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Revision A

8 April 2010

Daimler Trucks North America


EPA 2010 Exhaust and Aftertreatment System
Body Builder Modification Guidelines

Revision A
8 April 2010

Table of Contents
1.0

Introduction

2.0

Applications

3.0

References

4.0

Glossary of Terms - EPA 2010 Emission Systems

5.0

Warnings

6.0

ATS Relocation Guidelines

7.0

Exhaust Tailpipe Modification Guidelines


7.1

Exhaust Tailpipe Size and Material

7.2

Exhaust Tailpipe Clearances to Surrounding Components

7.3

Exhaust Tailpipe Connection to the ATS Outlet

9.0

ATS Outlet Connections for Cummins Engines

7.3.2

ATS Outlet Connections for Detroit Diesel Engines

7.4

Exhaust Tailpipe Support

7.5

Exhaust Tailpipe Heat Mitigation Device

7.6

8.0

7.3.1

7.5.1

Heat Mitigation Device Packaging Guidelines

7.5.2

Heat Mitigation Device Attachment

Exhaust System Backpressure


7.6.1

Detroit Diesel Backpressure Requirements

7.6.2

Cummins Backpressure Requirements

7.6.3

Exhaust Tailpipe Backpressure Guidelines

DEF System Modification Guidelines


8.1

System Overview

8.2

DEF System Components

8.3

DEF Tank Assembly Relocation Guidelines


8.3.1

DEF Tank Mounting

8.3.2

DEF Pressure Line

8.3.3

Coolant Supply and Return Lines

8.3.4

Electrical Harness

8.3.5

Air Lines

Revision History

Revision A
8 April 2010

1.0

Introduction

Daimler Trucks North America has developed the following guidelines to ensure that
modifications made to the exhaust and aftertreatment systems for 2010 Freightliner and
Western Star trucks are consistent with the requirements of the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA), the California Air Resources Board (CARB), and the engine
manufacturers.
In addition to these guidelines, Daimler Trucks North America recommends that body
builders review the Freightliner EPA10 Reference Book in order to become more familiar
with the operation of EPA 2010 exhaust and aftertreatment systems.
For modifications to an EPA 2010 Freightliner Business Class M2 vehicle, these guidelines
should be used in conjunction with the Freightliner Business Class M2 Cab and Chassis
Vocational Reference Guide, also known as the EPA 2010 M2 Body Builder Book.

2.0

Applications

These guidelines apply to EPA 2010 Freightliner and Western Star brand vehicles.

3.0

References

Freightliner EPA10 Reference Book


July 2009 Can be found at www.accessfreightliner.com/toolsservices
Freightliner Business Class M2 Cab and Chassis Vocational Reference Guide
October 2009 Can be found at www.accessfreightliner.com/toolsservices
Detroit Diesel Corporation Document No: 08 OEM 02
EPA2010 Exhaust System Installation Design & Testing Requirements for Detroit Diesel Engines
September 2008
Cummins Application Engineering Bulletin AEB 21.78
2010 Automotive Aftertreatment Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) Installation Requirements
May 21, 2009
Cummins Application Engineering Bulletin AEB 21.79
Automotive and Bus Selective Catalytic Reduction Installation Requirements
May 21, 2009
ISO 22241
Diesel Engines NOx Reduction Agent AUS32, International Standard
Daimler Trucks North America technical drawings or specifications referenced in this
document can be obtained from DTNA Call Center at 1-800-385-4357

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8 April 2010

4.0

Glossary of Terms for EPA10 Emission Systems

The diagrams and terms presented below provide basic overviews of the EPA 2010
exhaust, aftertreatment and DEF systems. Prior to performing any modifications,
Daimler Trucks North America recommends that body builders review the Freightliner EPA10 Reference Book (see chapter 3) to become more familiar with the
operation of EPA 2010 exhaust, aftertreatment and DEF systems.

EPA 2010
Detroit Diesel
Under Step Mounted
1-Box ATS

DEF Tank
Turbo Outlet
Piping

Tailpipe

1-Box ATS

EPA 2010
Cummins
Under Step Mounted
Switchback ATS
DEF Tank
Turbo Outlet Piping
DPF
SCR

ATS

Tailpipe
Heat Mitigation Device

EPA 2010
Cummins
2 Box Horizontal ATS
DEF Tank

DPF
SCR
Heat Mitigation Device

ATS

Turbo Outlet Piping

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8 April 2010

ACM

Aftertreatment Control Module

ATS

Aftertreatment System. ATS = DPF + SCR.

DEF

Diesel Exhaust Fluid

DEF Tank

Storage device for DEF

DOC

Diesel Oxidation Catalyst

DPF

Diesel Particulate Filter

DTNA

Daimler Trucks North America

EPA

Environmental Protection Agency

Mitigator

Tailpipe exhaust heat mitigation device

PLV

Pressure Limiting Valve

SCR

Selective Catalyst Reduction

Tailpipe

Piping that is downstream of the ATS outlet.

Turbo Outlet
Piping

Piping that connects the turbo outlet to the ATS inlet.

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5.0

Warnings

Failure to follow the installation guidelines and precautions herein may cause personal
injury, vehicle damage or damage to the surrounding environment.
Body builder and/or persons performing modifications are responsible for all liability
including, but not limited to, that due to stress or failure of components, sanctions from
the EPA or CARB due to non-compliance with emissions requirements, and damage or
injuries resulting from high temperature exhaust or exhaust system components.
Body builder and/or persons performing modifications are responsible for keeping the
vehicle in compliance with applicable laws, noise regulations and safety standards.
Applicable federal, state and local laws also apply.
Freightliner and Western Star warranty requirements may also apply. Please reference
warranty prior to performing modifications. Failure to follow guidelines may void entire
warranty.
Prior to performing any modifications to the exhaust or aftertreatment system, please
review Section 1 of the Freightliner Business Class M2 Cab and Chassis Vocational
Reference Guide.

EPA 2010 exhaust systems must be validated as compliant. Any changes to the turbo
outlet pipe and/or the after treatment system may bring the system out of compliance.
Therefore, changes must be approved by the engine manufacturer and Daimler Trucks
North America to meet U.S. 2010 EPA requirements. Any modifications may significantly
alter the performance of the system and invalidate the warranty.
The Exhaust Heat Mitigation device effectively reduces the concentration of exhaust gas
heat. All exhaust systems with a street level, horizontal, exhaust pipe, must use the
mitigator. If installed, the mitigator must remain part of the exhaust piping configuration.
Body builders and/or persons modifying the vehicle must ensure that the exhaust gas
and exhaust system components are located to protect against damage or injury from
high temperatures. Additionally, body builder and/or persons modifying the vehicle must
ensure that the final vehicle configuration conforms to all pertinent federal, state, and
local requirements, including but not limited to safety, emissions, and noise
requirements. See charts for clearances and backpressure guidelines.
Exhaust piping modifications must comply with these guidelines and use proper
materials. Proper support must be used to adequately support exhaust piping added.

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8 April 2010

6.0

ATS Relocation Guidelines

Relocation of the ATS or modification of the turbo outlet piping is NOT permitted without
approval from both Daimler Trucks North America and the engine manufacturer. Requests
to relocate the ATS or modify the turbo outlet piping will need to be reviewed on a case by
case basis.

7.0

Exhaust Tailpipe Modification Guidelines

These guidelines apply only to the piping that is downstream of the ATS outlet on EPA 2010
Freightliner and Western Star vehicles equipped with an understep or two box horizontally
mounted aftertreatment system. If a tailpipe modification is required on a vehicle that is NOT
equipped with such aftertreatment system, modification to the exhaust and aftertreatment
system must be approved by Daimler Trucks North American and the engine manufacturer.

7.1

Exhaust Tailpipe Size and Material

Caution: Use the same pipe size and material as the original tailpipe. Any additional
extensions and bends will change the internal gas pressure, which could result in
damage to the ATS or other engine components as well as reduction in fuel economy.
Engine

Cummins ISB/ISC

DDC DD13/15/16
Cummins ISX

Tailpipe
Material

Aluminized
409 Stainless Steel

Aluminized
409 Stainless Steel

Tailpipe
Diameter

4 OD

5 OD

Wall
Thickness

.065

.065

7.2

Exhaust Tailpipe Clearances to Surrounding Components

Component

Minimum Clearance (mm)

Metal fuel line

150mm 6 inches

Rubber/plastic fuel line

150mm 6 inches

Fuel tank

100mm 4 inches

Electric harness

150mm 6 inches

Electric harness/heat guard

100mm 4 inches

Metal brake line

100mm 4 inches

Rubber/plastic brake line

100mm 4 inches

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8 April 2010

7.3

Exhaust Tailpipe Connection to the ATS Outlet

The connection between the tailpipe and the ATS outlet varies by engine. Sections 7.3.1
and 7.3.2 present different types of ATS outlet connections available for EPA 2010.

7.3.1 ATS Outlet Connections for Cummins Engines


The ATS outlet for Cummins medium and heavy duty engines uses a slip connection that
requires no special end treatment for the tailpipe.

Tailpipe
90 mm (3.5 in) pipe insertion

ATS Outlet
Slip Clamp
45-60 lb-ft torque

7.3.2 ATS Outlet Connections for Detroit Diesel Engines


The ATS outlet for Detroit Diesel heavy duty engines uses a spherical connection that
requires a spherical female flare on the tailpipe.

Tailpipe

Spherical Female Flare

Spherical Clamp
9-11 lb-ft torque
Spherical Gasket

ATS Outlet

It is not permissible to use a standard v-band or marmon type flared exhaust pipe in
conjunction with the spherical connection on the ATS outlet.

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8 April 2010

7.4

Exhaust Tailpipe Support

The exhaust tailpipe should be supported so that minimal stress is placed on ATS outlet.
The stress can be due to the weight of the tailpipe hanging on the ATS outlet and/or due to
bending loads imposed by the tailpipe. As a general guideline, the distance between tailpipe
supports should not exceed 1.2 meters (4 feet). For Business Class M2 vehicles, please
refer to the Freightliner Business Class M2 Cab and Chassis Vocational Reference Guide as a
guide for locating tailpipe supports.

7.5

Exhaust Tailpipe Heat Mitigation Device

The exhaust tailpipe heat mitigation device reduces


the concentration of exhaust gas heat and is
required for all horizontal tailpipe exhaust outlets.
The mitigation device has been designed to disperse
exhaust gas producing the following thermal
distribution representative of active regeneration
events for a variety of engine operating conditions
including idling speeds.
Temperature zones during regeneration for a 4 tailpipe.
52.9 mm
2.08 in

92.4 mm
3.64 in

45.1 mm
1.78 in

207.4 mm
8.15 in

143.1 mm
5.63 in

Region greater
than 400 Celsius

286.4 mm
11.28 in
Region greater
than 250 Celsius

7.5.1 Heat Mitigation Device Packaging Guidelines


A minimum distance of 150 mm (6 inches) from tailpipe to outer edge of the body is strongly
recommended. For exceptional cases where this can not be achieved, the distance should
be maximized as much as possible with 50 mm (2 inches) being the minimum allowable
distance. Typical exhaust gas temperature distribution zones have been provided for
relocation guidance in these exceptional cases.

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8 April 2010

It is highly recommended to never relocate the tailpipe from the position installed by the
original vehicle manufacturer. Relocation of a horizontal exhaust tailpipe outlet is
acceptable but not recommended by Daimler Trucks North America. Alternative tailpipe
designs are available from the Daimler Trucks North America service network that may
be more appropriate for specific vehicle applications.

Outer edge of body

Recommended Minimum: 150 mm


Absolute Minimum: 50 mm

Top View

Transverse (300 mm)

Exhaust Gas
Flow Direction

Transverse (300 mm)

Side View

Top Surface
Exhaust Gas
Underside

Flow Direction

Front View

Ground clearance greater than or equal to as-delivered condition

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The outlet face should be parallel to the ground within 5 degrees as shown in the front
view below.
The tailpipe and heat mitigation device must be no lower than the bottom of the ATS.
Retain the original ground to tailpipe clearance as installed by the vehicle manufacturer.
Never point the exhaust upwards or towards any vehicle components
Vehicle components, e.g. tires, hoses, frame rails etc. should be located no closer than
300 mm from the exhaust tailpipe outlet in the transverse, underside or exhaust gas flow
directions.
Vehicle components, e.g. tires, hoses, frame rails etc. should be located no closer than
50 mm from the top surface of the exhaust tailpipe.

7.5.2 Heat Mitigation Device Attachment


The mitigator is made of aluminized 409 stainless steel. Attention should be given to the
materials of the connecting pipes for possible galvanic corrosion. Proper weld materials
must be used for correct joint creation when using aluminized 409 stainless steel. It is
recommended that the tailpipe be secured to another pipe that is connected to the outlet of
the ATS using the following:
A marmon style, v-band clamp
An exhaust seal clamp
Direct welding
It is a violation of federal law to alter the exhaust in such a way that brings the
engine/ after treatment system out of compliance. 42 U.S.C. 7522(a)(3)(A)&(B).

7.6

Exhaust System Backpressure

Backpressure is the static pressure measured at the turbo outlet. Backpressure reflects the
total pressure imposed on the turbo by the exhaust and aftertreatment system.
Backpressure Unit of Measurement
Pressure = force per unit area. Common units of measure for backpressure are:
in Hg

inches of Mercury

kPa
kilopascal (1 kPa = 1000 Newtons per square meter)
in H2O inches of Water
psi
pounds per square inch
Backpressure Unit Conversion
1 in Hg

3.39 kPa

13.60 in H2O

0.491 psi

0.295 in Hg

1 kPa

4.02 in H2O

0.145 psi

0.074 in Hg

0.249 kPa

1 in H2O

0.036 psi

2.04 in Hg

6.89 kPa

27.68 in H2O

1 psi

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Excessive backpressure reduces fuel economy and can potentially damage the turbocharger. In order to protect the turbocharger from damage, the engine manufacturers have
determined a maximum backpressure for each engine and engine rating. The maximum
backpressure values are listed the on the engine data sheets.
To determine if an exhaust system is compliant with the engine manufacturers
backpressure requirements, the backpressure is measured per the engine
manufacturers test procedure and then compared with the maximum backpressure
value listed on the corresponding engine data sheet. If the measured backpressure
value does not exceed the maximum backpressure value, the exhaust system is in
compliance.
The testing requirements and maximum backpressure values for both Detroit Diesel and
Cummins are presented in Sections 7.6.1 and 7.6.2, respectively.

7.6.1 Detroit Diesel Backpressure Requirements


Detroit Diesel Test Requirements for Backpressure Measurement
Prior to performing any backpressure testing, please contact a Detroit Diesel representative
for the most up to date test requirements for backpressure measurement.
The testing requirements shown below were taken from Detroit Diesel Corporation
Document No. 08 OEM 02.
The OEM exhaust backpressure contribution will remain the same at 4.0 kPa, identical
to Detroit Diesel EPA 2007 specifications.
In order to simplify vehicle validation testing, Detroit Diesel will provide a single
backpressure limit as measured at the HC doser outlet elbow provided on the engine
performance data sheet. These data sheets can be obtained at www.detroitdiesel.com
with appropriate access privileges. The measurement should be conducted after a
parked regeneration with a low mileage (< 5000 mi) ATD.
Pressure should be recorded at full load, rated engine speed per engine performance
data sheet to validate exhaust backpressure specification conformance.

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Detroit Diesel Maximum Backpressure Values - per Detroit Diesel engine data sheets

DD13
Engine
Rating

DD15
Maximum
Back Pressure

Engine
Rating

Maximum
Back Pressure

HP

kPa

in Hg

HP

kPa

in Hg

350
370
380
410
435
450
470

17.6
18.3
18.7
19.4
20.7
21.1
22.3

5.2
5.4
5.5
5.7
6.1
6.2
6.6

455
475
500
505
530
560

17.2
18.5
19.9
20.0
21.8
23.9

5.1
5.4
5.9
5.9
6.4
7.1

DD16
Values apply only to Detroit
Diesel understep mounted ATS.

Engine
Rating

Maximum
Back Pressure

HP

kPa

in Hg

475
500
535
550
600

19.9
20.5
21.5
21.8
23.4

5.9
6.1
6.3
6.4
6.9

7.6.2 Cummins Backpressure Requirements


Cummins Exhaust System Backpressure Requirements
The testing requirements shown below were taken from Cummins AEB 21.78, page 16
The complete exhaust system with a clean DPF device must meet the allowable exhaust
system backpressure limit listed on the engine data sheet for the engine model and
rating. The limits for exhaust backpressure in the engine data sheet are when
measurements are taken in a 4 inch diameter pipe. When measurements have to be
taken in pipe diameters other than 4 inch, then adjustment to the final result will be
required.
Exhaust backpressure should be checked at full power at the engine speed which
delivers the maximum exhaust gas flow rate as indicated on the data sheet.
The restriction measurement must be performed within a maximum of 10,000 miles
and 200 hours of operation since the filter was new or undergone ash cleaning. A
manual regeneration of the particulate filter must be performed immediately prior to
restriction measurement.
The exhaust flow rate in CFM (l/sec) listed on the engine data sheet will assist in sizing
exhaust system components. The exhaust backpressure should be checked by running
the vehicle at full power output on a chassis dynamometer or long uphill climb.

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Cummins Testing Requirements for Backpressure Measurement


Prior to performing any backpressure testing, please contact a Cummins representative for
the most up to date test requirements for backpressure measurement. The test procedure
below was taken from Cummins AEB 21.78, Appendix C, page 22.
1. Perform a non-mission regeneration on the DPF system to ensure it is clean prior to
checking exhaust backpressure
2. Connect a manometer or pressure gauge which reads up to 272 in H2O, 20 in Hg,
10 psi. 508 mm Hg or 68 kPa in a straight section of 4 inch diameter exhaust pipe,
3 to 4 pipe diameters downstream of the exhaust engine outlet flange. Turbulence
in the exiting gas flow from VGT turbochargers, results in the need to measure
exhaust backpressure at this distance from the outlet flange. The port in the exhaust
pipe should be smooth and free of burrs to give an accurate pressure reading.
3. Check the Engine Data Sheet to determine the engine speed which delivers the
maximum exhaust flow. This is the engine speed which should be used for this test.
Testing should be conducted at ambient temperatures between 21 to 38 C (70
to100 F).
4. Run the engine at full power output on a vehicle chassis dynamometer or a long
uphill climb at the correct engine speed for at least 10 minutes or until stabilized
power output is achieved, and record the exhaust backpressure reading.
For industrial engines, load the engine to the speed at which the maximum exhaust
flow occurs for at least 10 minutes and record the exhaust backpressure reading.
5. If this testing is done on a long hill climb, it may be necessary to repeat the test in
different gears or use the vehicle brakes to achieve the desired engine speed.
If testing on road, the hill used must be steep enough that with the engine at full
throttle, the vehicle speed is steady or dropping when the exhaust backpressure is
recorded, to ensure the engine is at full power output.
6. If engine turbocharger boost pressure is also recorded during this test, the pressure
at the turbo compressor outlet can be compared to the Turbo Compressor Outlet
Pressure on the Engine Data Sheet to ensure the engine is at full power output. The
measured turbocharger boost pressure should be within 75 mm Hg (3 in Hg) of the
value on the Engine Data Sheet with the engine at full power.
NOTE:

When the exhaust backpressure measurement is taken in a pipe diameter


other than 4 inch then the measured values must be adjusted to take into
account this condition.

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Cummins Maximum Backpressure Values - per Cummins engine data sheets

Engine
Rating

Maximum
Back Pressure

Engine
Rating

Maximum
Back Pressure

HP

kPa

in Hg

HP

kPa

in Hg

200
220
240
250
260
280
300
325
340
360

26
28
31
32
33
34
41
42
50
46

7.7
8.4
9.1
9.6
9.9
10.2
12.0
12.5
14.9
13.6

400
425
450
485
500
525
550
600

26
28
29
30
31
34
36
39

7.7
8.2
8.6
9.0
9.3
10.0
10.6
11.5

Engine
Rating

Maximum
Back Pressure

HP

kPa

in Hg

260/270
300
330/350
380

31
35
38
40

9.3
10.3
11.3
11.9

15

Values apply only to all


Cummins ATS configurations

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7.6.3 Exhaust Tailpipe Backpressure Guidelines


Almost all tailpipe modifications will result in increased backpressure.
Please see the table below for guidelines and recommendations for the most common
exhaust tailpipe modifications. Using these guidelines and recommendations, the margin
between the factory installed exhaust system backpressure and the maximum allowable
backpressure is large enough to allow for most common tailpipe modifications.

Exhaust
Tailpipe
Modification

Effect on Backpressure

Guidelines & Recommendations

Addition
of
straight pipe

Backpressure increase is dependent


upon the length of straight pipe
added and the roughness of the
inside pipe surface.

Avoid pipes with rough inside surfaces.

Addition
of
bends

Backpressure for each added bend is


dependent upon the bend angle,
bend radius, and roughness of the
inside pipe surface. Bends impose
significantly more backpressure than
straight pipe.

Keep number of bends to a minimum.


Use large bend radii where possible.
Avoid pipes with rough inside surfaces.

Addition
of
flex hose

Backpressure increase is dependent


upon the length of flex hose added
and the straightness of the flex hose.
Flex hose imposes significantly more
backpressure than straight pipe.

Keep flex hose length to a minimum.


Avoid using flex hose for bends.
Install flex hose as straight as possible.

Addition
of
weld seams

Backpressure increase dependent


upon how much weld slag bleeds
through the weld seam to the inside
surface of the pipe.

Avoid excessive bleed through on weld


seams.

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8.0

DEF System Modification Guidelines

Daimler Trucks North America has developed the following guidelines to allow certain
modifications to the DEF systems for 2010 Freightliner and Western Star trucks.
These Modifications have to be consistent with the requirements of the U.S. Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA), the California Air Resources Board (CARB), and the engine
manufacturers.
Performance of the DEF System is critical to meeting EPA2010 emission regulations.
Not meeting the requirements of DTNA, the engine manufacturers and EPA might bring
the vehicle out of compliance.

8.1

System Overview

DTNA offers 3 DEF tank sizes to optimally cover our customers needs and packaging
requirements with 6, 13 and 23 gallon nominal capacity. DEF tank sizes are tied to diesel
fuel tank capacity. While it is always possible to use a larger DEF tank than required, it is
not permissible to use a smaller DEF tank.

23 gallon

13 gallon

6 gallon

DEF Tank
Size

Diesel Tank
Size (max.)

Range *

6 gal

100 gal

1,800

13 gal

200 gal

3,900

23 gal

300+ gal

6,900

(miles)

* based on 2.5% dosing rate using 2.3:1 DEF to diesel fuel fill ratio

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The larger tanks share a cage style mounting concept where the tank is enclosed by a
carrier bracket and secured with a compression strap while the small tank is sitting on
mounting cylinders attached to an L-shape bracket and secured by retainer discs.
Standard location for DEF pumps is the lower inboard side of the DEF tank carrier bracket,
on 6 gallon tanks an aft mounted pump is available besides the standard lower inboard
mounted one.

Inboard mounted pump


on 13 gallon tank

aft mounted pump (optional)


on 6 gallon tank

with cover

Inboard mounted pump


on 6 gallon tank

DTNA trucks use different DEF dosing systems depending on engine manufacturer.
Detroit Diesel engines use an air assisted Hilite dosing system and all Cummins
engines use an airless Bosch dosing system.
Hilite air assisted DEF dosing systems require an additional air supply line to the DEF
dosing pump which needs to be considered when modifications to the system are
planned.

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8.2

DEF System Components

Following pictures give an illustration and overview of the DEF system on DTNA vehicles. Be
aware that this is an overview only, individual installations and packages might vary.
The DEF system consists of the following components:
1
5

6
4

(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)

DEF tank assembly


Aftertreatment device (ATS)
Coolant supply and return line
(from engine)
DEF pressure line
(from pump to ATS)
Wiring harness - not shown
DEF pump cover

4
Detroit Diesel 1Box ATS and DEF pressure line shown

19

Cummins understep ATS, DEF pressure line and


DEF injector coolant supply and return line shown

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DEF Tank Assemblies


9
8

high coolant routing


over the rail shown

10

from and
to engine

12

13

15

14
4
13 Gallon DEF tank with
Hilite dosing system shown
to ATS

12

(3)
(4)
(5)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)

11

Coolant supply and return line


DEF pressure line
Wiring harness - not shown
DEF tank
Fill cap
DEF supply line
DEF return line

(11)
(12)
(13)
(14)
(15)

DEF pump
DEF tank assembly mounting
brackets (fwd and aft)
DEF tank carrier bracket
Coolant jumper line
Air supply line not shown

14

from and
to engine

3
12

7
10

to ATS

11

13

Common coolant connector


low routing shown

6 Gallon DEF tank with


Bosch dosing system shown

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DEF Tank Coolant Line Routing


There are several coolant line routings to the DEF tank assembly, depending on DEF tank
size, mounting and other packaging considerations. The coolant routing can be either a high
routing, over the rail or low routing, under the rail.

High routing over the rail


(Bosch system shown)

Coolant lines routed high,


over the frame rail

Low routing under the rail


(Bosch system shown)

Coolant lines routed low,


under the frame rail

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8.3

DEF Tank Assembly Relocation Guidelines

DTNA allows the relocation of the complete DEF tank assembly only. This includes the DEF
tank and its carrier and mounting bracket, DEF pump and all DEF and coolant lines routed
back and forth between pump and tank, see pictures on page 21 for reference.
Relocation of the DEF pump by itself is not authorized by DTNA and could result in
vehicle malfunction. Such action might bring the vehicle out of compliance.
When relocating the DEF tank assembly, the body builder and/or persons modifying the
location of the DEF tank assembly must be considerate of the characteristics and material
properties of DEF. Possible accidental spillage during the tank fill process as well as
temperature impact of adjacent components must guide an appropriate DEF tank location
modification.
EPA2010 DEF system must be validated as compliant. Any changes to DEF tank, dosing
system, DEF lines, coolant lines, electrical harnesses and air lines may bring the system
out of compliance. Therefore changes must be approved by the engine manufacturer and
Daimler Trucks North America to meet U.S. 2010 EPA requirements.
Relocating the DEF tank assembly affects the following areas:
y DEF Tank Mounting
y DEF Pressure Line
y Coolant Supply and Return Lines
y Electrical Harness
y Air Lines

8.3.1 DEF Tank Mounting


DTNA allows the relocation of the complete DEF tank assembly only. The body builder
and/or person modifying the vehicle have the responsibility to find an adequate location for
the DEF tank assembly on the vehicle, considering but not limited to the following aspects:
y
y
y
y
y
y

Temperature exposure of DEF and components of DEF tank assembly


Packaging clearances to other chassis or vehicle components
Environmental exposure, e.g. wheel spray and road debris
Ergonomic considerations for tank filling
Accidental DEF spillage during tank fill; impact on surrounding components
Structural integrity of mounting and possible load inputs into DEF tank
assembly

The DEF tank assembly must be securely mounted using the existing DEF tank assembly
mounting brackets and at least four 5/8 fasteners (grade 8 minimum) of appropriate
length, two for each bracket on 13 and 23 gallon installations and four per bracket on
6 gallon installations.
Detailed information regarding the hole pattern required to mount the DEF tanks can be
found on DTNA drilling diagram D15-25099.

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DEF tank assembly


mounting brackets

Complete DEF tank assembly


(shown in grey)

DEF tank assembly


mounting fasteners

DTNA has validated the structural integrity of the DEF tank assembly mounting for the
location provided by the OEM.
Since DTNA has no visibility regarding the possible vehicle structure the DEF tank
assembly will get mounted onto, body builder and/or persons modifying the attachment
of the DEF tank assembly have sole responsibility for mounting the DEF tank assembly,
assuring mounting integrity and preventing structural damage to the DEF tank assembly
under all vehicle operating conditions.
Additionally, body builder and/or persons modifying the vehicle must ensure that the
final vehicle configuration conforms to all pertinent federal, state and local requirements,
including but not limited to safety and emissions requirements.
For structural reasons, it is recommended to mount the DEF tank assembly to the chassis,
however, it is permissible to relocate the DEF tank assembly to an alternative, adequate
mounting structure such as a vertical stanchion, body structure or similar as long as the
height difference between DEF pump and DEF doser on the aftertreatment device does
not exceed 1 meter, see diagram below.

Height Difference Requirement X:

-1 m < X < +1 m

DEF Pressure Line

X
DEF tank
assembly

DEF
Pump

DEF Doser
Level

DEF Doser

DEF Pump
Level
Aftertreatment
Device

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Revision A
8 April 2010

8.3.2 DEF Pressure Line


Relocating the DEF tank assembly requires a revised DEF pressure line connecting the DEF
pump to the DEF doser on the ATS.
This DEF pressure line is electrically heated and the available power together with hydraulic
limitations determine the maximum line length.
Engine
Ma nufa c ture r

Dosing
S yste m

Numbe r of
Ele c tric a l
P orts

Cummins

Bosch

Detroit Diesel

Hilite

Ma ximum
DEF P re ssure
Line Le ngth

3.8 m
2.6 m

using 1 port

5.0 m

using 2 ports

Once a new location for the DEF tank assembly is found, the appropriate line length needs
to be measured. Following the routing path of the DEF pressure line, the correct DEF
pressure line needs to be ordered from DTNA.
DEF pressure lines are typically available in 200 mm increments, see chart below.

Part Number

Length

Comment

[mm]

Compatability
Detroit Diesel

Cummins

04-28841-100

1000

04-28841-120

1200

04-28841-140

1400

04-28841-160

1600

04-28841-180

1800

04-28841-200

2000

04-28841-220

2200

04-28841-240

2400

04-28841-260

2600

04-28847-280

2800

04-28847-300

3000

04-28847-320

3200

04-28847-340

3400

04-28847-360

3600

04-28847-380

3800

04-28872-280

2800

04-28872-300

3000

04-28872-320

3200

04-28872-380

3800

04-28872-400

4000

04-28872-420

4200

04-28872-440

4400

04-28872-460

4600

04-28872-480

4800

04-28872-500

5000

Detroit Diesel/
Cummins
Standard DEF
Pressure Line
2600 mm

X
X

Cummins
Long DEF
Pressure Line
> 2600 mm

X
X
X
X

X
Detroit Diesel
Long DEF
Pressure Line
2 Electircal ports
> 2600 mm

24

X
X
X
X

Revision A
8 April 2010

It is not permissible to modify any DEF lines, such as cutting line, attaching different
connectors, opening convolute, removing retainer clips etc.
Modifying DEF lines or using other DEF lines than authorized by DTNA could result in
component failure, vehicle malfunction and might bring the vehicle out of compliance.

Routing of the DEF pressure line needs to be done with great care to assure functionality
and durability of the component and the DEF system.
y Follow engine manufacturers recommendation, see chapter 3 References.
y Avoid DEF line exposure to high temperature items, maximum temperature
exposure of DEF line should be less than 50C (122F) and not exceed 70C
(158F) at any point.
y Minimum bend radius for DEF pressure line is 80mm.
y When supporting line, do not choke or crush DEF line.
y Do not run DEF line over sharp edges or abrasive surfaces that could damage line
y Depending on the installation and the engine manufacturer's guidelines, the
routing of the DEF line should be executed in a way where the line forms a trap
or low point close to the DEF doser. This is to ensure any residual fluid remaining
in the line after the purge cycle does not reach the DEF doser.
y DEF line needs to be supported in a way to eliminate any harmful vibrations.
y DEF lines need to be routed in a direct way from the DEF pump to the doser
without any extra loops and any large unsupported sections that could be caught
and torn off.

If the vehicle equipped with a Detroit Diesel engine was built utilizing a single electrical
port for power supply of the DEF pressure line (line length less than 2.6m) but the
desired modification requires a DEF pressure line length of more than 2.6m (therefore 2
electrical ports are needed), a new wiring harness must be ordered from DTNA.

See chapter 8.3.4 Electrical Harness.

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Revision A
8 April 2010

5.3.3 Coolant Supply and Return Lines


When the DEF tank assembly is being relocated, the coolant supply and return lines to the
tank assembly need to be modified as well.
Depending on the engine manufacturer and the DEF dosing system, the layouts for the
coolant systems are different:
DDC engines with
Hilite DEF dosing system
- Coolant heated DEF tank and pump
- No cooling for injector required

Area of coolant line


allowed for modification

CUM engines with


Bosch DEF dosing system
- Coolant heated DEF tank
- Injector cooled by engine coolant
Modifications to the DEF
injector coolant line are
not allowed.

Area of coolant line NOT


allowed for modification
(DEF injector coolant line)

Heater hose used for coolant line modifications must be of the same inside diameter as
lines installed by DTNA and meet the requirements of SAE J20R3 Type EC Class D-1, see
DTNA part number 48-25927 for reference, and suitable for use on commercial vehicles.
Since the coolant flow thru the DEF system components is directional, all modifications
must assure that the coolant flow direction is not reversed at any point.
All coolant lines must be properly routed and secured as well as protected from excessive
heat.

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Revision A
8 April 2010

If the DEF tank coolant line modification significantly exceeds line length and line routing
complexity of the factory installed routing, the coolant system needs to be validated per
engine manufacturers recommendations to assure system compliance.

The coolant plumbing is sensitive to flow direction as well as flow restriction and, in case
of Bosch, flow balancing between the tank and injector branch.
It is not permissible to add any other coolant circuits to the DEF coolant supply
and return lines.

8.3.4 Electrical Harness


Relocating the DEF tank assembly could require increasing length of the wiring harness
connecting the DEF tank assembly to the main ACM harness.
The wiring harnesses are different between the Hilite and Bosch DEF dosing system.

DDC engines with


Hilite DEF dosing system

CUM engines with


Bosch DEF dosing system

Since excess length of the wiring harness can easily be coiled up to adjust for different
length requirements, a maximum length wiring harness is available from DTNA to replace
the factory installed harness and to cover any modified locations for the DEF tank
assembly.

While the single electrical connector port on the ACM from Cummins allows a maximum
DEF pressure line of 3.8 meters, an electrical harness of 5.3 meters should connect to any
location of the DEF tank assembly within this range.

27

Revision A
8 April 2010

On Detroit Diesel applications two electrical connectors are available at the ACM allowing,
if both connectors are used, a maximum DEF pressure line length of 6.5 meters. In order to
connect to any location of the DEF tank assembly within this range an electrical harness of
6.5 meters is required.
Depending on the default factory vehicle configuration and the desired DEF tank assembly
modification, using both electrical connectors for heating the DEF pressure line
requires a reconfiguration of the ACM which can be done at any Detroit Diesel
distributor. The ACM programming has to be changed from 3 DEF line heater setting
(supply, return, 1 pressure line) to 4 DEF line heaters (supply, return, 2 pressure lines).
Below chart provides an overview and guidance on how to select the correct harness:
Engine
Manufacturer

Cummins

Detroit Diesel

Dosing
System

Bosch

Hilite

Number of
Electrical
Ports

Maximum
DEF Pressure
Line Length

3.8 m

2.6 m

using 1
DEF line
heater port

5.0 m

using 2
DEF line
heater ports

DEF Tank Size


and Configuration

Harness
Part Number

13, 23 gallon

A06-72614-209

6 gallon
inboard DEF pump

A06-76323-209

6 gallon
aft mounted DEF pump

A06-77834-209

13, 23 gallon

A06-75734-162

6 gallon
inboard DEF pump

A06-76450-162

13, 23 gallon

A06-76379-256

6 gallon
inboard DEF pump

A06-XXXXX-256

Harness
Length

5.3 m

4.1 m

6.5 m

All coolant lines must be properly routed and secured as well as protected from excessive
heat and exposure to the elements (road debris, wheel spray, etc.).

8.3.5 Air Lines (Hilite System only)


As the location of the DEF tank assembly with a Hilite DEF dosing systems is being modified,
length and routing of the air line providing compressed air to the Hilite DEF pump also needs
to be adjusted.
Air to the Hilite DEF pump is supplied from the PLV (Pressure Limiting Valve) via air line,
see DTNA specification 48-25855-009.
In case of the DEF tank assembly is moving closer to the PLV, any excess of air line has to
be trimmed off and the air line has to be pushed back into the fitting.
Should the distance between the DEF tank assembly and the PLV increase, the complete
air line between Hilite DEF pump and PLV must be replaced with an air line of appropriate
length per above specification or equivalent.

28

Revision A
8 April 2010

DEF pump air supply line

Splicing in air line(s) is not permissible. The air line connecting PLV to DEF pump
must be single piece.
The air line must be properly routed and secured as well as protected from excessive
heat. It has to be ensured that air lines do not rub on any metal components that could
damage the lines. Cable ties can be used to support lines.

29

Revision A
8 April 2010

9.0

Rev

Revision History

Page

multiple

Description

By

Date

Initial Release

Reimann

03/31/10

Spelling correction, final adjustments

Reimann

04/08/10

30