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STRESS FUNCTION

Polar coordinates

Prof. S.K.Sahoo

dz

z

dz

z

z

r

zz

rr

r

dz

zz

zr

z

d

zr

dz

z

rz rz dr

r

rz z

zr

z

r

d

r

dr

r

rr

zz

rr

dr

r

element shown in positive

directions

Considering equilibrium in radial direction we have

rr

rz

dr

dr r dr ddz rr rddz rz

dz rz r ddr d

rr

r

rz

z

r

d

d

dr

r r d r drdz cos

R r drddz 0

z

r

2

2

drdz sin

we have,

rr drddz r

or

d d

d

sin

& cos

1

2

2

2

rr

r

rz

r

rr rr 1 r rz

R

0

r

r

r r

z

F 0

dr

r r dr r dr ddz r .rd .dz z z dz z r ddr

r

z

2

d

dr

r d .dr.dz 0

d drdz cos r r .d r drdz sin

r

2

r

2

2

or r drddz r

Putting

we have,

r

z

r r

2 r r z 1

0

r

r

z

r

zz

dr

zr

dz

dr

.

dr

zz

zr

r dr ddz zr rddz

zz

z

2

r

dr

or

zz

z

r

r

r

rZdrddz 0

r

or

zr zz zr 1 z

r z r r Z 0

rr rr 1 r

R 0

r

r

r

2 r r 1 0

r

r

r

Incase of plane strain systems

zz zr z 0

zr z zr z 0

zz 0

rr rr 1 r

R 0

r

r

r

2 r r 1 0

r

r

r

zz 0

are three normal strains rr, , zz & three shearing strain r, z, zr

Considering the displacement in the r direction, u, we see from fig (a) that

u (u / r )dr u u

r

dr

r

strain in -direction, since the fibers of the element have elongated in

- direction. The length of element ab was originally rd , but after

radial displacement, u, ab become (r+u)d.

The tangential strain due to this radial displacement is. Therefore,

r u d rd

rd

u

r

strain equal to, (v / )d 1 v

2

rd

1

u 1

r r

z

z

difference between the angle Cab &

Cab (fig c) values shows are in angle

as in rectangular

coordinates.

1 u v v

r r r

The first term comes from the change in the radial displacement u in

the tangential direction; the second term comes from the change in

the tangential displacement v in the radial direction, and the last term

appears since part of the scope change of the line ac

comes from the rotation of the element as a solid body about the axis

through O. Similarly other two shearing strains maybe obtained

d v z dz 1 V

z

rd 1 v / dz 1 / z r z

u z dz w r dr u

and , zr

dz 1 w z dr 1 u r dr z r

If we assume that angles are equal to their tangents & that the rate of

change of displacement with length is small compared to unity.

cylindrical coordinates

u

u 1 v

,

,

z

r

r r

z

v 1 u v

1 v

,

z

,

r r r

r z

r

r

zr

z r

For two dimensional case

u

u 1 v

r ,

,

r

r r

v 1 u v

r r r

r

x2

r

d

r

dr

r

Strain-Displacement

Fr

rd

r

dr

r

1 1 u v v

2 r r r

dr

Hookes Law

r

r

x1

Equilibrium Equations

( r )

r 1 r

R 0

r

r

r

r

2 r

1

0

r

r

r

Airy Representation

1 1 2

r r r 2 2

2

2

r

1

r

r r

u

1

v

, u

r

r

Plane Strain

Plane Stress

1

r (r )

r ( r ) 2G r

E

1

( r ) 2G

( r )

E

z ( r ) ( r )

r 2G r , z rz 0 z (r )

(r )

E

1

1

r

r , z rz 0

E

2 1

1 2 2 1

1 2

0

2

r r r 2 2 r 2 r r r 2 2

r

4

r

u

.....a

r

u 1 v

1 u v v

.....b r

.....c

r r

r r r

u

r

We get,

r

u

2

2

v

1

1

u

1

v

1 v

2

2 rr 2

2

r

r

r r r r

r

r r r

1

1 u 1 v 1 2v 1

1

1 2v

rr

rr

r

r r r r r r

r

r r

2v

rr r

............................... A

r

r

Differentiation

Eq. (c) w.r.t. r

v

r v

r

1 u 1 2u 2v

2

2 r2

r

r r r r

r

1 2u 2 v 1

2 r

r r r

r

2u

r

2v

r

r r 2

r

r

r

2

2

v

We have,

r r r r 2

r

r

r

rr

2u

r

r

rr

2v

r

r r 2 ......( B )

This two expression gives:

r

r

2

rr

3v

Differentiating (A) w.r.t. r, we get

r

2

2

2

r

r

r

r

we have,

2 r r

2 rr

3v

r

r 2

2

equation in 2D:

2 1 2 rr 2 1 rr 1 2 r 1 r

2

2

2

2

r

r

r r

r r

r r r

Since problems concerning cylindrical bodies, such as shaft, gun,

barrels, rotating, disk can be easily solved by means of stress function

equation, it is frequently, admissible to have these equations in the form

of cylindrical rather rectangular coordinates. Considering Z is the

cylinder axis, following equation holds good,

y

1 y

r x y , tan , tan

x

x

2

r x

r y

cos ,

sin ,

x r

y r

y

sin

x cos

2

,

2

x

r

r

y r

r

Considering stress

function as a

function of r & ,

we have,

r

y

x

r

sin

cos

x r x x r

r

r

cos

sin

y r y y r

r

2

sin

sin

cos

cos

2

x

r

r

r

r

2

2 2

1

2

1 2

2

2

2

2 cos

sin cos

sin 2

sin cos 2

sin

.........1

2

r

r r

r r

r

r

2

cos

cos

sin

sin

2

y

r

r

r

r

2

2 2

1

2

1 2

2

2

2

2 sin

sin cos

cos 2

sin cos 2

cos

.........2

2

r

r r

r r

r

r

2 2 2 1 1 2

2 2

2

.......... .3

2

2

x

y

r

r r r

In Cartesian

4

4

4 2

2 2 2

4

coordinate, x 4 2 x 2 y 2 y 4 x 2 y 2 x 2 y 2 .......... .4

2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2

2

.................5

2

2

2

2

2

r r r r

r r r

r

4

Coordinates, we will take airy stress function such that

2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2

2

0..........6

2

2

2

2

2

r r r r

r r r

r

4

rr 1 r rr

0,

r

r

r

1 r 2 r

0 Equilibrium eqn.

r

r

r

(7)

2

2 1 rr 2 1 rr 1 r 1 r

2

2

2

2

r

r

r r

r r

r r r

When is bi-harmonic,

Stresses in cylindrical coordinate system will be,

Compatibility eqn.

1 1 2

rr

2

r r r 2

2

2

r

1 1 2

1

r 2

..................8

r r r

r r

Let us consider that the only body

force acting is that in radial direction

or R. This will cover most cases of

practical interest.

The equilibrium equations are then

r 1 r r

R0

r

r

r

1 r 2 r

0

r

r

r

z

0

z

The body force R can be expressed in terms of the two body force

y

components X & Y so as: R 2 X 2 Y 2

Y

R

The body force can be expressed by a

potential function , so that;

r

cos

However, we

x

r x r

may write, r

.

sin

y

r y r

X

x

R X 2 Y 2

2

R

x y

2

2

2

R

cos

sin

R is a function of r only, does

not depend on . So,

X

, Y

x

y

then become:

These equations are

identically satisfied by a

stress function defined as,

r 1 r r

0

r

r

r

r

1

r

2 r

z

0,

0

r

r

r

z

1 1 2

2

r r r r 2 2 , r 2 r r

2

1 r 1

1

r r 2 r r rr

r

r

1 2 2

4

0,

for two dimension in plane

strain case:

Using cylindrical function eqn (4) & eqn (5)

2 1

1 2 2

1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1

2

2

0.......11

2

2

2

2

2

1

r r r r

r r r 1 r

r r

r

4

which will be determined by the restrictions on z as given by the

following equations; z 1 z r K cons tan t

E

From Which,

z KE r

r 1 r r

0

The equilibrium equations are:r

r

r

r

1 r 2 r

0

Which are satisfied by the stress

r

r

r

2

1

r

equations :

r

2

r r r 2

2

2 r

r

r

r

1 1 2

1

2

r r r

r r

coordinates, i.e.,

4 1 2 0

In cylindrical coordinates:

2 1

2 1

1 2 2 1 1 2

2

2

1 2

0

2

2

2

2

r r r

r r r

r r

r

r

2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1

2

2

2

0

2

2

2

2

r r r r

r r r 1 r

r r

r

Plane Strain

2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2

2 1

2

2

1 2

0

2

2

2

2

r r r

r r r

r r

r

r

Plane Stress

2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2

2

0

2

2

2

2

2

r r r r

r r r

r

4

S

1 1 2

2

1

r

2

,

r

2

2

r r r

r

r r

Boundary Conditions

R f r ( r , ) , f ( r , )

Conditions for these cases are:The ends are unrestricted i.e., Plane-stress condition. zz 0

It is not rotated or gravity is neglected i.e., NO body force.

Stress distribution will be a function of r

Equation of compatibility (without body force) becomes: d 2 1 d d 2 1 d

2

2 .

r dr dr

r dr

dr

d 4 d 1 d 2 1 d 1 d 3 1 d 2 1 d

4

. 3 2

2

3

0

2

2

dr

dr

r

dr

r

dr

r

dr

r

dr

r

dr

d 4 1 d 3 1 d 2 1 d 2 2 d 1 d 3 1 d 2 1 d

4

2 2 2 2 3

2 2 3

0

3

3

dr

r dr

r dr

r dr

r dr r dr

r dr

r dr

4

3

2

d 2 d 1 d 1 d

4

2 2 3

0

2

3

1 d

d

dr

r

dr

r

dr

r

dr

r

, 2 , r 0

Stress are:

r dr

dr

This is a homogenous differential equation that can be transformed

into a linear differential equation with constant coefficients by a

t

change of variable r e .

This equation has, as a general solution, 4 constant of integration, which

must be determined from boundary conditions,

2

2

By substitution, the general solution is A log r Br log r Cr D

1 A

2 B1 2 log r 2C

r r r

2

A

If there is no hole at the origin of 2 2 B3 2 log r 2C

r

r

coordinates i.e., if the cylinder is

r 0

&

components are:

Hence, for a plate without a hole at the origin & with no body forces,

only one case of stress distribution symmetrical w.r.t. the axis may exist,

namely, that r 2C cons tan t

& plate is in a condition of uniform tension or uniform compression in

all directions in its plane.

If there is a hole at the origin other solutions, than uniform tension or

compression can be derived, taking B as zero, for instance.

It become,

A

r 2 2C

r

A

2 2C

r

Consider a long, hollow, circular, cylinder having its

axis coincide with Z-axis subjected to internal pressure

Pi , external pressure Po , Internal radius = a, External

radius = b.

Boundary Condition are:

rr=- Pi at r = a , rr=- P0 at r= b

If the ends are unrestrained, zz=0 i.e., Plane stress case

at r = 0 r & ,

A. When it is a solid cylinder: a= 0

So A & B must be zero to avoid impracticality. Thus for solid cylinder

r 2C cons tan t

and if that solid cylinder is subjected to an

external pressure Po, We have Boundary Condition r Po

at r = b from which we can say that,

r Po

throughout the body.

The sign is ve since a positive pressure (as normally measured with

a gauge) will give rise to compression stress (-ve stress) in the body.

Stress components are:

Equilibrium equation is

we have,

1 d

d 2

r

, 2 , r 0..............1

r dr

r

d r r

as r=0 & stress is

0......(2)

dr

r

r

a function of r only.

A

B 1 2 log r 2C

2

r

A

2 B 3 2 log r 2C ,

r

rr

r 0 .......... 3

of integration, whereas we have only two boundary conditions. For

determining the third constant, we have to examine the displacement:

du

u

The strain Components are:

r , .............4

dr

The stress-strain

relationships are:

du

1

rr .......... 5

rr

dr

E

u

1

rr .......... ... 6

r

E

or , E .u r rr

B r 3 2 r 1 log r 2 C 1 r A 1

1

r

du 1

rr

rr

We have,

dr E

Integrating, u 1 .Br 1 3 21 r log r r 2C 1 r A1 1 K

E

r

r

constant

In order that above two expression for u to be the same, we must have,

1

1

2

C

1

A

1

So that,

E

r

A

rr 2 2C

r

A

2 2C

r

boundary condition: gives,

rr Pi at r =a,

rr Po

at r=b

B 0, K 0

Pi a 2 P0b 2

2C

b2 a2

a 2b 2 Po Pi

A

b2 a2

we will get, Lame solution

Which Indicate that

rr

a 2b 2 Po Pi 1 Pi a 2 Pob 2

rr

2

2

2

b a

r

b2 a 2

a 2b 2 Po Pi 1 Pi a 2 Pob 2

. 2

2

2

b a

r

b2 a 2

2 Pi a 2 Pob 2

cons tan t

2

2

b a

i.e., independent of r.

zz

rr

= Constant

We can use the rr , & u equations to find force & displacement

in shrink fit condition.

the stresses in a gun barrel due to explosion pressure of change. For

the simple-tube barrel, P0 =0 & Pi 0 ; and the only pressure

involved is that inside barrel, or Pi. So r and will be reduced to,

Pi a 2

r 2

r

r 2 b2

2

2

b a

Pi a 2 r 2 b 2

2 2

2

r b a

2a 2

Pi 2

b a2

max

r max Pi

occur at r=a

a2 b2

Pi 2

b a2

a 2 b2

Pi 2

b a2

i.e.,

Pi

Pi

max Pi

It indicates, no matter how much material can be added to gun barrel

the tangential stress can not be reduced less than internal pressure.

In order to decrease

the common practice is to install shrink bands on the gun barrel.

They are fitted in hot & when cool they provide compressive Po at

outside of barrel.

One or more bands are used depending amount of internal pressure

similar stress pattern on outer fiber can be generated by proper heat

treatment to induce compressive stress.

P0

P0b 2 r 2 a 2

r 2 2 2

r b a

Pb

0 2

r

r a

2

2

b a

2

When b= or b>>>>>a

a2

r Pi 2

r

a

b2 a2

P0 2

b a2

2b 2

P0 2

b a2

and P0 =0 & Pi 0 :

P0

Shrink Fit

Let is the Fit allowance, ie,

internal radius of outer cylinder is

less than outer radius of inner

cylinder before fitting by an amount

of .

there will be shrink pressure, Let = Pc.

The contact pressure Pc acting on the outer surface of the inner

cylinder reducing its radius by u1

On the other hand, the contact pressure Pc acting on the inner surface of

the outer cylinder increasing its radius by u2

The sum of these two quantities, ie, (-u1 + u2 ) =

We know,

1

1

2

C

1

A

1

E

r

1 Pi a 2 Pob 2

1 a 2b 2 Pi P0

Putting the value of

u

r

2

2

2

2

E

b a

E b a

r

A & C, we have,

For inner cylinder: P0 = Pc , Pi =0 , b=c, a=a

1 1 Pc c 2

1 1 a 2c 2

u1

c

2

2

E1 c a

E1

c

cPc

Pc

2

(1 1 )c 2 (1 1 )a 2

2

2

2

E1 (c a )

c a

1 2

u2

E2

Pc c 2

1 2 b 2c 2

2 2 c

E2

c

b c

As (-u1 + u2 ) = ,

we can get,

Pc

cPc

2

2

Pc

(

1

)

c

(

1

)

b

2 2

2

2

2

2

E

(

b

c

)

b

c

2

1 (b 2 c 2 )

1 (c 2 a 2 )

1

2

2

2

2

2

E1 c a

E2 b c

Let E1= E2 , 1= 2

ie, same material

E (c 2 a 2 )(b 2 c 2 )

Pc

c 2c 2 b 2 a 2

2

E (b c )

Pc

c

2b 2

Stresses in inner cylinder:

Pc c 2 a 2

r 2 2 1 2 ;

c a r

Pc b

r 2 c 2 2 1;

b c r

a< r <c

Pc c 2 a 2

2 2 1 2

c a r

c< r <b

Pc b

2 c 2 2 1

b c r

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