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Communication, Navigation and Surveillance


1. What is CNS?
Communication, Navigation and Surveillance are three main
functions (domains) which constitute the foundation of Air Traffic
Management (ATM) infrastructure.
The following provide further details about relevant domains of CNS:
(a) Communication:- Communication is the exchange of voice and
data information between the pilot and air traffic controllers or flight
information centres.
(b) Navigation:- Navigation Element Of CNS/ATM Systems Is meant
To provide Accurate, Reliable And Seamless Position Determination
Capability to aircrafts.
(c) Surveillance:- The surveillance systems can be divided into two
main types:- Dependent surveillance and Independent surveillance.
In dependent surveillance systems, aircraft position is determined on
board and then transmitted to ATC. The current voice position
reporting is a dependent surveillance systems in which the position of
the aircraft is determined from on-board navigation equipment and
then conveyed by the pilot to ATC. Independent surveillance is a
system which measures aircraft position from the ground. Current
surveillance is either based on voice position reporting or based on
radar (primary surveillance radar (PSR) or secondary surveillance
radar (SSR)) which measures range and azimuth of aircraft from the
ground station.
2.
What
is
CNS/ATM
system?
CNS/ATM stands for Communications, Navigation and Surveillance
Systems for Air Traffic Management. The system uses various
systems including satellite systems, and varying levels of automation
to achieve a seamless global Air Traffic Management system.
3. Who is responsible for making regulations, procedures and
issuing directions covering the Aeronautical Telecommunication
facilities (I.e. CNS/ATM Automation facilities) in India?
The DGCA (Web site ?dgca.nic.in?) is the designated agency of
Govt. of India under the Ministry of Civil Aviation for making
regulations, procedures and issuing directions covering the
Aeronautical Telecommunication facilities (I.e. CNS/ATM Automation
facilities) . Their instructions are to be complied with both by the Air

Navigation Service Provider (ANSPs), airlines and the airports.


4. Where one can find information about regulatory
requirements like Civil Aviation Requirements (CARs) etc. about
Aeronautical Telecommunication facilities (I.e. CNS/ATM
Automation facilities) in India?
The information is available on DGCA Web site ?dg ca.nic.in?.
5. Who is responsible for providing Aeronautical
Telecommunication facilities (CNS/ATM facilities/Infrastructure)
in India?
Airports Authority of India (AAI) is responsible for providing CNS/ATM
services in India.
6. Who looks after
the Aeronautical
Telecommunication
facilities (I.e.
CNS/ATM
Automation
systems)
infrastructure in
AAI?
The Departments of
CNS acts as the
nodal agency in AAI
to carry out its
designated functions
of looking after
Aeronautical
Telecommunication
facilities (I.e.
CNS/ATM
Automation systems)
in AAI.

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7. What are the different CNS Departments in AAI?
CNS Departments in AAI are:(a) CNS-Operation and Maintenance ( CNS- O&M)
(b) CNS- Planning (CNS- P)
(c) Flight Inspection Unit & Radio construction and Development
Units ( FIU & RCDU)
8. What are the functions/job profiles of the Dte. of CNS-OM in
AAI?
Directorate of CNS-Operation & Maintenance [CNS-OM] at CHQ is
headed by Executive Director [CNS-OM]. ED [CNS-OM] reports to
Member [ANS].
Broad functions/job profile of CNS-OM Department is as given below:

1. The Communication, Navigation, Surveillance and ATM Data


Processing systems are the backbone for provision of Air Traffic
Services for safe and smooth operation of Aircraft at Airports and in
Indian airspace. CNS-OM Directorate ensures provision of these
facilities for their serviceability, reliability and integrity as per Standard
and Recommended practices of ICAO, Civil Aviation Requirements
(CARs) promulgated by DGCA, to support CNS/ATM system for
continental and Oceanic airspace managed by India as mentioned
above. CNS-OM Dept also have the responsibility for maintenance
and operation of security systems (i.e. CCTV, XBIS, DFMD, HHMD,
ETD etc.)_and passenger facilitation system (i.e Flight Information
Display system, PA system etc.) installed at all the airports which are
managed by AAI. The security systems are maintained as per BCAS
guidelines.
2. CNS-OM Dept by framing maintenance policies and supervision
systems delivers system management, maintenance
standards/instructions and maintenance services to assure and
ensure Serviceability, Availability and Reliability of systems as
mentioned above.
3. Provision of Aeronautical Mobile Services, Aeronautical Fixed
Telecommunication Network, VOLMET, Pre Flight Com Briefing and
International Notam Offices
4. Provision of Telecom infrastructure (Datacom, Telephones, Fax &
Mobile etc.) to various AAI Units for operational and administrative
requirements.
5. Other main functions of CNS- OM Dept are :5.1 Management of CNS Human Resources including:Deployment
Training
Placement
Proficiency
5.2 Coordination with DGCA/ICAO for issue related to CNS and
amendment to ICAO Annex/documents related to CNS.
5.3 Coordination with National Regulator, WPC and ICAO for Civil
Aviation Frequency requirements/Protection.
5.4 CNS Standardization & Procedures
5.5 Preparing replacement and up gradation proposal of CNS and
ATM Data processing system.
5.6 Implementation of Safety Management System (SMS) related to
CNS and Automation facilities.
5.7 Disposal of obsolete CNS facilities proposal received at CHQ
from filed stations.
6. CNS-OM Dept is further divided into following five sections:
i) A & S (Automation & Surveillance)
ii) N&CMC (Navigation & Central Maintenance Cell)
iii) COM (Communication)
iv) CRSD (Central Radio Stores Depot)
v) FTI (Future Telecommunication Infrastructure)

I) Automation and Surveillance (A &S)


Regular Monitoring of Availability & Serviceability of Surveillance,
ATM Automation facilities at all airports and Aeronautical
Communication Stations. Human Resource Management, Training
and proficiency of CNS Personnel.Regular Monitoring of Availability &
Serviceability of Surveillance, ATM Automation facilities at all airports
and Aeronautical Communication Stations. Human Resource
Management, Training and proficiency of CNS Personnel.
II) Navigation and Central Maintenance Cell (N&CMC)
Regular Monitoring of Availability & Serviceability of Navigational
Aids. Review of NOC cases from CNS point of view received in CNSOM Dept. DGCA & ICAO Matters. CMC manages SMUs (Special
Maintenance Unit) which are established for different CNS equipment
for complex component level repairs of faulty modules received from
different stations. At present SMUs are available at Delhi, Kolkata,
Ahmedabad, Chennai, Hyderabad and Mumbai airports for different
CNS/ATM Automation facilities.
III) Communication (Com)
Regular Monitoring of Availability & Serviceability of Communication
systems at all Airports/ACS. Provision of Aeronautical Mobile
Services, Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunication Network, VOLMET,
Pre Flight Com Briefing and International Notam Offices. Provision of
Telephones, Fax & Mobile to various AAI Units for operational and
administrative requirements
IV) Central Radio Stores Depot (CRSD)
The Central Radio Stores Depot procures and stocks Spares / PCBs/
Modules/ Discreet Components of CNS equipment and provides
them to the stations to ensure the availability of CNS facilities. CRSD
also arranges custom clearance, Overseas & In-Land insurance and
Re-Export of faulty systems during guarantee/warranty Of CNS
Equipment being procured by Dte. Of CNS-P and forwarding of same
to the consignees.
V) FTI:
FTI is responsible for creation of Telecom Infrastructure with the help
of Managed Service Provider (MSP) on Build, Own & Operate model.
Augmentation of Ground to Ground/Air to Ground communication
infrastructure, provision of SLA (Service Level Agreement) based
telecom services across PAN-India regions covering Voice, Data &
Video applications. Implementation of Aviation System Block
Upgrade (ASBU) under one sky policy of ICAO.

TOP
9. How can I join AAI in CNS Department?
AAI induct personnel with technical background at various levels in
CNS discipline. Besides Employment News, the recruitment
advertisements are published in reputed National and Regional
newspapers. For more information, detail requirements and
vacancies please visit AAI website "www.aai.aero" under the head
"carriers" regularly.
10. Who are ATSEP?
The recognized terminology as per ICAO DOC 7192 for personnel
involved in the maintenance and installation of CNS/ATM system is
Air Traffic Safety Electronics Personnel (ATSEP).
11. Where is training for CNS Personnel (ATSEP) conducted in
AAI?
Training for CNS Personnel is held at Civil Aviation Training College
(CATC) Allahabad and 04 Regional Training Canters (RTCs) located
at Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai and Kolkata Airports.
12. What are various services provided by CNS for air traffic
services and aircraft operations?
Various services provided are:1) Aeronautical Radio Navigation Service
2) Aeronautical Mobile Service
3) Aeronautical Fixed Service
4) Aeronautical Information Service
5)Aeronautical Broadcast Service etc.
13. What are different Radio Navigational Aids.
The different Radio navigational aids are:(i) NDB/Locators
(ii) VOR; CVOR or DVOR
(iii) DME
(iv) ILS
(v) Markers
14. What is Non Directional Beacon (NDB)?
NDB is a standard International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)
ground based radio navigational aid. NDB are used by aircraft to help
obtain a fix of their geographic location on the surface of the Earth.
NDBs are also most commonly used as "locators" for an instrument
landing system (ILS) approach and standard approaches.
15. What is a DVOR?
DVOR Stands for Doppler Very High Frequency Omni Range. DVOR
is a standard International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) ground
based radio navigational aid that provides bearing information to
aircraft to define air traffic control routes for en-route, terminal and

instrument approach/departure procedures. DVOR when collocated


with DME (Distance Measuring Instrument) provides both the angle
and slant distance of aircraft with respect to ground station.
16. What is DME?
DME stands for Distance Measuring Instrument. DME is a standard
International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) ground based radio
navigational aid that provides slant distance information to aircraft
with respect to ground station to define air traffic control routes for enroute, terminal and instrument approach/departure procedures. DME
is normally collocated with DVOR or ILS/Glide Path and sometimes
with NDB also.
17. What is an ILS and its different component?
ILS stands for Instrument Landing System and is a standard
International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) precision landing aid
that is used to provide accurate azimuth and descent guidance
signals for guidance to aircraft for landing on the runway under
normal or adverse weather conditions. Instrument landing system
(ILS) facility is a highly accurate and dependable means of navigating
to the runway in IFR conditions. The ILS provides the lateral and
vertical guidance necessary to fly a precision approach. When all
components of the ILS system are available, including the approved
approach procedure, the pilot may execute a precision approach.
The ILS consists of: -

1.

Localizer:- The primary component of the ILS is the localizer,


which provides lateral guidance. The transmitter and antenna
(Shown above) are on the centreline at the opposite end of the
runway from the approach threshold.

2.

Glide Path:- The glide path component of ILS provides


vertical guidance to the pilot during the approach. Glide path
is located 750 to 1,250 feet (ft) down the runway from the
threshold (shown above), offset 400 to 600 ft from the runway
centre line.

3.

Markers:(i) Outer marker; (OM): The outer marker (if installed) is located
3 1/2 to 6 NM from the threshold within 250 ft of the extended
runway centreline to provide the pilot with the ability to make a
positive position fix on the localizer.
(ii) MIDDLE MARKER (MM): The middle marker ( if installed) is
located approximately 0.5 to 0.8 NM from the threshold on the
extended runway centerline. The middle marker crosses the
glide slope at approximately 200 to 250 ft above the runway

elevation.
4.

DME : Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) is normally


collocated with glide path and provides slant distance to the
aircraft with respect to touch down point.

5.

The approach lighting system:-Various runway lighting


systems serve as integral parts of the ILS system to aid the pilot
in landing. Any or all of the following lighting systems may be
provided at a given facility: approach light system (ALS),
sequenced flashing light (SFL), touchdown zone lights (TDZ)
and centerline lights (CLL-required for Category II & III
operations.)

6.

RUNAWAY VISUAL RANGE (RVR) : In order to land, the pilot


must be able to see appropriate visual aids not later than the
arrival at the decision height (DH) or the missed approach point
(MAP).

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18. What are different Facility Performance categories of
operation of ILS?
For suitably equipped aircraft, different ILS Facility Performance
categories are mentioned as below:(i) Cat I Operation: A precision instrument approach and landing with
a decision height not lower than 60m (200ft) and with either a visibility
not less than 800m or a runway visual range not less than 550m.
(ii) Cat II Operation: A precision instrument approach and landing
with a decision height lower than 60m (200ft) but not lower than 30 m
(100ft) and a runway visual range not less than 350m.
(iii) Cat III Operation: Different CAT III operation are further
subdivided into:(a) CAT IIIA Operation: A precision instrument approach and landing
with :a) a decision height t lower than 30m (100ft) , or no decision height;
and
b) a runway visual range not less than 200m.
(b) Cat IIIB Operation: A precision instrument approach and landing
with :a) decision height t lower than 15m (50ft), or no decision height;
and
b) runway visual range less than 200 m not less than 50m.
(c) Cat IIIC Operation: A precision instrument approach and landing
with no decision height and no runway visual range limitations.
19. What is PBN?
ICAO's Performance Based Navigation (PBN) Concept specifies
system performance requirements for aircraft operating agencies
along an ATS route, or on an instrument approach procedure or in a

designated airspace.
20. What is AFTN?
A world wide system of aeronautical fixed circuits provided, as part of
the aeronautical fixed service, for the exchange of messages and/or
digital data between aeronautical fixed stations having the same or
compatible communications characteristics.
21. What is ATN?
The Aeronautical Telecommunication Network (ATN) comprises
application entities and communication services which allow ground,
air-to-ground and avionics data sub networks to interoperate. This is
done by adopting common interface services and protocols based on
International Standards. ATN is designed with four major elements.
The first element is the ability to transfer data to an aircraft without
sender knowledge of the aircraft location (network mobility). The
second major element is the ability to simultaneously use the multiple
air/ground links that are installed in an aircraft. This requires
applications to specify cost, link, or speed preferences, which are
used by the ATN when forwarding data. The third element is the
ability to account for the low bandwidth air/ground data links available
today and in the near future. Low bandwidth air/ground links require
the use of data compression. The fourth element is the
standardization of the services required by ATS applications (i.e.,
transport, session, presentation, and application functions) and the
applications themselves, so that they are the same worldwide.
22. What is ADS/CPDLC?
ADS (Automatic Dependent Surveillance) is a surveillance technique
in which aircraft automatically provide, via a data link, data derived
from on- board navigation and position- fixing systems, including
aircraft identification, four-dimensional position and additional data as
appropriate. ADS data is displayed to the controller on a screen
that resembles a radar screen.
CPDLC (Controller Pilot Data Link Communications) is a means of
communication between controller and pilot, using data link for ATC
communications). CPDLC is a two -way data-link system by which
controllers can transmit messages to the pilot without the use of voice
communications. The message is displayed on a flight deck visual
display. CPDLC is an essential element of Automatic Dependent
Surveillance (ADS)
Several different forms of ADS are currently in use or under
development, including:
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) is a
function on an aircraft or surface vehicle that broadcasts position,
altitude, vector and other information for use by other aircraft,
vehicles and by ground facilities. It has become the main application
of the ADS principle.
Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Contract (ADS-C) functions
similarly to ADS-B but the data is transmitted based on a contract
between a ground system and an aircraft: Demand contract, periodic
contract, event contract and emergency contract. This application is
most likely to find application to sparsely trafficked transcontinental or
transoceanic crossings.
23. What is Aeronautical Mobile Service (AMS)?

A mobile service between aeronautical stations and aircraft stations,


or between aircraft stations, in which survival craft stations may
participate; emergency position- indicating radio beacon stations may
also participate in this service on designated distress and emergency
frequencies.
AMS may be further divided & defined into
1.

Aeronautical mobile (R) service An aeronautical mobile


service reserved for communications relating to safety and
regularity of flight, primarily along national or international civil
air routes.

2.

Aeronautical mobile (OR) service


An aeronautical mobile service intended for communications,
including those relating to flight coordination, primarily outside
national or international civil air routes.

3.

Aeronautical mobile-satellite service


A mobile-satellite service in which mobile earth stations are
located on board aircraft; survival craft stations and emergency
position-indicating radiobeacon stations may also participate in
this service.

4.

Aeronautical mobile-satellite (R) service


An aeronautical mobile- satellite service reserved for
communications relating to safety and regularity of flights,
primarily along national or international civil air routes.

5.

Aeronautical mobile-satellite (OR) service


An aeronautical mobile- satellite service intended for
communications, including those relating to flight coordination,
primarily outside national and international civil air routes.

24. What is PSR?


PSR is primary Surveillance Radar. Primary radar is ? classical" radar
which reflects all kind of echoes, including aircraft and clouds. A radio
detection system that transmits short bursts (pulses) of RF energy
and detects their echoes from objects (targets) such as aircraft or
ships. The round - trip propagation time for the echo return may be
used to determine the target's range (distance from the
radar's antenna). This type of radar (now called primary radar) can
detect and report the position of anything that reflects its transmitted
radio signals including, depending on its design, aircraft, birds,
weather and land features.

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25. What is SSR?
A Surveillance radar system which uses transmitters/receivers
(interrogators) & transponders, detects and measures the position of

aircraft but also requests additional information from the aircraft itself
such as its identity and altitude. SSR relies on its targets being
equipped with a radar transponder, which replies to each
interrogation signal by transmitting its own response containing
encoded data. SSR is based on the military identification friend or
foe (IFF) technology originally developed during World War II. The
transponder is a radio receiver and transmitter which receives on one
frequency (1090 MHz) and transmits on another (1030 MHz). The
target aircraft's transponder replies to signals from an interrogator
(usually, but not necessarily, a ground station co- located with a
primary radar) by transmitting a coded reply signal containing the
requested information. An SSR continuously transmits interrogation
pulses (selectively rather than continuously in Mode-4, Mode-5, and
Mode-S) as its antenna rotates, or is electronically scanned in space.
A transponder on an aircraft that is within line-of-sight range 'listens'
for the SSR interrogation signal and sends back a reply that provides
aircraft information.
26. What is MSSR?
Mono-pulse secondary surveillance radar (MSSR) is an improved
version of the classic SSR. Due to the problem of Garbling and
the False Replies Unsynchronized with the Interrogation
Transmissions or simply FRUIT, MSSR was developed.
27. What is Voice Communication Control System (VCCS)?
VCCS controls and connects together various voice communication
systems used for Air Traffic Management such as VHF Tx/RX,
telephone, and other ATC communications. It also provides an
internetworked chain & backbone for numerous interfaces acting as
an exchange for all the interfaces put together. It works on various IT
protocols customized for each set of facility.
28. what is Digital Voice Tape Recorder (DVTR)?
DVTR is a medium/instrument used to real time record various voice
communications used by Air Traffic controllers and other personnel in
support for Air Traffic Management and provides evidence for
incident or accident investigations. The media has evolved from
analog magnetic tape to digital media, engineers adapted magnetic
tape technology to digital recording, producing digital reel- to-reel
magnetic tape machines. Before large hard disks became economical
enough to make hard disk recorders viable, studio digital recording
meant recording on digital tape.
29. What is a NOTAM?
NOTAM or Notice to Airmen are notices distributed by means of
telecommunication containing information concerning the
establishment, condition or change in any aeronautical facility,
service, procedure or hazard, the timely knowledge of which is
essential to personnel concerned with flight operations.
30. What is the information promulgated by NOTAM?
following information is promulgated by Notam:
1.

Establishment, withdrawal and significant changes in operation of

aeronautical services;
2.

Establishment, closure or significant changes in operation of


aerodrome(s) or runways;

3.

Establishment or withdrawal of electronic and other aids to air


navigation and aerodromes;

4.

Establishment, withdrawal or significant changes made to visual


aids;

5.

Interruption of or return to operation of major components of


aerodrome lighting systems;

6.

Establishment, withdrawal or significant changes made to


procedures for air navigation services;

7.

Occurrence or correction of major defects or impediments in the


maneuvering area;

8.

Changes to and limitations on availability of fuel, oil and oxygen;

9.

Major changes to search and rescue facilities and services


available;

10. Establishment, withdrawal or return to operation of hazard beacons


marking significant obstacles to air navigation;
11. Changes in regulations requiring immediate action;
12. Presence of hazards which affect air navigation (including obstacles,
military exercises, displays, races, major parachuting events outside
promulgated sites);
13. Erecting, removal of or changes to significant obstacles to air
navigation in the take-off/climb, missed approach, approach areas
and runway strip;
14. Establishment or discontinuance (including activation or
deactivation) as applicable, or changes in the status of prohibited,
restricted or danger areas;
15. Establishment or discontinuance of areas or routes or portions
thereof where the possibility of interception exists and where the
maintenance of guard on the VHF emergency frequency 121.5 MHz
is required;
16. changes in hazardous conditions due to snow, slush, ice or water on
the movement area;
17. Outbreaks of epidemics necessitating changes in notified
requirements for inoculations and quarantine measures;
18. Forecasts of solar cosmic radiation, where provided;
19. Occurrence of pre- eruption volcanic activity, the location, date and
time of volcanic eruptions and the existence, density and extent of
volcanic ash cloud, including direction of movement, flight levels and
routes or portions of routes which could affected;
20. Release into the atmosphere of radioactive materials or toxic
chemicals following a nuclear or chemical incident, the location, date
and time of the incident, the flight levels and routes or portions
thereof which could be affected and the direction of movement.

31. What is the classification of NOTAMS?


NOTAM are classified as per :(1) According to Distribution
a) NOTAM - Distribution by means of telecommunication or AFTN.
b) AIP Supplement - Distribution by means other than
telecommunication or AFTN, such as messenger or postal services.
(2) According to Series
a) Concern to long or medium range flights, and given selected
international distribution;
b) Full information on all airports, facilities and procedures available
for use in international civil aviation, and given international
distribution to adjacent states only;
c) Information of concern to aircraft other than those engaged in
international civil aviation, and given national distribution only;
s) - Presence of removal of hazardous conditions due to snow, slush,
or ice on aerodrome pavements or standing water associated with
these conditions.

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32. What is Volmet?
VOLMET, or meteorological information for aircraft in flight, is the
term applied to a worldwide network of radio stations that broadcast
TAF (Terminal Area Forecast). TAF is a format for reporting weather
forecast information relating to aviation applying to five statute mile
radius from the centre of the airport runway complex), SIGMET
(Significant Meteorological Information, is a weather advisory that
contains meteorological information concerning the safety of all
aircraft) and METAR (format for reporting weather information)
reports on shortwave frequencies. In some countries, VOLMET
stations broadcast on VHF frequencies too.

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Last updated on: 14 August 2013


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