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Biodiversity
BioD

Biodiversity.ppt

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Biodiversity
What do you think biodiversity
means?

What does Bio mean?

Bio =

Biodiversity
What does Diversity mean?

Diversity = Variety

What is biodiversity?
OED: biodiversity Ecol., diversity of plant and
animal life, as represented by the number of
extant species
Ricklefs & Miller: Biodiversity includes a number
of different levels of variation in the natural
world: genetic, species, ecosystem
Begon et al. The term may be used to describe
the number of species, the amount of genetic
variation or the number of community types
present in an area.
Butmost studies do focus on species diversity

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Variety of biodiversity

Benefits of Biodiversity

Variety of living things,


number of kinds
Ecological diversity

Ecosystem functions
Ecosystem services
Cleaning water, habitat & breeding
areas for wildlife Ecosystem services
are defined as the processes and
conditions of natural ecosystems that
support human activity and sustain
human life
E.g., maintenance of soil fertility, climate
regulation, natural pest control, flows of
ecosystem goods such as food, timber ,
and freshwater

different habitats, niches,


species interactions

Species diversity
different kinds of
organisms, relationships
among species

Genetic diversity
different genes &
combinations of genes

Aesthetic and
cultural benefits

Biodiversity.ppt

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Benefits of Biodiversity

Medicines

Grains, fruits, vegetables, meat, fish

Plants
Jellyfish & sea
anemones

Biodiversity.ppt

Functional Consequences of
Biodiversity:
Numbers and
Kinds of
Species

Benefits of Biodiversity

New food sources

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Biodiversity.ppt

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Organismal
traits

Ecosystem
Processes

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Traits and Ecosystem


Function
Traits may mediate energy and material flow directly
Traits may alter abiotic conditions (limiting resources,
disturbance, microclimate)
Abiotic, nonliving physical and chemical attribute of a
system, for example light, temperature, wind
patterns, rocks, soil, pH, pressure, etc. in an
environment.

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Trait Is Determined By:

How much biodiversity


1.72.0 million species
Estimates to 100 million

Species richness
Species evenness
Species composition
Species interaction
Temporal and spatial variation

Biodiversity.ppt

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Threats to biodiversity

Where is the biodiversity


Everywhere
Every continent and habitat
has unique life forms

Habitat destruction
Pollution
Global Climate Change
Exploitation

Concentrated in the
tropics
Panama: > 500 species of
breeding birds
Arctic: 50-100 species
Dense concentrations

Biodiversity.ppt

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Threats to Biodiversity

Threats to Biodiversity

Extinction and
population reductions

Extinction and
population reductions

Hunting and
overharvesting

Pollution
Climate change
Invasive species

Tiger
Whales
Sharks

Habitat loss

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Which do you like better?

Biodiversity:
Who cares?
A

Which do you like better?

Which do you like better?

Which do you like better?

Which is more diverse?

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Which is more diverse?

Which is more diverse?

Which has more cultural diversity?

Which has more biodiversity?

Which is more diverse?

Which has more biodiversity?

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Protecting Biodiversity

Protecting Biodiversity

How can we protect


biodiversity

Refuges, parks, preserves


How big should refuges be?
Where should they be?
McArthur & Wilson Theory of Island
Biogeography

Stop overharvesting
Sustainable yield
Hunting & fishing laws
(every state ?)
in developing nations ?

colonization rate
extinction rate (local)
predicts number of species

Refuges, parks,
preserves
Endangered Species Act

Biodiversity.ppt

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Protecting Biodiversity
Effect of island size

Biodiversity.ppt

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Protecting Biodiversity

Effect of island distance

McArthur & Wilson


Theory of Island
Biogeography
colonization rate
extinction rate (local)
predicts number of
species

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Protecting Biodiversity

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Protecting Biodiversity

Island Biogeography

Island Biogeography

Island size predicts number of species

Everyplace is an island
Habitat fragmentation
Smaller fragments hold
fewer species

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Protecting Biodiversity
How can we protect
biodiversity
Endangered Species Act
(1973)

Protecting Biodiversity

http://www.fws.gov/
endangered/

Biodiversity hotspots
Protection of habitat

Listing of endangered and


threatened species
Restricts development of
habitats
Captive breeding programs
Release of captive bred
stocks to enhance or
recover wild populations.
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Biodiversity also has utilitarian Value

Biodiversity has Intrinsic Value


Intrinsic Value = Something that has value
in and of itself

What do we get from biodiversity?

Utilitarian Value = the value something has as a


means to anothers end.
Utilitarian values include:
Goods
Services
Information (Recreation, tourism)

Should we be concerned about


biodiversity?
What we know:

Oxygen
Food
Clean Water
Medicine
Aesthetics
Ideas

The Earth is losing species at an alarming rate


Some scientists estimate that as many as 3 species per
hour are going extinct and 20,000 extinctions occur each
year.
when species of plants and animals go extinct, many
other species are affected.