You are on page 1of 43

Subject to alterations in design

Copyright by ZF
These operating instructions are protected by copyright. Any
reproduction and dissemination in whatever form also in
adapted, paraphrased or extracted form in particular as a
reprint, photomechanical or electronic reproduction or as a
storage in data-processing equipment or data networks without
approval by the holder of the copyright is prohibited and will be
prosecuted under civil and criminal law.
Printed in Germany

Automatic transmission
HP 500, HP 590, HP 600
for trucks and special vehicles

Status: June 1995


Technical modifications reserved.

4139 758 130a

Transmission version i = 3.43 (short)

Connection for
emergency steering pump

Secondary
pump
004 718

Transmission version i = 5.60 (long)

PTO

Emergency
steering pump

004 719

Secondary
pump
3

PREFACE

Before starting the vehicle, please:


read the operating instructions carefully, paying particular
attention to the safety notes.
follow the maintenance notes to guarantee transmission
operating safety.
ZF Customer Service experts are available to assist you with
maintenance work on transmission and with any problems
that may occur. The addresses are listed on the attached foldout.

NOTE
All data in this booklet refer to the basic version of the Ecomat transmission. Due to the large number of installation
options, no precise data for any specific vehicle can be given.
If there are any differences between the operating instructions given in this booklet and those given in the vehicles
own operating manual, please follow the instructions in
the vehicle operating manual.
We wish you pleasant driving with the ZF Ecomat.
ZF Friedrichshafen AG
Commercial Vehicle Transmissions Division
D-88038 Friedrichshafen
Telephone: (0 75 41) 77-0 Telefax: (0 75 41) 77-8000

SAFETY NOTES

The following safety notes are used in these operating


instructions:

NOTE
Refers to special processes, techniques, data, use of auxiliary
equipment etc.

CAUTION
This is used when incorrect, unprofessional working practices
could damage the product.

! DANGER
This is used when lack of care could lead to personal injury
or death.

CONTENTS

1. TECHNICAL DATA

2. DESCRIPTION

3. OPERATION

4. MAINTENANCE

5. TROUBLESHOOTING NOTES

TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.

Technical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2.
2.1
2.2
2.3

Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ecomat system solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
A 800/3D transfer case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

10
10
14
16

3.
3.1
3.1.1
3.1.2
3.1.3
3.1.4
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.7.1
3.7.2
3.8
3.8.1
3.8.2
3.8.3

Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Driving instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Speed range selector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Starting the engine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gear selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Pulling away . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Speed ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Kickdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Accelerator interlock . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Retarder operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Stopping, parking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tow-starting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Tow-starting without secondary pump . . . . . . . . .
Tow-starting with secondary pump . . . . . . . . . . .
Towing away . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Towing away without secondary pump . . . . . . . .
Towing away with secondary pump . . . . . . . . . . .
Emergency steering pump . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

18
18
18
18
19
20
20
21
22
22
23
24
24
24
25
25
26
26

3.9
3.10
3.11
3.12
3.13

Temperature monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Status monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
PTOs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Twin cabs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
HST 18 auxiliary control unit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27
28
28
28
29

Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil grades . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ecomat oil quantities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ecomat oil level check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Oil level check at operating temperature . . . . . . .
Reference measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Check procedure if heat exchanger is separately
installed above transmission centre . . . . . . . . . . .
4.4
Transmission oil heating methods . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.5
Oil change intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.6
Ecomat oil drain, oil fill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7
Oil fill for A 800/3D transfer case . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7.1 Initial fill . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.7.2 Oil level check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.8
Checking load sensor adjustment . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.9
Electronic accelerator equipment and EDC units

30
30
30
30
31
32

Troubleshooting notes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41

4.
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.3.1
4.3.2
4.3.3

5.

33
33
34
35
36
36
37
38
40

TECHNICAL DATA

Max. perm.
Max. weight (t)
input
at engine torque DIN 70020/ISO 1585
Series No. of
speed
Fire service Refuse Construction
gears
(rpm)
vehicles
vehicles machinery 1stgear 2nd
4
HP 500

HP 590

1)
2)
3)
4)

3rd

4th

5th

6th .

R.

Weight 3) Install.
length
[mm]
(kg)
L

3.43

2.01

1.43

1.00

4.84

300

693

28 t

28 t

1)

3.43

2.01

1.43

1.00

0.83

4.84

310

693

1150 Nm

1050 Nm

1050 Nm

5.60

3.43

2.01

1.43

1.00

4.84

344

795

5.60

3.43

2.01

1.43

1.00

0.83

4.84

356

795

3.43

2.01

1.43

1.00

4.84

305

693

5
5

2 800

28 t

28 t

1)

3.43

2.01

1.43

1.00

0.83

4.84

315

693

1250 Nm

1250 Nm

1)

5.60

3.43

2.01

1.43

1.00

4.84

354

795

5.60

3.43

2.01

1.43

1.00

0.83

4.84

366

795

3.43

2.01

1.43

1.00

4.84

320

693

3.43

2.01

1.43

1.00

0.83

4.84

330

693

5.60

3.43

2.01

1.43

1.00

4.84

364

795

3.43

2.01

1.43

1.00

0.83

0.59

4.84

330

693

5.60

3.43

2.01

1.43

1.00

0.83

4.84

376

795

5
5

5
HP 600

Ratios

2 800

2 650

5
6

2650 2)

2650

28 t

28 t

1600 4)

1400

Only after consultation with ZF


At i = 0.59; nmax = 1600 rpm _ only after consultation with ZF
Transmission with retarder and oil cooler (without oil)
For fire service vehicles above 1600 Nm, only after consultation
with ZF

Oil fill quantity for initial fill: approx. 30 l

DESCRIPTION

Description

2.1

Ecomat system solution

NOTE
The components shown in the following system diagram can
be found in the text under the same numbers.

10

Fig. 1

004 887

DESCRIPTION

Key to drawing
1

Interface for vehicle electrical system

15

Temperature sensor

Status monitoring lamp

16

Pressure reduction valve (1.2 bar)

Temperature gauge

17

Retarder reduction solenoid valve

Console selector

18

Accelerator interlock (Antigas) solenoid valve

Identification plate

19

Mechanical switch for retarder actuation

EST 18 electronic control unit

20

Brake pedal

Connector plug for MOBiDIG 200

21

Antigas cylinder

Wiring

22

Kickdown switch

Engine speed-dependent PTO

23

Accelerator pedal

10

From auxiliary air supply,


internal diameter of pressure lines = 6 to 8 mm

24

Linkage to injection pump

25

Load sensor for detection of engine load condition

11

Cooling water connections

26

Pressure reduction valve (3.0 bar)

12

Solenoid valve accumulator

27

Retarder control OFF switch

13

ZF-Ecomat

28

PTO switch (ON/OFF)

14

Retarder solenoid valve

10

11

DESCRIPTION

Ecomat system solution

u The desired speed range can be preselected using the

speed range selector (4).


The Ecomat system diagram illustrates one of the possible
Ecomat system set-ups using all necessary components.

All electrical connections required between the Ecomat system and the vehicle electronic system are located in the interface to the vehicle electrical system (1).
The EST 18 electronic control unit (6) controls the transmission and monitors all functions. The automatic control
unit gathers data from the vehicle and transmission (speed
range, engine load condition, etc.) and processes these to produce signals used for controlling the transmission hydraulic
system.
For special applications, the EST 21 is available instead of the
EST 18.
The driver may intervene in the Ecomat control system using
the following equipment:

12

speed range selector (console switch) (4)


kickdown switch (22)
acelerator pedal (23)
mechanical switch for retarder actuation (19)

u The lamp (2) is used for status monitoring. The lamp does

not light under normal operating conditions.

! DANGER
If this lamp flashes (frequency 0.2 sec), transmission
damage is imminent and danger of accidents!
Restricted system monitoring!
If this occurs, immediately drive to the nearest service
station. Drive slowly to reduce transmission loading.
u The kickdown switch (22) is used to move the shift points

towards higher engine speeds, so the transmission remains


in each gear longer when accelerating and shifts out of
each gear sooner when decelerating.
u The air pressure in the air supply to auxiliary consumers

(10) line is reduced to 3 bar by means of the pressure


reduction valve (26). This corresponds to the maximum
retarder torque.

DESCRIPTION

u The mechanical switch for retarder actuation is operated

by pressing down the brake pedal and outputs a signal


(+24 V) to the EST 18 (6) provided that switch (27) is
closed.
u The temperature sensor (15) is installed on the cooler

connection piece to monitor oil temperature. The information from the temperature sensor is sent to the temperature gauge (3) from where the oil temperature may be
read.
u The oil temperature may be read on temperature gauge (3).

In addition, a switch point for "excess temperature"


(145C) is built in. This contact switch is used to activate
the retarder torque reduction process.

u Load sensor (25) monitors the engine load condition at the

pump filling control lever of the injection pump and sends


this information to the EST 18 (6).
Pressures for operating the clutch elements are modulated
according to the engine load condition using a proportional solenoid valve in the electrical/hydraulic control
unit.
u The accelerator interlock cylinder (21) or pneumatic

cylinder interrupts acceleration for 1 second when the


transmission is shifted from neutral into another speed
range. This protects the clutches as they should only be
loaded with full engine torque after approx. 1 second.
The accelerator interlock cylinder (21) is activated via the
accelerator interlock solenoid valve (18).

During the retarder torque reduction process, the retarder


reduction solenoid valve (17) is energized. Compressed air
flows through the pressure reduction valve (16) and
solenoid valve (17) to the retarder solenoid valve (14).

13

DESCRIPTION

2.2

Design

Transmissions in the Ecomat series consist of a hydrodynamic


torque converter based on the Fttinger principle, with a lockup clutch, a hydrodynamic retarder and a rear-mounted
multiple-speed planetary transmission.

The hydrodynamic retarder is located between the torque


converter and planetary transmission. This means that braking
force is dependent on the gear engaged. Therefore, full
braking power is available even at low speeds. Braking torque
can either be infinitely variable or divided into individual
retardation steps.

2
The torque converter provides smooth starting without
mechanical wear and compensates automatically for various
load conditions by providing the necessary input torque.
The various gears in the planetary transmission are engaged
automatically with no interruption in traction. Gearshifts are
performed in response to signals from the EST 18 electronic
control unit. In response to various variables in the vehicle
and transmission, the EST 18 sends signals to the hydraulic
solenoid valves which actuate the corresponding clutches and
brakes.
A lock-up clutch in the torque converter provides a direct
mechanical link between engine and planetary transmission
after the vehicle start-up phase, thus eliminating the power
losses seen in conventional automatic transmissions where the
torque converter remains in operation all the time.

14

Braking on downhill slopes or in city traffic can be carried


out wear-free using the retarder, as this is not a friction brake.
ZF also supplies high-performance PTOs for all truck and
special vehicle operating systems. These are engine speeddependent and are engageable or permanently engaged,
depending on version. When the PTO is engaged, the
converter lock-up clutch is disengaged and an upshift
interlock comes into operation.

DESCRIPTION

The ZF Ecomat transmission can be supplied as a short


version (for ratios up to 3.43) and a long version (for ratios up
to 5.60).
The long version contains an additional planetary gear train
for ratios i = 5.60 with the length L = 102 mm.

2
Fig. 2: Transmission design for i = 3.43 0.83
3.43 0.59

Fig. 3: Transmission design for i = 5.60 0.83


(shown with PTO)

L = 102 mm

004
114
004 114

004 113
004 113

15

DESCRIPTION

2.3

A 800/3D transfer case

Key to drawing
a

Ecomat connection

Output flange to front axle (DIN 165)

Output flange to rear axle (DIN 165)

Transmission mounting M16 x 1,5; 19 deep,


Tightening torque 200 Nm

Speedo connection E2 DIN 75 532; i = 1.545

u Transfer case ratio i = 1.02

Compressed air connection M12 x 1.5 for differential


interlock

u The output direction of rotation is identical to the input

Costal plug M27 x 1,5 for differential interlock

Oil drain plug SW17

Oil fill and oil overflow check SW17

Connection for ventilation M10 x 1

The A 800/3D transfer case is available for all-wheel drive vehicles and has a pneumatically engaged lockable transfer differential. The transfer case can be flange-mounted on the Ecomat or separately installed.

2
u Torque distribution between front/rear axles optionally

1 : 1.83 or 1 : 3.35

direction. Lubrication is separate from the Ecomat


transmission.
u Maximum input torque = 16 000 Nm.
u Maximum permissible input speed on transfer case

(without heat exchanger ) is 2 650 rpm.


u For special applications, the maximum permissible input

speed on the transfer case (with heat exchanger) is


3000 rpm.

16

Oil quantity approx. 6.5 l, oil as per List of Lubricants


TE-ML 02

DESCRIPTION

e
d

f/g

c
004 945

Fig. 4
17

OPERATION

Operation

3.1

Driving instructions

3.1.1 Speed range selector (4)


Selector lever position:

R
N
D
1, 2, 3

= Reverse
= Neutral
= Automatic forward drive (Drive)
= Restricted automatic forward speed ranges

CAUTION
If the specified clutch slip times are exceeded during gear
change, the lamp (2) on the dashboard (status monitoring)
begins to flash.
Risk of transmission damage!

004 715

Fig. 5
3.1.2 Starting the engine

Restricted system monitoring!

It is only permissible to start the engine when:

In this case, the vehicle must be driven to the nearest


workshop under part-load only.

vehicle is stationary (brake on)


selector lever is in neutral position
NOTE
Starter interlock If the selector lever is not in neutral
position, the engine cannot be started.

18

OPERATION

CAUTION
Jump starting only permitted on battery, never on starter
motor!

CAUTION
Never move the selector lever whilst accelerator pedal is
depressed!

Never switch ingition ON/OFF while vehicle is moving


Accelerator interlock (Antigas)
The accelerator interlock device prevents acceleration for 1
second when shifting from neutral to another speed range.
3.1.3 Gear selection
Errors possible during gear selection
Conditions:
Selector lever in neutral position

Accelerator pedal depressed or nEng > 900 rpm

Vehicle stationary (brake on)

Brake pedal not depressed - transmission with gear select


interlock

Accelerator pedal in idling position nEng < 900 rpm

Selecting reverse R when road speed > approx. 3 km/h

Then, select the desired speed range and direction of travel


using the selector lever.
Transmission with additional External gear interlock
function
(To be installed additionally by the vehicle manufacturer - as
recommended by ZF)
Select the desired speed range . The system only engages
the corresponding gear if the brakes are on.

No further gear engages once the desired speed range has


been selected.
In this case:
Selector lever in neutral position
Select desired speed range again, ensuring conditions
described above are met.

19

OPERATION

3.1.4 Pulling away


After selecting desired speed range, wait approx. 1 to 2
seconds before releasing brake and depressing accelerator.

-15

CAUTION
Do not pull away at temperatures below -15 C.
Warm up the engine for approx. 5 mins. with
selector lever in neutral position.

3
3.2

Speed ranges

Precise details of the speed range selector and the ratios


available in the various speed ranges can be found in the
vehicle operating manual / instructions.
Each speed range is allocated certain range of gears. Gears
are only shifted at the shift points defined by the EST 18.
Manual override of the automatic shift cycles (by shifting
through the speed ranges) is of no advantage.

20

! DANGER!
If the transmission is shifted into N whilst the vehicle is
moving, the connection between engine and transmission is
broken. This means engine and retarder braking power
is lost.
Risk of accident! Actuate brake!
For safety reasons, the transmission is automatically shifted
into N if a fault occurs in the EST 18 or if current in the
transmission is lost.

Driving downhill
When descending steep hills, select speed range 1, 2 or 3 as
required to limit upshifts.

! DANGER!
In extreme cases, the upshift interlock cuts out to protect
the engine.
In this case, the transmission can shift up into the
highest gear whatever speed range is selected. Risk of
accidents!

OPERATION

Changing direction of travel


Before shifting from forwards to reverse or vice versa, ensure:
Vehicle is stationary
Engine is at idling speed
Selector lever is in neutral position
Then, select gear as described in Section 3.1.3.

3.3

Kickdown

To make use of max. engine power, select higher gearshift


points using the kickdown switch (to accelerate or on uphill
gradients).
Depress the accelerator pedal past the full-load pressure
point - kickdown position
Kickdown

Accelerator
Full-load
(Pressure point
Kickdown

Kickdown switch
004 886

Fig. 6

Installation example:
Pneumaticallyactuated accelerator
interlock device

21

OPERATION

3.4

Accelerator interlock (Antigas)

The accelerator interlock device prevents acceleration for 1


second when the transmission is shifted from neutral into
another speed range.

Retarder actuation
The retarder can be activated using a hand-operated lever or a
foot pedal. It is actuated via electronic switch contacts or
pressure switches in the braking circuit (refer to vehicle
operating manual / instructions).

This procedure protects the clutches as they should only be


loaded with full engine torque after approx.1 second.

NOTE
All special vehicles such as refuse collection trucks, dumpers,
mobile cranes, fire service vehicles etc. are equipped with an
accelerator interlock.

Conditions for retarder operation


(Retarder engaged/actuated)
Accelerator in idling position
Road speed > approx. 3 km/h
In this case, the system prevents upshifts
(upshift interlock).

3.5

Retarder operation

The retarder is a wear-free hydrodynamic brake. The braking


power depends on which gear is engaged. The retarder should
be applied whenever braking is required. This saves wear on
the service brakes, as they do not become hot even when
driving downhill for long periods.

22

CAUTION
If the accelerator pedal is depressed, the retarder disengages.
The upshift interlock cuts out.

OPERATION

The retarder must be disengaged:


on icy roads
if oil temperature is too high (> 145 C)
During retarder operation, the oil temperature must not
exceed 145 C. The oil temperature is monitored by a gauge
or a warning device (see Section 3.9, Temperature
monitoring).
The (foot) pedal control can be switched off using the
toggle switch on the dashboard
Return the hand-operated lever to zero position after each
braking operation

! DANGER!
If the permissible oil temperature of 145 C is exceeded,
the retarder is automatically reset.
Risk of accident due to reduced braking power!

3.6

Stopping, parking

Stopping
The vehicle can be stopped at any time, regardless of the
selector lever position. The EST 18 selects the appropriate
starting gear.
During short stops:
The selector lever can be left in gear
Apply brakes
During longer stops:

Selector lever in neutral position


Parking
Always apply the parking brake if leaving the vehicle.

! DANGER!
When the engine is stopped, there is no direct mechanical
link between the engine and the axle. Vehicle may roll
away.

23

OPERATION

3.7

Tow-starting

3.7.1 Tow-starting without secondary pump


CAUTION
It is neither possible nor permissible to start the engine by
towing the vehicle if there is no secondary pump - risk of
transmission damage!

NOTES
The necessary tow-starting speed depends on
Transmission ratio
Programmed starting gear
Axle ratio
Tyre size
Temperature
Therefore, fixed values cannot be given. Please refer to your
Vehicle Operating Instructions for the correct tow-starting
speed for your vehicle.

3.7.2 Tow-starting with secondary pump

CAUTION
Check whether your Ecomat transmission is equipped with a
secondary pump * which provides the transmission clutches
with the necessary oil pressure if tow-starting is required.
Always use a tow bar
Move the speed range selector to position D
Keep accelerator pedal in full-load position
Switch off retarder, if installed
Accelerate the vehicle quickly to prescribed tow-starting
speed
* Refer to pages 2 and 3
24

CAUTION
Tow-starting at temperatures below -15 C is not permissible
risk of transmission damage.

3.8

Towing away

Axle ratio

OPERATION

12
CAUTION
If you suspect the transmission may be damaged, disconnect
the propshafts between the Ecomat and drive axles before
towing.
Exception: In dangerous situations, it is permissible to tow
away before disconnecting the drive line (e.g. on cross-roads
or in tunnels etc.).

10

rdyn m

6
3.8.1 Towing away without secondary pump
Towing away at temperatures down to -15 C

Selector lever in neutral position


Max. towing time 2 hours

10

20

0,4

0,5

30

40

0,6
50

Max. towing speed, see graph

Abschleppgeschwindigkeit
v km/h
Towing speed
v [km/h]
Towing away at temperatures below -15 C
Selector lever in neutral position
Max. towing time 2 hours
Max. towing speed 5 km/h

000 855

Fig. 9: Towing speed graph


Example:
Axle ratio:
Dynam. tyre radius:
Towing speed. max.:

iA = 7.6
rdyn = 0.490
18 km/h
25

OPERATION

3.8.2 Towing away with secondary pump


CAUTION
Check whether your Ecomat transmission is equipped with a
secondary pump* which guarantees the lubrication oil supply
to the transmission when towing away.

Towing away at temperatures down to -15 C

Towing away at temperatures below -15 C


Move the speed range selector to position N
Max. towing speed 5 km/h
CAUTION
If you suspect the transmission may be damaged, disconnect
the propshaft between the transmission and the driving axles
before towing.

Move the speed range selector to position "N".

Always observe legal speed limits when towing a vehicle. ZF


does not impose specific maximum towing speeds.
CAUTION
If you suspect the transmission may be damaged, disconnect
the propshaft between the transmission and the driving axles
before towing.

3.8.3 Emergency steering pump


The emergency steering pump* attached to the output cover is
connected to the output shaft and therefore operated continuously when the vehicle is being driven. The emergency
pump speed corresponds to the propshaft speed. Should the
auxiliary steering pump fail, or if the vehicle is on tow, the
emergency steering pump keeps the power steering operational.

! DANGER!
If the propshafts are disconnected, the assistance provided
by the emergency steering pump is no longer available.

* Refer to pages 2 and 3


26

* Refer to pages 2 and 3

OPERATION

3.9

Temperature monitoring

The temperature is monitored by a gauge or warning device.


Permissible oil temperatures:

Operating temperature:
Normal driving:
Retarder operation:
Converter operation:

approx. 85 C
max. 100 C
max. 145 C
max. 110 C

What to do if the permissible oil temperatures are


exceeded:
Drive at part-load in low speed range
Disengage the retarder (also refer to Section 3.5)
If this does not cause the oil temperature to drop:
Stop the vehicle
Move selector lever into neutral position
Run engine at higher revs

! DANGER!
If oil temperature exceeds 145 C, the retarder is
automatically reset.
Risk of accidents due to reduced braking power!

If the temperature does not fall to within the permissible


range within a few seconds, possible causes include:
oil level too low
defective coolant circuit

Temperature gauge

transmission damage
Please inform the nearest ZF Service Point!

004 717

Fig. 10
Green range
Green/red range
Red range

for all normal operating conditions


only for braking operation with retarder
oil temperature too high
27

OPERATION

3.10

Status monitoring

The transmission is monitored every time the vehicle circuit


voltage is switched on or during operation by the diagnosis
system in the EST 18 electronic control unit.

3.11

PTOs

Engagement conditions:
Accelerator pedal in idling position
Engine speed < 900 rpm

! DANGER!
If the status monitoring lamp (2) is flashing, there is grave
danger of transmission damage and system monitoring is
only restricted.
Risk of accidents!

3
In this case, the vehicle must be driven under part-load to the
nearest workshop so that the fault can be corrected!

Selector lever in N
(see vehicle operating manual / instructions)
NOTE
If these conditions are not fulfilled, PTO engagement is
blocked. When the PTO is engaged, the converter lock-up
clutch remains disengaged and an upshift interlock comes into
operation.

3.12

Twin cabs

Some applications have twin cabs. In these cases, when the


selector lever is being used by one cab, the other cab is
blocked by means of a detent solenoid.

28

OPERATION

3.13

HST 18 auxiliary control unit

The HST 18 auxiliary control unit was developed in order to


move the vehicle during assembly and to provide an emergency control function should the EST 18 electronic control
unit malfunction.
The HST 18 auxiliary control unit is fitted to the 55-pin plug
instead of the EST 18 electronic control unit and allows 1 forward and the reverse gear to be engaged. Gear shifts whilst
driving are no longer possible.

Operation instructions for the HST 18


Apply parking brake to prevent vehicle from rolling away
unintentionally.
Move speed range selector to position N .
Switch off engine and ignition.
Remove plug from EST 18 control unit.
Connect plug to HST 18 auxiliary control unit and secure.
Start engine.

Select gear using selector lever:


Position N

= Neutral

Position D

= Forwards (gear is engaged, neither


upshift nor downshift occurs.)

Position R

= Reverse

DANGER!

All safety functions are de-activated when using the HST 18


auxiliary control unit.
Danger of accidents!
Therefore, the following points must be observed without
exception:
Shifts from N to D or from N to R ;
must only be carried out at idling speed and when the
vehicle is stationary.
The transmission can also be shifted at higher speed.
However, this leads to transmission damage.
When switching between forwards and reverse operation
or vice versa, ensure that the vehicle is stationary.
After shifting to D or R, always wait for approx. 2
seconds so that the transmission is engaged before
accelerating.

29

MAINTENANCE

Maintenance

Good maintenance means safe transmission operation. It is


therefore especially important to carry out any necessary
maintenance work in the correct manner.

4.1

Oil grades

Only oils as per the applicable ZF List of Lubricants


TE-ML 14 can be used for filling the Ecomat transmission.

CAUTION
Ecomat transmissions with flange-mounted A800/3D
transfer case have a separate oil circuit!
Only oils as per the applicable ZF List of Lubricants can be
used for filling the transmission / transfer case:
Ecomat transmission:
TE-ML 14
A 800/3D transfer case:
TE-ML 02
The latest Lists of Lubricants can be requested from all ZF
After-Sales Centres.

4.2

Ecomat oil quantities

For initial filling of dry transmission


(without oil cooler)

approx. 30 ltr

After installing new/exchange


transmission

approx. 20 ltr

At oil changes

approx. 15 ltr

The above quantities are for guidance only, the precise


quantity must always be determined by measuring with the
dipstick.
Oil quantities for A800/3D see Section 4.7.

4.3

Ecomat oil level check

It is essential for the Ecomat transmission to be operated with


the correct oil level.
Too little oil leads to mal-functions and damage.
Too much oil results in transmission overheating.

30

MAINTENANCE

CAUTION
The oil level must be checked regularly at operating
temperature. This is the only way of ensuring that the
level is correct.
Check oil level once weekly see Section 4.3.1.
Under certain circumstances, the oil level must first be
checked when the transmission oil is cold see Section
4.3.2. Always recheck afterwards at operating
temperature.
If the heat exchanger is located higher than the centre line
of transmission (separate installation), the oil level should
be checked as described in Section 4.3.3.

After waiting approx. 2 minutes, the oil level must be within


the warm range.
CAUTION
The idling speed should be set between 500 and 700 rpm.
On no account may it fall below 450 rpm.

Hot range 80 - 90 C
4.3.1 Oil level check at operating temperature
S 0024

For correct results, the oil level must be checked when the
transmission oil is hot (80 - 90C).
We recommend that this check is performed once weekly,
preferably after finishing a journey.

Fig. 12

Conditions:
Park vehicle on level ground
Switch speed range selector to neutral
Run engine at idling speed

31

MAINTENANCE

4.3.2

Reference measurements

This approximate oil level check, which is performed with the


transmission oil cold, is used in the following exceptional
cases:

Oil level check before starting engine


The oil level must be within or above the stationary range
nEng = 0.
If the oil level is higher, do not drain off any oil!

When using a transmission for the first time


After long periods out of use or before first operating a
vehicle received from elsewhere
After in-vehicle repairs to the transmission: e.g. removal of
oil sump, hydraulic control module, oil cooler etc.

Stationary range (nEng = 0)

After oil change or filter replacement


The oil level check should be carried out in two stages:

S 0025

Fig. 13

Level check before starting engine

Level check after starting engine


Oil level check after starting engine
Run the engine at idling speed for approx. 3 to 5 minutes
(speed range selector in neutral) and then check the oil level.
The oil level should be within the cold range (30C).
If the oil level is higher, do not drain off any oil!

32

MAINTENANCE

CAUTION
After cold-starting at sub-zero temperatures, the dipstick must
dip at least 10 mm into the oil before it is permissible to run
the transmission up to temperature.
An accurate oil level check at operating temperature must
then be made as soon as possible (see Section 4.3.1).

4.3.3 Oil level check with separate heat exchanger


installed higher than centre line of transmission
The oil level check must be carried out under the following
conditions:
Run transmission in neutral position for 15 to 20 seconds
and engine speed 1200 to 1500 rpm.
Allow the engine to return to idling speed. Within
3 minutes, perform the oil level check after starting
engine and then the oil level check at operating
temperature.

Cold range 30 C

4.4

Methods of heating up transmission oil

S 0026

Fig. 14

If the transmission oil cannot be heated up during normal


operation, it must be heated up as follows:

Engage parking brake


Select D speed range
Apply service brakes

33

MAINTENANCE

If required, repeatedly run engine for between 15 to 20


seconds under part-load at 1200 to 1500 rpm.
CAUTION
Max. permissible oil temperature 110 C.
After each heating-up phase, allow engine to run for
15 to 30 seconds at 1 500 to 2000 rpm with transmission in
neutral position.
Once operating temperature has been reached:
Move transmission into neutral position
Run engine at idling speed for 2 to 3 minutes
Then, carry out oil level check as per Section 4.3.1.

4
4.5

Oil change intervals

CAUTION
The filter must be renewed after every oil change.

Mineral ATF (Automatic Transmission Fluids)


For normal operation (max. 110 C)

every 30 000 km

For heavy (high temperature) applications


(110 150 C)
every 20 000 km
In construction machinery or special vehicles
(mobile cranes, refuse vehicles etc.)
every 1 000 hrs. of
operation
However, at least once every year
Synthetic ATF oils
For normal operation (max. 110 C)

every 90 000 km

For heavy (high temperature) applications


(110 150 C)
every 60 000 km
In construction machinery or special vehicles
(mobile cranes, refuse vehicles etc.)
every 3 000 hrs. of
operation
However, at least once every two years
If mineral ATF is replaced by synthetic ATF, the next oil
change interval is 45 000 km.
All subsequent intervals are 90 000 km.

Oil change intervals for A800/3D see Section 4.7.

34

MAINTENANCE

4.6

Ecomat oil drain, oil fill

Drain oil only at operating temperature!


Engine stationary

Replace filter cover (tighten bolts to 25 Nm)

Unscrew oil drain plug (1) and drain oil.

Screw in oil drain plug (1) (tightening torque 50 Nm)

Remove filter cover (2).

Remove dipstick (3)

Renew filter cartridge, Cu rings and O-rings.

Add oil (oil quantity, see Section 4.2)


Check oil level as per Section 4.3

S 0020

S 0022

Fig. 15

Fig. 16
35

MAINTENANCE

4.7

Oil drain, oil fill for A 800/3D transfer case

CAUTION
Separate oil circuit!
The lubrication for the A800/3D transfer case is independent
of that for the Ecomat basic transmission.

NOTE
The vehicle must be level before oil fill can take place.
Oil quantity:
approx. 6.5 l
Oil grade:
see ZF List of Lubricants TE-ML 02
Oil change interval: see Section 4.5 Ecomat
This list can be requested from all ZF Service points.

Drain oil only at operating temperature!


Engine stationary
Unscrew oil drain plug (1) and drain oil.
Screw in oil drain plug (1) (tightening torque 50 Nm)

36

4.7.1 Initial fill


Engine stationary
Unscrew oil fill plug (2).
Fill in 5.5 litres of oil.
NOTE
Fill in oil slowly to avoid backflow and overflow at the
opening.
Screw in oil fill plug.
Start engine and carry out a short test run (200 - 300 metres).
Park vehicle on level ground.
After 5 to 10 minutes:
Remove oil fill plug (2) and fill in oil until it flows over at
the opening.
NOTE
Fill in oil slowly to avoid backflow.
Screw in oil fill plug.
(Tightening torque 50 Nm)

MAINTENANCE

4.7.2 Oil level check


Start engine and carry out a short test run (200 - 300 metres).
Park vehicle on level ground.
After 5 to 10 minutes:
Remove oil fill plug (2) and fill in oil until it flows over at
the opening.
NOTE
Fill in oil slowly to avoid backflow.
Screw in oil fill plug.
(Tightening torque 50 Nm)

004 720

Fig. 17

2
1

37

MAINTENANCE

4.8

Checking load sensor adjustment

The load sensor adjustment must be checked:


following maintenance work to the transmission or engine
following hard shifts
at least every 3 months

CAUTION
Do not use stops on load sensor housing for setting.
Do not loosen bolts on load sensor housing or nut on shaft.
Check ball heads for wear (too much backlash) and grease
filling.

Check procedure
(The engine must be at the correct setting before the check is
begun).
The check can be carried out using marks on the front (Fig. 18)
or the top of the housing (Fig. 19).

Stops

Switch off engine


Engage parking brake

Slowly depress accelerator pedal until pressure point is


reached (injection pump full-load stop) do not depress
pedal beyond this point
Retain accelerator pedal position load sensor lever mark
must correspond to full-load mark (high) on housing.
Release accelerator pedal until idling position is reached
Load sensor lever mark must correspond to idling mark
(low) on housing.

38

000 822

Fig. 18
low

high

MAINTENANCE

low

000 824

Fig. 19

high

Key to drawing (Fig. 20)


1
2
3
4
5
6
7

Accelerator pedal
Kickdown overtravel plunger
Kickdown switch
Antigas cylinder
Load sensor
Injection pump on engine
Injection pump full-load stop

A
B
C
D

Idling position
Full-load position
Stop position
Air supply

S 0093

Fig. 20
39

MAINTENANCE

4.9

Electronic accelerator equipment and EDC units

The engine load signal is not recorded by the load sensor but
electronically.
For electronic accelerator
equipment units:

For EDC units:

from the electronic system of


the electronic accelerator
equipment to the EST 18
directly from the engine electronic system to the EST 18

If problems occur
please contact the nearest vehicle manufacturer service
point.

40

TROUBLESHOOTING NOTES

Fault

Possible cause

Remedy

Engine will not start

Selector lever not in Neutral

Select neutral.

Plug of electronic control unit loose

Connect plug.

Starter interlock relay fault

Exchange relay.

Load sensor not in idling position

Check and/or readjust the load sensor/


injection pump.

Engine idling speed > 900 rpm

Adjust the engine idling speed.

Only for transmissions with External


gear interlock function:
Service brakes not applied

Apply service brakes.

Electronic control unit in failure mode

Switch ignition off/on.

Oil level too low

Check/correct oil level.

Transmission fault

Request ZF service.

Oil level too high

Check/correct oil level.

Retarder engaged

Disengage the retarder using hand lever.

Internal fault

Request ZF service.

Oil level too low

Check/correct oil level.

Retarder solenoid valve not functioning

Check solenoid valve/electrical connections.


If necessary, request ZF service.

No gear engages in transmission

Vehicle does not move

Oil temperature too high

Retarder does not work

41