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ME 603: Applied Elasticity and Plasticity

STRESS FUNCTION
Polar coordinates

Prof. S.K.Sahoo

Static equilibrium equations in polar coordinates

Consider stresses on an infinitesimal element with

dimension dr, dz and d.



dz

z

dz
z
z
r
zz

rr
r

dz

zz

zr

z
d

zr
dz
z

rz rz dr
r

rz z
zr
z

r
d

r
dr
r

rr

zz

rr
dr
r

Differential stresses acting on an


element shown in positive
directions

Considering equilibrium in r direction

Let R is the component of body force in radially outward direction.


Considering equilibrium in radial direction we have

rr
rz
dr


dr r dr ddz rr rddz rz
dz rz r ddr d
rr
r
rz
z
r

d
d
dr

r r d r drdz cos
R r drddz 0
z
r
2
2

drdz sin

Neglecting higher order terms and putting


we have,
rr drddz r

or

d d
d
sin

& cos
1
2
2
2

rr

drddz rz drddz drddz r drddz R.r.dr.d .dz 0


r
rz
r

rr rr 1 r rz

R
0

r
r
r r
z

Considering equilibrium in direction

F 0

Let is the component of body force in tangential direction.

dr


r r dr r dr ddz r .rd .dz z z dz z r ddr
r
z
2


d
dr

r d .dr.dz 0
d drdz cos r r .d r drdz sin
r
2
r
2
2

or r drddz r
Putting
we have,

drddz r z drddz dr.d .dz r dr.d .dz r dr d dz 0


r
z

r r
2 r r z 1

0
r

r
z
r

Considering equilibrium in Z-direction

zz
dr
zr

dz

dr

.
dr
zz

zr
r dr ddz zr rddz
zz
z
2
r

dr

z z .d z drdz Z r dr.d .dz 0

Where Z is the component of body force in z-direction.

or

zz

drddz z drddz r zr drddz r z drddz r zr drddz z drddz


z
r

r
r
rZdrddz 0
r

or

zr zz zr 1 z

r z r r Z 0

Incase of plane stress system the equilibrium equations reduce to

rr rr 1 r

R 0

r
r
r

2 r r 1 0
r

r
r
Incase of plane strain systems

zz zr z 0

zr z zr z 0
zz 0

rr rr 1 r

R 0

r
r
r

2 r r 1 0
r

r
r

zz 0

Strain and Displacement of an element in Polar Coordinates

Strain displacement relationships..

Figure shows an element subjected to displacement as indicated. There


are three normal strains rr, , zz & three shearing strain r, z, zr

Considering the displacement in the r direction, u, we see from fig (a) that
u (u / r )dr u u
r

dr
r

From fig(a) it is also clear that pure radial displacement yields a


strain in -direction, since the fibers of the element have elongated in
- direction. The length of element ab was originally rd , but after
radial displacement, u, ab become (r+u)d.
The tangential strain due to this radial displacement is. Therefore,

r u d rd
rd

u
r

From Fig(b), the tangential displacement v gives rise to a tangential


strain equal to, (v / )d 1 v
2

rd

So total tangential strain


1

u 1

r r

The normal strain in Z-direction is

z
z

The shearing strain is given by the


difference between the angle Cab &
Cab (fig c) values shows are in angle

as in rectangular
coordinates.
1 u v v

r r r

The first term comes from the change in the radial displacement u in
the tangential direction; the second term comes from the change in
the tangential displacement v in the radial direction, and the last term
appears since part of the scope change of the line ac
comes from the rotation of the element as a solid body about the axis
through O. Similarly other two shearing strains maybe obtained
d v z dz 1 V
z
rd 1 v / dz 1 / z r z
u z dz w r dr u
and , zr
dz 1 w z dr 1 u r dr z r
If we assume that angles are equal to their tangents & that the rate of
change of displacement with length is small compared to unity.

Strain displacement relationships in


cylindrical coordinates
u
u 1 v

,

,
z
r
r r
z
v 1 u v
1 v

,
z
,
r r r
r z

r
r

zr

z r

Where, u,v,w are the velocity/displacements in r, , z-directions


For two dimensional case
u
u 1 v
r ,
,
r
r r

v 1 u v

r r r

r
x2

Polar Coordinate Formulation

r
d

r
dr
r

Strain-Displacement

Fr

rd

r
dr
r

1 1 u v v

2 r r r

dr

Hookes Law

r
r

x1

Equilibrium Equations
( r )
r 1 r

R 0
r
r
r
r
2 r
1

0
r
r
r

Airy Representation
1 1 2

r r r 2 2
2
2
r
1
r

r r

u
1
v
, u

r
r

Plane Strain

Plane Stress

1
r (r )
r ( r ) 2G r
E
1
( r ) 2G
( r )
E
z ( r ) ( r )

r 2G r , z rz 0 z (r )
(r )
E
1
1
r
r , z rz 0
E

2 1
1 2 2 1
1 2

0
2

r r r 2 2 r 2 r r r 2 2
r
4

Compatibility equations in cylindrical coordinates (2D)


r

u
.....a
r

u 1 v
1 u v v

.....b r
.....c
r r
r r r

Differentiating equation (b) w.r.t . r and putting relationship of Eq. (a),


u
r
We get,
r
u
2
2

v
1
1
u
1

v
1 v

2
2 rr 2
2
r
r
r r r r
r
r r r

1
1 u 1 v 1 2v 1
1
1 2v
rr
rr

r
r r r r r r
r
r r

2v
rr r

............................... A
r
r

Differentiation
Eq. (c) w.r.t. r

v
r v
r
1 u 1 2u 2v
2

2 r2
r
r r r r
r
1 2u 2 v 1

2 r
r r r
r
2u
r
2v

r
r r 2
r
r
r

2
2

v
We have,
r r r r 2
r
r
r
rr
2u

Differentiation Eq. (a) w.r.t. , we get,

r
r
rr
2v
r
r r 2 ......( B )
This two expression gives:
r
r
2

rr
3v
Differentiating (A) w.r.t. r, we get
r
2
2
2
r
r
r
r

Differentiating (B) w.r.t ,

we have,

2 r r
2 rr
3v
r

r 2
2

Eliminating v from above two equations we have, Compatibility


equation in 2D:

2 1 2 rr 2 1 rr 1 2 r 1 r
2

2
2
2
r
r
r r
r r
r r r

Stress function in cylindrical coordinates


Since problems concerning cylindrical bodies, such as shaft, gun,
barrels, rotating, disk can be easily solved by means of stress function
equation, it is frequently, admissible to have these equations in the form
of cylindrical rather rectangular coordinates. Considering Z is the
cylinder axis, following equation holds good,

y
1 y
r x y , tan , tan
x
x
2

r x
r y
cos ,
sin ,
x r
y r

y
sin
x cos
2
,
2
x
r
r
y r
r

Considering stress
function as a
function of r & ,
we have,

r
y
x

r
sin

cos
x r x x r
r
r
cos

sin
y r y y r
r

Repeating the above operations gives us the second derivation of


2
sin
sin

cos

cos

2
x

r
r

r
r

2
2 2
1
2
1 2
2
2
2
2 cos
sin cos
sin 2
sin cos 2
sin
.........1
2
r
r r
r r
r
r
2
cos
cos

sin

sin

2
y

r
r

r
r

2
2 2
1
2
1 2
2
2
2
2 sin
sin cos
cos 2
sin cos 2
cos
.........2
2
r
r r
r r
r
r

from equation (1) & (2)

2 2 2 1 1 2
2 2
2
.......... .3
2
2
x
y
r
r r r

In Cartesian
4
4
4 2
2 2 2
4
coordinate, x 4 2 x 2 y 2 y 4 x 2 y 2 x 2 y 2 .......... .4

Similarly, in cylindrical coordinates,


2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2
2
.................5
2
2
2
2
2
r r r r
r r r
r
4

This indicate, for 2-D problem without body force, in Cylindrical


Coordinates, we will take airy stress function such that
2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2
2
0..........6
2
2
2
2
2
r r r r
r r r
r
4

it will identically satisfy the equilibrium and compatibility conditions


rr 1 r rr

0,
r
r
r

1 r 2 r

0 Equilibrium eqn.
r
r
r
(7)
2

2 1 rr 2 1 rr 1 r 1 r
2

2
2
2
r
r
r r
r r
r r r

When is bi-harmonic,
Stresses in cylindrical coordinate system will be,

Compatibility eqn.

1 1 2
rr
2
r r r 2
2
2
r
1 1 2
1
r 2

..................8
r r r
r r

Cylindrical coordinates with body force- Plane strain


Let us consider that the only body
force acting is that in radial direction
or R. This will cover most cases of
practical interest.
The equilibrium equations are then

r 1 r r

R0
r
r
r
1 r 2 r

0
r
r
r
z
0
z

The body force R can be expressed in terms of the two body force
y
components X & Y so as: R 2 X 2 Y 2
Y
R
The body force can be expressed by a
potential function , so that;
r

cos
However, we
x
r x r
may write, r

.
sin
y
r y r

X
x

R X 2 Y 2
2

R

x y
2



2
2
R
cos

sin

Since we assume that body force


R is a function of r only, does
not depend on . So,

X
, Y
x
y

The Equilibrium equations


then become:
These equations are
identically satisfied by a
stress function defined as,

r 1 r r

0
r
r
r
r
1
r
2 r
z

0,
0
r
r
r
z

1 1 2
2

r r r r 2 2 , r 2 r r

2
1 r 1
1


r r 2 r r rr

r
r

1 2 2
4

0,

The compatibility equation


for two dimension in plane
strain case:
Using cylindrical function eqn (4) & eqn (5)

2 1
1 2 2
1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1
2

2
0.......11

2
2
2
2
2
1
r r r r
r r r 1 r
r r
r
4

In addition, there will be present a z stress acting in the axial direction


which will be determined by the restrictions on z as given by the
following equations; z 1 z r K cons tan t
E

From Which,

z KE r

Cylindrical coordinates with body force- Plane stress


r 1 r r

0
The equilibrium equations are:r
r
r
r
1 r 2 r

0
Which are satisfied by the stress
r
r
r
2
1
r

equations :
r
2
r r r 2
2

2 r
r

r
r
1 1 2
1
2

r r r
r r

The compatibility equation that is derived from rectangular


coordinates, i.e.,
4 1 2 0
In cylindrical coordinates:
2 1
2 1
1 2 2 1 1 2
2
2
1 2
0
2
2
2
2
r r r
r r r
r r
r
r

Summary: Solutions to Plane Problems in Polar Coordinates

Biharmonic Governing Equation


2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1
2
2

2
0
2
2
2
2
r r r r
r r r 1 r
r r
r

Plane Strain

2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2
2 1
2
2
1 2
0
2
2
2
2
r r r
r r r
r r
r
r

Plane Stress

If there is no body force,


2 1 1 2 2 1 1 2
2
0
2
2
2
2
2
r r r r
r r r
r
4

Airy Representation for stresses


S

1 1 2
2
1
r
2
,

r
2
2
r r r
r
r r

Boundary Conditions

R f r ( r , ) , f ( r , )

Stress distribution symmetrical about an axis

Conditions for these cases are:The ends are unrestricted i.e., Plane-stress condition. zz 0
It is not rotated or gravity is neglected i.e., NO body force.
Stress distribution will be a function of r
Equation of compatibility (without body force) becomes: d 2 1 d d 2 1 d
2
2 .
r dr dr
r dr
dr

d 4 d 1 d 2 1 d 1 d 3 1 d 2 1 d
4

. 3 2
2
3
0
2
2
dr
dr
r
dr
r
dr
r
dr
r
dr
r
dr

d 4 1 d 3 1 d 2 1 d 2 2 d 1 d 3 1 d 2 1 d
4
2 2 2 2 3

2 2 3
0
3
3
dr
r dr
r dr
r dr
r dr r dr
r dr
r dr
4
3
2
d 2 d 1 d 1 d
4
2 2 3
0
2
3
1 d
d
dr
r
dr
r
dr
r
dr
r
, 2 , r 0

Stress are:
r dr
dr
This is a homogenous differential equation that can be transformed
into a linear differential equation with constant coefficients by a
t
change of variable r e .
This equation has, as a general solution, 4 constant of integration, which
must be determined from boundary conditions,
2
2
By substitution, the general solution is A log r Br log r Cr D

1 A
2 B1 2 log r 2C
r r r
2
A
If there is no hole at the origin of 2 2 B3 2 log r 2C
r
r
coordinates i.e., if the cylinder is
r 0

&

solid then, when r =0, r

So, the corresponding stress


components are:

unless constants A & B vanish/zero.


Hence, for a plate without a hole at the origin & with no body forces,
only one case of stress distribution symmetrical w.r.t. the axis may exist,
namely, that r 2C cons tan t
& plate is in a condition of uniform tension or uniform compression in
all directions in its plane.
If there is a hole at the origin other solutions, than uniform tension or
compression can be derived, taking B as zero, for instance.
It become,
A
r 2 2C
r
A
2 2C
r

Application: Thick cylinder under uniform pressure


Consider a long, hollow, circular, cylinder having its
axis coincide with Z-axis subjected to internal pressure
Pi , external pressure Po , Internal radius = a, External
radius = b.
Boundary Condition are:
rr=- Pi at r = a , rr=- P0 at r= b
If the ends are unrestrained, zz=0 i.e., Plane stress case
at r = 0 r & ,
A. When it is a solid cylinder: a= 0
So A & B must be zero to avoid impracticality. Thus for solid cylinder
r 2C cons tan t
and if that solid cylinder is subjected to an
external pressure Po, We have Boundary Condition r Po
at r = b from which we can say that,
r Po
throughout the body.
The sign is ve since a positive pressure (as normally measured with
a gauge) will give rise to compression stress (-ve stress) in the body.

B. When it is a hollow cylinder:


Stress components are:
Equilibrium equation is
we have,

1 d
d 2
r
, 2 , r 0..............1
r dr
r
d r r
as r=0 & stress is

0......(2)
dr
r
r
a function of r only.

A
B 1 2 log r 2C
2
r
A
2 B 3 2 log r 2C ,
r

rr

r 0 .......... 3

In the above expression for stress compression we have three constants


of integration, whereas we have only two boundary conditions. For
determining the third constant, we have to examine the displacement:
du
u
The strain Components are:
r , .............4
dr

The stress-strain
relationships are:

du
1
rr .......... 5
rr

dr
E
u
1
rr .......... ... 6
r
E
or , E .u r rr
B r 3 2 r 1 log r 2 C 1 r A 1

1
r

du 1
rr
rr
We have,
dr E
Integrating, u 1 .Br 1 3 21 r log r r 2C 1 r A1 1 K
E
r

E.u B r 1 21 r log r r 2C 1 r A1 K K is the integration


r

constant

In order that above two expression for u to be the same, we must have,

1
1

2
C
1

A
1

So that,
E
r
A
rr 2 2C
r
A
2 2C
r

A & C now can be determined from the


boundary condition: gives,
rr Pi at r =a,

rr Po

at r=b

B 0, K 0

Pi a 2 P0b 2
2C
b2 a2
a 2b 2 Po Pi
A
b2 a2

Putting the value of 2C & A


we will get, Lame solution
Which Indicate that
rr

a 2b 2 Po Pi 1 Pi a 2 Pob 2
rr
2
2
2
b a
r
b2 a 2
a 2b 2 Po Pi 1 Pi a 2 Pob 2

. 2
2
2
b a
r
b2 a 2

2 Pi a 2 Pob 2

cons tan t
2
2
b a

i.e., independent of r.

If the ends of the cylinder are free then, zz 0

zz

rr

= Constant

So it also satisfy the Plane-Strain condition.


We can use the rr , & u equations to find force & displacement
in shrink fit condition.

Most common problems to which the above equations apply is that of


the stresses in a gun barrel due to explosion pressure of change. For
the simple-tube barrel, P0 =0 & Pi 0 ; and the only pressure
involved is that inside barrel, or Pi. So r and will be reduced to,
Pi a 2
r 2
r

r 2 b2
2

2
b a
Pi a 2 r 2 b 2

2 2
2
r b a

2a 2
Pi 2
b a2

max

The maximum values of r and


r max Pi
occur at r=a
a2 b2
Pi 2
b a2

a 2 b2
Pi 2
b a2

i.e.,

Pi

Pi

max Pi

Pi when b becomes very large or a becomes very small.


It indicates, no matter how much material can be added to gun barrel
the tangential stress can not be reduced less than internal pressure.

In order to decrease
the common practice is to install shrink bands on the gun barrel.
They are fitted in hot & when cool they provide compressive Po at
outside of barrel.
One or more bands are used depending amount of internal pressure
similar stress pattern on outer fiber can be generated by proper heat
treatment to induce compressive stress.

When Pi =0 & P0 0 ; ie, only external pressure

P0

So r and will be reduced to,


P0b 2 r 2 a 2
r 2 2 2
r b a
Pb
0 2
r

r a
2

2
b a
2

When b= or b>>>>>a
a2
r Pi 2
r

a
b2 a2
P0 2
b a2

2b 2
P0 2
b a2

and P0 =0 & Pi 0 :

P0

Shrink Fit
Let is the Fit allowance, ie,
internal radius of outer cylinder is
less than outer radius of inner
cylinder before fitting by an amount
of .

After fitting by heating and cooling


there will be shrink pressure, Let = Pc.
The contact pressure Pc acting on the outer surface of the inner
cylinder reducing its radius by u1
On the other hand, the contact pressure Pc acting on the inner surface of
the outer cylinder increasing its radius by u2
The sum of these two quantities, ie, (-u1 + u2 ) =

We know,

1
1

2
C
1

A
1

E
r

1 Pi a 2 Pob 2
1 a 2b 2 Pi P0
Putting the value of
u
r

2
2
2
2
E
b a
E b a
r
A & C, we have,
For inner cylinder: P0 = Pc , Pi =0 , b=c, a=a
1 1 Pc c 2
1 1 a 2c 2
u1
c
2
2
E1 c a
E1
c

cPc
Pc
2

(1 1 )c 2 (1 1 )a 2
2
2
2
E1 (c a )
c a

For outer cylinder: P0 =0 , Pi = Pc , b=b, a=c


1 2
u2
E2

Pc c 2
1 2 b 2c 2
2 2 c
E2
c
b c

As (-u1 + u2 ) = ,
we can get,

Pc

cPc
2
2
Pc
(
1

)
c

(
1

)
b
2 2
2
2
2
2
E
(
b

c
)
b

c
2

1 (b 2 c 2 )

1 (c 2 a 2 )
1
2

2
2
2
2
E1 c a
E2 b c

Let E1= E2 , 1= 2
ie, same material

E (c 2 a 2 )(b 2 c 2 )
Pc

c 2c 2 b 2 a 2

For a=0 ,ie, inner cylinder is solid one


2

E (b c )
Pc

c
2b 2
Stresses in inner cylinder:
Pc c 2 a 2
r 2 2 1 2 ;
c a r

Stresses in outer cylinder:

Pc b
r 2 c 2 2 1;
b c r

a< r <c
Pc c 2 a 2
2 2 1 2
c a r

c< r <b

Pc b
2 c 2 2 1
b c r