of the saint.

Clement's church suffered more changes; after the coming of the Turks in
the 15th century, it was turned into a mosque to the time of Archbishop
Prohor, who renewed it again. In the late 16th or early 17th century the
restored church was demolished and over its ruins was built mosque
Imaret whose remains are preserved to this day. The monastery was again
restored and now serves as a sacral object.
St. Naum - Raising of the monastery of St. Naum on the shore of Lake
................

Ohrid is linked with the name of Clement's first fellow and founder of
monastic life in Macedonia, Naum. In the years of 900/905, Naum founded
this monastery and the monastery church was dedicated to Archangel
Michael. In 910 years St. Naum was buried. The foundation of the church
was three domed, like Clement Church in Ohrid St. Pantelejmon. The
present church, built in the Ottoman Empire, has a cruciform shape with
centrally determined dome narthex to the west, also with a dome and an
open porch. In the part that was built later, in the south
8
1

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

chapel is the tomb of St. Naum. The temple is painted at the beginning of
19th century (in 1806) from the Korcha painter Trpo who brings the
essential features of the painting. From historical aspect of this painting, it
is noted the composition of the Slavonic educators called the Seven
Saints, located at the northern wall of the narthex. The two pillars of the
nave double narthex, used the oldest temple are the oldest posts verb in
Macedonia (from the end of the 10th century). Iconostasis was made of
carved and gilded open-work, in the year 1711. Iconostasis is the only
representative from the 18th century in Macedonia. The icons are the
work of the famous painter Konstantin Korchanski donor and among the
ranks of mature and his best achievements.
Churches
St. John the Theologian Near the Lake itself, near the fishing village
Kaneo, it is situated the impressive temple dedicated to the Evangelist St.
John the Theologian. It is a small building with a cruciform base and
interesting ceramic decoration of facades, especially the east. It is
probably built in the 13th century. The frescoes are fragmentary preserved
in the altar area and the dome. According to the characteristics,
iconography, the composition concept and other stylistic elements, this
painting shows the traditions of the art of the Komnens and is placed in
the last decades of the 13th century. Here is one of the oldest
representations of St. Kliment.
St. Bogorodica Perivleptos - In the old town, near the Upper Gate, in
the 1294/95 year, the groom of the Byzantine Emperor Andronikos II
Palaeologus, persecution Zgur, raised one of the most beautiful churches
in Ohrid, Bogorodica Perivleptos. People from Ohrid call this church St.
Kliment for when Clement's church was demolished in Imaret, Clement's
relics were transferred to this church. One time, the church was a catholic
church because St. Sofija Cathedral was also converted into a mosque.
Basically it is cruciform; above the central dome has a space in the west
narthex. In the second half of the 14th century a chapel was built. The
frescoes from the building of this temple are one of the earliest and best
................

works of the painters Michael and Eutichius, whose style here expresses
the characteristics of Renaissance painting of Paleologists. In the 16th
century, the western facade is painted composition terrible Court.
St. Constantine and Helen - In the vicinity of St. Bogorodica Perivleptos
in Ohrid, in the year 1385, from the monk Parthenius is built church
dedicated to St. Constantine and Helen. It is
82

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

a single building, with southern shrine. The older layer is frescos from the
building and is younger than 15 centuries. The iconostasis is preserved
icons of 14, 17, and 18th century royal gates from the time during the
building of the temple.
St. Sofia - Cathedral of the Archdiocese of Ohrid St. Sofija in Ohrid, was
built during the first Greek Archbishop of Ohrid throne, Leo (1037/1056). It
is assumed that on this place existed an older church from the time of
Samuel. The church shape is basilica erected in the west narthex which
has a multi-story structure where, in the 14th century, over the stairs
chapel was built and dedicated to St. John the Baptist. The exonarthex
was built at the time of Archbishop Gregory year 1317, and it is painted.
The church altar is preserved septum of the 11th century and 14thcentury pulpit. After the convertion of this temple into a mosque, the
iconostasis completely lost its original appearance, the outer narthex was
closed and the north side was raised minaret which collapsed in 1912. In
the church there is a painting of several periods - 11, 12 and 14 century.
The most important frescoes are preserved in the second half of the 11th
century (the altar area, deaconicon and the narthex floor level), as well as
those from the 14th century. Painters of the 11th century performed static
and monumental figures with archaic forms and spiritual vision. It is
probable that these artists are origin from Constantinople. The painting of
the upper floor of the narthex and exonarthex are considered to be the
work of one of the best painters of the 14th century working in Ohrid, John
Theorian.
St. Bogorodica Bolnicka - On the road from the Upper Gate in Ohrid, to
the Lake, near the coast, in the former Hospital in 14th century nave
church was built dedicated to the Virgin. The master of frescoes, painted
around 1368 years is probably the same artist who worked on thr frescoes
in the chapel in the church dates and Marko's monastery.
St. Nicholas Bolnicki - Despite the church St. Bogorodica Bolnicka in
Ohrid, along the alley leading to the lake, is the church dedicated to St.
Nikola which was first mentioned in the 1342-45 year during the time of
the Archbishop Nicolas, and as property St. Bogorodica Perivleptos. The
oldest painting is from 1330-40 year, when the south walls on the outside

were painted portraits of Archbishop Nicholas, King Dusan with his wife
Elena, son Uros and St. Sava and St. Simeon. In the year 1345, new
painting is done in the south porch and in the late 15th century and
painted chapel was built.

................

83

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

Islamic worship
Ali - Pasha Mosque - The mosque of Ali-Pasha is located in the old
bazaar only a few meters south-east of the thousand years old maple. The
time of its construction and who its architect was is not known. From the
historical data and on the grounds of the sole building from an
architectural point of view, the mosque was built at the end of the 15th
century or the beginning of the 16th century.
According to the Ohrid vakufnama (a document which contains the Islamic
properties) from 1491 there were palaces (sarai) and properties (vakafi)
belonging to Ali-Pasha. On these grounds we can conclude that in the
many endowments of Ali-Pasha there was also a mosque. The Turks had a
custom according which every pasha was to build a mosque in the place
where he was sent. This furthermore confirms that the mosque was built
at the end of the 15th or the beginning of the 16th century.
The mosques characteristics also contribute to this fact. The mosques
Hajdar Kadi in Bitola, Faud Pasha and Ali-Pasha in Istanbul are
characterized with the same particularities as Ali-Pashas mosque in Ohrid.
All of the mosques built in the 15th and 16th century are similar: they
have no pillars, which is characteristic for the beginnings of the classical
Turkish architecture. We can tell from the construction of the mosque that
its architect (builder) was from Ohrid. The roof of the dome is pressed, and
the apertures are somewhat narrow, which is a characteristic of the local
buildings.
In the year 1999, with the construction of individual objects immediately
by the Ali-Pasha`s mosque, with the digging up of foundations, ground
mosaics have been discovered, which proceed under the mosque. The
mosaics belong to an early Christian basilica. Also the walls of medieval
sacral objects have been discovered, which confirms the assumption that
the church St. Nicola was located on the same grounds. With the further
archaeological researches a project proposal has been worked out, which
anticipates a complete conservation of the mosaics, and as part of the
newly built object they will be presented before the public.
The cultural heritage of Ohrid is one of the oldest and most important
generators of tourism, and it retains its central role in the Macedonian

tourism industry to this day. According to the European Union, "tourism,


and especially cultural tourism in a broader

................

84

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

sense,..... deserve priority attention" as policy areas (Bernadini, 1992).


Cultural tourism has become recognized as an important agent of
economic and social change in Europe.
The dramatic metaphors attached to the rapid growth of tourism and
cultural consumption are appropriate. The cultural and tourist industries
appear to be advancing in all European nations and regions, occupying
the spaces vacated by manufacturing industry, and claiming strategic city
centre locations (Corijn and Mommaas, 1995). Cultural consumption has
grown, and tourism is an increasingly important form of cultural
consumption, encouraged and funded by local, national and supranational
bodies. This reflects the change from an era when production drove
consumption,

to

the

consumer

society

where

consumption

drives

production. By attracting that most mobile of consumers, the tourist,


cities, regions and nations can secure the consumption power necessary
to fuel their productive capacity. The cultural tourism market in Europe is
therefore becoming increasingly competitive. A growing number of cities
and regions in the European Union are basing their tourism development
strategies on the promotion of cultural heritage, and the number of
cultural attractions is growing rapidly, and that example should follow
Ohrid and become one of the leading cities in Europe concerning the
cultural tourism. Traditional cultural attractions such as monasteries and
churches have to reassess their role as the pressure to generate visitor
income intensifies, and the need to compete with a new generation of
commercial tourist attractions grows.
Cultural tourism is certainly an attractive proposition from such a
viewpoint, because it also offers the potential for supplementing cultural
funding from the state through market mechanisms. The cultural tourism
market is polarized between those interested in specific forms of cultural
consumption, and those for whom culture is one part of a broader leisure
experience. Although the former audience (the 'specific cultural tourist') is
most often targeted in cultural tourism marketing plans, it must be
recognized that the size of this audience is limited, and that it is being
fragmented across a growing number of competing cultural attractions.
The key management task for most cultural attractions in Ohrid will

therefore be reconciling the needs of these two basic types of cultural


tourist. This will mean an increasing emphasis on combining education
and entertainment, 'high' and 'popular' culture, and specialist and mass
consumers. The prime need for cultural institutions will be to build the
partnerships necessary to achieve this without compromising aesthetic
integrity.

................

85

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

Cultural tourism has been important in the expansion of cultural facilities,


in the growth of tourism employment, and in the development of cultural
tourism and cultural policies. As Jan van der Borg has commented,
however, "having heritage is one thing, using it another". In the past,
cultural resources and the cultural tourist have largely been taken for
granted, and this will have to change if the full advantages offered by
cultural tourism development are to be realized. In particular, the growing
segmentation of cultural tourism supply and demand requires that we
stop referring to "the cultural tourist", and start thinking about the diverse
kinds of cultural tourism consumption which exist in Europe.
The prospects for a diverse cultural tourism industry seem bright. In
particular, Ohrid has access to an accumulation of real cultural capital
which, as its pointed out, is far in excess of that in North America for
example, one of the major source markets for incoming cultural tourists.
In order to maintain this competitive advantage in the global tourism
market, however, Ohrid will not only have to make effective use of
traditional culture, but will also have to extend the capacity to develop
new cultural products from the stream of contemporary global culture,
including popular culture from America, Japan and elsewhere.
Ethnographic tourism values
Ethnographic specifics that characterize Ohrid are a significant attractive
factor and an important element for development of tourism. They show
the way of living of the people and minorities living in Ohrid, then to their
material and spiritual culture, folklore, food, costumes, everything that
makes the life of this population possible.
Our folklore heritage consists of customs, songs and dances, costumes
and so on characterized by its attractiveness as, and its subtlety and
consistency. Its art and talent the people have written in all objects used
in everyday use. Thus, in a subtle manner and rustic beauty is united with
the practical. However, in terms of attractiveness and tourist attraction
the musical folklore and costumes are ahead and break out.
The song is a regular companion for the people when doing field work,
celebrations, weddings and gatherings. Macedonian folk melody is very
pleasant because it successfully integrates the tourists from all parts of

the country.
Much of the folklore of this treasure is collected and stored in museums.
Sets or parts of the Macedonian folk costumes, and costumes of the
minority are highly appreciated as souvenirs, and dancers and ensembles
in traditional costumes are great attraction for every

................

86

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

tourist. Convenient way to present folk and maintaining the rich tradition
are the various folk festivals as Ohrid traditional songs.
No less important to attract a tourist clientele are the economic
manifestations, in particular exhibitions and sporting events especially if
they are of higher rank. In fact, all types of events held in Ohrid enrich its
tourist offer.
According to the results of the analysis in terms of natural and created
factors it can be concluded that Ohrid has great opportunities for tourism
development in particular for the stationary summer tourism, winter
sports tourism, mountain recreation and health tourism and other
complementary types of tourism.
Although Ohrid has huge quality and tourism potential for tourism
development, still only a small portion is activated. Even it is so, during
the period of transition came a vast stagnation and regression of tourism
development.
The natural potentials dominate in the total tourist potentials. They are
consisted of lake Ohrid, mountains and other natural potentials, resources
and values. The anthropogenic tourism potentials are numerous, and are
not way behind the natural, but they make indivisible whole.
Significant boost to tourism demand are the natural values and rarities as
an indicator of preserved and quality nature. These are national park
Galicica, nature reserves and monuments of nature that should be
protected.
All routes of transit and highway travel are determined by the main road
traffic. The E-75 route which leads through the Vardar valley and road
east-west is the most significant one. From the significance of these
routes results the significance of the borders.
Large urban tourist centers with cultural heritage and their surroundings
are most developed tourist potentials. For example, Ohrid is a cultural
environment where there is a variety of created tourist potential with
already established offer. These conclusions apply to other cities, but
more as potential centers because there is no way they are still
sufficiently established urban tourist offer.
In the previous analysis of the basic characteristics of tourism it can be
concluded that:

The favorable tourist position of Ohrid is not enough used, i.e. transit
tourism is not organized at the appropriate level
Stationary tourism at the coast of the lake is still only with seasonal
character and
Mountain tourism, especially winter sports activities are underdeveloped
even neglected.

................

87

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

3.3.2. Bled
Benedik, (2003) states that the anthropogenic factors in Bled consist of:
- Churches,
- Castle, and
- Monuments.
Churches
The Church of the Assumption on the Island - According to a legend
which stayed with the people, the temple of the ancient Slavic goddess
iva, once stood in the place of the current Baroque church. Priest
Staroslav and his daughter Bogomila guarded it when rtomir came to the
island. The temple disappeared during battles between the followers of
the pagan religion and Christians, who destroyed the altar and built a
church. Bogomila stayed in the new church with her father, while rtomir,
after his baptism near the Savica waterfall, went to Aquilea and became a
missionary of the Aquilean patriarch among Slovenes. On the Bled Island,
archeologists have discovered traces of prehistoric (11th to 8th centuries
B.C.) and Slavic (9th to 10th century) settlements. In the early middle
Ages there was a pre-Christian, probably Old Slavic cult area in the
location of the present day church. 124 graves with skeletons from the 9th
to the 11th century were found. The foundations of a pre-Romanesque
chapel which was built during the process of Christianization also date
from approximately the same period - this is probably the only discovered
example of a cult building from those times on Slovenian territory.
According to written sources, the first masonry church on the island, a
three-naved Romanesque basilica, was consecrated by the Aquilean
patriarch Pellegrino in 1142. In the 15th century, it was rebuilt in the
Gothic style: a new presbytery, a freestanding bell tower and the main
altar were built. The renovated single-nave church was consecrated in
1465 by the first bishop of Ljubljana, count iga Lamberg. In 1509 it was
so damaged by an earthquake that it required thorough renovation, and
this was carried out in the Baroque style. Only the frescoes in the
................

presbytery and a wooden statue of the Virgin Mary, which probably


adorned the main altar, are preserved from the previous Gothic church.
The church's present form is from the 17th century when it was renovated
after another earthquake. The main altar with its rich gold-plated carving
dates from 1747. On the central altarpiece the Virgin Mary is shown
seated, next to who appears to be the donor of the Bled
8
8

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

estate, Henrik II, and his wife Kunigunda. The side altars, consecrated to
St. Sebastian, St. Magdalena and St. Anna, were made at the end of the
17th century.
The bell tower, which was built in the 15th century, has been renovated
several times due to damage by two earthquakes, and in 1688 it was
struck by lightning. The present tower is 54 m high and has three bells,
which were made by Samassa and Franchi, bell makers from Ljubljana.
Like the church, the other buildings, the walls and the monumental
staircase (99 stairs) preserve their image from the 17th century. Of special
interest is the "wishing bell" from 1534 in the upper roof beam above the
church nave, by F. Patavina from Padova.
The

Parish

Church

in

Bled

The present neo-Gothic church,

consecrated to St. Martin, was built in 1905 on the site of the previous
Gothic church dating from the 15th century; altrough the very first chapel
was erected here before the year 1000. The new church was built
following the plans of Prof. Friedrich von Schmidt (the architect of the
Vienna City Hall), but these were consequently changed by architect Josip
Vanca - namely in their design of the interior. The majority of sculptures
was made by restoration specialist Ivan Vurnik from Radovljica and was
produced from the best Carrera marble. The church was adorned with
frescoes by painter Slavko Pengov between 1932 and 1937.
In front of the church there is a garden signpost which was designed by
the great Slovenian architect, Joe Plenik, in the years before World War
II. The well-preserved walls from the 15th century remind us of the periods
of Turkish invasions to these lands.
The Bled castle
It is quite probable that in 1004, when the German Emperor Henrik II gave
the Bled estate to Bishop Albuin of Brixen as a gift, only a Romanesque
tower stood in the place of the present day castle, protected by walls
facing the gentle slope of the castle hill. In the late middle Ages more
towers were built and the fortifications were improved. The entrance
through the outer walls, with a Gothic arch and a drawbridge over the now
................

filled-in moat, is an interesting aspect to view. Other buildings which were


additionally constructed in the Baroque period completed the architectural
development of the castle complex. These are arranged around two
courtyards: the lower one containing outbuildings and the upper one
residential quarters. The two courtyards were connected with a staircase
in the middle of the Baroque wing. The most interesting of all the
preserved buildings is certainly the chapel on the upper courtyard, which
was consecrated to the Bishops St. Albuin and to St.
89

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

Ingenium. It was built in the 16th century, and was renovated in the
Baroque style around 1700, when it was also painted with illusionist
frescoes.
Next to the altar there are paintings of the donors of the Bled estate, the
German Emperor Henrik II and his wife Kunigunda. Fragments of the rib
vaults from the ruined Gothic arch are built into the wall of a room from
the neighboring wing, nowadays the site of the museum. Numerous coats
of arms painted in the fresco technique or carved in stone, decorate
individual castle buildings. At the edge of the upper courtyard there is a
hut marked as a tower in the axial plan. In 1947 when the castle roof was
destroyed in a fire and during the first post-war archeological excavations
at Bled in 1948, the National Museum proposed the preservation of the
castle complex. From 1951 to 1961 it was restored and embellished with
certain architectural details under the leadership of architect Tone Bitenc
and with funds provided by the Municipality of Bled.
The castle is now arranged as an exhibition area. The display rooms near
the chapel, a most interesting building, present the ancient history of Bled
from the first excavations and the castle in individual stages of its
historical development with furniture, characteristic of those times.
Although these pieces are not originally from Bled Castle, they are
important as an illustration of the style of living in the historical periods
presented. Bled castle attracts visitors not only with it sage and
picturesque architecture but also for the unforgettable view of the lake
and the wider area of Gorenjska and the Julian Alps. In summer months,
the castle atmosphere is enlivened by the visit of a count and an archery
tournament, and on warm summer nights, visitors are drawn by concerts
of classical music under the starry skies.
Bled castle is the most visited cultural attraction in Slovenia and is visited
by 200.000 visitors every year. Slovenian name Bled appears after 1500.
During Ostrogoth and Langobard era a settlement with defense walls was
constructed on the elevation. At the time deceased were buried on the
place below the castle. In the Slavic era a new castle settlement, which
was of great significance, is constructed on the castle elevation. Finds that
were excavated on the burial ground below the castle, where parking lot is

today, testify about that. 170 graves have been excavated. Slavic
cemetery was also located on the island.

................

90

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

Monuments
Monuments at the Zaka Rowing Centre - On your walk around the
lake, by the boathouse you can see a bust of Boris Kocijani, which was
erected by Slovenian and Bled rowers in memory of the long-standing
president of the Rowing Association of Slovenia, Mr. Kocijani was the
organizer of European and World Championships at Bled in 1956 and
1966, and the founder of the only rowing centre organization in Slovenia.
The monument is by Stojan Bati. Only a few steps away, stand an
imposing statue of a boatman - one of the most beautiful works by
Slovenian sculptor Boris Kalin from the period between the two world
wars. On the boathouse there is a memorial to the Swiss Thomas Keller, a
great friend of Bled.
France Preeren - In the park near the road leading to the boathouse
and the castle bathing area, under the parish church, you can see a
monument to Dr. France Preeren which was erected in 1883 by the
Ljubljana Reading Club. This is the first monument with which Slovenes
honored their greatest poet.
Josip Plemelj - In 1973, on the 100th anniversary of the birth of Josip
Plemelj - a mathematician of world repute in the field of linear differential
equations and the author of many professional works in the field of pure
and applied mathematics - the Society of Mathematicians, Physicists and
Astronomers of Slovenia and the Municipality of Radovljica, erected a
monument to him in the park in front of the School of Catering on
Preernova street. Plemelj received numerous awards for his work. He was
the first rector of the Slovenian University of Ljubljana (1919) and a
member of the Academies of Arts and Sciences in Ljubljana, Zagreb,
Belgrade and Munich. His life and work are presented in his memorial
room at Preernova 39 at Bled.
3.3.3. Comparison of the anthropogenic factors of Ohrid and Bled
It can be concluded that it is obvious that Ohrid is in advantage
concerning the anthropogenic factors. In fact large portion of the tourist
offer that Ohrid possesses is constituted from the churches, monasteries,
................

ethnographic potentials and historic monuments. Bled in comparison has


only one castle, few churches and monuments. Although Bled lacks the
culture-historic part of the tourist offer, still manages to show maximally
the potentials that possesses. Ohrid is in the nascent of valorizing the
cultural heritage and promoting it on the tourist market. With good
organization and packet
9
1

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

product, the cultural heritage could very easily become Ohrids number
one product in terms of tourism.
3.4. Receptive factors
Besides the natural factors that actually represent the quality of primary
importance for the spatial planning, and communicative factors that
determine the extent of availability of space, the receptive factors also
have a big impact in the overall tourism. In the broadest sense, receptive
factors include most of the total tourist offer, and without their existence,
other developmental factors remain wholly or insufficiently used. This
particularly applies to the quality and attractiveness of the area or natural
factors for the development of tourism. Given the type of service they are
mostly given in catering facilities, a general assessment is that
accommodation facilities are full with rooms that provide services for
serving food and drinks. This especially applies to hotel facilities that have
irrationally great restaurants, cafes, bars, snack bars, halls for banquets,
etc. Such concentration of many kinds of catering facilities affects the
price of services for reception, accommodation in the objects. This
especially applies to hotels located in Ohrid, whose restaurants and other
premises serving food and drinks are used minimally because of other
restaurants outside the hotels and other accommodation facilities
(Marinoski, 2001).
3.4.1. Ohrid
At the end of 2009, from the latest data received from the sector for
tourism development Ohrid, in Ohrid there are categorized 60 hotels, 8
camps and 1750 private households, there is an approximate number of
11,000 beds in all types of objects for accommodation, which includes
beds in private households.
Observed

in

terms

of

spatial

differentiation,

most

of

the

total

accommodation capacity is located near the lake or the most attractive


tourist places in Ohrid. Although most concentration of housing units
................

(beds)

is

near

the

lake

areas,

where

mainly

are

located

the

complementary accommodation facilities (resorts, camps and private


accommodation in households), still this spatial differentiation in terms of
natural factors can be assessed as relatively favorable.
However, the current structure of the total capacity of accommodation
objects is extremely unfavorable. Over 80.0% of total beds goes to
complementary facilities, where over 55.0%
9
2

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

participate in camps and beds in households which throughout the year


are least used, i.e. two to three months during the main (summer) tourist
season.
3.4.2. Bled
According to the state statistics office, in Bled from the receptive factors,
the

hotels

and

resorts

are

most

present

and

they

form

the

accommodation structure in Bled with over 80%. Also, private household


is present, but not as much as the hotels and resorts. In those terms, the
total number of beds is 4918.
3.4.3. Comparison of the receptive factors in Ohrid and Bled
From the comparison of the receptive factors it can be seen that Bled has
over 50% less receptive facilities, and still manages to accommodate
much higher number of tourists than Ohrid. That can be seen from the
accomplished results point which follows.
3.5. Accomplished results
The results accomplished from the tourism are very important because in
these days the tourism is growing more and more and presents a key part
of each countrys economy. That is why all people included should we
aware of that fact (Marinoski, 2001).
3.5.1. Ohrid
From the aspect of the national economy, revenues generated from
foreign tourists have a direct impact on the increase of net foreign
exchange income of the country. For this reason, all countries in the world
pay special attention to foreign tourism, because it is a basic and main
bearer of the total tourist development and results achieved in this area.
Because of the reasons that between ours and the international
methodology for defining the term "foreign tourists", there is a difference,
we consider it necessary to give some short explanations.
................

In principle, by our and international methodology, tourism is not only the


market of supply and demand of annual holidays, but under the global
tourism market is understood the travel or in the general framework,
mobility and movement of population. So, tourism comprises the activities
of persons traveling or residing in places which are not places of their
permanent residence for a period of up to one year but not because of
vacation, but
93

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

also because business and other reasons, provided that the purpose of the
journey to is carrying out activities for which a person would received
compensation in the place visited. In our methodology, the definition of
foreign tourists refers to a person with permanent residence outside the
Republic of Macedonia, which has stayed in the Republic of Macedonia at
least one night in an accommodation object.
Following the international methodology, the foreign tourist is considered
a visitor from another country who stayed in their country, but not longer
than 12 months and achieved overnight no matter what type of
accommodation (accommodation facilities, private homes, etc.), and
"visitors for a day". The difference is that that after our methodology is
"lost" foreign "visitors for a day (and transits), i.e. those who did not
realize a night stay in accommodation facilities (Marinoski, 2001).
The analytical treatment in this part of the study will be presented data
from Ohrid and Bled respectively, concerning the number of tourist nights
by city realized the background and place the order (rank) realized the
largest tourist market.
According to the local statistics office in Ohrid, during 2009, Ohrid had a
total of 189.699 visitors and a total of 951.254 nights in accommodation
facilities.
3.5.2. Bled
According to the statistics office in Slovenia, during the analyzed period of
time, and that is the year of 2009, Bled had a total of 450.345 visitors.
3.5.3. Comparison of the accomplished results between Ohrid and
Bled
In terms of the accomplished results, it can be concluded that: Compared
to Ohrid, it is obvious that Bled is in superior position and manages better
its potentials in tourism.
3.6. Tourist structure
The tourist structure is of great importance because the efforts when
making the tourist offer should be directed towards the countries which
are main emitive zones, but as well it is an indicator where extra effort

should be made in order to penetrate other markets (Benedik, 2003).

................

94

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje


3.6.1. Ohrid

According to the local statistics office, in terms of the structure of tourists


that have visited Ohrid in the past year, it has to be stressed that the
neighboring countries are most present on the Ohrid Riviera. Most of them
come from Serbia, over 50%, and then comes Bulgaria with approximately
20 percents; Albania and Kosovo with approximately 10% and the rest are
from the emitive zones from Europe and the transatlantic countries. It is
evident that the efforts should be mainly towards the surrounding and
then to the rest of Europe and the transatlantic countries.

3.6.2. Bled
According to the state statistics office, as far as the structure of tourists
concerns, it can be stated that most of the tourists that come to Bled are
from the neighboring countries, which are the main emitive zones, similar
to Ohrid. But, it has to be pointed out that the number of Japanese tourists
is pretty high, and even higher than the number of German tourists
visiting Bled. Below is the detailed structure of tourists visiting Bled.
Table 4. Tourist structure visiting the city of Bled

Country
Austria
Italia
Germany
Japan

Tourist
arrivals
6154
20325
11701
24437

Source: Statistical office of the Republic of Slovenia URL


http://www.stat.si/pxweb/Dialog/Saveshow.asp

(accessed

16.05.2010)

3.6.3. Comparison of the tourist structure in Ohrid and Bled


As for the tourist structure, it can be concluded that: In both destinations,
the main structure comes from the neighboring countries. It has to be
stressed out that Bled is much more interesting for the Japanese tourists,
unlike Ohrid. This information could be used in terms of the fact that Ohrid
is similar to Bled, and potential target market could be the Japanese

tourists. Still, Ohrid has to promote its potentials to the emitive zones
from central

................

95

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

and Western Europe in order to attract tourists from the emitive zones
that currently visit Bled and to become Bleds main competitor on the
tourist market of Europe.
3.7. Income realized
According to Tribe (2005), the income realized in tourism is an indicator of
how much assets are available for further investments in tourism and
improvements in the infrastructure, tourist offer or promotion.
3.7.1. Ohrid
According to the sector for tourism development Ohrid, in Ohrid for the
year of 2009 were collected 18.858.273 denars from tourist tax. It has to
be stressed out that this number is only approximate to the real number
because of the inability of the authorities to gather the real number of
income in the field of tourism. Still, compared to 2008, when the amount
was 15.033.801 denars, can be seen that there is an evidence of
improvement in the field of tourism.

3.8. Development of selective kinds of tourism


Selectivity in tourism is a theoretical and practical question as well. It is
based on the necessity of regular determination of the legislative which
rules in some forms of tourism, the activities which determine the
development

as

specific

object

in

the

surrounding.

Selectivity

understands clear determination of specific dividing criteria, so that the


consistence in the methodological activity of unveiling the processes is
kept. With the selectivity it will be possible defining not just for the
fundaments of the phenomenon called tourism, but also for the markets
characteristics, the competition and the developing processes. The
practical usage of the selectivity of the tourist development can be seen
thru the informal approach during the realization of the plans. Simply, it is
not possible to be possessed universal methodology in practice, because
the tourism is not only exposed to the multifactor and uniformed
dimension of the functionality, but also, the different kinds have different
approach in practice (Marinoski, 2001).

................

96

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje


3.8.1. Ohrid

Today, the tourism market is dynamic and extremely competitive. Survival


in the market depends on monitoring modern trends, which serve to
identify trends in demand, new market opportunities, areas of possible
investment and infrastructural needs. Identification and implementation of
long-term trends, tailoring supply and establishing cooperation among
players at all levels are the necessary prerequisites that should be taken
into account within the process of planning aimed at increasing
competitiveness,

achieving

more

substantial

market

share

and

increasing benefits from tourism.


In recent analysis of market demand preferences, a few types of tourism
are mentioned as being present on the market: ecotourism, cultural
tourism, adventure tourism, cruises and nautical tourism. In all of these
areas, Ohrid has much unused potential.
Since its paltry start as the ecologically and socially responsible way of
travelling ecotourism has developed into an economically important
product, travelling with a natural element. Thus far, ecotourism has
created possibilities for development in inadequately developed tourism
regions, as well as for the maintenance and funding of protected areas. In
ecotourism we differentiate tourists according to two important segments:
small groups with special interests in ecotourism who spend their whole
vacation this way; and the large number of tourists who spend their
vacation, for example, on the beach, but also take part in short nature
excursions.
Galicica national park is a huge potential for ecotourism development,
rural tourism, year-round mountain holidays, as well as excursion tourism.
The significant obstacles to development lies in the fact that the areas
which have a special natural value are not yet organized or equipped to
accept and offer a quality stay to a large number of guests. Development
of a trekking infrastructure, a system of signposts, rest areas, and an
adequate transportation system, would significantly improve the tourism
potential of these areas. It is imperative to stress the preservation of
nature, as well as the control of traffic through these protected areas
(Atanasovski, 1998).

Ecologically produced food is yet another component of tourism and


ecology which has become an important factor in defining the tourism
product and its differentiation in the market. Opportunities for the
production of ecologically-grown food and its sale in catering facilities
which offer their services to tourists must be further developed and used
in light of the fact that the importance of this segment of the tourist
supply is increasing.

................

97

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

Cultural tourism is more and more becoming a significant part of the


supply. In the area of cultural tourism, it is necessary to identify market
niches with special cultural interests. It is very often the case that during
vacation the guests will visit an event or cultural monument (Bernadini,
1992).
Cultural offerings in Ohrid are inadequately and inferiorly presented.
Improving the identification of and signs pointing to cultural and historical
monuments, placing information charts, adjusting the hours of operation
of museums, monasteries and churches, and creating an attractive
presentation would significantly increase the quality of cultural tourism
offerings. The organization of a wide spectrum of events and an
imaginative presentation of cultural values would be conducive to the
development of tourism geared towards different experiences on the basis
of O h r i d s cultural potential. One of the components of cultural and
historical heritage, which may likely broaden tourism offerings, is
traditional food and cuisine. The diversity of indigenous national meals
may be one of many components that will contribute to the development
of gastro-tourism.
Adventure tourism is a small market niche with the potential for growth.
Given that todays tourist has access to virtually every corner of the
planet, this segment as stated by the World Tourism Organization
would now like to explore the altitudes of mountains, the cosmos, the
Antarctic, and depths of the seas. An example of the attraction of this
tourism niche is that more than 2 million passengers have participated in
submarine cruise expeditions. Therefore, the WTO has envisaged special
development opportunities for Sub-Aqua tourism. Ohrid has the natural
potential to develop many very diverse aspects of adventure tourism,
such as paragliding, hot air balloon flights, free climbing and many other
activities (WTO, 2001).
Ohrid also has the potential for Religious Tourism, which, until now, has
been active. Package tours expressly offer what no other way of travelling
can offer and that is the possibility of seeing a great deal in a short period
................

of time. This would explain the large growth rate related to package tours
and the prospect of expansion in this segment.
Owing to the length of the coast and the richness of flora and fauna in the
lake, the shore of Ohrid Lake is the perfect setting for the intensive
development of nautical tourism, as well as package tours. Fulfilling the
needs of this demanding segment has the potential to become an
important contribution to the whole of tourist traffic in Ohrid . One of
98

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

todays unexploited potentials is to make use of the rivers as a package


tour selection (Marinoski, 2001).
Corporate travel, conventions and incentive tourism, are becoming
increasingly significant. This segment is exceptionally lucrative, and
primarily takes place out of the summer peak season, which is enough
reason to intensively promote its development in Ohrid. This would attract
an increasing number of foreign experts, scientists, professors and
researchers. The

necessary

prerequisite

for

developing

convention

tourism is the construction of quality convention centers.


3.8.2. Bled
Similarly to Ohrid, Bled has developed or is in the process of development
of eco-tourism which is introduced by the hiking tours, than the cultural
tourism presented by the Bled castle, the churches and monuments and
the adventure kind of tourism presented by the possibilities of diving,
parachuting, ballooning and so on. But, Bled has developed ski tourism
and exploited in maximum the potentials of the Julian Alps. Also, there
comes the sports tourism presented by the golf course which is one of the
best made in Europe (Benedik, 2003).
3.8.3.

Comparison

of

the

possibilities

for

development

od

selective kinds of tourism in Ohrid and Bled


Regarding the development of selective kinds of tourism, it can be
concluded that: Ohrid has not yet approached to the development of the
selective kinds of tourism the way Bled has. Here, as well as in the other
points of this analysis, Bled is direct in the intentions of developing and
promoting selective kinds of tourism. It has maximized the effects of the
Julian Alps, the national park and the lake as well. Distinctive kinds are
being developed and promoted in the way that potential tourists can feel
the unfelt, see the unseen, and touch the untouched. Ohrid lacks the
directness in the development.
3.9. Perspectives for development
Tourism is a rapidly growing phenomenon and has become one of the

largest industries in the world. The impact of tourism is extremely varied.


On one hand, it plays an important and certainly positive role in the socioeconomic and political development in destination
................

99

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

countries by, for instance, offering new employment opportunities. Also, in


certain instances, it may contribute to a broader cultural understanding by
creating awareness, respecting the diversity of cultures and ways of life.
On the other hand, as a tool to create jobs, it has not fulfilled its
expectations. At the same time, complaints from tourist destinations
concerning massive negative impacts upon environment, culture and
residents ways of life have given rise to a demand for a more sustainable
development in tourism. Different parties will have to be involved in the
process of developing sustainable tourism (Moscardo, Faulkner, & Laws,
2000).
3.9.1. Ohrid
The aim of this strategy is to create a framework for the development of a
quality tourism offering and competitiveness of the Ohrid tourism market.
The sustainable development of tourism fulfills the prerequisite for
balance, both in the short and long term, thus creating value for all
market participants. To achieve the set aims, protagonists from local to
national levels, must behave in accordance with the principles of
sustainable development.
In order to achieve this goal and provide for long-term sustainable
developments in tourism, it is necessary to (Moscardo, Faulkner, & Laws,
2000):
Understand, recognize, and satisfy all the tourists needs. Should
their expectations not be met, they will share their negative
experiences with everybody in their midst and this could considerably
damage the image of the destination;
Ensure the prerequisites for the profitability of businesses on the
market. The creation of a positive business environment ensures the
conditions for the arrival of new investors and therefore, the further
development of tourism;
Invest in employee education and training at all levels of tourism due
to the extremely personal contact with guests, as well as the need for
educated management;

Insist on protection and renewal of natural wealth as it is a primary


resource of the Ohrid tourism;
Respect cultural values and diversities of the locations and residents,
i.e. destinations and their inhabitants who directly profit from the
development of tourism. Their approach towards tourism and tourists
is vital for the impression a

................

100

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

country leaves, it influences guests contentment, that is the totality


of benefits from tourism;
To provide for a continuous active role of the state; by way of
infrastructural development, amendment of legislative regulations,
etc., the state considerably
influences the tourist potential and in turn, reaps major long-term
benefits as a result of tourist development.
Finding a balance in the mutual relationship of the different participants in
the tourism market, and fulfillment of their needs and goals can create a
stable and long term sustainable tourism development.
In view of global ecological, social, and economic challenges, the
international community in Rio adopted Agenda 21, which determines the
framework of sustainable development. The World Tourism Organization
has adapted its postulates to tourism:
Sustainable tourism development meets the needs of present tourists
and host regions while protecting and enhancing development opportunity
for the future. It is envisaged as leading to the management of all
resources in such a way that the economic, social and aesthetic needs of
all those involved in tourism can be fulfilled. (WTO, 2001)
Tourism should contribute significantly to the O a n Republic of M a c e d o
hrids
d
n ias
economic growth and the prosperity of its
on the sustainable
populace, based
use of
natural, cultural and historical potentials
actively participating in
and
their
preservation and development, therefore
environment
forming
an
attractive to
investors.
According to Moscardo, G., Faulkner, B. & Laws, E. (2000), here are some
strategic goals should be a guide for the future development of the
tourism and are applicable for the future development of tourism in Ohrid:
1. Continuous protection, implementation and respect of high ecological
standards, and long-term sustainable valorization of tourism potential.
2. Education of all management and other staff in tourism.
3. Construction of transport infrastructure and the optimal organization of
transportation to service tourism and to increase the quality of
supporting facilities for traffic routes.

4. Development of an integral and integrated offer in a tourist destination.


5. Increasing the level of quality of all accommodation facilities, primary
and secondary, and adapting categorization criteria to international
quality standards.

................

101

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

6. Entrance of recognized international hotel brands on the market.


7. A more efficient distribution
communication and marketing.

and

use

of

modern

trends

in

3.9.2. Bled
Because its geographical position towards the main emitive zones is
favorable, Bleds natural and manmade beauties are the potential that
represents the main prospect for the tourism development. Also, the
management, organizational and marketing field is developed and
working in the favor of its development. The authorities that are in charge
of making the strategy for the development of Bled have made a strategy
for future developments and had made clear what needs to be done,
which things should be improved, which countries could be target markets
and how to penetrate and promote the tourism. All in all, they are doing
really professional job in terms of developing the tourism.
3.9.3. Comparison of the perspectives for development between
Ohrid and Bled
As for the perspectives for development, it can be concluded that: The
perspective for development of both destinations is bright, but it has to be
pointed out that the city of Bled is much more concrete and devoted in
the intention to make Bled international and attractive destination to visit.
Ohrid on the other side has no concrete strategy for the development of
the tourism but has a lot to show to the potential customers. Ohrid need a
clear path for development of the tourism, unity in doing that and
professionalism in providing the services that are being offered.

................

102

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

4. Conclusions and recommendations


The growth in tourism turnover in recent years confirms that Ohrid can
make tourism an active generator of its economic development. In order
to increase the economic benefits of tourism, it is essential to adopt and
implement a tourism strategy focused on sustainable development. Its
orientation should be towards such forms of tourism which will create
added value to all those who engage in the tourism trade.
The correct positioning on a dynamic and competitive tourism market is
conditional on monitoring modern trends which serve to identify demand,
new market potentials, areas of possible investment, and infrastructural
requirements.
In recent years, on the demand side of the market, there has been a
growing trend of tourists seeking specific types of tourism. Historical
heritage, natural beauty and pleasant climate make up the framework
which, together with the development of high quality accommodation, the
rich supply of activities and entertainment, and particularly good service,
shall enable Ohrid to attract the modern-day tourist.
Ohrid boasts exceptionally diverse and preserved natural and cultural
tourism potentials. This is a valuable asset that must be maintained and
protected so that in the long term it may contribute to the development of
tourism. Tourism needs to become one of the basic generators of
development, even in those areas where it was grossly marginalized in the
past.
The tourism development of Ohrid needs to be based on the preservation
of exceptionally diverse natural and cultural wealth; on principles of
sustainable development in the planning of a quality tourism offering; on
adequate market positioning and promotion, as well as the cooperation of
all individuals and professional institutions that directly and indirectly
participate in tourism.
The consistent implementation of an adopted strategy will ensure the
long-term growth of positive effects from tourism, which will strengthen its
position as a significant factor of economic growth and a generator of new
employment opportunities.
................

The development of a quality tourism infrastructure and offerings requires


significant resources, at least one part of which will have to be provided
by foreign investors and financial institutions. In order for Ohrid tourism to
become attractive enough to foreign capital, the return on resources
invested in tourist projects needs to reach the same rates as investments
in similar projects on offer to investors in other destinations.
103

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

Development in this direction will be possible only by properly positioning


tourism offerings in Ohrid on the global tourism market with respect to the
diversity and quality of offerings, and providing for an adequate price
experiences ratio. With the fulfillment of these conditions and the
adequate promotion of Ohrid as a tourist destination, it is possible to
achieve an increase in the utilization of tourism capacities, and
consequently, an increase in tourist spending, which will result in the
growth of attractiveness of investment projects in tourism.
The strategy for tourism is a starting document for the implementation of
defined strategic goals and the designing of suitable operational plans on
lower levels, whose implementation, in turn, shall enable the achievement
of the main strategic goal. Besides representing an umbrella strategy for
the drafting of local plans of tourism development, it is also one of the key
starting points in the process of designing a national strategy of regional
development.
Ohrid should develop overall objectives and regularly monitor their
progress. The objectives should provide guidance for all decisions
including finances, personnel and marketing. They should be quantitative
and measurable statements of what the community (local and national
government) wants to accomplish over a specified period of time.
Objectives are often stated in terms of sales, profits, market shares and/or
occupancy rates. Communities frequently establish objectives relating to
such things as increasing the number of tourists, developing or changing
their image, facility and activity development, cooperation among tourism
related businesses and increasing length of stay and local expenditures. It
is important that the objectives be reasonable given the market conditions
and the city's resources. Ohrid should establish a few reasonable
objectives instead of a long, unrealistic "wish list." This is especially true
for

Ohrid,

because it

doesnt have much experience

in

tourism

development and/or marketing.


The implementation of the goals and measures contained in this
dissertation marks the beginning of a new phase in the repositioning of
tourism and changing the way it is perceived in Ohrid and Macedonia as
well : from a seasonal activity which takes place in a few summer months,

to an industry which denotes a significant part of life and work of the


populace of the Republic of Macedon ia, and which significantly
contributes to the economic growth of the Republic of Macedonia and
prosperity of its citizens.

................

104

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje

Tourism marketing represents the systematic, coherent and consistent effort


of DMOs to develop, formulate, and implement their strategies in order to
achieve their main goal: making the tourism product a successful experience
for their visitors. In a strategic approach, tourism marketing has taken on new
dimensions, which increasingly reflect the perspective of visitors and those
hosting them. There are several important benefits to undertaking a strategic
approach to marketing. These advantages include: establishing the overall
objectives and strategies, providing a rational basis for decision-making on
marketing and laying the foundation for effective implementation of the
marketing plan. However managers must be aware of the planning models
pitfalls and limitations. The strategic approach to marketing at destination
level is now widely adopted as a principle, although implementation of the
action plans is still weak in some instances. It can be suggested that DMOs
need to get away from promoting the destination to a mass market, and
instead engage the visitor to ensure they effectively promote and provide the
experience they want. This will require a major change in the role, structure
and skills of DMOs. It is worth stressing that the marketing strategy and
promotion program of a destination should be comprehensive, particularly
reflecting

the

close

relationship

that

must

be

maintained

between

development and marketing. The marketing strategy for both international


and domestic tourism must be derived directly from the development
strategy and the need to project a focused and positive image. A key
principle applied in formulating the marketing strategy is the maintenance of
a close relationship to the development strategy, which emphasizes product
improvements

and

diversification.

Therefore,

marketing

and

product

development go hand-in hand, and must be carefully coordinated to achieve


successful tourism development. Additionally, demonstration or pilot projects
can be an excellent means of showing how new forms of tourism (e.g.
religious tourism, alternative and activity holidays) and development
approaches can work. Bearing in mind that strategic marketing is not a
panacea or a prescription for success, the following recommendations could
be put forward to DMOs in order to effectively formulate and implement
strategic marketing: (i) Marketing strategy is based on a careful analysis and
................

assessment of the marketplace and depends on the use of appropriate


marketing information.

Relevant and accurate information is required in order to carry out


effective strategic marketing plans; (ii) In order to implement a strategic
marketing approach effectively, appropriate management support is
required; (iii) In order to ensure that marketing
105

University American College Skopje

Masters
Thesis

objectives, strategies and tools are optimally adapted to the dynamic


environment, an evaluation system should be developed; and (iv) ICTs
empower tourism marketing and management as they provide costeffective tools for destinations to target appropriate market segments and
to develop strategic tools. ICTs also support the interaction between
tourism enterprises and consumers and, as a result, they re-engineer the
entire process of developing, managing and marketing tourism products
and destinations.
However, it should be recognized that ICTs are not a panacea; they require
a restructuring of several management practices to ensure that DMOs
achieve their strategic objectives. This dissertation, by no means
exhaustive, has attempted to cover several issues that should be
considered by a DMO in promoting its tourism product. These issues
should be addressed and appropriate approaches implemented in order to
render marketing activities more efficient and effective. At this end, it is
suggested that the limitations under which regional DMOs operate when
engaging in strategic marketing and the pitfalls of the strategic model
must be carefully considered.

................

106

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje


5. Bibliography

1. Aaker, D.A. and Shamsby, J.G. (1982). Positioning your Product.


Business Horizons, May/June, pp. 56-62.
2. Avramoski, O.,Kycyku S., Naumoski, T.,Panovski, D.,Puka V., Selfo, L.
& Watzin, M. (2003). Lake Basin Management Initiative. Experience
and Lessons Learned Brief. Lake Ohrid. Lake Ohrid Conservation
Project, Tirana, Albania and Ohrid, Macedonia. 23 pp.
3. Atanasovski, V. (1998). National Parks. National Park Galicica. Office
of the Environment, Ministry of Environment and Physical Planning,
Skopje. Macedonia.
4. Benedik, B., (2003). Bled nekoc in danes. Bled, Visja strokovna sola
za gostinstvo in turizem Bled, 404 str.
5. Bernadini, G. (1992) Tourism and cultural tourism in EC policy. In:
Provincie Friesland, Cultural tourism and regional development
Leeuwarden, pp. 3-5.
Bhat, S. (2004). The role and impact of strategic alliances and networks
in destination marketing: the development of

www.purenz.com.

International Journal of Tourism Research, 6(4), 303-304.


Blejsko jezero z otokom. URL:

http://www.bled.si/default.asp?id=141

(cited 02.06.2010)
6. Braun, P. (2002). Networking tourism SMEs: e-commerce and emarketing issues in regional Australia. Information Technology &
Tourism, 5(1), 13-23.
7. Buhalis, D. (2000). Marketing the cooperative destination of the
future. Tourism Management, 21, 97-116.
8. Buhalis, D. (2002). E-tourism information technology for strategic
tourism management. Hertfordshire: Prentice-Hall Europe.
9. Buhalis, D. (2005). Information and communication technologies for
tourism. In L. Pender & R. Sharpley (eds), The management of
tourism (pp. 232-245). London: SAGE Publications..
10.

Calver, S. (1994). Strategic marketing communication. In: R.

Teare, J. Mazanec, S. Crawford-Welch & S. Calver (eds), Marketing in


hospitality and tourism: a consumer focus (pp. 213-311). London:
Cassell.

11.

Chon, K. S. & Singh, A. (1995). Marketing resorts to 2000:

review of trends in the USA. Tourism Management, 16(6), 463-469.

................

107

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje


14.

Christian, R. (2001). Developing an online access strategy:

issues facing small to medium-sized tourism and hospitality


enterprises. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 7 (2), 170-178.
15.

Crawford-Welch S. (1996) International marketing in the

hospitality industry. In: R. Teare & A. Boer (eds.), Strategic


hospitality management: theory and practice for the 1990s (4th ed.,
pp. 166- 193). London: Cassell.
16.

Demetriades, S. & Baltas, G. (2003). Electronic commerce and

marketing. Athens: Rosili Publications [in Greek].


17.

DiMingo, F. (1988). The Fine Art of Positioning. The Journal of

Business Strategy, March/April, pp. 34-38.


18.

Doolin, B., Burgess, L. & Cooper, J. (2002). Evaluating the use

of the web for tourism marketing: a case study from New Zealand.
Tourism Management, 23(5), 557-561.
19.

Edgell, D. L., Ruf, K. & Agarwal, A. (1999). Strategic marketing

planning for the tourism industry. Journal of Travel & Tourism


Marketing, 8(3), 111-120.
20.

Fesenmaier, D. R., Gretzel, U., Hwang, Y. H. & Wang, R. (2004).

Applications of Internet technology in travel and tourism. In: H.


Bidgoli (ed.), The Internet encyclopaedia, Vol. 3 (pp. 459-476).
Bakersfield, CA: Wiley.
21.

Frochot, I. & Morrison, A. (2000). Benefit segmentation: a

review of its applications to travel and tourism research. Journal of


Travel & Tourism Marketing, 9(4), 21-45.
22.

Goodall, B. & Ashworth, G. (eds) (1997) Marketing in the

tourism industry: promoting tourist destinations. London: Routledge.


23.

Gretzel, U., Yuan, Y-L. & Fesenmaier, D. (2000). Preparing for

the new economy: advertising strategies and change in destination


marketing organizations. Journal of Travel Research, 39(2), 146-156.
24.

Heath, E. & Wall, G. (1994). Marketing tourism destinations: a

strategic planning approach. New York: J. Wiley & Sons.


25.

King,

J.

(2002).

Destination

marketing

organizations

connecting the experience rather than promoting the place. Journal


of Vacation Marketing, 8(2), 105-108.

26. Klimatske znacilnosti Bleda, accessed June 2

nd

2010,

http://www.arso.gov.si/vreme/podnebje
27. Kotler, P. (2008). Marketing management (13th ed.). New York:
Prentice-Hall.

................

108

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje


28.

Laws, E. (1995). Tourist resort management, issues, analysis

and policies. London: Routledge.


29.

Laws,

E.

&

Cooper,

C.

(1998).

Inclusive

tours

and

commodification: the marketing constraints for mass market resorts.


The Journal of Vacation Marketing, 4(4), 337-352.
Loukaras, H. (2005). Strategic planning by a destination management
organisation. Rhodes Tourism Forum, October. Retreived June 6,
2006, from: www.sete.gr/files/Ebook/2005.DMO.loukaras.
30.

Lovelock, C. H. (1~). Services Marketing (2nd Ed). Englewood

Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc., p.112.


31.

Marinoski,

N.

(2001).

Turisticka

Geografija

na

Republika

Makedonija. Fakultet za turizam i ugostitelstvo, Ohrid.


32.

Matovic, D. & McCleary, K. (2003). Marketing in the next

decade: a qualitative study of the U.S. hotel industry. Journal of


Travel & Tourism Marketing, 14(2), 47-65.
33.

Middleton, V., 1994, Marketing in travel and tourism, 2nd

Butterworth-Heinemann, London.
34.

Middleton, V. with Clarke, J. (2001). Marketing in travel and

tourism (3rd ed.). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.


35.

Mill, P., and Morrison, A., 1985, The tourism system: an

introductory text, Prentice Hall International Editions, New Jersey.


36.

Mistilis, N. & Daniele, R. (2005). Challenges for competitive

strategy in public and private sector partnerships in electronic


national tourist destination marketing systems. Journal of Travel &
Tourism Marketing, 17(4), 63-73.
37.

Moscardo, G., Faulkner, B. & Laws, E. (2000). Introduction:

moving ahead and looking back. In B., Faulkner, G. Moscardo & E.


Laws (eds), Tourism in the twenty-first century; lessons from
experience (pp. xviii xxxii). London: Continuum.
39. Naravnogeografske znacilnosti Bleda, accessed June 2

nd

2010,

http://www.bled.si/default.asp?id=855
40.

OConnor, P. (1999). Electronic information distribution in

tourism and hospitality. Oxford: CAB International.


41.

Palmer,

A.

(1998).

Evaluating

the

governance

style

of

marketing groups. Annals of Tourism Research, 25(1), 185-201.

................

109

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje


42.

Palmer, A. & Bejou, D. (1995). Tourism destination marketing

alliances. Annals of Tourism Research, 22(3), 616-629.


43.

Palmer, A. & McCole, P. (2000). The role of electronic commerce

in creating virtual tourism destination marketing organisations.


International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management,
12(3), 198-204.
44.
Pike, S. (2004). Destination marketing organizations. Oxford:
Elsevier.
45.

Poon,

A.

(1993).

Tourism,

technology

and

competitive

strategies. Wallingford: CAB International Press.


46.

Porter,

M.

(1995).

Competitive

advantage:

creating

and

sustaining superior performance. New York: Free Press.


47.
Porter, M. (2001). Strategy and the Internet. Harvard Business
Review, 79(3), 63-78.
48.

Pyo, S., Uysal, M. & Chang, H. (2002). Knowledge discovery in

database for tourist destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 40 (4),


396-403.
49.
Rayport, J. F. & Jaworski, B. J. (2001). E-commerce. Boston:
McGraw-Hill.
50.

Riege, A., Perry, C. & Go, F. M. (2002). Partnerships in

international travel and tourism marketing: a systems-oriented


approach between Australia, New Zealand, Germany and the United
Kingdom. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 11(1), 59-77.
51.

Ritchie, R. J. B. & Ritchie, J. R. B. (2002). A framework for an

industry

supported

destination

marketing information

system.

Tourism Management, 23 (5), 439-454.


52.

Ryan, C. (2002). The politics of branding cities and regions: the

case of New Zealand. In N. Morgan, A. Pritchard & R. Pride (eds),


Destination branding: creating the unique destination proposition
(pp. 66-86). Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.
53.

Ryan, C. (2005). Destination marketing and technology: the

case of web-based data mining. In L. Pender & R. Sharpley (eds),


The

management

of

tourism

(pp.

246-258).

London:

SAGE

Publications.
54.

Scott,

N.,

Parfitt,

N.

&

Laws,

E.

(2000).

Destination

management: co-operative marketing, a case study of the Port


Douglas brand. In: Faulkner B., Moscardo G. & Laws E. (eds),
Tourism in the twenty first century; lessons from experience (pp.
198-221). London: Continuum.

................

110

Masters
Thesis

University American College Skopje


55.

Selin, S. & Myers, N. (1998). Tourism marketing alliances:

member satisfaction and effectiveness attributes of a regional


initiative. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 7(3), 79-94.
56.

Sheldon, P. (1997). Information technologies for tourism.

Wallingford: CABI Publishing.


57.

Siegel,

C.

(2003).

Internet

marketing:

foundations

and

applications. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.


58.
Soteriades, M., Aivalis, C. & Varvaressos, S. (2004). E-marketing
and e-commerce in
the tourism industry: a framework to develop and implement
business initiatives. Tourism Today, 4 (autumn), 157-169.
59. Statistical office of the Republic of Slovenia, accessed May 16 2010,
http://www.stat.si/pxweb/Dialog/Saveshow.asp
60.
Tribe, J. (1997). Corporate strategy for tourism. London:
Thomson Learning.
61.

Tribe, J. (2005). Strategy for tourism. In L. Pender & R. Sharpley

(eds), The Management of Tourism (pp. 119-134). London: SAGE


Publications.
62.

Van der Borg, J. (1994) Demand for city tourism in Europe.

Annals of tourism research 21, 832-833.


63.

Varvaressos, S. & Soteriades, M. (2005). Tourism services

marketing: evaluation approaches to the parameters market, quality


and price. Review of Economic Sciences, 8, 35-54 [in Greek].
64.
WTO, 1975, Distribution channels, World Tourism Organisation,
Madrid
65.

World

Tourism

Organisation

(2000).

Marketing

tourism

destinations online: strategies for the information age. Madrid: WTO,


Business Council.
66.

World Tourism Organisation (2001). E-business for tourism:

practical guidelines for destinations and businesses. Madrid: WTO,


Business Council
67.

You, X., OLeary, J. & Fesenmaier, D. (2000). Knowledge

management through the web: a new marketing paradigm for


tourism organizations. In B. Faulkner, Moscardo G. & E. Laws (eds),
Tourism in the twenty-first century; lessons from experience (pp.

181-197). London: Continuum.

................

111