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(SISO) system

Submitted by

Name of Student

(ID No: 12PGEC036)

Under Supervision of

Prof. Brijesh Shah

Associate Professor

EC802 Project-I

In the field of

COMMUNICATION SYSTEM ENGINEERING

Faculty of Technology & Engineering

Charotar University of Science and Technology, Changa

DEC 2013

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the progress report for the dissertation entitled Pilot based channel

estimation for single input single output (SISO) system submitted by Patel

Snehalkumar kanubhai. (12PGEC036), in EC802 ProjectI in the Fourth Semester of

MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY (ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION) in the

field of COMMUNICAION SYSTEM ENGINEERING of Charotar University of

Science and Technology (CHARUSAT) is a record of the bona-fide work carried out by

him/her under my guidance and supervision. The work submitted, in my opinion, has

reached to a level required for being accepted for the examination.

Guide:

Prof. Brijesh Shah

Associate Professor,

V.T Patel Dept of E&C Engineering,

Faculty of Technology & Engineering,

Charotar University of Science &

Technology, Changa

Head:

Prof. N.D. Shah

Associate Professor,

V.T Patel Dept of E&C Engineering,

Faculty of Technology & Engineering,

Charotar University of Science &

Technology, Changa

Certificate of Examiner

Pilot based channel estimation for single input single output (SISO) system

Submitted By

SNEHAL K PATEL

(12PGEC036)

for the degree of

Master of Technology

(Electronics and Communication)

of CHARUSAT in the field of

is hereby approved for the degree.

Internal Examiner

Date :

Place :

External Examiner

ACKNOLEDGEMENT

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Project work, lays the foundation of students career today. The satisfaction that

comes with successful completion of task would be but incomplete without the

mention of the people who made it possible. It gives us immense pleasure to

acknowledge all those who have extended their valuable guidance and

magnanimous help.

It is a matter of great pleasure and privilege to have this dissertation work entitled:

Pilot based channel estimation for single input single output (siso) system

guide Prof. Brijesh Shah(Associate Professor, Electronics & Communication

Department, CSPIT, Changa, CHARUSAT) who has the attitude and substance

of a genius and has been a great source of inspiration throughout the project. I am

fortunate to be given the opportunity of working under him. In spite of a tight

schedule, he always found time for my difficulties and patiently answered to all my

queries. He not only provided the necessary guidance and support, but also

continuously motivated me to give my best in this advanced project.

Head of Department, Electronics and Communication, Prof. N. D. Shah, for his

encouragement, guidance and kind support. I would be grateful in thanking

Department of Electronics and Communication of Chandubhai S Patel Institute of

Technology, Changa for providing me with all the mandatory requirements as and

when needed.

SNEHAL PATEL

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT

Wireless Communication Technology has developed many folds over the past

few years. One of the techniques to enhance the data rates is called Multiple Input

Multiple Output (MIMO) in which multiple antennas are employed both at the

transmitter and the receiver, without increasing the total transmission power or

bandwidth. Multiple signals are transmitted from different antennas at the transmitter

using the same frequency and separated in space. When perfect knowledge of the

wireless channel conditions is available at the receiver, the capacity has been shown

to grow linearly with the number of antennas. However, the channel conditions must

be estimated since perfect channel knowledge is never known a priori. Various

channel estimation techniques are employed in order to judge the physical effects of

the medium present. In this project, we analyze and implement estimation techniques

for MIMO Systems such as Least Squares (LS). This technique is therefore compared

to effectively estimate the channel in MIMO Systems.

ii

LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF FIGURES

Fig 1.1

Fig 1.2

Fig 1.3

Fig 1.4

Fig 1.5

Fig 1.6

Fig 1.7

narrow pulse

Fig 1.8

Fig 3.1

15

Fig 3.2

17

Fig 3.3

GSM burst structure; channel estimator utilizes the known training bits

17

Fig 3.4

22

Fig 3.5

23

Fig 3.6

26

Fig 3.7

Simulation layout for single signal with interference and LS channel Estimation

26

Fig 4.1

27

Fig 4.2

28

iii

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

WLAN

WMAN

A/V

Audio/Visual

WiMax

SISO

SIMO

MISO

MIMO

CSI

BER

STC

Space-Time coding

SFC

Space-Frequency Coding

STFC

Space-Time-Frequency Coding

V-BLAST

ML

Maximum Likelihood

ZF

Zero-Forcing

MMSE

Minimum-Mean-Square Error

SNR

Signal-to-Noise Ratios

FIR

PSAM

DPC

Dirty-Paper Coding

RCE

ARCE

ISI

LS

Least-Squares

LMMSE

QAM

MAP

Maximum A-Posteriori

LLR

STBC

MRC

EGC

i.i.d

iv

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

BWA

3G

Third Generation

STTC

MSE

PSAM

Pilot-Symbol-Aided-Modulation

PSA

Pilot-Symbol-Aided

AWGN

BLUE

ACF

Auto-Correlation Function

BPSK

LIST OF SYMBOLS

LIST OF SYMBOLS

TX

Transmitter

RX

Receiver

Nt

Transmitting Antenna

Nr

Receiving Antenna

fd

Doppler shift

Vehicle Speed

fc

Carrier Frequency

| P(f)|

fdmax

ma

Mean

s2

Variance

J ()

0

Matrix of channel

Noise

Rhh

Auto-Covariance Matrix of h

n2

noise variance

Tc

max

f max

Doppler Frequency

Df

Dt

Tsym

Signal Bandwidth

vi

Contents

CONTENTS

Acknowledgement..

Abstract...

ii

List of figures..

iii

List of Abbreviations ..

iv

List of Symbols..

vi

Contents..

viii

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background

1.2.1

1.2.2

1.2.3

1.2.4

1.3.1

1.3.2

Doppler Shift

1.3.3

1.3.4

Rayleigh Fading

1.4 Organization

10

11

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

12

3. CHANNEL ESTIMATION

15

3.1 Introduction

3.1.1

15

16

16

3.2.1

Transmitter

17

3.2.2

Receiver

19

20

3.3.1

Training Sequences

20

viii

Contents

3.3.2

Blind method

20

3.3.3

Semi Blind

21

21

3.4.1

21

3.4.1.1

21

3.4.1.2

23

3.4.1.3

25

4. SIMULATION RESULTS

27

4.1 Performance of SISO Systems Using Least Square Channel Estimation Method

27

27

CONCLUSION

29

FUTURE SCOPE

30

REFERENCES

31

ix

INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND:

Normally the standard and conventional Wi-Fi system uses one antenna to

receive and one to transmit data. MIMO overcomes the bottlenecks in the

conventionally used Single Input, Single Output (SISO) system in the last decade

and has evolved as a prime and promising area of research in the field of wireless

communication. The possibilities to increase the channel capacity in the SISO

wireless system is quite limited, provided the bandwidth is increased allowing the

corresponding increase in the bits per second or to increase the transmit power,

allowing a higher level modulation scheme to be utilized for a given bit error rate,

effectively increasing the bits per second within the same bandwidth. The problem

with both of these techniques is that any increase in power or bandwidth can

negatively impact other communications systems operating in adjacent spectral

channels or within a given geographic area. As such, bandwidth and power for a

given communications system are generally well regulated, limiting the ability of

the system to support any increase in the capacity or performance.

MIMO uses two or more antennas at each end of a connection to send and

receive data, enabling transmitter and receiver to accept signals more efficiently

than with a single antenna and thus overcomes the problems and restrictions

compared to the conventional system. The multiple antennas at the transmitter and

receiver can achieve a data rate, which is very much higher than that of the SISO

system. In order to support the larger data rate coupled with high quality and to

fight against effects of multipath fading and additive noise in the channel multiple

copies of signal over various paths to multiple receivers is used.

The success of MIMO lies in its ability to utilize the multipath reception,

which was considered to be an unavoidable byproduct of radio communications,

and convert it into a distinct advantage that actually multiplies transmission speed

and improves throughput. The multiple antennas improve the performance of the

system through various diversity techniques like time, frequency, space and

INTRODUCTION

among different signals on the same frequency.

The Datas are transmitted over N transmit antennas through a specifically

designed MIMO channel to M receive antennas. Moreover, the transmission can

be encoded so that information on each can be used to help reconstruct the

information on the others. Just like error detection / correction codes, space-time

block coding here allows us to increase reliability in addition to throughput.

Space-time diversity has the advantage of using the same bandwidth as that of

SISO system with high data rate transfer and quality. To be precise, MIMO

utilizes a multiple antenna system to take advantage of the multi-path affect in RF

technology, rather than fight against it as conventional 802.11 Access Points do,

as a result the improvement in both range and capacity provides substantially

more reliable signal quality and greater bandwidth.

The multipath radio reception is one of the driving force behind the usage and

outcome of MIMO based system. The signal being send to the receiver contains

not only a direct line-of-sight radio signal, but also a large number of reflected

radio waves. For example if a radio is listed in a running car, the received signals

are not only from the direct station transmitter but also it receives many other

signals from other directions. Obstacles block the line-of sight and the mobile

antenna with a delay receives different waves.

This delay results in out of phase with the original and it the signal is boosted

or cancelled due to this effect. More over the reflected waves interfere with the

direct wave and results in the degradation in the performance of the link. Also this

phase difference introduces noise and distortion and fading of the signals, which

results in the increase in the error rate.

1.2.1. Single Input Single Output (SISO)

Its wireless system model which uses one antenna at transmitter and one

antenna at receiver. Its overall performance largely dependent on channel behavior

and environment. It is used in radio and TV broadcast and our personal wireless

technologies such as Wi-Fi and Bluetooth.

INTRODUCTION

It uses one antenna at transmitter and multiple antennas at receiver. It is

logical to use SIMO for uplink scenarios. The receiver can either choose the best

antenna to receive the stronger signal (selection diversity) or combine signals from all

antennas in order to increase SNR (Maximal Ratio Receiver Combining or MRRC).

We use several antenna at transmitter side whereas single antenna at receiver

side. It is more usually to use MISO for downlink scenarios.

3

INTRODUCTION

Multiple antenna both transmitter and receiver side are used in this system. It

is very hot topic today in wireless technology such us PAN, LAN, MAN and WAN to

increase data rate multiple times to satisfy the bandwidth demand of broadband users.

Signal multipath occurs when the transmitted signal arrives at the receiver via

multiple propagation paths. Each of these paths may have a separate phase,

attenuation, delay and Doppler frequency associated with it [16]. This propagation

paths places fundamental limitations on the performance of the wireless

communication system because the transmitted signal travels through different paths

and interact with objects in the environment. These interactions include reflection,

refraction, diffraction, and scattering which cause attenuation and variations in the

received signal power and phase shift of the transmitted signal. Due to this random

phase shift associated with each received signal, they might add up destructively,

resulting in a phenomenon called fading. The Doppler shift, which is the relative

movement between the transmitter and the receiver, also impact the fading

characteristics of the signal. The effects of the wireless environment can be

categorized as path loss or attenuation, large-scale (long-term fading), and small-scale

(short-term) fading.

INTRODUCTION

1.3.1 Multipath Effect and Time Varying Nature of the Channel

In this section we consider channels for time-variant multipath channels. Their

characterization serves as a model for signal transmission over many radio channels.

The time-variant impulse responses of these channels are a consequence of the

constantly changing physical characteristics of the media.

The multipath effect is a phenomenon that causes multiple versions of the

transmitted signal to arrive at the receiver at different time delays. Reflecting objects

and scatters in the transmission environment generate multiple versions of the

transmitted signal as shown in Figure (1.5). Each of the paths will have different

characteristics, such as amplitude, phase, arrive time, and angle of arrival. The

multiple signals may constructively or destructively add up at the receiver, thus

creating the rapid fluctuations in the received signal envelope. When the signals add

up constructively it will increase the signal power at the receiver, but destructive

summation will cause fades in the received signal, which corresponds to the sudden

drops in received power. Multipath does not only cause fluctuations in the received

power, but it also affects the shape of the pulse as it is transmitted through the

channel. The arrival of the multiple versions will broaden the transmitted signal. As

INTRODUCTION

illustrated in Figure (1.6), the transmitted signal arriving at different times will

overlap with each other and lead to broadening of the envelope of the pulse.

Fig 1.6: (a) transmitted signal (b) Multiple copies of transmitted signals.

The signal power and arrival times of the multipath signals are used to

characterize the channel. If for example, we transmit an extremely short pulse, ideally

an impulse, over a time-varying multipath channel the received signal may appear as a

train of pulses, as shown in Figure (1.7). Hence, one characteristics of a multipath

medium is the time spread introduced in the signal that is transmitted through the

channel.

narrow pulse.

6

INTRODUCTION

medium. As a result of such time variations, the nature of the multipath varies with

time. That is, if we repeat the pulse-surrounding experiment over and over, we shall

observe changes in the received pulse train, which will include changes in the sizes of

the individual pulses, changes in the relative delays among the pulses, and, quite

often, changes in the number of pulse as shown in Figure. Moreover, the time

variations appear to be unpredictable to the user of the channel. Therefore it is

reasonable to characterize the time-variant multipath channel statistically.

1.3.2 Doppler Shift

Due to the relative motion between the transmitter and the receiver, each

multipath wave is subjected to a shift in frequency. The frequency shift of the

received signal caused by the relative motion is called the Doppler shift. It is

proportional to the speed of the mobile unit. Consider a situation when only a single

tone of frequency fc is transmitted and received signal consists of only one wave

coming at an incident angle with respect to the direction of the vehicle motion as in

Figure (1.8). The Doppler shift of the received signal, denoted by fd, is given by

Where, v is the vehicle speed and c is the speed of the light and fc is the carrier

frequency.

The Doppler shift in a multipath propagation environment spreads the

bandwidth of the multipath waves within the range of fc fdmax where fdmax is the

maximum Doppler shift, given by

The maximum Doppler shift is also referred as the maximum fade rate. As a

result, a single tone transmitted gives rise to a received signal with a spectrum of

nonzero width.

7

INTRODUCTION

1.3.3 Statistical Models for Fading Channels

Because of the multiplicity of factors involved in propagation in mobile

transceiver environment, it is convenient to apply statistical techniques to describe

signal variations. In a narrow band system, the transmitted signal usually occupy a

bandwidth smaller than the channels coherence bandwidth, which is defined as the

frequency range over which the channel fading process is correlated. That is, all

spectral components of the transmitted signal are subject to the same fading

attenuation. This type of fading is referred to as frequency nonselective or frequency

flat. On the other hand, if the transmitted signal bandwidth is greater than the channel

coherence bandwidth, the spectral components of the transmitted signal with a

frequency separation larger than the coherence bandwidth are faded independently.

The received signal spectrum becomes distorted, since the relationships between

various spectral components are not the same asin the transmitted signal. This

phenomenon is known as frequency selective fading. In wideband systems, the

transmitted signals usually undergo frequency selective fading. In the next section we

will see some points about Rayleigh Fading channel, because among the different

models that are used in wireless fading channels, Rayleigh fading is going to be used

by our system.

1.3.4 Rayleigh Fading

Consider the transmission of a single tone with constant amplitude. In a

typical land mobile radio channel for example, we may assume that the direct wave is

obstructed and the mobile unit receives only reflected waves. When the number of

8

INTRODUCTION

reflected waves is large, according to the central limit theorem, two quadrature

components of the received signal are uncorrelated Gaussian random process with

zero mean and variance. As a result, the envelope of the received signal at any time

instant undergoes a Rayleigh probability distribution. The probability density function

of the Rayleigh distribution is given by

average signal power (E[a2]) is unity, then the normalized Rayleigh distribution

becomes

In fading channels with a maximum Doppler shift of fdmin, the received signal

experiences a form of frequency spreading and is band-limited between fc fdmin.

Assuming an omni directional antenna with waves arriving in the horizontal plane, a

large number of reflected waves and a uniform received power over incident angles,

the power spectral density of the faded amplitude, denoted by | P(f)|, is given by

INTRODUCTION

Where f is the frequency and fdmax is the maximum fade rate. The value of

fdmax Ts is the maximum fade rate normalized by symbol rate. It serves as a measure

of channel memory. For correlated fading channels this parameter is in the range 0

<fdmax<Ts<1,

Indicating a finite channel memory and lastly the autocorrelation function of

the fading process is given by

1.4 ORGANIZATION

We have so far discussed the constraint of current SISO technology and

explained the potential of a MIMO system in meeting the demands of high-data-rate

applications. A brief overview of MIMO systems has been provided to motivate the

work of the thesis. In the following we provide an outline of subsequent chapters.

In Chapter 2, required background information and literature survey is

presented.

In Chapter 3, describes about the channel estimation basics, types of channel

estimation and algorithm to estimate the channel.

In Chapter 4, computer simulation results demonstrate the performance of the

estimator.

In Chapter 5, conclusions to the thesis by providing a brief review of the

previous chapters and summarizing the contributions of the thesis. Possible future

work arising from the thesis is also discussed.

10

INTRODUCTION

The main advantages of using multiple antennas when transmitting over

wireless link are:

Array gain: Using multiple antennas can considerably increase the range and the

coverage; as a result more areas can be covered with minimum base stations. Also it

reduces the transmitting power.

Spatial diversity: The high data throughout can be achieved as the spatial diversity

increases the robustness of the wireless link.

Interference suppression: Spatial dimensions of the multiple antennas help to

suppress the interfering signals, and this improves the capacity of the system.

The MIMO bases system are used widely in various application in modern wireless

system such as,

Wireless LANs

Broadband systems

Acoustic communications

HDTV

11

LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Dr. Dinesh B. Bhoyar, Dr. C. G. Dethe and Dr. M. M. Mushrif [1] estimated

the channel by LMS and LLMS algorithm for various modulation scheme like QPSKPSK-BPSK and conclude that as we take smaller step size better the steady state error

and improved SNR.

Hailang he and Ying Zeng [2] estimated the channel using comb type pilot

arrangement but they used new optimal pilot design method instead large pseudoinverse matrix which decrease the complexity by great extent and concluded that the

new method has better BER performance.

R S Ganesh, Dr. J. Jayakumari [3] estimated the channel using LS and MMSE

algorithm for block type and comb type pilot carrier and concluded that the MMSE

has lower BER and lower MSE than LS algorithm and comb type pilot carrier has

lower BER and lower MSE than block type pilot carrier.

RisanuriHidayat and Budi Satiyanto [4] estimated the channel using least

square method and concluded that the higher the SNR, higher the accuracy of channel

estimation.

K. Vidhya and R. Shankarkumarused [5] two types of channel estimation

techniques and concluded that the LS algorithm has very low computational

complexity and can be used as initiator but to improve the accuracy of channel

MMSE has to be used in which feedback of output is used and has the BER closest to

ideal one.

Moinulhossain and S. M. Farhad [6] used the three methods to estimate the

channel RLS,LMS and VSS-LMS(variable step size LMS) and concluded that the

RLS algorithm has MSE performance, tracking ability and anti noise though it

required complex computational than others.

KhalidaNooriandsami Ahmed Haider [7] used recursive least square method

to estimate the channel and compared two sets of antenna arrays one was 2*2 and

another was 3*3 for three different modulation schemes BPSK,QPSK,8PSK and

12

LITERATURE REVIEW

concluded that the later one has significant low BER for given SNR. And also as we

increase the modulation scheme the BER increases.

Quasi mehbubarrahman and Mostofahafnawi [8] compared the channel

estimation technique for time and freq. domain for that they used 2*1 antenna

configuration and used rayleign fading channel as environment and concluded that the

time domain technique has low computational complexity and better SER.

Ye Li, Jack H Winter and Nelson R Sollenburger [9] used two sets of transmit

antennas, one is 4*4 and another is 4*8 and they concluded that the later one has

better WER.

M.A.Mohammadi, M.Ardabilipour ,B.Moussakhani and Z.Mobini [10]

propose a method in which optimum training sequences are derived based on

calculated MSE for LS channel estimation. Then utilizing these training sequences,

adaptive methods based on LMS and RLS are applied to estimate the channel for a

system which emits independent data streams from transmitter antennas. Proposed

method is capable of computing all sub-channel coefficients between a receiver

antenna and all transmitters.

Hala M. Mahmoud, Allam S. Mousa and Rashid Saleem propose [11] Kalman

and Least Square (LS) estimators to estimate the Channel Frequency Response (CFR)

at the pilots location, then CFR at data sub channels are obtained by mean of

interpolation between estimates at pilot locations. Different types of interpolations

have been used such as: low pass interpolation, spine cubic interpolation and linear

interpolation. Kalman estimation has better performance than LS estimation.

Meng-Han Hsieh and Che-Ho [12] We propose the channel estimation

methods for OFDM systems based on comb-type pilot sub-carrier arrangement. The

channel estimation algorithm based on comb-type pilots is divided into pilot signal

estimation and channel interpolation. The pilot signal estimation is based on LS or

MMSE criteria, together with channel interpolation which is based on piecewiselinear interpolation or piecewise second-order polynomial interpolation. The

computational complexity of pilot signal estimation based on MMSE criterion can be

reduced by using a simplified LMMSE estimator with low-rank approximation using

singular value decomposition.

Kala Praveen Bagadi and Prof. Susmita Das [13] compare channel estimation

based on both block-type pilot and comb-type arrangements in both SISO and MIMO

13

LITERATURE REVIEW

achieved by giving the channel estimation methods at the pilot frequencies and the

interpolation of the channel at data frequencies. The estimators can be used to

efficiently estimate the channel in both OFDM systems given certain knowledge

about the channel statistics. The MMSE estimator assumes a priori knowledge of

noise variance and channel covariance. The advantage of diversity in MIMO system

results in less BER than SISO system. And simulation results show that MMSE

estimation for MIMO OFDM provides less MSE than other systems.

14

CHANNEL ESTIMATION

CHAPTER 3

CHANNEL ESTIMATION

3.1 INTRODUCTION:

A channel can describe everything from the source to the sink of a radio

signal. This includes the physical medium (free space, fiber, waveguides etc.)

between the transmitter and the receiver through which the signal propagates. An

essential feature of any physical medium is, that the transmitted signal is received at

the receiver, corrupted in a variety of ways by frequency and phase-distortion, inter

symbol interference and thermal noise.

A channel model on the other hand can be thought of as a mathematical

representation of the transfer characteristics of this physical medium.

Channel estimation is simply defined as the process of characterizing the

effect of the physical channel on the input sequence. If the channel is assumed to be

linear, the channel estimate is simply the estimate of the impulse response of the

system. It must be stressed once more that channel estimation is only a mathematical

representation of what is truly happening. A good channel estimate is one where

some sort of error minimization criteria is satisfied.

15

CHANNEL ESTIMATION

In the figure above e (n) is the estimation error. The aim of most channel

estimation algorithms is to minimize the mean squared error (MMSE), E [e2 (n)] when

utilizing as little computational resources as possible in the estimation process.

Channel estimation algorithms allow the receiver to approximate the impulse

response of the channel and explain the behavior of the channel. This knowledge of

the channel's behavior is well-utilized in modern radio communications. Adaptive

channel equalizers utilize channel estimates to overcome the effects of inter symbol

interference. Diversity techniques (for e.g. the IS-95 Rake receiver) utilize the channel

estimate to implement a matched filter such that the receiver is optimally matched to

the received signal instead of the transmitted one. Maximum likelihood detectors

utilize channel estimates to minimize the error probability. One of the most important

benefits of channel estimation is that it allows the implementation of coherent

demodulation. Coherent demodulation requires the knowledge of the phase of the

signal. This can be accomplished by using channel estimation techniques. In this

thesis work, we have used channel estimation to extract the information symbols out

of the received signal as most detection schemes require channel information which is

not known a-priori. We know that wireless channels suffer from attenuation due to

multipath in the channel. Due to the multipath channel there is some inter symbol

interference (ISI) in the received signal. Therefore a signal detector needs to know

channel impulse response (CIR) characteristics to ensure successful equalization

(removal of ISI) and extraction of information so as to minimize the error between the

actual transmitted symbols and the symbols extracted from the received signal using

estimated channel information.

Fig.3.1 shows a generic simulation layout for a MIMO System, which exploits

channel estimation the digital source is usually protected by channel coding and

interleaved against fading phenomenon, after which the binary signal is modulated

and transmitted over multipath fading channel. Additive noise is added and the sum

signal is received. Due to the multipath channel there is some intersymbol

16

CHANNEL ESTIMATION

interference (ISI) in the received signal. After detection the signal is deinterleaved and

channel decoded to extract the original message.

We are mainly interested in the channel estimation part. Usually CIR is

estimated based on the known training sequence, which is transmitted in every

transmission burst as the receiver can utilize the known training bits and the

corresponding received samples for estimating CIR typically for each burst

separately. There are a few different approaches of channel estimation, like Leastsquares (LS) or Linear Minimum Mean Squared Error (LMMSE) methods [3,4].

Fig. 3.2 Block diagram for a system utilizing channel estimator and detection.

Fig 3.3 GSM burst structure; channel estimator utilizes the known training bits

3.2.1 Transmitter

We focus on the transmitter of a general multiple antenna system in this

section, as shown in Figure 3.2. Data is first encoded and interleaved. Then a block of

Nt symbols is converted from serial to parallel, modulated and then each symbol is

fed to one of the Nt antennas. Thus, the Nt symbols are transmitted.

17

CHANNEL ESTIMATION

after the encoder, in order to ensure independent fading of the coded bits or symbols.

For modulation, we use BPSK, 16-QAM or QPSK, according to the number of the

antennas. More detailed information about the transmitter modules are shown in the

following parts.

Encoder

A channel encoder is used to introduce some redundancy in the binary

information sequence, which makes the receiver be able to overcome the effects of

noise and interference encountered in the transmission.

Interleaver

If the errors caused by the channel are statistically independent, then the codes

that have been devised for increasing the reliability in the transmission of information

are effective. However, in a fading channel, if the channel is in a deep fading, a large

number of errors occur in sequence. In other words, there exist burst error

characteristics. Interleaving is mainly used to protect the transmission against burst

errors. The encoded data is reordered by the interleaver and transmitted over the

channel. As a result, error bursts are spread out in time so that errors within a

codeword appear to be independent. That way, a burst error affects only a correctable

number of bits in each codeword, so the decoder can decode the code words correctly.

A block interleaver formats the coded data in a rectangular array of m rows and n

columns. Then, this block is read by column as output.

Modulator

A modulator is a device that performs modulation, and serves as the interface

to the communication channel. The primary purpose of the digital modulator is to map

the binary information sequence into signal waveforms. Modulation is the process of

varying a waveform in order to use that signal to convey a message. I have use

Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM) as the modulation method. In our general

multiple antenna system, when it is a 2 * 2 MIMO system. The reason for doing this

is to reduce the computational complexity of the demodulation.

18

CHANNEL ESTIMATION

3.2.2 Receiver

Figure 3.2 shows the receiver of a general multiple antenna system. First the

received vector is sent to a demodulator. Then a block of Nt demodulated symbols is

converted from parallel to serial, deinterleavered and decoded. Thus the data

transmitted by Nt transmitting antennas are recovered at the receiver. We have two

different kinds of estimations in our general system, Zero- Forcing (ZF) demodulator

and Maximum-Likelihood (ML) demodulator. More detailed information about the

receiver modules are shown in the following parts.

Demodulator

A demodulator is used to recover the information content from the received

signal. The ML demodulator uses soft Maximum A-Posteriori (MAP) to perform

demodulation. The channel matrix remains multidimensional, which means we keep

all the inter-stream interferences during the demodulation. The MAP demodulator

calculates the value of Log Likelihood Ratio (LLR) to denote the belief in a certain

bit. In order to simplify the joint LLR calculation in the ML demodulator, we

introduce a ZF demodulator to our system. A ZF demodulator forces the interference

between streams which are transmitted from different transmitting antennas to zero.

We assume the interference can be nulled out completely, which means the channel

matrix is nulled to be a diagonal matrix. We call it a diagonal channel. Then we can

demodulate this diagonal channel with soft MAP demodulation.

Deinterleaver

At the receiver, after demodulation, a deinterleaver is employed to undo the

effect of the interleaver. The deinterleaver puts the data in proper sequence and passes

it to the decoder. It stores the data in the same rectangular array format as the

interleaver, but it is read out row-wise.

Decoder

A decoder is a device which does the reverse of an encoder, undoing the

encoding so that the original information can be retrieved. There are several

algorithms exist for decoding convolutional codes. We use the Viterbi algorithm for

convolutional decoding in this thesis. The Viterbi algorithm is universally used as it

19

CHANNEL ESTIMATION

calculated and interleavered LLR values. However, the complexity of the algorithm

increases exponentially with the constraint length of the convolutional code.

Therefore, the Viterbi algorithm can be applied only to codes with low constraint

length, as in our thesis, we use a convolutional code with constraint length 7.

3.3.1 Training Sequences

Once a model has been established, its parameters need to be continuously

updated (estimated) in order to minimize the error as the channel changes. If the

receiver has a-priori knowledge of the information being sent over the channel, it can

utilize this knowledge to obtain an accurate estimate of the impulse response of the

channel. This method is simply called Training sequence based Channel estimation

[2,3]. It has the advantage of being used in any radio communications system quite

easily. Even though this is the 0most popular method in use today, it still has its

drawbacks. One of the obvious drawbacks is that it is wasteful of bandwidth. Precious

bits in a frame that might have been otherwise used to transport information are

stuffed with training sequences for channel estimation. This method also suffers due

to the fact that most communication systems send information lumped frames. It is

only after the receipt of the whole frame that the channel estimate can be extracted

from the embedded training sequence. For fast fading channels this might not be

adequate since the coherence time of the channel might be shorter than the frame

time.

Blind methods on the other hand require no training sequences. They utilize

certain underlying mathematical information about the kind of data being transmitted.

These methods might be bandwidth efficient but still have their own drawbacks. They

are notoriously slow to converge (more than 1000 symbols may be required for an

FIR channel with 10 coefficients0). Their other drawback is that these methods are

extremely computationally intensive and hence are impractical to implement in real20

CHANNEL ESTIMATION

time systems. They also do not have the portability of training sequence-based

methods. One algorithm that works for a particular system may not work with another

due to the fact they send different types of information over the channel.

It is worth pointing out that most of the existing blind and semiblind MIMO

OFDM channel estimation methods are based on the second-order statistics of a long

vector whose size is equal to or larger than the number of subcarriers. To estimate the

correlation matrix reliably, they need a large number of OFDM symbols, which is not

suitable for fast time-varying channels. In addition, because the matrices involved in

these algorithms are of huge size, their computational complexity is extremely high.

In contrast, a linear prediction-based semiblind algorithm that is based on the secondorder statistics of a short vector with a size only slightly larger the channel length has

been found much more efficient than the conventional LS methods for the estimation

of frequency-selective MIMO channels.

3.4.1 Least Square channel estimation technique:

3.4.1.1 Channel estimator for single signal [4]:

Consider first a communication system, which is only corrupted by noise as

depicted in Fig.3.4 below. Digital signal is transmitted over a fading multipath

channel hL, after which the signal has memory of L symbols. Thermal noise is

generated at the receiver and it is modeled by additive white Gaussian noise n, which

is sampled at the symbol rate. The demodulation problem here is to detect the

transmitted bits a from the received signal y. Besides the received signal the detector

^

needs also the channel estimates h , which are provided by a specific channel estimator

device.

21

CHANNEL ESTIMATION

y Mh n

(3.1)

Where, the complex channel impulse response h of the wanted signal is expressed as

h h0

h1 hL

(3.2)

And n denotes the noise samples. Within each transmission burst the transmitter sends

a unique training sequence, which is divided into a reference length of P and guard

period of L bits, and denoted by

m m0

m1 mP L1

(3.3)

having bipolar elements mi {1,1} .Finally to achieve Eq. (3.1) the circulant

training sequence matrix is formed as

mL

m

M L 1

mL P 1

m1

m2

mP

m0

m1

mP 1

(3.4)

The LS channel estimates are found by minimizing the following squared error

quantity

^

h arg h min y Mh

(3.5)

^

hLS ( M H M ) 1 M H y

(3.6)

22

CHANNEL ESTIMATION

Where () H and () 1 denote the Hermitian and inverse matrices, respectively. The given

solution is also the Best Linear Unbiased Estimate (BLUE) for the channel

coefficients. The given solution is further simplified to

^

1 H

M y

P

(3.7)

provided that the periodic Auto-Correlation Function (ACF) of the training sequence

is ideal with the small delays from 1 to L, because the correlation matrix M H M

becomes diagonal. This holds for GSM training sequences, whenever reference length

16 is chosen. The estimates given by the last equation (3.7) are simply scaled

correlations between the received signal and training sequence.

Let us consider now a communication system in the presence of co-channel

interference that is shown in Fig.3.5. Two synchronized co-channel signals have

independent complex channel impulse responses hL,n h0,n , h1,n ,....., hL,n , n=1, 2 and

T

where L is the length of the channel memory. The sum of the co-channel signals and

noise n is sampled in the receiver. The joint demodulation problem is to detect the

transmitted bit streams a1 and a2 of the two users from the received signal y. To assist

that joint detection operation the joint channel estimator provides channel estimates

^

h1 and h2 .

23

CHANNEL ESTIMATION

~

~

hL ,1

h

hL , 2

(3.8)

hL ,n

h0,n

h

1, n

,

hL ,n

n = 1, 2

(3.9)

~

Hence, h has totally 2*(L+1) elements. Both the transmitters send their unique

training sequences with a reference length of P and guard period of L bits. The

sequences are denoted by

m0,n

m

1, n

, n = 1, 2.

mn

m P L 1,n

(3.10)

m1,n

mL , n

m

m2,n

L 1, n

Mn

mL P 1,n mP ,n

m0,n

m1,n

, n = 1, 2.

mP 1,n

(3.11)

~

M = [M1 M2]

(3.12)

~ ~

y M h n

(3.13)

24

CHANNEL ESTIMATION

The LS channel estimates can be found simultaneously for the both users by

minimizing the squared error quantity, which produces in the presence of AWGN the

following solution

^

~ ~ 2

~ H

~ H

h arg h min y M h ( M M ) M y

(3.14)

If the channel estimation errors are uncorrelated and the training sequences are

~ H

degraded approximately by the following factor

~ H

(3.15)

Hence, it is very important to design those two training sequences in the joint

channel estimation so that their cross-correlation is as low as possible to reduce noise

enhancement. For instance, the pair wise properties of the current GSM training

sequences are varying from excellent to very bad.

Simulation layouts for joint channel estimation and single channel estimation

are shown in Fig.3.4.3 and 3.4.4 respectively. In both cases there is similar co-channel

interference present, but only joint channel estimator takes it into account. In the latter

case, the interference can be modeled by any random binary signal, which is just

modulated and transmitted over a multipath channel. But for joint channel estimation

it is required to send a proper training sequence also for the interfering signal, hence

the burst formatting is very important for the interferer also. Shortly, joint channel

estimation requires more accurate modeling for the interferer, because the receiver

exploits some known information on the interference as well.

Another apparent difference between those two simulation cases is the

receiver structure. The joint channel estimator provides two sets of channel estimates,

whereas the conventional LS estimator gives only the estimates for the signal of

interest.

25

CHANNEL ESTIMATION

Fig. 3.6 Simulation layout for 2 co-channel signals and joint channel estimation

Fig. 3.7 Simulation layout for single signal with interference and LS channel

Estimation

26

SIMULATION RESULTS

CHAPTER 4

SIMULATION RESULTS

4.1 Performance of SISO Systems Using Least Square Channel Estimation Method.

In this simulation work, first the random bits to be transmitted are generated.

The pilots are inserted at the pilot locations and data bits at the data locations. These

are then modulated using different modulation techniques like BPSK, QPSK, 8-PSK

and 4-QAM. They are then transmitted over a rayleign fading channel through a

single transmitter antenna. Additive noise is added to the received signal. Now, since

the transmitted pilots and received pilots are known, the channel state information is

estimated using Least Square channel estimation technique. The detector at the

receiver utilizes this estimated channel to obtain the information out of the received

signal which is then demodulated to get random bits.

Parameters considered:

Frame length =10

Maximum number of errors =100

Maximum number of packets=100

Eb/No varying to 6Db

Number of Tx antennas=1

Number of Rx antennas=1

Number of pilot symbols per frame=8

27

SIMULATION RESULTS

28

SIMULATION RESULTS

29

CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION

The report highlights the channel estimation technique based on pilot aided

block type training symbols using LS algorithm. The Channel estimation is one of the

fundamental issues of MIMO system design. The transmitted signal under goes many

effects such reflection, refraction and diffraction. Also due to the mobility, the

channel response can change rapidly over time. At the receiver these channel effects

must be canceled to recover the original signal.

This report presents some approaches to model channel estimation. It is also

shown that the estimation is usually based on the known training bits and

corresponding received samples. In this report comparison between different channel

estimation techniques has been done. Different channel estimation techniques are

simulated in MATLAB.

The BER performance of Least Square channel estimation technique

isevaluated for BPSK for rayleign fading channel for SISO system.The simulation

resultsshow that for Rayleigh channel, the SNR required at BER of 10-2 at 16dB SNR.

30

FUTURE SCOPE

FUTURE SCOPE

MIMO has the potential to sufficiently increase the capacity and reliability of

the system due to the added spatial degree of freedom from multiple independent

paths. Moreover, the use of OFDM techniques makes the system robust to frequency

selective channels. However, these promising features of MIMO-OFDM system have

been difficult to deploy because of the complicated receiver structure due to the

additional unknown parameters. This leads to the extremely complicated channel

estimation schemes for MIMO-OFDM system.

31

REFERENCES

REFERENCES

[1]

Mean Square (LLMS) Algorithm For Channel Estimation In BPSK-QPSKPSK MIMO-OFDM System, IEEE Transaction 2013.

[2]

on Optimal

Pilots

Design

for

MIMO-OFDM Systems,IEEE

12th

623-626.

[3]

R S Ganesh and Dr. J. Jayakumari, Channel estimation analysis in mimoofdm wireless system, Proceedings of 2011 International Conference on

Signal

Processing,

Communication,

Computing

and

Networking

Technologies, 2011.

[4]

Spatial Multiplexing Using Least Square Method, 2011 International

Symposium on Intelligent Signal Processing and Communication Systems

(lSPACS) December 7-9,2011.

[5]

systems, IEEE Proceedings of the International Conference onPattern

Recognition, Informatics and Medical Engineering, March 21-23, 2012

[6]

Moinulhossain and S. M. Farhad, Performance analysis of RLS and VSSLMS channel estimation techniques for 4G MIMO OFDM systems, IEEE

transaction, 2012.

[7]

OFDM system using RLS Algorithm, 2011.

[8]

mimoofdm systems: time domain vs. freq. domain, IEEE CCECE, may 2004.

32

REFERENCES

[9]

Wireless Communications: Signal Detection With Enhanced Channel

Estimation, IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 50,

NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2002.

[10]

M.A.Mohammadi,

Performance

M.Ardabilipour

Comparison

of

,B.Moussakhani

RLS

and

LMS

and

Z.Mobini,

Channel

Estimation

International Conference on Wireless and Optical Communications Networks,

March 2008, pp. 1-5.

[11]

EstimationBased in Comb Type Pilots Arrangement for OFDM System over

Time Varying Channel, Journal Of Networks, vol. 5 no. 7, July 2010, pp.

702-706.

[12]

Systemsbased on Comb-Type Pilot arrangement in frequency selective

fadingchannels, IEEE Transaction on Wireless Communication,vol.2, no. 1,

May2009, pp 217-225.

[13]

Estimation

Using

Pilot

Carries

International

Journal

of

[14]

Osvaldo Simeone, Yeheskel Bar-Ness, Umberto Spagnolini , PilotBasedChannel Estimation for OFDM Systems by Tracking the DelaySubspace, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications,vol.3, no.1,

January 2004,pp.315-325.

[15]

forMulticarrier Signals in Fast and Selective Rayleigh Fading Channels,"

IEEE Transactions on Communications, vol. 49, No. 8, pp. 1375-1387, Aug.

2001.

[16]

Pearson Publication, Second Edition, 2009

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