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2 Hexadecimal Numbers

In the previous section we looked at the decimal (base 10) and binary (base

2) number systems. In this section we look at the hexadecimal (base 16)

number system.

computing.

The decimal (base 10) number system uses 10 digits:

0, 1, 2, 3, ..., 9

The binary (base 2) number system uses 2 digits: 0, 1

The hexadecimal (base 16) number system uses 16

digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, ..., 9, A, B, C, D, E and F.

The first 10 whole numbers in the hexadecimal system

are:

0,

1,

2,

3,

4, 5,

6,

7,

8,

9.

Once we reach 9, we run out of ordinary digits, since

there are only ten digits available.

Hexadecimal uses the following convention:

The number 1010 = A16 , 1110 = B16 ,

1510 = F16.

1310 = D16 , 1410 = E16 ,

1210 = C16,

number system are:

0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E and F.

After we reach the number F there are no more digits

left to use for the units digit. The next number is 10.

Continuing to count we have:

10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 1A, 1B, 1C, 1D,

1E, 1F, 20, ...., 2F, 30, ..., 3F

Problems 1.2.1

numbers in each of these sequences:

a) 45, 46, 47, 48, ...

b) 116, 117, 118, ..

c) 3A7, 3A8, 3A9, ...

.d) AB, AC, AD, ...

e) A997, A998, A999,....

Positional Weights of Digits in the Hexadecimal System Conversions Hex to Decimal and Decimal to Hex

The hexadecimal column weights are:

164

163

162

161 160

Example 1.2.1

positional notation is:

13A716 = 1 x 163 + 3 x 162 + A x 161 + 7 x

160

To convert a hexadecimal number to a decimal number,

we evaluate the expression for the number using

positional notation.

Example 1.2.2

evaluating the positional notation expression.

13A716 = 1 x 163 + 3 x 162 + A x 161 + 7 x 160

= 1 x 4096 + 3 x 256 + 10 x 16 +

7x1

= 503110

Problem 1.2.2

Problems 1.2.3

numbers:

a) 8C516

b) AEF116

As we did for converting a decimal number to a binary

number, to convert a decimal number to hexadecimal

number, we shall use repeated division and note the

remainder after each division. There were only two

possible remainders 0 and 1 when converting to

binary. In converting to base 16, however, there are

16 possible remainders.

812310 is converted to hexadecimal in the table

below. This method is called the calculator method.

Division

Remainder

Hex

0.6875 x 16 = 11

0.6875 x 16 = 11

0.9375 x 16 = 15

The conversion can be checked by converting 1FBB16

back to a decimal number.

1FBB = 1 x 4096 + 15 x 256 + 11 x 16 + 11 = 812310

Problem 1.2.4

Convert 78610 into a hexadecimal number and

check.

Converting Binary Numbers to Hexadecimal Numbers

As they increase in magnitude, binary numbers quickly

become unwieldy for those involved with their use in

computers. The five digit decimal number 83 472 in binary

is 1 0100 0110 0001 0000. It can be seen that a 0 or 1

can easily be dropped or added.It is easy to convert binary

numbers to their equivalent hexadecimal form. For this

reason, binary numbers when used with computers are

often written in hexadecimal form.

LSD

MSD

Example 1.2.3

To convert a binary number such as 1 0100 0110 0001

0000 above to hexadecimal, convert each group of 4 digits

beginning with the LSD into hex.

Binary

Number

Grouped

into 4's

Equivalent

1

Hex Digit

0100

0110

0001

0000

Problem 1.2.5

Show that 10 1011 00012 = 2B116

To convert a hexadecimal number to a binary number,

we reverse the above procedure.

Example 1.2.4

To convert the hexadecimal number 9F216 to binary,

each hex digit is converted into binary form.

9F216 = 1001

1111

00102 .

Problems 1.2.6

a) Convert hexadecimal 2BF9 to its binary equivalent.

b) Convert binary 110011100001 to its hexadecimal

equivalent.

Hexadecimal Numbers in Computing

Although numbers in a computer are stored in binary

form, the hex representation is usually used. The hex

representation of a byte requires only two digits and

the hex representation of two bytes (a word) requires

only 4 digits in hex compared to 16 digits in binary.

representation for all the ASCII codes from 0 to 127.

Source:

http://www.satoamerica.com/technical/techtips/asciihe

x.html

systems:

a) decimal number system

b) binary number

system

c) hexadecimal number system?

2. What are the decimal and hexadecimal equivalents

of 1 11012?

3. Convert 1011 1111 0111 10102 to its hexadecimal

equivalent.

4. What are the binary and hexadecimal equivalents of

4310?

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