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RAMESSIDE
ADMINISTRATIVE
DOCUMENTS
I

Edited by

SIR ALAN GARDINER

Printed for and distributed by

GRIFFITH INSTITUTE, ASHMOLEAN MUSEUM, OXFORD

----

--;

PREFACE
REPRINTED LITHOGRAPHICALLY IN OXFORD
BY ALDEN & MOWBRAY LTD AT THE ALDEN PRESS
FROM SHEETS OF THE FIRST EDITION
PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS, OXFORD

~i

TO THE MEMORY OF
JEAN CAPART

First published by the Oxford University Press 1948


Reprinted and distributed by the
Griffi.th Institute 1968

It is hoped that the title of this book will not have raised too great expectations.
Since my two parallel volumes Late-Egyptian Stories and Late-Egyptian Miscellanies
made an attempt .(not entirely successful, it is true), to exhaust the material for both
those literary genres, it might perhaps have been supposed that the present work
would pursue the same aim in regard to texts concerned with the Ramesside administration. My purpose has been much more modest. The primary intention was to
make accessible a number of documents which might throw light upon the subject of
the great Wilbour papyrus, in course of publication by me on behalf of the Brooklyn
Museum; some of these documents are translated in my article 'Ramesside Texts
relating to the Taxation and Transport of Corn' (JEA XXVII, 19 ff.), while renderings of others will be found in my commentary on the said papyrus. The opportunity
seemed too good, however, to omit various other texts in which I have had a longstanding interest or for the pliblication of which I lay under a definite obligation; to
the former category belongs the Turin Strike papyrus (XVIII) and to the latter the
'Gurob' fragments entrusted to me thirty years ago by the late Sir Flinders Petrie
(II-XVI). The outcome of the above considerations has been a somewhat incongruous
and motley array of transcripts from the hieratic, the main bond between which is
that all belong to the Ramesside period and that all in one way or another throw light
on the public management of life under the Pharaohs. It is true that, for instance,
the Turin Indictment papyrus (XXV) might have been more in place in a collection
of Egyptian juristic texts, and that the Valen~ay letter (XXIV) would have found a
happier niche in a corpus of Late-Egyptian epistolography. But no immediate project
seems contemplated for the juristic texts and the Valen~ay papyrus came to light too
late for inclusion in Cernfs Late Ramesside Letters. The most questionable item in
the present undertaking is the re-edition (XXVI) of the beginning of the first page
of a Turin Miscellany, new fragments of which had been discovered by Capart in
the Geneva Museum; but here I have the somewhat lame excuse that these first lines
allude to the registration and transport of corn, due as harvest-taxes to the temple of
Amiin at Karnak; this little text differs from all the rest in the book inasmuchas it
is a purely literary composition and not an original official document.
With these remarks my apologia is at an end, and leaves me free to hazard a few
observations in the contrary sense. It is not without some measure of self-congratulation that I here make accessible to my colleagues what I believe to be reasonably
trustworthy transcriptions of a considerable number of texts either wholly unpublished hitherto or else not hitherto presented .in a handy form. But at this point
my conscience reminds me that the merit for such an achievement is far from solely
mine. It is improbable that I should have embarked upon an enterprise so laborious
had not my ever helpful friend Cerny volunteered to shoulder the mechanical side
ill

JI
of

PREFACE
of the business, a generous offer whereby students will reap the benefit of his beautiful
handwriting. Nor do Cernfs services to this book stop there. With his profound
knowledge of hieratic and his scrupulous accuracy he has not seldom succeeded in
detecting errors on my part, while elsewhere his concurrence in my readings has lent
me valuable moral support. Needless to say, his specific contributions have always
received acknowledgments in the notes. I owe something also to the industry and
acumen of my deeply regretted friend Peet, whose notebooks containing transcripts
of the Turin and Amiens papyri are now in my possession. Except in two cases where
I have had to content myself with good photographs, all the texts in this work have
been transcribed in front of the originals, and in some cases have been collated afresh
after intervals of many years. My first and longest stay at Turin was in I905, when
I studied all the papyri given in facsimile by Pleyte and Rossi in their fundamental
Papyrus de Turin, Leyden, I 8 6 9-7 6, at the same time receiving permission from the
kindly Director of the Museum, Prof. E. Schiaparelli, not only to utilize my transcriptions for the Berlin Dictionary, but also to publish such of them as took my fancy.
Other duties have until now prevented me from availing myself of this generous
permission, although in certain cases my original copies have formed the basis of
publications by others. On two later occasions, in I937 and again last year (I947),
I have tested my earlier readings afresh, thanks to the facilities accorded me, on the
former occasion by the late Prof. Farina, and on the latter by Dr. Scamuzzi. My
indebtedness to the Keepers of the Egyptian antiquities in other museums will be
acknowledged below in the appropriate places.
A privately printed and distributed instalment of the first 23 pages of this book
appeared in I 940, mainly actuated by apprehension lest the Amiens papyrus might
be destroyed in the turmoil of war. A few faulty readings in that provisional publication have been corrected in the present definitive edition. At the outset my book
was designed to take its place in the invaluable Bibliotheca Aegyptiaca of the Fondation
Egyptologique Reine Elisabeth at Brussels, and in a post-war issue of the Chroni9ue
d'Egypte mention of the fact was made by the indefatigable Director of the Fondation
Jean Cap art. Alas, the sudden and wholly unexpected demise of that most able and
successful promoter of our science and friend of all its adepts has thrown into some
confusion the plans for the continuance of the Bibliotheca, and though it is earnestly
to be hoped that Capart's death will not mark the end of this splendid enterprise of
his, the issue of the present volume would undoubtedly have been delayed had I not
arranged to withdraw it for inclusion among the publications of the Griffith Institute
at Oxford. I have to thank M. Mekhitarian most warmly for so gracefully assenting
to my wishes in this respect. It remains, true, however, that the first impulse towards
the present edition of texts arose from the enthusiasm and organizing ability of Jean
Capart, and it is, therefore, only just that I should offer it as a humble monument to
his memory.
!V

~'
CONTENTS

I
PREFACE

111

CONTENTS

INTRoDuCTION (Descriptions of the various Manuscripts)

V!

THE TEXTS

I
II-XVI
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX
X
XI

I''

The Amiens Papyrus


Papyri from K6m Medlnet Ghurfib ('Gurob')
Nineteenth Dynasty Papyrus from 'Gurob' .
'Gurob' Fragments. F. Delivery and Branding of Cattle
G. Relating to Garments, etc.
,
,
,
,
T. Fragmentary List of Garments
,
,
U. Fragments of another List of Clothing
,
,
Y. Four Fragments relating to Garments
,
,
J. Deliveries of Fish to the Harem at Mi-wer
,
,
W. Deliveries of Fish
,
,
N. Part of a Report, etc.
,
,
K. Distribution of Fish to a Number of
Women
XII
,
,
L. Relating to the Corn-tax of the 67th Year
of Ramesses II
XIII
,
,
AA. Record of Measurements of Corn 1n
Different Places .
XIV
,
,
M. Part of another Papyrus of Dyn. XIX
relating to the Corn-tax
XV
,
,
Z. Account of Bricks issued, etc.
XVI
,
,
BB. List of Priests and other Officials
XVII The Turin Taxation Papyrus
XVIII The Turin Strike Papyrus
XIX
Corn for a Statue of Ramesses II (P. Brit. Mus. 10447)
XX
The Varzy Papyrus .
XXI
Louvre Leather Fragments
XXII From a Journal relating to the Theban Necropolis
XXIII The Griffith Fragments
XXIV Papyrus Valen~ay I
XXV The Turin Indictment Papyrus
XXVI Beginning of Turin A (P. Turin I882, verso)
INDEXES

14
IS
20
22
22

24
26
27
27

30
32
33
34

35
35
45

59
59
6o
64
68
72
73
82
84

T. Nf1mes of Persons. n. f!4


TI. Title.o; anrl Occunatiom r qn
TTT. Plf1r-.e:o: Reginns, f'n11ntries n 9~.
IV, Temples, Cult-places and Cult-objects, p. 97.
V, Main Contents of the Notes, p 99.
V

INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

1
CemY in JEA
XXXI, 30, n. 5.

11

Ibid., withnn. 1-4.


Yet another example is the Ritual
of Amenophis I, of
which the upper
part is in Cairo, and
the lower part (ed.
E. Bacchi, 1941)
at Turin.

I. The Amiens Papyrus (pp. I-I3) This is a papyrus of fine texture now
measuring a little more than 2 S metres in length by a height of from I 7 to I 8 cm.
Originally, however, the height may have been between 35 and 42 cm., the latter
being the normal dimension with business and legal documents of Ramesside times.'
It seems likely that the fella.hln finders, following a common custom of theirs,' cut
the complete roll into two nearly equal halves, hoping to secure better prices for the
separate half-rolls than if they sold the whole intact. The manuscript, in its present
state, preserves only the upper portion of the recto (horizontal fibres uppermost), and
the lower portion of the verso. The beginning of both recto and verso is lost, having
lain on the outside of the roll. Joins are found at the following distances from one
another, starting on the right: I4 23, 23 23 23 23 5, 24, 24, 23 5, 24, 24,
and 4 cm. After the writing of the recto was finished-five pages remain, with trace
of a red hundred-sign from the top line of the page preceding the first-the scribe
left a blank space of I 8 cm. and then cut off the remainder of his original roll at
4 cm. after the join. The texts on the verso, though emanating from the same hand
and dealing with the same topic, are not the continuation of those on the recto, since
in that case vs. I would have stood behind the last page of the recto or behind the
afore-mentioned blank space; in point of fact vs. I stands at the back of rt. I, its
writing being upside down from the standpoint of the recto. The pages of the verso
are curiously disposed. Of vs. I only the ends of two lines are left with some red
numbers below them, probably mere jottings. Vs. 2 follows in smaller writingthan
is used elsewhere, so that this, together with a total which constitutes almost all that
is left of vs. 3, was perhaps at first intended by the scribe to be the conclusion of his
work. Later, however, he seems to have decided to add three more pages, the last of
which (vs. 6) runs right up to the inner margin of the papyrus. It is not at all clear
why, on reaching this decision, he left before vs. 4 a space of 77 cm. unused; however,
it is just possible that in the lost top half there were some very short pages or memoranda, which would then account for this problematical blank space.
The writing, which is of moderate size except in vs. 2, as previously explained,
presents a neat appearance and was obviously the work of an experienced official
scribe; looking closer, we discern an amazing inconsistency in his forms. Sometimes,
and especially in rt. 3, he is no more cursive than, let us say, the scribe of the Lansing
Miscellany, but elsewhere he uses ligatures that would be undecipherable but for
the constant recurrence of the same formulre. For example, there is no commoner
phrase in the papyrus than ~ .-~ ~ ~ ~"' 1 , but this is written distinctly in
uncia! characters only in vs. 2, x+9; x+ IO, there, curiously enough, amidst a very
cursive context; the widely divergent variants of the two component words can be

s,

s,

VI

s,

seen from the facsimiles accompanying my text (cf. too the photographs of rt. I and S,
JE.d XXVII, PI. 7); the principal references are given below, p. I a, notes 3'b 4b.
The rare word rmny(t) here found is frequent in the Wilbour papyrus belonging to
the Brooklyn Museum, which, alike in subject-matter, date, quality of papyrus
employed, vocabulary and some of the ligatures, shows analogies with the Amiens
papyrus so striking that one could easily believe they came from the same find.
However, the Amiens papyrus has been in the possession of that city for half-acentury at the very least, while the Wilbour papyrus came to light little more than
20 years ago; moreover, the corn-taxes to which the two documents refer belong
to widely distant parts of Middle Egypt. The Amiens papyrus shares with the
Wilbour the reduction of;:: to a mere oblique stroke, seep. I a, note 2', as well as an
extremely abbreviated form of~., seep. I 3a, note I'. Another expression often very
seems twice to be curiously substituted,
cursively written is ~::-;, for which
see vs. 2, x+7; vs. 6, x+2. The demonstrative word..::_ also suffers extreme abbreviation (p. I a, note 4 '), thohgh not in the extraordinary manner adopted by the
scribes of the \Vilbour.
The date must be one of the reigns following Ramesses Ill, whose second car3
touche occurs in rt. 6, while his prenomen is found a number of times, e.g. rt.
The reigning king is alluded to, as usual,' by the designation 'Pharaoh' (e.g. rt. 3,
2), and a clue to his identity might be afforded by vs. 2, x+ 8 and x+9, whence it
is clear that the day of his accession lay between the 29th of the 3rd Winter-month
and the 7th of the I st month of Summer. Other clues might be the names of the
2), and the chief of workmen (or 'ship's
Steward of Amiin Racmessenakhte (rt.
crew') Phamniite (rt. I, 2), if only we could recover the history of those individuals.
As regards the contents, here it must suffice to say that the papyrus deals with the
shipping apparently to Thebes of corn belonging to a number of different temples. I
have given a full translation in JE.d XXVII, 37 ff., with as detailed a Commentary as
seemed possible in our ignorance of the exact working ofRamesside fiscal arrangements.
It was Spiegelberg, I think, who first informed me of the existence of this papyrus,
and it must be fully 40 years ago that I visited Amiens for the express purpose of
seeing it, though, realizing its difficulty, I then transcribed only a few lines. Much
later Peet interested himself greatly in the document, and was working upon an
edition at the time of his death. I have profited much by the excellent transcription
in one of his notebooks now in my hands, but my experience with the Wilbour
papyrus has enabled me to add important new readings. Through the kind offices
of M. Boreux, seconded by his ever willing assistant J. Vandier, the Municipality of
Amiens sent the original to the Louvre for my especial benefit (March, I939); there
it was flattened and repaired by the skilled hands of Dr. H. Ibscher, who restored to
their proper places the wrongly joined fragments of rt. r, v.<. r anri 2. To all who have
thus combined to make this publication possible I tender my cordial thanks.

::--;=

s,

s,

s,

s,

vii

See my P. Wilbour
Commentary, p. 10,
with n. 2.

RAMESSIDE ADMINISTRATIVE DOCUMENTS

INTRODUCTION

11-XVI. Papyri from Kom Medinet Ghurab ('Gurob'). The next fifteen

See my Ancient
Egyptian Onomastica, II, 115* (No.
392)
and
:JEA
XXIX, 37 ff.
I

2
According to
M Oiler, the name
Kahun is merely a
mistake of Petrie's,
who; hearing the
name IllahUn, interpreted it as 'AhG.n
preceded by the
article, the Arabic
t], a sort of k,
being locally pronounced as 'alif; ~~e
Scharff in ZAS

LIX, 51.

In

lllahun, etc.,

p. 50, Griffith gave

Kahun as the provenance of this.

sections of this book are devoted to papyri, mostly fragmentary, belonging to the
cpllection at University College, London. They seem all to emanate from finds made by
W. M. F. Petrie (later Sir Flinders Petrie) at Ki\m Medinet Ghurab near the entrance
to the Fayyum, the site of ~~@ Mi-wer, i.e., the town of Moeris.' To Petrie this
site was known as Gurob, and concerning the papyri he found there he wrote in his
Kahun, Gurob, and Hawara (I89o), p. 36, as follows: 'Of papyri a few were found,
but none in such fine state as those ofKahun.' The only royal name is that ofRamessu
II. None of the rolls were sealed, and many were crushed up as waste paper.' In the
Griffith mentions the two deeds of
same author's 1!/ahun, Kahun, and Gurob, p.
sale belonging to the 33rd year of Amenophis III and a long Ramesside letter, or
report, as being 'the most important papyri' from Gurob, thus implying that there
were others found on the same site. A subsequent note made by Griffith when
publishing the deeds of sale (Hieratic Papyri from Kahun and Gurob, p. 92) reveals the
fact that these, though classed with the Gurob papyri, actually came from 'Kahun'
(i.e., Illahun) a few miles to the north-east, and this naturally holds good also of the
related papyri in the Berlin Museum edited by myself in ZAS XLIII, 27 ff. Thus
the only papyri from Ki\m Medlnet Ghurab hitherto published are (I) the 'Ramesside
letter or report' (Griffith, Hieratic Papyri, etc., Pis. 39-40; No. II in the present
volume) and (2) a letter in duplicate to Amenophis IV (op. cit., PI. 38),' It seems
certain that all the other fragments here transcribed under Nos. III-XV came from
the same place, partly because they must be the papyri alluded to in the quotations from the works by Petrie and Griffith given above (for the name of Ramesses
II, see below, p. 2 I, I. 6), partly because Petrie explicitly declared them to be such
when entrusting them to me for study, and partly because internal evidence clearly
points to Mi-wer as the provenance.
Petrie's intention, in handing over the fragments for my safe-keeping, was that I
should take them to Berlin, have them mounted by Ibscher there, and utilize them
for the Berlin dictionary. All of which was faithfully performed. All the fragments,
apart from one or two in Oxford, are now back at University College, London. For
convenience I lettered the entire series from A to U, and under these letters they
will be found referred to in the Be!egste!len of the Berlin dictionary and in Ranke's
Agyptische Personennamen. It was obviously desirable that this lettering should be
retained here, and I have recently extended it as far as BB. Not all the texts seemed
worthy of being placed on slips for the Berlin dictionary, and a number of them being
literary, parts of letters, or the like, do not concern us in the present volume. The
only fragment hitherto mentioned in print by myself is Q, part of a hymn to Amiin
of which a very defective copy was found among the Chester Beatty papyri, see Hieratic
Papyri in the British Museum, Third Series, Text, pp. I 20 f
All the fragments here published for the first time have been most carefully

so,

viii

I
. I

collated by Cerny, as well as by myself. The series must, however, begin with the
large sheet already published by Griffith.

II. Nineteenth Dynasty Papyrus from 'Gurob' (pp. I4-I 8). The provenance,
etc., of this papyrus and the lesser fragments from the same source have been discussed
in the above paragraphs. The manuscript here under consideration consists of a single
sheet of very coarse texture measuring 4 2 cm. in height by 2 7 cm. in breadth,
inscribed on both sides in a very neat smallish hand. Since Griffith's publication in
Hieratic P "J'Yri, etc., Pis. 3 9, top right, and 40, a few additional fragments have been
found by Cerny at University College, London. Of these only one preserves more
than figures meaningless in the lack of a context; the exception adds 9 5 cm. to
the breadth of the sheet at the point here described (p. q) as vs. ra, I-6. By the
kindness of Professor Glanville I was able to collate the original in the comfort of
my former London home.
The recto contains the latter part of a letter to the Pharaoh, probably Sethos II,
from a lady of high rank concerning some foreign people placed in her charge for
some sort of education or training. This is followed by a memorandum mentioning
the palace of Sethos II in Memphis and dated in the second Year; receipts of fish
delivered as taxes in kind are enumerated in the two remaining lines.
The verso, written in the same hand, first records sundry deliveries or distributions
of oil (vs. I, o-r 8). Below this the text divides into two columns or pages here designated as vs. I a and vs. Ib respectively. The subject is similar to that of the memorandum at the bottom of the recto; but to the supplies of fish a record of the distribution
of bread and beer has been added.
Since the top of the recto is also the top of the verso the text of the verso must be
the continuation, doubtless after a long interval, of that upon the recto. Arrived at the
end of the recto, the scribe will have followed the usual practice of turning the roll
horizontally and continuing the text in the direction of the beginning of the recto.
The description of the whole given by Griffith (op. cit., Text, p. 94), is probably not
very far wide of the mark: 'The papyrus appears to have been the journal kept by a
royal scribe, in which receipts of tribute are entered and copies of correspondence
kept'. This I would supplement by conjecturing that we have here a sample of the
records kept concerning the business transacted from day to day within the Royal
Harem at Mi-wer. The Harem is explicitly mentioned in rt. z, ro, while its commandant, the Overseer of the King's Apartments, is referred to in vs. r b, S as setting
apart food for the sustenance of the establishment.
Griffith's transcription has needed but little correction, my main alterations
consisting in conforming the whole to the conventions which were first proposed by
myself in ']EAXV, 48 ff., and which are nowalmostnniversa11vaclnnteci T" the l:ah
,_.
of the advances made m Egyptian philology during the past
years Griffith's

so

ix

RAMESSIDE ADMINISTRATIVE DOCUMENTS

INTRODUCTION

translation is less satisfactory, but this is not a suitable place in which to attempt an

business hand. The texts of the verso are the work of a different scribe who used a
slanting cursive. Fragment a (5 5 X 9 cm.) is shown by the fibres to have stood above
Fragment b (8 X 12 5 cm.); the original position of Fragment c (4 x 7 cm.) is
uncertain. The garments or material mentioned on the recto of band c belonged wholly
or in part to the Hittite princess MaaJ:wrnefrurec (?), 1 whom Ramesses II took into his
Harem in his 34th year, and this gives a terminus a quo for the papyrus. The verso
of Fragments a and b, possibly written by the same scribe as L, N, AA and BB, is
remarkable for the difficulties presented by some of its signs or words; a appears to
have n_amed objects supplied in connection with some work, while b preserves part
of the Journal of a voyage. For the. scribe Mal,m of p. 24, I. 3, see above, p. I 8, I. I I,
and the mention of the 'Harem-people' in p. 24, I. 4, shows the relationship of the
document to many others in this collection of fragments.

improvement upon it.

Ill. 'Gurob' Fragments, F (pp. I8-I9) This consists of an extremely


threadbare sheet of fine papyrus, 22 cm. in height by 29 cm. in breadth, inscribed
on the horizontal fibres (~) with considerable portions of a first page and the initial
signs of a second page or column. The admirable business hand may possibly be the
same as that of Fragment K (below XI, p. 2 8), which mentions the same deputygovernor of the Royal Harem at Mi-wer; there, however, the writing is a little
smaller and apparently more painstaking. Here the subject is the delivery and
branding of cattle belonging to the Royal Harem; for another scrap of papyrus
dealing with the making of similar identification marks on the foreheads of cattle,
see below, No. XX, p. 59 The date of Fragment F is undoubtedly the Nineteenth
Dynasty, but of which reign is unknown; the guess 'Year 2' in I, r is very uncertain;
in my p. I Sa, note'h of I. 9, some reason is given for thinking that the mortuary
temple of Sethos II was mentioned, and No. II, as we have seen, probably belonged
to the reign of that king.

IV. 'Gurob' Fragments, G (pp. 20-2I). This fragment, doubtless likewise from the end of the Nineteenth Dynasty, consists of the much frayed portions
of the lower half of two adjoining sheets, for a join is visible between cols. I and 2 of
the verso. There is also a small detached fragment (p. 20, bottom, left) with some
uncommon words. The main piece measures I 9 cm. by JI cm. The handwriting, of
a rather cursive business type, may possibly be the same on both recto and verso,
which are written the same way up. The recto (lJ) has a blank strip of some breadth
before the preserved page. This lists a number of garments, etc., withdrawn from the
storeroom of 'this house', by which presumably the Royal Harem at K6m Medinet
Ghurab is meant; the damaged beginning of a second list alludes to garments 'given
as gifts' (or 'tribute') by a scribe Seti, mentioned also on the verso. The verso has two
columns, of which the first refers to garments sent to the Delta Residence; the second
enumerates quantities of semi-precious stones, the values of which, reckoned in silver,
are now lost in lacunre.

VII. 'Gurob' Fragments, Y (pp. 24-26). Under this letter are given four
fragments enumerating garments belonging or delivered to various houses; from
p. 26, 11. 4-5, it emerges that the date is not earlier than Ramesses Ill. Both recto
and verso are inscribed in the same thick business hand, rather prone to ligatures and
abbreviations. ~he red additions, mostly introduced by an always indistinct sign
whrch may be erther the .ll common in accounts or else the word ---' 'piece(s)', are
due to the same scribe. Dimensions of fragments: a, I 6 X I 8 cm.; b, 2 I x 7 5 cm.;
c, I2X9cm.;d, IOX5cm.
VIII. 'Gurob' Fragments, J (pp. 26-27). A small sheet (I 3 x 22 cm.)
complete except for some signs at the beginning of ll. I, 2. The subject is deliveries
of fish to the Harem at Mi-wer. The fine large black writing on the recto (~) shows
this to have been an official memorandum of some importance. The verso has some
traces of accounts not worth publishing.

~X. _'Gurob' Fr~g~ents, W (p. 27). A small square sheet (I4X IJ5 cm.)
mscnbed on both srdes m the same difficult slanting business hand. Deliveries of fish.

X. 'Gurob' Fragments, N (pp. 27-28). An irregularly shaped fragment


(I 2 X I 5 cm.)with, on the recto, parts of six lines from the top of a page containing

V. 'Gurob' Fragments, T (p. 22). The very scanty remams of another


extremely threadbare sheet, height 34 cm., breadth 2 6 cm. The writing, on the recto
only, is rather larger than that of U (VI below) and doubtless the work of another,
though possibly contemporary, scribe. Among the articles of cloth mentioned, one at
least seems clearly destined for a male member of the Royal Household.

the small port10n of a report made in the 6rst Year of Ramesses I I. The verso gave a
statement of some deliveries of fish. Both sides are written in the same hand, not
improbably identical with that of L below (XII, pp. 30-32); both recto and verso
name a temple of Ramesses II known elsewhere only from the Wilbour papyrus,
see my Commentary thereto, p. r 2.

VI. 'Gurob' Fragments, U (rr 22-24-; Three fragments of Nineteenth


Dynasty date inscribed on the recto m a much more upright, very legible,

XI. 'Gurob' Fragments, K lrr- 28-2ol. Two senarate C'arts nf a

sheet of papyrus measuring 2 2 X 2 7 (I 2 +I 5) cm. inscribed on the vertical fibres

xi

si,n!e

1 In the autographed
text a closing bracket

ought to have stood


across the Horusbird, since only part
of this is preserved;
see the textual note,
p. 23a, n. 2a.

RAMESSIDE ADMINISTRATIVE DOCUMENTS

INTRODUCTION

with two columns in a rough, but legible, Nineteenth Dynasty business hand.
Deliveries of fish, valued in terms of the corn-unit, to a number of women. The
deputy-governor of the Royal Harem U simacrecemhab (p. 2 8, I. 14) has been found
in F and is known also from a stela found at K6m Med1net Ghurab, see above, p. I Sa,
I. I o, n'. The scribe responsible for this fragment may well have been the same as
that of F. The verso (here t') is completely blank.

remains ofa list of commodities in jars, etc., and was probably written byadifferentscribe.

XVI. 'Gurob' Fragments, BB (P35).Partofasinglesheet(I65XI6cm.)


preserving, after a blank space of more than 7 cm., the remains of 9 lines from the
bottom of a page; therein are enumerated two overseers of prophets, two overseers of
cattle, and four prophets of different temples; among the last is the First Prophet
of the House of Onuris, Anl].ermose, who seems likely to be identical with the wellknown owner of a tomb, dated in the reign of MeneptaJ:l, at Nag< el-Meshay1kh, see
ZAS LXXIII, 77 ff. The handwriting of our fragment may be that of the scribe of
L, N, U verso and AA; if so, it will probably date from the last years of Ramesses I I.

'

XII. 'Gurob' Fragments, L (pp. 30-32). One large and two smaller portions of the same papyrus dealing, on the recto (t'), with the corn-tax of the 67th Year
of Ramesses I I. A translation of the more important lines will be found in my Papyrus
Wi!bour, Commentary, pp. 206-207. The handwriting is practised and legible, not
improbably identical with that of N, AA and BB. Details with regard to the separate
portions: L, a, 2 I 5 X 30 5 cm., end of one page of 9 lines rather widely spaced out,
and beginnings of I I lines of a second page. Red is used for figures and dates wherever
appropriate. L, b, I 8 X I 5 cm., parts of IO much worn lines of a third page. L, c,
I 2 X 6 cm., only a few words legible from the ends of lines of a similar page. Verso.
Very scanty remains, on a and c only. These doubtless likewise belonged to an
agricultural text, written in a blacker, more uncia! hand, once again dated in the
67th Year of Ramesses I I.

XIII. 'Gurob' Fragments, AA (p. 32). A fragment measunng I I 5 X ro


cm., which, for all its small size and extremely defective text, has a certain interest
on account of its points of contact with Text A of the Wilbour papyrus. The subject
appears to have been the measurement of plots in different places in connection with
the corn-tax. The scribe may have been the same as that of L, N, U verso and BB.
Inscribed on the recto only. Date, probably Ramesses I I.

XIV. 'Gurob' Fragments, M (p. 33). A single fragment (IS X I2 cm.)


written, on the recto, in a good business hand neater than that of L, though possibly
to be attributed to the same scribe. Substantial parts of I I lines have survived and
are concerned with the corn-tax. The form seems somewhat similar to that of the
Amiens papyrus (I, above), and had the beginning of the lines been preserved, they
might have been seen to refer to shipments. A translation is given in my Papyrus
Wi!bour, Commentary, p. 207. The verso has only a few figures, possibly referring to
sacks of corn.

XV. 'Gurob' Fragments, Z (p. 34). Two fragments which join together to
form nearly the complete breadth of a single page measuring I 5 X I 2 5 cm. The
recto, with 7 lines belonging to the lower part of the page, is a record of bricks issued
to certain classes of people; the 22nd Year here mentioned may be that of either
Ramesses 1I or Ramesses Ill. The hand is bold and black. The verso gives the

XVII. The Turin Taxation Papyrus (pp. 35-44). In its present reconsti-

tuted and remounted state this manuscript, Nos. I 896 2006 in the Catalogue by
Fabretti, Rossi and Lanz.one (Vol. I, pp. 244, 2 6 I), forms one of the best-preserved
and most complete among the non-royal, secular papyri in the Turin collection.
Reasonably good facsimiles of the hieratic are given in the publication of Pleyte and
Rossi, but curiously separated in four different places, namely in Pis. 6 5, 96-97,
IOO-IOI and I 55-I 57; and even so only the first page of the verso has been reproduced. Since equivalences with the true page-numbering have been given, not only
in a footnote (p. 22, n. 4) to my translation and commentary in JEA XXVII, 22-37,
but also at the commencement of each page in the hieroglyphic transcription in the
present work, we may proceed at once to a description of the papyrus as a whole.
This measures 20 cm. in height, and consists of a continuous piece some I02 cm.
in length preceded by a strip I I 5 cm. in breadth; between the two must have been a
fold, now lost, of about 4 cm. broad, making the total length of the existing manuscript about I I 6 or I I 7 cm. Originally, however, it must have been still longer, since
there clearly once was a page in front of verso I, from which only the word for
'Pharaoh' has survived, see Pleyte and Rossi, PI. 96. Measuring along the recto joins
are visible at 7 5, 24, 24, 23 and 23 cm., from the beginning of the continuous strip.
The text of the recto, dated in Year I 2 of Ramesses XI, is written in a small,
legible, business hand with red rubrics and figures wherever suitable. The first of
the five pages, being a sort of title-page, is written in rather larger characters than
the rest; that it formed part of the same text was first recognised by Lieblein in an
article containing translations which I overlooked when writing my own account in
JEA, see J. Lieblein, 'Les recits de recolte dates dans l'ancienne Egypte comme
elements chronologiques' in Recuei! de Travaux, I, I4I-I50 The subject is the
receipts of corn from various towns' to the south of Thebes, their transport thence to
the southern capital, and their delivery into the appointed granaries. The personage
responsible for these proceedings was the scribe Dhutmose so well known from the
, extensive correspondence published by Cerny in his Late Ramesside Letters.
I

xii

1 It seems desirable
here to note that
the town of lmiotru,
which figures so
largely in this text,
'vas probably not
at Gebelen, as I m
company wtth most
Egyptologists had
supposed, but
rather at or near
Er-Rtze*at, a good
deal nearer Thebes.
So at least seems to
have emerged from
Griffith's latest rese~rches,
see my

/lnrient

Pf(l'hfian

Ouomastica, II, 27 4*

f.

xiii

11

INTRODUCTION

RAMESSIDE ADMINISTRATIVE DOCUMENTS

The verso-the side on which the vertical fibres are .uppermost-consists at


present of three columns once, as already said, preceded by a page or column now
lost. This text, written in Year I 4, lists amounts of corn received in several towns
from certain foreign cultivators. On the verso the existing text was written over one
that has been deleted, and its first page stands at the back of recto 5.
The transcription here published is that made by me in I 90 5, carefully revised
with the original in I 9 3 8 ; on the former occasion all facilities for study were accorded
by Professor Schiaparelli, the then Director of the Egyptian Museum; on the second
occasion permission was granted by his successor Professor Farina. Both scholars
readily consented to my publishing my work if ever opportunity should arise.

XVIII. The Turin Strike Papyrus (pp. 45-58). Now bears the number
I88o in the Turin Collection. Facsimile by F. Rossi in Pleyte and Rossi, Papyrus de
Turin, Pls. XXXV-XLVIII; the analysis by W. Pleyte, op. cit., pp. 50-6 5, only very
imperfectly recognizes the nature of the contents. An admirable translation of the
narratives of the recto. was given by W. Spiegelberg in his brochure entitled Arbeiter
und Arbeiterbewegung im Pharaonenreich unter den Ramessiden, Strassburg, I895,
pp. I 8 ff., but while he fully grasped their purport, he refused to qualify the revolts
of the workers at the Royal Tomb as strikes through too narrow a definition of that
term. There appears to have been a brief earlier account by G. Maspero in a lecture
given to the Saint-Simon Club and published in the Bulletin du Cercle Historique, I 8 8 3,
pp. 6 8-7 I ; for this, which I have not seen, Maspero cites also Lectures Historiques,
pp. 34-38. Though the records of the strikes constitute the most important part of
the papyrus, they by no means exhaust the whole contents, which are concerned with
very miscellaneous matters connected with the workpeople afore-mentioned.
In its present state the papyrus measures 9 I cm. in length by a height of 40 5 cm.
Clearly we possess the entire inner end of the roll, since the fourth and last page of the
recto is followed by a blank space of I o 3 cm., reckoned to the end of a small newly
added projecting strip. This conclusion agrees with the data of the verso, where col. I,
running close up to the inner margin, is complete or practically complete. At the
outer end of the roll a considerable portion may have been cut away in antiquity, it
being desired to preserve only the records concerning the strikes. These are found
mainly on the true recto, i.e., the side with the horizontal fibres over the vertical, but
since the dates show the narratives to have been written later than che earliest texts
on the true verso, it is to be presumed that the original text of the recto had been
washed off and subsequently replaced. In the early days of Egyptology the whole
manuscript was covered with papier vegetal, and this may have obliterated any traces
of the original text. Such was the condition of the papyrus when I first studied it in
I 90 5; when T made mv latest collation in r q j8 the papier ve~hal harl been removed.
often but not always to the advantage of the document's legibility. Peet ctudied the
XlV

join C

join B

join A

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.

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1HMI212.

'--...~----'

PLAN OF THE STRIKE PAPYRUS


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XV

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~~

.RAMESSIDE ADMINISTRATIVE DOCUMENTS

INTRODUCTION

text in I923 and I owe one or two readings to his notebook now in my possession.
Cerny was with me at Turin in I 9 3 S, and checked my final readings.
The position of the joins is shown in the plans on the preceding page, and reveals
the component leaves as having had the not unusual breadth of 2 3-2 5 cm. The
character ofthe handwriting, which may have been due to the same scribe throughout, though the size of the writing varies in different places, can be judged roughly
from the published facsimile; the scribe was a skilled professional, and used an
experienced business style, with no salient peculiarities. The date is towards the end
of the reign of Ramesses III; the name of that monarch does not occur, but the high
year-dates, and the mention of the Vizier To in rt. 2, Is (p.
I. Is), place the
matter beyond a doubt.
This papyrus bears eloquent testimony to the scarcity of writing material at the
period when it was written, or at all events to its scarcity in the Theban Necropolis.
Every available space has been utilized, with the result that the sequence of the
individual narratives or memoranda is not quite easy to realize, particularly on the
verso; nor does the numbering of the lines in Pleyte and Rossi, which it has been
found necessary to retain, in any way clarify the position. It is hoped, however, that
the accompanying plans, together with the indications introducing the individual
texts, will go far towards elucidating the facts. The earliest written memoranda are
those occupying the centre of the verso and lettered A, B and C in my text, pp. 4 5-48;
here the writing is a trifle larger than elsewhere, and the spacing is rather more
generous. There are two dates here, both in the 29th Year like practically all the
entries in the papyrus (for the one exception, see below); these two dates are the 2nd
day of the 3rd month of Inundation (vs. 3, 2) and the last day of the 4th month
(vs. 5, 2) respectively. There is one more date on the verso precedent to any on the
recto, namely that which heads the lines vs. 2, 8-19 (my D2, p. 49, I. 4), on the 2nd
day of the I st month of Winter; this paragraph was added after the completion of
A-C in the space available below the short column vs. 2. The few dates on the verso
dovetail into those of the narratives on the recto, which start on the Ioth day of the
2nd month of Winter (rt. I, I, my p. sz, I. 14), and continue consecutively down to
the I 6th day of the I st month of Summer (rt. 4, I, my p. 57, 6). There are two dates
later than this, but they belong to mere jottings, one on the verso (vs. 7, I, my D7,
P 5 I' I. Is), on the 2 sth of the I st month of Summer, the day before the accessiondate of Ramesses III, when the regnal year will have changed from 29 to 30; 1 the
other on the recto (rt. 3, 20, my p. 5S, I. I4), where it is not quite certain whether the
year was the 30th or the 3 I st.
It may be assumed as broadly true that the dates given in the papyrus, if not
actually the dates on which the memoranda were written, were at all events not very
far removed therefrom.' We have no certain means of dating those entries which are
not supphed With a date, except in the case of one paragraph of the recto (rt. 2, I I-!7,

my p. 55, ll. 5 ff. ), where the position between two dated paragraphs of this severely
consecutive narration affords an approximate dating. For those students who wish to
read the texts in their correct chronological order the following conspectus will be
of help. The subjects are too varied to be specified afresh, and in this connection the
headings to the individual texts must be consulted. However, some may desire to
confine their attention to the troubles which broke out in the Necropolis on the roth
day of the 2nd month of Winter, so that in the list below the texts in question have
been furnished with an asterisk. For convenience the naming of the three seasons
(Inundation, Winter and Summer) has been here discarded in favour of a numbering
of the' months in their consecutive order.

xvi

xvii

ss,

See Sethe in
LVIII, 41.

z)is

For two probable

l'.\:L'<:lJlHJll~

'o<:C

xvii, nn. 1, 2.

1J

DATES IN THE STRIKE PAPYRUS


Date

Place in the papyrus

Yr. 29, iii, 2

vs. J, 2

" "
"

IV,

" . v,

*" "
*" "
*" "
" "
* "
"
* " "
* " "
*" "
*["
"
*" "
* " "
*" "
*" "
* " "
* " "

VI,

JO
2

IO

v1, I01

vs.

Page and line in thic; book

p. 46, I. 7

s, 2

P 47, I.

IS

vs. 2, 8

P 49, I. 4

rt. r, r

P p, I. I4

p. 49, I. IS

verso.

VS.J,

II

rt. I, 6

P 53, I. 4

v1, I I

vs. r, a

p. 48, I. I7

v1, I2

rt. I, 7

p. 5J, I. 6

I 3'

rt. 4, 23

P 54, I. 7

v1, I7'

vs. J, 24

vii, [I]

rt. 2, 6

P 54, I. I 3

vii or viii, undated]

rt.

2, I

viii, 2 8

rt.

2,

ix,

rt. J, 6

P 56, 1. s

ix, 2 (?)

rt. z,

P ss, I. 9

1x, IJ

rt. 3, I4

p. 57, ]. I

1x, I6

rt. 4,

P 57, I. 6

ix, 25

VS.

VI,

VI,

Yr. 30 (?), ii (?), ro'

7,

r8

I
I

rt. 3, 20

p.

so, I. 3

ss, I. 5

p.ss,LIS

Obviously
from
its position a very
late addition to the

2 This paragraph is
a later insertion,
being written upside down in relation to the other
texts of the recto.

s Distribution
of
the rations for the
sixth month, which
will have temporarily relieved the
discontents.

4 Single-line record
of the death of the
scribe of the Necropolis Pentwere.

p. SI, I. IS
P 58, I. 14

'Or 31, i, 10r

-------------

RAMESSIDE ADMINISTRATIVE DOCUMENTS

---

INTRODUCTION

XIX. Pap. Brit. Mus. 10447 (p. 59). A single sheet of light-coloured
papyrus measuring I 2 X 40 5 cm., inscribed on the side where the vertical fibres are
uppermost with five long lines of text in a clear, rather widely spaced business hand.
There is also a docket at the bottom of the left half of the reverse side, behind the top
part of the side with the main text. This indicates presumably that the document, after
being rolled up from the bottom, had been doubled over bdore the docket was written
and this official record stored away. A further consequence of the doubling may well
have been that the manuscript divided into two halves, now again reunited in the
British Museum, but for many years separated. The original provenance is unknown.
The right-hand portion was bought by the Trustees in I 877, but when Glanville
published his account under the title 'Book-keeping for a Cult of Rameses II' in the
Journal of the Royal .Asiatic Society for January, I929, the left-hand portion had
temporarily disappeared. This, however, had been copied in the Musee Guimet at
Paris by Spiegelberg, who published his transcription in his Rechnungen aus der Zeit
Setis I, (I906), p. 77 The completed document was collated in the British Museum
in I 9 37 by Cerny and myself, and our thanks are due to the Keeper of the Egyptian
Department for the necessary facilities.
The excellent paper by Glanville contained both translation and discussion, as
well as a photographic reproduction of the right-hand portion; and I have printed
a new rendering, with notes, in JE.A XXVII, 58 ff. The topic is the corn delivered
in the 55th Year of Ramesses II from estates near N efrusi in the Hermopolite no me '
belonging to a statue named 'Ra<messe-miamun Beloved-of-Atum'.

The following is an attempt to render the few surviving sentences:


He caused the branding-marks to be obliterated. And he took the palette in his hand and made a
't)\-sign with a ~ inside it. . .. that (l) you have branded all my cattle with this branding-mark which
says (5\ ~ (i.e., perhaps, 'Heliopolis prospers').
To make known the fashion of the branding-marks ...
(at the end a-figure of the type described above) ... the name which Pharaoh had said to him, though that
which he had already possessed was the name of a servant of lowly birth. And he ...

XXI. The Louvre Leather Fragments (pp. 6o-63). These fragments of


tantalizingly incomplete sheet of papyrus by Chabas in zAs V (I 867), 66-67, since
when it has never been republished. I owe to the courtesy of the Conservateur of the
Museum ofVarzy1 (Departement de Nievre), not only a letter giving the dimensions
as 3 I X I 7 8 cm., but also an admirable photograph whence the transcription here
given has been made. The three preserved lines of an excellent Ramesside hand (with
a single group from a fourth line), lie along the horizontal fibres. If the annexed
photograph be compared with the reproductions of the Lee Papyrus given in
New berry, The.Amherst Papyri, Pis. 2-3, and with that of the Rollin Papyrus in Deveria,
Mt!moires et Fragments (Bibliotheque Egyptologique, V), II, PI. 8, little doubt will be
felt that the Varzy Papyrus once formed part of the same manuscript. The subject,
accordingly, is the indictment of one or other of the criminals who conspired to
compass the death of Ramesses III. Unhappily little can be made out of the Varzy
fragment except the reference to the removal and replacement of a mark branded upon
certaincattle-acustomreferred to below, p. I8, ll. II-I2, andagainp. 57, 11. I2-I3.

leather, to which the number S.N.q4 has been given, were acquired some ten or
more years ago, and flattened and restored by Ibscher in the spring of I 939 It
was Cerny who drew my attention to them, he having noticed the recurrent
assessment f\ I: which strongly recalled a similarly recurrent assessment ,.rn I : in the
'apportioning' paragraphs of Text A of the Wilbour Papyrus. It was obvious that
the two documel].ts deserved to be compared and discussed together, and I owe it to
the kindness of M. Boreux that everything was done to render this possible; not only
did he arrange for Ibscher to put the fragments in order and cause some infra-red
photographs to be taken which have proved of great assistance, but also he gave me all
facilities for study and conceded to me the right of publication. The full text of the
portions relevant to problems of land-taxation or rent (whichever it may be), is here
published for the first time, but a preliminary account, unhappily not altogether free
from errors, was given by me in JE.A XXVII, 70 f.; some comments, with tentative
conclusions, will be found in my Papyrus Wilbour Commentary, pp. 208 f.
It is not altogether easy to determine the nature of the manuscript of which these
fragments are the scanty remains. Perhaps it was intended as a convenient receptacle

xviii

XIX

XX. The Varzy Papyrus (pp. 59-60). Attention was first called to this

The article by
Chabas (really a
letter to Lepsius)
was probably prin~
ted without a proof
being submitted.
Otherwise the mis~
print Narzy instead
of Varzy could
hardly have been
possible.

RAMESSIDE ADMINISTRATIVE DOCUMENTS

for such jottings or copies of business transactions as appeared of interest to its


owner. Many of the pieces are too small to convey anything intelligible; but on some
larger ones are entries from a journal dated, like the texts here given, in the 3rd
month of Summer of Year 2; the king is not named, but may perhaps have been
Ramesses II or Meneptah. There are also portions of a letter from a scribe
Amenemone to a builder of the Estate of Amun named Pyiay, of which the communication proper begins with the words [iiljj= "i::;; -~.'........ ~~]!.11,.<.1 n
::;~ ... ~.~:>~~~ .... . ~2. "'tl!.n 1 _~:it ro ]!.f-.!n@l You have built me a ... [in?]
the street which [is at the] back ... of the house of the Mayor of the City Henufe.
The Mayor of Ne (i.e. Thebes) here in question is quite a well-known person, see
my note I ob on p. 6oa; but there seems no evidence concerning the reign in which
he lived.
Here it would obviously have been out of place to include the letter and the journal
above alluded to; on the other hand it seemed desirable to give in their entirety the
fragments which I have lettered A to F. In my ]EA article (p. 7I) I made the mistake
of supposing that the heading at the top of fragments A and B was one single continuous line. Later study of the photographs showed that each of the two fragments)
had its own short separate heading. As already hinted, the subject is the assessment
of plots of land held by various smallholders at the uniform rate of 2! sacks of corn;
per aroura, and my latest conjecture, based on the recurrence of the verb ] 'acquirer
(p. 6o, I. I4; p. 6I, I. 7; p. 62, I. 14), is that rents rather than taxes were in view.

XXII. From a Journal relating to the Theban Necropolis (pp. 64-68).


This document, of which a considerable portion is reproduced in the hand-facsimile
Pleyte and Rossi, Papyrus de Turin, PI. 6I, is included here on account of its relationship to the Turin Taxation Papyrus (below, pp. 35-44). The well-known Necropolis
scribe DJ;mtmose occurs in both, and so does a fisherman named Kadore (for references see in the Index later). In both papyri the handwriting is small and legible,
though cursive, and is not impossibly that of the same scribe. Nor are the dates far
apart; that of the Taxation Papyrus is the I 2th Year ofRamesses XI, while the earlier
parts of the present Journal (before 2, I4), record events doubtless belonging to the
I 3th Year. On the other hand, the events recorded are quite different. Whereas the
Taxation Papyrus is concerned solely with deliveries of corn, here the memoranda
deal with such things as supplies of oil, administrative acts on the part of the Vizier
Wennofre, and various work involving furniture and the quarrying of gypsum. The
present document has been very considerably augmented since the publication by
Pleyte and Rossi, in particular the second page being now completed; this page was
probably the last, since the space under 2, I 4 is blank. The height is 2 I cm., the
total length 66 \ cm. Joins are found, starting from the right-hand margin, at
distances. of I I, 20, I 85 and I 6 cm. There is a patch extending the full height of

INTRODUCTION

the papyrus 26 cm. from the left end. The text, which is found only on the side
where the horizontal fibres are uppermost, replaces earlier texts, apparently entirely
in red, that have been erased.

XXIII. The Griffith Fragments (pp. 68-7 I). This name has been given

I.
I
I

by me to the tattered remains of a single papyrus purchased by F. Ll. Griffith at


Luxor in I 8 87, and apparently unstudied until they came to light a few years ago
in the Griffith Institute of the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford. The fragments were
pasted on strips of tracing paper two or three at a time, with the exception of some
larger pieces displaying writing on both sides, these being mounted under glass.
After a number of joins had been made, and the position of the larger pieces determined, the whole was remounted by myself between glass in five pieces. To the right
of the recto (horizontal fibres above vertical) must have stood the bulk of the unplaced
fragments, mostly inscribed on .one side only, and many of them in the bigger writing
' from two pieces that are slightly more informative
used for headings. These, apart
(p. 6 8 of this book), proved to be too incoherent to be published here. To the left
followed substantial remains of three columns or pages (below, pp. 6 9-7 I), succeeded
by a blank strip 20 cm. wide; the entire continuous piece measures some 6 3 cm. by a
height of I 8 cm. There seems to have been an introduction of considerable length in
the moderate sized, legible uncia! hieratic hand subsequently used as headings of the
separate paragraphs. In the body of these paragraphs, each devoted to the land
owned by some The ban temple or chapel, are enumerated in a very small, highly
competent, cursive writing the individual plots with their measurements. Most plots
appear to have been situated in or near the Xth name of Upper Egypt. The form of
the document resembles somewhat that of Text B of the Wilbour Papyrus (see my
Commentary, p. I 6 I), the principal difference being that here some paragraphs
conclude with a statement of the revenue in corn received from the fields previously
specified. The date of the papyrus is undoubtedly the middle of the Twentieth
Dynasty. A preliminary account, with short extracts in hieroglyphic transcription
and a full-size photographic reproduction of recto, Col. 2, was given by me in ]EA
XXVII, 64 ff. The subject of the texts on the verso is probably similar to that of the
recto, but there are no headings and the cursive writing is even more difficult to
decipher. The defective remains of some eight narrow columns are visible, written
the same way up as the writing of the recto, and starting at the back of the aforementioned blank strip. It seems unlikely that the verso will yield much information
of value, its main interest being that of a palreographical puzzle. My sincere
thanks are due to the .Committee of the Griffith Institute, not only for giving
me facilities for studying this tantalizingly interesting document, but also for
enab1ing me to take it awav frnm Oxforrl in war-time so as to nut the fragments
in order.

1 See CemY, Late


Ramesside Letters,
pp. Xvii foiL

RAMESSJDE ADMINISTRATIVE DOCUMENTS

INTRODUCTION

XXIV. Papyrus Valen,.ay I (pp. 72-73). It is owing to the kind mediation of

amounts of corn specified on p. 2 of the verso, where it served the special function,
as I have shown in connection with other papyri,' of indicating amounts of barley in
contradistinction to amounts of emmer. It is unusual for a text destined to cover both
front and back of a papyrus to begin on the side where the vertical fibres lie uppermost, but this has happened in our papyrus for reasons that are not apparent. To
students who have read the above attentively and are able to visualize the situation, .
it will already have become apparent that the roll, when deposited in the tomb, or
wherever it was found, had the beginning of its text on the inside, very inconveniently
for whoever might be the next reader. Hence page I of the recto is practically intact,
while the second page-there are but two on the recto-is complete only in its upper
lines (I, I-7), while even here there are some minor lacunre; the outside of a roll is
always more vulnerable than the inside. On reaching the end of the recto the scribe
turned his manuscript horizontally, and continued in the direction of the beginning
of the recto. The verso has three pages, of which the first is naturally incomplete in
'
exactly the same way as the second
page of the recto. At the top a single group is
lacking at the beginning (vs. I, I-5), there having been some slight injury to the
ragged vertical edge here. The central page of the verso is completely intact, but the
third and final page lacks a few words at the end of its lines. If the last owner proceeded in the fashion above conjectured, his carelessness has deprived him of some
words at the end of most lines1 in the last page of a document which ex hypothesi he
was anxious to preserve. That page 3 of the verso was really the end of that document
is almost certain, since there is space at the bottom for at least one line more,
As the extremely poor facsimile in Pleyte and Rossi, Papyrus de Turin, Pis. LI-LX,
shows, the lines varied very greatly in length. The purpose, as in Pap. Salt I24 of
the British Museum,' was to place each fresh accusation (introduced by the words
s/}1 r , , , . 'Memorandum concerning .. .') 3 at the beginning of a fresh line. It
would appear that the manuscript is an original, since there are intercalated lines, as
well as additions above the line, which were clearly afterthoughts. As regards the
contents, students may be directed to the essay by Peet referred to below, but I
will here place on record my belief that, in spite of a difficulty presented by rt. 2, I 6,
the main delinquent was the priest Pencanuke mentioned in rt. I, r. In the latter
part of the text most of the accusers' charges are levelled at a ship's captain,
Khnemnakhte, who had many confederates among the employees of the temple of
Khnum at Elephantine.

my friend M. Vandier that courteous permission to publish here the text of one of the
two XXth Dynasty letters belonging to the Due de Valen~ay has been obtained. A
fuller account, with facsimiles made by Cerny from photographs will be given in
Revue d'Egyptologie, VI. It has not been possible to learn the dimensions of the
original, the form and handwriting of which differ in no respect except the absence
of an outside address from those of other letters of the same period. 1 A translation
will be found also in my Papyrus Wilbour, Commentary, pp. 205 f. The Mayor of
Elephantine writes to the Chief Taxing Officer Menmacrecnakhte (whose name
shows the papyrus to be not earlier than Ramesses XI), protesting against a demand
for harvest-taxes on fields in the neighbourhood of Ombi and Edfu. This demand
he claims to have been unjustifiable, since in the former case the land had not been
cultivated by himself at all, while in the latter case only a small part of the area had
been flooded.

XXV. The Turin

Seeabovep. vi, n.l.

Indictment Papyrus (pp. 73-82 ). This papyrus,


bearing the number I 8 8 7 in the official catalogue, is one of the most curious and
interesting in the entire Turin collection. It forms an imposing document written on
both sides in the same unusually large and irregular hand, and is mounted as a single
piece between glass within a wooden frame. The height is 4I cm., one not far from
the norm of important legal documents belonging to the Ramesside period ;1 the
total breadth is about I 34 cm., when allowance has been made for some rather
insignificant gaps at the points where the outer folds of the flattened roll turned over.
Here, at the exterior as the roll was left by .its last ancient owner, two folds are
missing in the lower two-thirds of the manuscript, which appears otherwise to be
preserved very nearly complete, as will be shown further on. At the opposite inner
end, where the final fold measures no more than 35 mm. across, there are practically
no lacunre. I shall make no statement about the joins, as I found much difficulty in
detecting them. Several patches are very conspicuous, however, due no doubt to the
papyrus having been used previously, and time having elapsed during which it may
have suffered more or less serious damage. Numerous traces of the earlier writing are
still visible, especially on the nearly unoccupied strip preceding p. I of the recto.
At the top of this strip are seen the ends of two lines in the uncouth writing of the
later scribe, and to these lines I have given the designations rt. o, I and rt. o, 2. In
rt. o, 2 we can still read jound true' or 'innocent', and it looks as though one of the
owners of the papyrus, having no use for what must accordingly have been the proce
verbal of a lawsuit, cut away all but a word or two belonging to its conclusion. The
effect of this was to leave a fairly wide protecting strip in front of the text that henceforward alone interested him. There seems but little doubt that rt. I. I constitutes
the title to that text, though written in black. Red writing occurs here only for the

The date is indicated as that of Ramesses V by facts which Maspero was the first
to point out; the first to the third years of 'Pharaoh' are mentioned in vs. 2, 6-8, and
the designation 'Pharaoh' is known to mean the still reigning king, while previous
lines had revealed his predecessor as Ramesses IV. We come now to the question
of the handwriting, and this has to be stigmatized as quite the most execrable that

xx.ii

x:xiii

'JEA XXVII, 26 f.

One has to remember that a few


of the lines may
have been short
ones, and in such a
case may be all but
complete.

2 No.
10055, last
edited by Cem) in
]EA XV, 2451.
3
See Studies presented'to F. Ll. Griffith,
p. 49, n. 1.

' Les momies royales


de Deir-el-Bahari,
p. 663.

RAMESSIDE ADMINISTRATIVE DOCUMENTS


1

A close rival in
this respect is the
scribe ~enQ.ikhop
shef, to whom we
owe the verso of the
Dream Book (P.
Chester Beatty HI,
see Gardiner, Hieranc Papyri in the
BritishMu.seum, Ill,
PJs. 9a-12a), but he
at least had the
excuse of incompetence.

has come down to us.1 Not that the scribe was incompetent, for when he wished he
could form most signs reasonably well, cf. "':JT' in vs. I, 2, 1i 1lft in rt. I, 8. But
elsewhere the same signs display shapes quite fantastic in their appearance, e.g. "Ji'>
in rt. o, 2; 1i ,lft in vs. 3, 8; while he never hesitates to let one sign run into another,
and varied their thickness from a stout stroke to one barely thicker than a hair.
Much of the hieratic text is easily decipherable, but in other places we are faced with
almost insoluble problems. The facsimiles given in my notes will give some idea of
the difficulties, but I must warn the student that these are merely copies of my own
none too competent free-hand drawings. The transcription I offer here is the result of
collations made atlong intervals from one another, in I 90 5, I 9 3 8, and now again in I 94 7.
When first I saw this formidable text, the central portion, i.e. page 2 of the reao
and page I of the verso, was in great disorder, as may be seen from the facsimile in
Pleyte and Rossi, op. cit., Pis. 59-60; sr-52 I think I may claim to have been the
first to arrange these pages in their true positions. The varnished papier vegetal,
which at that time added greatly to the difficulties of decipherment, has since been
removed, and the whole is now exhibited in a satisfactory way. The first serious
attempt to cope with the papyrus in a scholarly fashion was that published by
Spiegelberg in zjjs XXIX (I 89 I), 7 3 ff., a splendid pioneering effort considering
it was made over fifty years ago. The translation published by Peet in JEA X, I I 6 ff.
under the title 'A Historical Document of Ramesside Age' made use of my transcription, as well as of a collation of his own; he added a few new good readings, all
of them acknowledged in my notes. Since then no one seems to have paid much
attention to the text, though it may be fairly described as containing one of the most
picturesque and illuminating records that we possess.

XXVI. Beginning of Papyrus Turin No. 1882, verso (pp. 82-83). The
reason for the inclusion here of a short excerpt from a purely literary composition has
been stated in the Preface, above, page iii. For an account of the Late-Egyptian
Miscellany, which I have designated with the title 'Turin A', see my book LateEgyptian Miscellanies, p. I 9 I take this opportunity of expressing the appreciation
which all Egyptologists will share for the action of M. Deonna, the Director of the
Geneva Museum, in returning the missing fragments to the Turin collection, whereby
several pages of the original could be completed.

'{HE TEXTS
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11
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