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Guide to Protective Coatings:

Inspection and Maintenance


Tom N. Bortak

United States Department of the Interior


Bureau of Reclamation
Technical Service Center

September 2002

Acknowledgments
Several Reclam ation em p loyees help ed
p r ep a r e t h is g u id e, a n d th eir con tr ib u tio n is
gr ea tly ap p re ciate d . The se p eo p le ar e Ku rt F.
von Fay, m aterials engineer , w ho set u p
fu n d in g an d s h ow e d g re at p a tie n ce ov er th e
w r i tin g i n t erv al; D . Th o m as (T o m ) Jo h n son,
m ater ials en gine er, for h is corr osion exp ertise
co n t r ib u t i on ; G r e g o r y J. M y e r s a n d R ich a r d A .
Pe p in , m a t e rials en g in eerin g tech n ician s, for
th eir initial rev iew in ferretin g ou t obv iou s

er r or s; an d Ro b er t Ro od , ed ito r , for h is
n u m e r o u s I d o n ' t u n d e r s ta n d co m m e n t s th a t
forced m e into w riting a clearer, m ore concise,
a n d u n d er st a n d a b le d ocu m en t.
A d e b t o f g r a tit u d e is ex p r e ss ed t o N A C E
Inter n ation al, Society of Pro tective Co ating s,
a n d U n iv er sit y of M iss ou r i-Ro lla, C oa tin g
In s t it u t e fo r p r o v id in g a l l t h e co u r s e s a n d
references that m ad e this guid e p ossible.

Preface

In r e c en t y e a r s , co a t in g t e ch n o lo g y h a s
ch an g ed d ra m at ically . Th e d riv in g for ce
b e h i n d t h e ch an g e h as b een reg u latio n s
affecting the en vironm ent an d p ersonn el
h e a l t h a n d s afety . F o r ex am p le, reg u lations
r e la t ed t o d u s t p a r t icle s fr o m a b r a siv e b la s tin g ,
vo latile org an ic com p ou n d (VOC ) em ission s,
a n d h a z a r d o u s m a t e r ia ls su ch a s le a d ,
ch r o m a t e, a n d o t h er h e av y m e t a ls h av e
chan ged .
Before the late 1980s, coating m aterials w ere
m or e t ole ra n t o f less th an op tim u m su rfa ce
p r ep a r a tio n con d itio n s b eca u se p a in t
form u lation contained high VOC s to allow the
m ater ial to w et or p en etr ate st eel su rfaces. The
m o s t su cce ssfu l w e r e r ed le ad p r im e r s a n d
v in y l r es in s ; h o w e v e r , r eg u la tio n s h a v e
d isco u r a g ed th e u se of t h es e m a te r ials . Pa in t
m an u factu rers reform u lated their coatings to
com p ly w ith ne w regu lation s. This has led to
th e d ev elo p m en t o f a w id e v ar iety of h igh -tech
co a tin g m a te r ials th a t a r e m u ch m or e s en sit iv e
t o su r fa ce p r e p a r a t io n a n d e n v i r o n m e n t a l
a p p lica t io n p r a ct ice s . T h e Fe d e r a l H ig h w a y
A d m in ist r a tio n h a s e st im a te d th a t u p to 80
p e r c en t o f all p rem atu r e co atin g failu res on

b r id g e s tr u ctu r es ar e p a r tia lly or com p let ely


c a us e d by d e fic ie nt s ur fa c e p re p a ra tion or
a p p lic a tion p ra c tic es . Se ve ra l orga niz a tion s
s u c h a s th e A m e r ica n S ocie t y fo r T es t in g a n d
M aterials, N A CE Intern ational, and the
Society for Protective Co atings hav e issued
con se n su s st an d ar d s to m in im ize su rfa ce
p rep ara tion a n d ap p lication ina d equ acies.
Th is g u id e is n ot in te n d ed to b e a ll
e n c o m p a s sin g ; r a t h e r , it is in t e n d e d t o b e an
in t r o d u ct io n t o sp e c ific r e fe r e n ce st a n d a r d s
an d te st p ro ced u re s r ela te d to su rfa ce
p r e p a r a t i on , a p p lica t io n , te s tin g , a n d
m a in t e n a n c e o f co a t in g s . E xp la n a t io n s a n d
p r oc ed u r es of r efe r en ce s ta n d a r d s cit ed w ith in
this gu id e a re a bbre via te d to d e ve lop a
w o r k in g b a s i s. T h e u s e r is e n co u r a g e d t o r e ad
r e fe r e n ce st a n d a r d s a n d c o a tin g m a n u a ls fo r a
m or e t h or ou g h u n d er st a n d in g . Th e g u id e
focu se s o n n ew con st r u ctio n coa tin g s, ex ist in g
in f r a st r u c t u r e co a t in g m a in t e n a n c e , a n d
ga lva niz e d c oa tings of fe rrou s s ubs tra te s for
m et a lw or k ite m s co a te d in th e fie ld . In
ge ne ra l, this gu id e follow s the Bu re a u of
Re clam a tio n s (Re clam a tio n ) coa tin g g u id e
sp ecifications.

Contents

Page
Ch ap te r I In tro d u cti o n an d Back g ro u n d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1. St a n d a r d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2. Coating References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. T er m in o lo g y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. C o r ro s io n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5. Se r v ice Ex p o s u r e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1
1
1
1
1
5

Cha pte r II M a terials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


6. C o m p o n e n t s o f C o a t in g s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7. Coating Typ es . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8. G e n e r ic C o a t in g s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5
5
7
7

C h ap te r III S p e ci f icati o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9. Con stru ction Sp ecification Institu te . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10. R e clam atio n C o atin g S p ecificatio ns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11. Coating Tabu lations an d Categor ies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12. M an u factu rer's Prod u ct Data an d Ap p lication She ets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13. A d d e n d u m s a n d M o d ifica tio n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

11
11
11
12
13
14

Cha pte r IV I n s p ecto r's R o le . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


14. Prim ary Resp onsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15. Daily Respo nsibilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
16. M a t e r ia l A p p r o v a l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
17. Do c u m en tatio n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
18. In st r u m en ts , Ga u g es , an d To ols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
19. Su b s trate In s p ectio n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
20. Coating Insp ection Ch ecklist Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
21. P re coa tin g C on fer en ce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

15
15
15
16
16
17
17
17
17

Ch ap te r V M ate rial S to rag e , Co n tain e rs, an d S h e lf Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


22. St o r ag e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
23. C o n t a in e r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
24. Sh elf Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19
19
19
19

C h ap te r V I S u rf ace Pre p arati o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


25. Su rface Conta m inan ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
26. P re su r fa ce Tr ea tm e n t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
27. A b r a s i v e Bla s t M a t e r ia l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
28. N ozz le Blast Pressu re . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
29. Su r f ace P rep aratio n M eth o d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
30. P h o t o g r a p h i c In s p e c tio n St a n d a r d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
31. Al t ern ativ e Su rface P rep aratio n M e thod s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

21
21
23
23
24
25
27
30

vii

Page
C h ap te r V I I En v i ro n m e n t al Co n d i ti o n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
32. E n v ir o n m e n t a l Fa ct o r s A f fe ct in g C o a t in g s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Cha pte r VI II A p p licatio n a n d C u rin g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
33. Ap p licatio n T em p eratu re an d H u m id ity R e stric tions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
34. C o a t in g L a y er s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
35. M ixin g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
36. Ap p licatio n M eth o d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
37. A p p l ica t io n T ech n i q u e . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
38. D r y in g , Reco atin g , an d C u r in g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

35
35
35
36
36
39
39

Cha pte r IX Field I n s p ectio n a n d T es ti ng . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


39. Su rface Prep aration Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
40. W et Film Th ickn es s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
41. H ard ened Painted Su rfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
42. De stru ctiv e T es t M eth o d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

41
41
42
42
45

C h ap te r X M a i n te n an c e C o ati n g s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
43. De f in itio n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
44. Pu rp ose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
45. R isk E v alu atio n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
46. In sp ectio n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
47. Toxic-Based Paints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
48. W ork er Pr otection from Toxic-Based Paints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
49. L e a d E x p o s u re L ev els b y Rem o v a l M e thod s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
50. C o r rectiv e A ctio n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
51. M a t e r ia l Se le ct io n F act o r s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
52. Sch ed u lin g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

47
47
47
47
47
49
50
50
51
52
52

Cha pte r XI G a lv a n izin g . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


53. Ga l v an izin g M eth o d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
54. Z in c C or r os ion an d Ser v ice L ife . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
55. Z in c C h em i ca l Re actio n s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
56. Con tam inan ts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
57. Su r f ace P rep aratio n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
58. C o a t in g s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53
53
54
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55
57

Ch ap te r XII Co ati n g Failu res . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


59. M a t e rial Selectio n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
60. Fo r m u latio n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
61. Ad hes io n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
62. Su bstrate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
63. Ap p licatio n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
64. D e s ig n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
65. Exterior Forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

59
59
59
61
61
62
63
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Bi b li o grap h y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

viii

Appendices
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M

Or gan izationa l Sou rces for Stan d ard s and References


Read ing Sources
Insp ection Ch ecklist
Re fer en ce St a n d a r d s C ite d in G u id e
Inspection Equ ipm ent
Exam p le of Insp ection Daily Ch eck Sheet
P r oc ed u r e fo r D et ect in g M ois tu r e a n d O il in C om p r es se d A ir (A STM D 4285)
Pr o c e du re fo r D etectin g C h lo rid es and Solu ble Sa lts in A bra s ive s by C on d u c tivity M e thod
Proced u res for Detecting Ch lorid e Ion in W ater
P r o ce d u r e s fo r D e te r m i n in g Bla s t C le a n in g A i r P r es su r e
D e t er m in a t io n o f E n v ir o n m e n t a l Fa ct o r s
Proced u res for Detecting Ch lorid e Salts on P rep ared or Existing Su rfaces
D eter m inin g Su rface P ro file of Blast-Clean ed Steel Usin g Rep lica Tap e
(N A C E RP 0 28 7 o r A S T M D 4 41 7, M e thod C )
P r oc ed u r es for M ea su r in g W et Film Th ick n es s (A STM D 4414)
W e t Film T h ick n es s F o rmu las an d Exa m p le C a lcu la tions
P r oc ed u r es for D r y Film Th ick n es s G a u g es (SSPC -P A 2) an d Exa m p le
P r oc ed u r es for D isco n tin u ity (H olid a y ) Tes tin g (N A C E RP 0188)
P r oc ed u r e fo r M ech a n ical (P u lloff) A d h es ion Te st in g (A STM D 4541; An n ex A 2)
P r oc ed u r e fo r H y d r a u lic A d h es ion Te st in g (A STM D 4541; An n ex A 3)
P r o ce d u r e fo r M e a s u r in g D r y F ilm T h ick n e s s b y D e s tr u c t iv e M e a n s W i th T o o k e G a u g e
(A STM D 4138)
Pr o c e du res fo r SSP C-V IS 2 (2 00 0 R evis ion)
P r o ce d u r e to D e t er m in e t h e P r es en c e o f So lu b l e Le a d a n d In s o lu b l e Le a d C h r o m a t e in C o a t in g s
P r o ce d u r e to D e t er m in e t h e P r es en c e o f C h r o m a t e in C o a t in g s
D et er m in a tio n of T ox ic M et a ls in H a r d en ed P a in t

N
O
P
Q
R
S
T
U
V
W
X

Figures
Figure
1

Page
C o m p o n e n t s o f co a t in g s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Tables
T able
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

Page
N u m ber of spot m easu rem ents based on total coated sur face area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Typ ical and m axim u m lead exposu re levels in m icrogra m s per cubic meter
b y rem o v al m eth o d . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
G alv an izin g m eth o d s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fo r m u l a tio n -r e la t ed fa ilu r e s fo r o r g a n ic co a t in g s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Fo r m u l a tio n -r e la t ed fa ilu r e s fo r in o r g a n i c co a t in g s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ad hesion-related failu res . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Su bstrate-related failu res . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Ap p lication-related failures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Design-related failu res . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Failures related to exterior forces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

44
51
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61
62
63
64
66
67

ix

Chapter I
Introduction and Background
Pro tective or ind u strial coating s are th e
p r i m a r y m ean s em p lo y ed b y th e Bu reau of
R e cla m a t io n (Reclam atio n ) to co n tro l
co r r os ion . H y d r a u lic st r u ctu r es ar e t y p ically
co n s t ru c t ed w it h fe r r o u s m e t a ls a n d a r e
su b je ct t o co rro s io n . M an y Reclam atio n
s tr u c t u r e s a r e 50 y e a r s o ld , a n d s o m e a r e
a p p r o a ch i n g 100 y e a r s. T h e se st r u c tu r e s a r e
exp ected to continu e fun ction ing into th e
fo r e se e ab le fu t u r e . P r o te ct iv e co a t in g s
in flu en ce t h e life, sa fety , op er at in g efficien cy ,
ap p ear an ce, an d econo m y of th ese stru ctu res.
A coa tin g 's e ffect iv en es s d ep en d s o n se lect in g
coating m aterial that correctly m atches th e
in te n d ed se r v ice ex p o su r e fo r th e m eta lw or k .
In t h e p a s t, co a t in g m a t e r ia l s e le ct io n w a s
b a se d o n Fed eral, m ilitary , o r R eclam ation
form u lations; how ev er, nea rly all these
fo r m u l a tio n s h a v e b e en w it h d r a w n . T od a y ,
s e le ct io n i s b a s e d o n s e r v i ce e xp o s u r e t y p e a n d
th e r es u lts of a ccele r a te d p er for m a n ce t es tin g
of com m ercially av ailable p rod u cts.

1. Standards. F o rm erly , Reclam atio n


p r o v i d e d n arra tiv e s tan d ard s an d d efin i tions
fo r sp e c ify i n g m aterials, s u rface p r ep aration,
a p p lica t io n , a n d in s p e c tio n . H o w e v e r ,
Reclam ation n ow ad op ts ind u strial stand ard s,
w h e r e a p p licab le. T h e fo llo w in g o r g an iz a tions
(se e a p p e n d ix A fo r ad d res s es , telep h o n e
nu m bers, and w eb sites) are referenced
thro u gh ou t this guid e:

A m e rica n So cie ty fo r Te stin g an d


M a te r ials (A STM ).

N AC E Intern ational (form erly called


N atio n al A s s o ciatio n o f C o rro s ion
En g in ee r s) (N A C E).

So cie t y fo r P r o te ct iv e C o a tin g s
(form erly called Steel Stru ctures
P a in tin g C ou n cil) (SSPC ).

2. Coating References. Th e co atin g


insp ector is no t exp ected to h av e th e exp ertise
of a coa tin g ch em ical fo r m u lat or or a co a tin g
e n g i n e e r , b u t sh o u ld b e r e a so n a b l y fa m ilia r
w ith th e m a te r ials b ein g ap p lied . Th is g u id e is
in te n d ed to p r ov id ed th e m os t b a sic
b ack g ro u n d on g en er ic m at er ial ty p es , su rfa ce
p re p a ra tion, a pp lic a tion, a nd ins p e ction
m eth od s. The r ead er is en cou rag ed to p u rsu e
r ela ted co a tin g r efe r en ce s lis ted in ap p en d ix B.

3. Terminology. The w ord coating is a


gen eric term an d inclu d es p aint. In th e
m os t ge ne ra l te rm s , a c oa ting is prote c tion
a g a in s t co r r o s io n , w h e r e a s a p a i n t m a y
ha v e a d d itiona l prop e rtie s su c h a s color or
u l t ra v io le t s cr e e n in g p ig m e n t s. T h e te r m s
coating an d p aint are u sed interchang eably throu gh ou t this guid e.
O th er ter m s often u sed toge th er a re coating s
an d linin gs. In g en eral, w he n d escribing the
interior su rfaces of p ipes or tan ks, the term
linings is u s e d to ide n tify the inte rior
su rfaces an d coatings is u sed to iden tify th e
ext er io r su r fa ce s.

4. Corrosion. The p rima ry re a s on for


c oa ting s te e l is to pre ve n t corros ion. C orrosion
o f m e t a ls is a n e le ct r o ch e m ica l r e a ct io n t h a t
c a n be controlle d by inte rfe ring w ith on e or
m or e o f th e fo u r r eq u ir ed ele m en ts of a
co r r os ion cell: (1) an od e (co r r od in g ar ea );
(2) cath od e (non corrod ing ar ea); (3) electrolyte
(w a te r or m ois ture in a tm os ph e re , im m e rs ion,
or soil); an d (4) m etallic p ath (betw een tw o
d iffe r en t m eta ls o r w ith in th e sa m e m eta l).
Eliminate an y on e of the four requ ired
e le m e nts a nd the c orros ion p roc e ss w ill s to p.
The m os t com m on typ e s of c orrosion
e nc oun te re d on R e cla m a tion fe rrous
m etalw ork ar e:

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


(a) U niform Co rrosio n. C o r r o s io n t h a t
oc cu r s m or e o r les s u n ifor m ly an d r es u lts in
ru st and m etal loss over th e m etal sur face.
(b) G alvanic C orro sion. C o r r o s io n t h a t
occu rs on the m ore active m etal of tw o
d issim ilar m etals that are electrically coup led
to g eth er in th e sa m e electr o ly te (e.g ., w a te r ).
The m ore active m etal w ill corrod e.
(c) Crevice Co rrosio n. C rev ice co r ros ion
is a for m of lo ca lize d cor r os ion th a t o ccu r s in
c r e v ic es w h ere th e en v iro n m en t d iffers from
th e su r r ou n d in g bu lk en v ir on m e n t . Th e
d iffe r e n t e n v iro n m en ts res u lt in co rro s ion
b e c a u se o f d ifferen ces in co n cen tratio n
(e.g ., oxy g en , p H , an d fer r ic ion s). If th er e is
a n o x y g e n co n cen tratio n d ifferen ce, co rrosion
w ill pr oceed at crev ices w h ere th ere is less
o xy g en th a n in th e en v ir on m e n t su r r ou n d in g
the crev ice. Crev ices are form ed w he n tw o
su rfa ces ar e in p ro xim ity to on e a n ot h er , su ch
a s w h e n t w o m etal s u rfaces are ag ain s t one
a n o t h e r , w h en a g as k et is ag ain s t a s u rfa ce , or
w h en an g le ir o n s a r e p la ce d b a ck to b a ck .
Cre vice corro sion can occu r u nd er d ep osits
(e .g ., b a r n acles , d irt, g reas e, an d s lim e) on a
m et al s u rfa ce.
(d) Pittin g corrosio n. A form of localized
co r r os ion w h er e t h e d ep th of p en et r a tio n is
g r e a t er t h a n t h e d ia m e t er o f t h e a ffe ct e d a r e a .

red ep osit of th e cath od ic con stitu en t. The


elem en t rem ove d is alw ays an od ic to the
m atrix. With d ealloying , there is n o m etal loss,
d im en sion ch an ges, cracks, or gr oov es;
how ever, the affected area m ay be ev iden t
because of a color cha ng e. The affected area
b e co m e s lig h t e r , p o r o u s , a n d lo s e s it s o r ig in a l
m ech a n ical p r op er tie s (i.e., it b eco m es b r itt le
a nd los e s te ns ile s trength ). Tw o c omm on
form s of d ealloying ar e:
De zincifica tion. The s e le ctive d is s olu t ion
of zinc from brass alloys. It is recognized by a
c olor c ha nge (e .g., from its origina l ye llow
b r a s s co lo r t o a d i st in c tly r e d , co p p e r y
a p p ea r a n ce).
De grap hitization. Th e se le ct iv e
d issolu tion o f iron from som e cast iron s,
u su ally gra y cast iron s. It norm ally p roceeds
u n ifo r m ly in w a r d f r o m t h e s u r fa ce , le a v in g a
p orou s m a trix a lloy tha t is c omp os e d m os t ly of
ca r b o n . D e g r a p h i t iz a t io n c an b e r e co g n iz e d b y
a c ha nge from a n origina l s ilve r-gra y c olor t o a
d ar k g ra y . Th e a ffecte d m et al ca n b e e as ily cu t
or p ierced w ith a k nife.

5. Service Exposure. Coatings are sp ecified


by ser vice exposu re or th e env ironm en t the
co a t in g w ill b e su b je ct to . T h e fo llo w in g a r e
t h e b a sic s er v ice e xp o s u r e s d e fin e d b y
R e cla m a tion:

(e) Cavita tion corro sion. The m etal loss


c a u se d b y th e fo rm atio n an d co llap s e o f va p or
bu bb les in a liqu id n ear a m etal su rface. The
a p p e a r a n ce o f ca v it a tio n is sim ila r t o p i t tin g ,
e x ce p t t h a t p i t te d a r e a s a r e clo s e ly s p a c e d a n d
the su rface is consid erably rou gh ened .

Bu r ia l

(f) Erosion-corro sion. The accelerated


m etal loss from an initial corro sion m echa n ism
a s so cia t e d w it h h i g h - v e lo cit y flo w s a n d
abrasion. Erosion-corrosion is cha racterized
by g roov es, gu llies, w aves, and rou nd ed
r id g e s o r v a lle y s a n d e x h ib it s a d ir e ct io n a l
flo w p a t t e r n .

Im m e rs ion

C om p let e, p a r tia l, or flu ctu a tin g


im m ersion cond ition s

A tm osp he ric exp osu re su bject to


cond en sation , high h u m id ity, sp lash,
or spray

The follow ing s u be xpos u re cond it ions


m ay ap p ly to any of the abov e:

(g) Dealloying o r Selective L eaching. Th e


s e le ct iv e r e m o v a l o f o n e o f t h e e le m e n t s o f a n
alloy b y either p referen tial attack or com p lete
d is so lu t i on o f t h e m a t r ix , fo llo w e d b y

A tm os p h er ic

N
N

In d o o r s
Ou tdoors

Introduction and Background

D i r ect su n l ig h t o r U V : s e v e r a l
co a tin g s, su ch as ep ox ies , w ill
d eteriorate by cha lking w hen
exp osed to su nlight.

Ch em ical resistance: exposu res


m a y in clu d e acid ic o r a lk alin e
co n c en t r a t io n s , in d u s t r ia l s m o g ,
a cid r a in , sew a g e, o r sp ecific
chem icals.

Chapter II
Materials
C o a t i n g fo rm u latio n is g en erally b as ed on
organ ic, inorgan ic, p olym er, an d co-p olym er
ch em ist r y . It is n ot th e in te n tio n of t h is
chap ter to d iscu ss coating chem istry b u t,
r a th er , to p r ov id e a b a sic k n ow led g e o f coa tin g
com p onen ts and gen eric coating typ es
sp e c ifie d b y R eclam atio n .

6. Components of Coatings. A ll or g a n ic
co a tin g s co n sis t of t h r ee b a sic co m p o n en ts:
(1) so lv en t, (2) r es in , an d (3) p ig m en t. N ot all
coating s contain solven t and p igm ented
co m p on en ts . Th er e a r e s olv en t-fr ee (100
p ercent solids) coating s an d clear, p igm en tfree coating s, bu t n ot resin -free coat ings.
C oa tin g ch em ical fo r m u lat or s co m m on ly
gro u p solvent, resin, and p igm en t com p on en ts
in t o t w o g e n e r a l ca t eg o r ie s. T h e fir s t ca t eg o r y
co m b in es t h e so lv en t a n d th e r esin to g eth er .
Th e s olv en t p or tio n is ca lled th e v ola tile
veh icle, an d the r esin p ortion is called th e
n on volatile veh icle. The com bination of the
so lv en t a n d th e r es in , w h er e t h e r es in is
d is so lv e d in t h e s o lv e n t , is ca lle d t h e v e h i cle .
The secon d category is the p igm en t. Pigm en ts
are ad d itives th at im p art sp ecific pr op erties to
the coating an d are su bd ivided into tw o

So lv en t
(Volatile)

Re sin
(No nv olatile)

g e n e r a l ca t e g o r ie s : (1) co lo r a n d (2) in e r t a n d
r ein for ced . Figu r e 1 illu st r a te s t h e r ela tio n sh ip
of these com p on en ts.
W hen a coating is ap p lied , the solvent
ev a p or a te s d u r in g th e cu r in g p r oc es s, lea v in g
only the re s in a n d the p igm e nt c omp one n ts on
t h e s u b s t r a te . T h e r e m a i n in g r e s in a n d
p ig m en ts ar e s om et im es calle d th e co a tin g
s olid s , a nd the y form the p rote ctive film for
co rr osio n p r ote ctio n .
(a) So lvent. Or gan ic solven ts are form u lated
in t o co a t in g s t o p e r f or m t h r e e e ss e n t ia l
fun ction s: (1) dissolve the r esin com p on en t;
(2) co n t r o l e v a p o r a t i o n fo r film fo r m a t io n ; a n d
(3) re d u c e the c oa ting v is cos ity for e a s e of
a p p licat ion . Solv en ts w ill als o a ffect d r y film
a d h es ion an d d u r a b ility coa tin g p r op er tie s. In
g e n e r a l, r e sin s t h a t a r e le ss so lu b l e w i ll r e q u i re
either m ore solven ts or stron ger solven ts to
d issolve th e resin s.
T h e te r m s s o lv e n t s a n d t h in n e r s a r e
o ft e n u s e d i n t er ch a n g e a b ly , b u t t h e r e ar e
d ist in ctio n s w ith in an d b etw een th e tw o te r m s.
The term solvent can im p ly tw o d ifferen t
u sa g es : (1) th e s olv en t o r so lv en t b len d s in
the coating form u lation a t p red eterm ined

C olor
Pigm en ts

Ve h icle

In e rt a n d
Reinforced

P ig m e n t

C oa tin g
Figure 1.Com ponents of coatings.

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


co n cen tr a tio n lev els ; or (2) clea n in g so lv en ts in
st r on g con cen tr a tio n st r en g th for clea n in g
b r u sh es, r o lle r s, h o se s, a n d oth er eq u ip m en t.
The u sage of the ter m th inn er (a thin n er is a
solven t) is m ost often associated w ith the
c o a tin g a p p licato r ad d in g a th in n er to a
co a tin g con ta in er (n or m a lly ab ou t 1 p in t
thin ne r to 1 gallon of coating ) to red u ce the
v isco sit y for ea se of a p p licat ion . A d d in g
thinn er to a coating in the field is often called
fie ld th in n in g .
Th e m a n u fact u r er s p r od u ct d a ta sh ee t w ill
s p e cify a t h in n e r a n d a m a x im u m a m o u n t to b e
u sed for each coating typ e. Use of a thinner
n o t r e co m m e n d e d b y t h e m a n u fa ct u r e r c a n
c a u se n u m ero u s ap p licatio n p ro b lems o r
p r e m a t u r e failu res s u ch as s ep aratio n o f
c o m p o n e n ts , co ag u latio n , to o fas t o r to o s low
d r y i n g , c h a n g es in flo w ch aracteris tics, or
liftin g of p r ev iou s co a ts . Th e fo llow in g
com m on th inners ar e u sed w ith th e associated
gen eric coatin g ty p es:
T h in n e r s

C o a t in g s

M ineral sp irits

O ils an d alk y d s

Ar om atics (ben zene,


xylol, tolu ole)

Co al tar ep oxies,
alkyd s, chlorina ted
rubbers

Keton es (MEK,
M IBK)

Vinyls, ep oxies,
u rethan es

A lcoh ols (iso p r op y l)

P h en olics , in or g a n ic
zin cs

W ater

A cry lics, s o m e
in or g an ic zin cs

So lv e n t s p r o d u ce v a p o r s t h a t a r e h e a v ie r t h a n
air and w ill collect in tank b ottom s or confined
a r ea s. Th e k et on es h a v e t h e lo w es t fla sh p oin t
of the or gan ic solven ts; how ever, any solven t
in t h e r i g h t co m b in a t io n w it h a ir ca n c r e a te a n
e x p l o siv e co m b in atio n .
Fed er a l, Stat e, co u n ty , city , an d loca l air
q u a l it y co n tro l d is tricts reg u late th e am ou nt of
v o la tile or g a n ic so lv en ts (VO C ) in co a tin g s. A s
the coating cures, VOC s evap orate into the

a tm os p h er e a n d r ea ct w ith su n lig h t a n d air


p o llu t a n t s to fo r m o z o n e , a k n o w n h u m a n
h ea lth h a z a r d . In r es p on se , coa tin g
m a n u fact u r er s h a v e r efo r m u lat ed th eir
p rod u cts w ith low er solvent content to m eet
cu rre n t VO C r egu lations.
R ecla m a t io n s p e cifica t io n s r eq u i r e th e co a t in g s
to m e e t the V O C re gu la tions in-the -ca n or
a s-m a n u fact u r ed b efo r e fie ld th in n in g . Field
thin nin g of a coating tha t w ill exceed the
r eg u la te d VO C m a xim u m is n ot p er m itte d .
Reclam ation sp ecifies coating s based on the
cu rr en t En v iro n m en ta l Pr ot ect ion A g en cy
(EPA) VO C lim its.
(b) Resin. The resin (frequ ently called
b in d er ) is th e film for m in g com p on en t o f a
co a t in g . Re s in s a r e t y p i ca lly a h i g h m o le cu la r
w e ig h t s olid p o l y m e r t h a t fo r m s la r g e
rep eatin g m olecu les in th e cu red film . The
p rim ary p u rp ose of the resin is to w et the
p igm ent p articles and bind the p igm ent
p articles together a nd to the su bstrate (hen ce,
the te rm bind e r ). The re s in im p a rts m ost of
the c oa ting p rop e rtie s . The va rious typ e s o f
r e s in s fo r m u la t e d i n a co a t in g w ill d is p l a y
d istinct p rop erties. These p rop erties are:

M e ch a n ism a n d t im e o f cu r in g
P e r fo r m a n c e in s e r v ice e xp o s u r e ty p e
P e r fo r m a n c e o n s u b s t r at e t y p e
C o m p a t ib ilit y w i t h o th e r co a t in g s
Flexibility an d tou gh n ess
Ext er ior w ea th er in g
A d he s ion

N o s ingle re s in c a n a c hie ve a high d e gre e o f


su cces s in m ee tin g th e a b ov e co a tin g
p rop erties w ith w ide v ariations associated
w ith ea ch p r op er ty . Th er efo r e, g en er ic coa tin g
t y p e s a re g e n e r ally cla s sifie d b y t h e p r im a r y
r esin ty p e u se d in th e co a tin g fo r m u la tion .
Typ ical resin s ar e acry lics, alky d s, and ep oxy
p olym ers.
(c) Pigm ent. P ig m e n t s a r e in s o lu b l e an d a r e
t h e h e a v i er s o lid p o r t io n o f a co a t in g t h a t
ty p ica lly se tt les t o th e b ott om of th e co n ta in er .
P ig m en ts ar e a d d itiv es to th e co a tin g
form u la tion th a t im p a rt s pe c ific prop e rtie s t o

Materials
ach ieve t h e d esired film p ro p ert ies. Th e
fo llo w in g p r o p e r t ie s a r e acco r d e d b y
p igm ents, and a brief d escription is prov ided
fo r e ach .
Co lor. N a tu r a l ea r th p ig m en ts (k a olin
clay, m agn esiu m silicate, calciu m carbona te)
p rov id e color stab ility from u ltrav iolet (UV)
su nlight d eterioration. N atu ral earth p igm en ts
a r e m or e U V s ta b le t h a n sy n th et ic or g a n ic
p igm en ts.
Opacity. Titan ium oxide h ides th e
s u b s t r a t e o r p r e v i o u s c oa t in g c o lo r a n d
p r o t e ct s t h e b in d e r fr o m U V s u n l ig h t
d e te rio ra tio n .
Wet pa int. Silica an d talc co n tro l
v isco sit y , w et film lev elin g , an d se tt lin g b u t
p r o v i d e lit tle h id in g ( op a c it y ) p o w e r .
Weath er an d m oisture resistance.
A lu m in u m lea fs a n d m icac eo u s ir on ox id e
(M IO ) in cre as e b ar rie r t h ickn es s a n d for ce
m o is tu r e t o d e t o u r a r o u n d t h e se p l at e -lik e
ad d itive s.
Co rrosio n resistance. Pigm en ts ad d ed to
in h ib i tiv e (p rim er) co atin g s im p ed e co rr os ion
o f fe r r o u s s u b s trates . P as t fo rm u latio n s
in clu d ed ch r o m a te an d lea d p ig m en ts , b u t
t h e y a r e se ld o m u s ed to d ay b ecau s e o f
en vir on m en tal an d h ealth con cern s. The
fo llo w in g c h r o m a t e a n d le a d p ig m e n t s a r e
rar ely u sed in cu rre n t coating form u lations:

R ed le a d
W h i te le a d
Basic lead silico-chrom ate
Stron tium chrom ate
Zinc chrom ate

Th e fo llow in g ar e a ccep ta b le a lte r n a tiv e


inh ibitive p igm en ts:

Bariu m m etabor ate


Calciu m p ho sp ho silicate
Z in c ox id e
Zinc p ho sp ha te
Zinc m olybd ate
Zinc p ho sp ho silicate

Mildew resistance. M ild e w c id e s p r ev en t


m ild e w g r o w t h o n t h e d r y f ilm co a t in g .
Skid or slip resistan ce. A lu m in u m oxid e
o r m i n er al a gg re ga te is a d d e d in th e
form u lation or ap p lied to the w et film to
a ch iev e n on slip su r face s. A lu m in u m ox id e is
the b etter choice because m ineral agg rega te
m a y b e cr u sh e d u n d e r w e ig h t, p r o vid in g
m o istu r e a cce ss to th e su b str ate , a n d
p r o m o t in g f u r t h e r c o a tin g d e g r a d a t io n a n d
co rr osio n .

7. Coating Types. The follow ing are th ree


ba sic typ es of coatings:
(a) Ba rrier. A coating th at form s a
bar rier betw een the m etal sur face an d the
electr oly te an d electr ica lly iso la te s t h e m eta l.
Exam p les are ep oxies an d coal tar ep oxies.
(b) Inh ibitive. P ig m e n t in a co atin g
p r im e r t h a t is slig h t l y so lu b le in w a t e r th a t
for m s a ch em ical in h ib ito r an d effe ctiv ely
in t e r fe r e s w it h t h e e le ct r o ly t e . E xa m p le s a r e
red lead and chrom ate p rim ers (no long er
a ccep ta b le).
(c) Ga lvanic. Z in c -r ich p r im e r co a t in g s
tha t p rov ide g alvan ic or catho d ic p rotection to
fer ro u s m et al (z in c sa crifices itse lf to p ro te ct
t h e fe r r o u s m e t a l). G a lv a n i c co a t in g s a r e
effe ctiv e o n ly if ap p lied d ir ect ly to b a r e m et a l.

8. Generic Coatings. Th e fo llow in g g en er ic


co a tin g s a n d g en er a l d es cr ip tio n s a r e t y p ically
s pe c ifie d by R e cla m a tion:
(a) Acrylics. In w a te r -b or n e a cr y lic
coating s, the r esin is d ispersed in w ater to
for m a w at er em u lsion . W at er -bo rn e a cry lics
are sp ecified for atm osp h eric expo su res as a
p r im e r o r t op co a t a n d h a v e e x ce lle n t co lo r a n d
gloss retention. Acrylics cure by coalescence.
(b) Alkyds. A l k y d s a r e n o r m a lly n a t u r a l
oils (soya, tu ng , styrenate) that h ave been
chem ically m od ified to im p rove cu re rate,
ch em ical r es ista n ce, an d h ar d n es s. Ph en olicm o d ifie d a lk y d s a r e s p e c ifie d a s a p r i m e r , a n d
s ilic one a lkyd s a re s pe c ifie d a s the topc oa t for
a tm os ph e ric se rvice e xpos u re s . The y a re not

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


s u i ta b le fo r a lk a lin e (co n c re t e o r m a s on r y )
su r face s o r en v ir on m en ts . A lk y d s cu r e b y air
oxid ation of d ry ing o ils.
(c) Bitumin ous. Bit u m in o u s co a t in g s a r e
h ea v y -bo d ied m at er ials a p p lied w ith a cu tb ack
solven t. They h ave go od m oistu re barr ier
re sist an ce a n d fair to g oo d ch em ical r es ista n ce
b u t a r e n o t r es is t an t t o so lv e n t s . C o m m e r cia l
bitum inou s pr od u cts are sp ecified on a lim ited
b a sis b y R e clam atio n fo r p ro tectio n o f
alum inu m su rfaces in contact w ith
cem en tit iou s m a te r ial o r st ee l an d cop p er cab le
w e ld co n n e c tio n s . Bit u m in o u s co a t in g s cu r e
b y so lv en t e va p o ra tio n .
(d) Ep oxy, Am ine. A m in e e p o x ie s a r e
tw o-com p onen t coatings that are catalyzed
(hard en ed ) by an am ine cur ing ag en t to
p r o d u ce a h a r d , t ig h t l y b o n d e d , ch e m ica l
r esis ta n t (a lk a li, a cid , an d so lv en t) p r o d u ct, b u t
t h ey a re m o is tu r e a n d t em p e r a tu r e se n sit iv e
d u r i n g a p p licatio n . Th ey are s p ecified for
b u r i a l a n d im m e r sio n s e rv ice e xp o s u r e s, b u t
th ey w ill fa d e an d ch a lk in d ir ect su n lig h t.
Am in e e p o x ies cu re b y ch em ical reactio n.
(e) Ep oxy, Polyam ide. Polyam ide ep oxies
are tw o com p onen t coatings that are catalyzed
b y a p oly am id e cu rin g ag en t to p ro d u ce
su p erior r esistance to w ater an d salt solution s,
b u t t h e y d o n o t p r o v i d e t h e c h e m ica l
resistance of the am ine ep oxy. Polyam ides
h a v e a g r ea te r flexib ility th a n th e a m in e
e p o x ie s . T h e y a r e sp e cifie d fo r b u r ia l a n d
im m er sio n se r v ice e xp os u r es , bu t t h ey w ill
fad e a n d ch a lk in d ir ect su n lig h t. P oly a m id e
e p o x ie s cu re b y ch em ical reactio n .
(f) Epo xy, Coal Tar. C o a l t a r ep o x ie s a r e
ge n era lly a n am ine o r p olya m id e ep oxy
m od ified w ith coal tar pitch r esin to p rod u ce a
h i g h -b u ild film t h a t h a s g o o d c h e m ica l
resistance and excellent w ater resistance. They
h a v e a t e n d e n c y to b e co m e b r it t le w it h a g e a n d
d ela m in a te b et w ee n coa ts or b en ea th r ep a ir
p a t ch e s . T h e y a r e sp e cifie d fo r b u r ia l a n d
im m er sio n se r v ice e xp os u r es , bu t t h ey w ill
fa d e a n d ch a l k in d ir e ct su n l ig h t . C o a l t a r
e p o x ie s cu re b y ch em ical reactio n .

(g) Epoxy, Fusio n-Bo nde d. Fus ionbon d ed ep oxies (com m only called p ow d er
coating s) are com p lete coating s in p ow d er
form . The re a re tw o ap p lication m eth od s,
flu idized -bed an d electrostatic. In the
flu i d i z ed -b e d m e t h o d , t h e m e t a l it e m s a r e
p r eh e ate d to a fu s io n te m p e r atu r e a n d
im m er se d in th e p ow d er -ep ox y so lu tio n . In
the electrostatic meth od , the ep oxy p ow d er
p a r t icle s a r e ch a r g e d w it h h i g h v o l ta g e , a n d
t h e m e t a l it e m i s t h e n s p r a y e d . A ft e r s p r a y in g ,
the ite m is pla ce d in a n ove n to c ure a t a bo u t
350 to 650 d e gre e s Fa hre n he it (F). Fus ionb o n d e d e p o x ie s a r e s p e c ifie d fo r b u r ia l a n d
im m er sio n se r v ice e xp os u r es , bu t t h ey w ill
fa d e a n d c h a lk in d ir e ct su n lig h t a n d a r e
brittle. A n ew m aterial is fu sion-bon d ed
nylon. This ma te ria l is s up e rior to the fu s io nbon d ed ep oxy an d w ill be incorp orated into
Re clam a tio n 's sp ecifica tio n . Po w d er coa tin g s
cu r e b y fu sio n (h ea t).
(h) Ino rgan ic Zinc Prim ers. In or g a n ic
z in c s a r e p r im e r s t h a t in c o rp o r a t e a h ig h
loa d ing (p ou nd s pe r ga llon) of m e ta llic z in c for
p ig m e n t a t io n ( h e n c e, t h e t er m z in c -r ich ) a n d
a r e e ith er so lv en t o r w a te r b a se d . D ep en d in g
on th e s olv en t a n d r es in s u se d , th e co a tin g
m ay be a zinc-rich ep oxy o r u reth an e. Th ese
coating s are exclusively p rim ers because th ey
p rovid e galvan ic or cathod ic p rotection to steel
s ub s tra te. Inorg a nic z inc s a re sp e cifie d for
atm osp h eric and im m ersion serv ice exp osu res,
b u t t h ey can b e t op co a te d to ex te n d th eir
s e rvic e life . Su ita ble topc oa t m a te ria l s e le ct ion
is requ ired to p rev en t ou t-gassing from the
in or g a n ic zin c th a t p r od u ces sm a ll p in h ole s in
th e t op co a t. Re clam a tio n sp ecifie s in or g a n ic
zinc coatings only to fraying su rfaces or heated
tre ated m etalw or k (A STM A 325 or A STM
A 4 90). A p p lica t io n r e q u ir e s sp e cia l s k ills a n d
kn ow ledge. Inor gan ic zincs cure by either
re a c tion to w a te r (s olve n t re du c ible ) or
r ea ctio n to car b on d iox id e (w a te r r ed u cib le).
(i) Organic Zinc Prim ers. O rg an ic zin cs
a r e p r im er s t h a t in cor p or a te a h ig h loa d in g
(p ou nd s pe r ga llon) of m e ta llic z inc for
p igm en tation w ith a w ide v ariety of solven ts
a n d r esin s. D ep e n d in g on th e so lv en t a n d

Materials
re sin s u se d , th e co at in g m ay b e a zin c-rich
alkyd , d rying oil, ep oxy, or m oistu re-cu red
u r et h a n e. Th es e co a tin g s a r e e xclu siv ely
p r im er s b eca u se th ey p r ov id e g a lv a n ic
p rotection to steel substr ate or th ey ar e u sed to
rep air da m aged galvan ized coatings on steel
su b st r a t es. O rg an ic zin cs are sp ecified for
at m os p h er ic, bu ria l, an d im m er sio n se rv ice
exp osu res bu t are n orm ally top coated to
ex te n d th e s er v ice life of t h e co a tin g . Su ita b le
top coat m aterial selection is requ ired to
p r ev en t o u t-g a ss in g fr o m th e or g a n ic z in c.
O u t-gassing p rod u ces sm all p inh oles in th e
top coat. The w ay org an ic zincs cure d ep end s
on th e coating typ e.
(j) Polyu rethane . T ech n i ca lly ,
p o ly u r e t h an e is a s u b clas s o f u reth an e. A tw oco m p o n e n t p o ly u r e t h a n e is cr e a te d b y
ch e m ica lly c om b in i n g a p o ly is o y a n a t e a n d a
p o ly o l to p r o d u ce an is o cy an ate th at h as a tw om o d e cu r e m e ch a n ism o f so lv en t e va p o ra tio n

an d chem ical reaction. Reclam ation specifies


p oly u r eth a n es fo r to p co a tin g co m p a tib le (i.e.,
sa m e m a n u fact u r er ) am in e a n d p oly a m id e
e p o x ie s t o p r o t ect a g ain s t d i r ect su n lig h t
or U V a n d to p r ov id e sp ecific co lo r s.
P oly u r et h a n es ar e s p ecifie d for at m os p h er ic
an d p ar tia l or flu ctu at in g im m er sio n se rv ice
exp osu res.
(k) Urethane . U r e t h a n e co a t in g s v a r y
w id ely in for m u lat ion s for sp ecific ser v ice
en v ir on m en ts an d ap p lica tion r eq u ir em en ts .
Reclam ation sp ecifies sing le-com p on en t,
m ois ture -cu re d u re tha n e s . The y c ure from
m oistu re in the atm osp her e and can be ap p lied
to d am p sur faces that d o no t hav e free
m o is tu r e p r e se n t . T h e se u r e t h a n e s a r e
fo r m u la t e d w it h v a r i o u s p i g m e n t a t io n s a n d
a r e s p ecifie d in se v er a l com b in a tio n s t o s u it
th e inten d ed serv ice exp osu re. These
u r et h a n es ar e s p ecifie d for at m os p h er ic, bu r ial,
an d im m ersion exp osu res.

Chapter III
Specifications
Reclam ation constru ction jobs are ad vertised
t o co n t r a ct o r s t o p e r fo r m t h e r eq u i r e d w o r k ,
a n d con tr a cto r se lect ion is m a d e b y a b id
p r o c e ss. T h e m o s t co m m o n b id ty p es are low
p r ice , n eg o tia te d , fixe d co st , an d so le so u r ce .
O n ce Re cla m a tio n acce p ts a co n tr a cto r s b id , a
contra ct exists betw een Reclam ation an d the
contractor. The contract is often called a
sp ecification. The sp ecification can be d efined
a s a w r i tt e n , d etailed , tech n ical d es crip tion of
w o rk to be p er fo rm e d , d e scr ib in g th e
m a te r ia ls, q u a n tities, a n d m o d e of
co n str u ctio n .
Sp e cific a tio n s are d iv id ed in to m an y d ivis ions
t o d e s cr ib e t h e v a r io u s jo b r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d
m a y in clu d e ge n er al jo b d e scr ip t io n ,
su bm ittals, p re-existin g con d ition s,
e n v i r o n m e n t a l r e q u i r e m e n t s , a n d t e ch n ica l
a r ch ite ctu r a l, civil, e lect r ical, m ech a n ical,
co a tin g , an d ca th o d ic p r o te ctio n d isc ip lin es.
E a ch d iv i sio n i s s o m e t im e s ca lle d a t e ch n ica l
p a r ag ra p h o r se ctio n .

9. Construction Specification Institute.


Re clam a tio n h a s ch a n g ed fro m a n a r r a tiv e
p a r a g r a p h fo rm at to th e C o n s tru ctio n
Sp e cific a tio n In s titu te (CSI) fo rm at fo r
sp ecifications. CSI form at style is m ore concise
an d u se s im p er at iv e la n g u ag e. Refe re n ce
st a n d a r d s a re s p ecified to d es crib e q u ality of
m a t e r ia ls , w o r k m o d e , t e st m e t h o d s , a n d
accep tance criteria tha t are a recognized
in d u st r y p r actice, th u s red u cin g th e n eed for
len g th y v er b iag e. Th e m os t co m m on re fer en ce
s ta n d a r d s u s ed in t h e co a t in g s in d u s t r y a r e
A ST M , N A C E , a n d SSP C .
C SI sp e c ificatio n s are d iv id ed in to 1 6 d ivis ions
fo r a l l t h e bu ild in g trad es , an d each d iv i s ion
m a y b e fu r th er d iv id ed in to sp ecia lity se ctio n s.
F in i sh e s a r e D iv i sio n 9 , a n d p a in t a n d
p ro te ctiv e co at in g s a re Sectio n 09900. Ea ch
se ctio n is su b d iv id ed in to th e fo llow in g b a sic
p arts:

P a rt 1 : G e nera l.Includ es cost,


r efer en ce s, s u b m itta ls, q u a lity ass u r a n ce ,
d elive ry , stora ge, ha n d lin g, an d restr ictions.
P a rt 2: P rod uct .Includ es requ irem en ts
for m aterials to be u sed
P a rt 3 : Execut i o n.Inclu d e s m od e of
co n s t r u c t io n , te s t m e t h o d s , a cce p t a n c e cr it e r ia ,
and repair

10. Reclamation Coating Specifications.


The Techn ical Service Cen ter (TSC) in D env er
m a in ta in s C SI g u id elin e co a tin g sp ecifica tion s.
The g u ideline coating sp ecification s are th e
b a s is fo r s p e c ific p r o je ct r e q u i r em e n t s a n d a r e
b a se d on h ist or ica l Re cla m a tion st r u ctu r es.
Th e g u id elin e s p ecifica tio n s co n ta in
instru ction al notes an d footnotes to aid the
sp ecification w riter in p rep aring the
sp ecificat ion s to m ee t sp ecific p ro ject
r eq u ir em en ts . Th e g u id elin e co a tin g
sp ecifica tion s ar e av a ila b le on Recla m a tion s
in tr a n et w eb sit e: <h tt p :/ / in tr a .u sb r .g ov > .
Reclam ation u ses the follow ing sp eciality
sections for coating s and haz ard ou s based p aints:
Sect io n 09902.C oa tin g s fo r n ew m et a llic
su b st r a te s t h a t in clu d e: st ee l, cas t o r d u ctile
iron; ga lva n iz e d , a lu m inu m ; bra s s ; bron z e ; or
copp er
Sect io n 09908.M a inte na nc e coa tings f or
p r e v io u s l y co a t e d m e t a llic s u b s t r a t es th a t
inclu d e: steel, cast or d u ctile iron; galvan ized,
alum inu m ; brass; bron ze; or copp er
Sect io n 09980. C o a t in g s fo r co n c r e te a n d
m asonr y su bstrates
Sect io n 13283. H a n d lin g an d d isp o sin g
of p a in t con ta in in g h ea v y m eta ls (i.e.,
ch r om a te , lea d , et c. . .)

11

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


(a) Pa rt 1: G ene ral. P ar t 1 in clu d e s th e
follow ing gen eral outline:

C os t p ro v is io n s fo r eith er lu m p s um or
bid item

Su rfa ce pr e p a ra tion m e thod s

A p p lica tio n eq u ip m e n t

Coa ting ap p lication requ irem en ts

R efe r e n ce s fo r in d u s t r ia l s ta n d a r d s
u se d in th e s p ecificatio n s ectio n

In sp ect ion m et h od s a n d acce p ta n ce


cr ite r ia

Su bm ittals are req u ired to en su re th e


contractor is sup p lying the sp ecified
m a te r ials . Th e fo llow in g su b m itt a ls
a r e e ss en tia l:

Re p a ir of d a m a g ed an d n on a ccep ta b le
co a t e d a r e a s

Coating tab u lations an d categories (see


follow ing s e c tion)

C olo r sch ed u le

" M a n u fa ctu r er s p r o d u ct d a ta an d
ap p lication sheets

" M an u factu rers certificatio n of


co m p lian ce, s ta tin g th a t m a te r ials
w er e m an u fact u re d in acco rd an ce
w ith qu ality assu ran ce and qu ality
p ro g ra m s to in clu d e b at ch
n u m b ers , q u an tity , an d co lor

" P u r ch a se or d e rs, e n su r in g th a t th e
contractor u sing ap p roved
m at er ials t o in clu d e b at ch
n u m b ers , q u an tity , an d co lor

Q u ality as su ra n ce

D eliv er y , sto r a g e, a n d h a n d lin g

En v iro n m en ta l re str iction s for su rfa ce


p r e p aratio n an d ap p licatio n

(b) Pa rt 2: P rod ucts. P ar t 2 in clu d e s th e


follow ing m aterial requ irem ents ou tline:

11. Coating Tabulations and Categories.


T h e fo r m a t o f t h e co a t in g t a b u la t io n s a n d
ca t eg o r ie s in t h e C SI s p e cifica t io n s w ill b e
sim ila r to th e old n a r r a tiv e p a r a g r a p h fo r m a t.
T h e co a t in g t a b u l a tio n s a n d ca t eg o r ie s ch a n g e
ov er tim e becau se of low er VO C r egu lations,
lead- and chrom ate-free requirem ents, new
coating techn ology d evelopm ents, and other
factors. The follow ing section s d escribe th e
tab u lations an d categor ies.
(a) Coating Tabulatio ns. Th e co atin g
ta bu la tions a re ba s e d on R e cla m a tions
h i st o r ica l e xp e r i en c e w it h co a t in g m e t alw o r k
ite m s, se r v ice e xp os u r e, a n d m a te r ials u se d in
d a m s a n d w a t er co n v ey an ce p ro je cts. Th e
tabu lation s are in th e follow ing tab le form at:

Item s to be coated are iden tified .

Coa ting m aterials are id en tified in the


first colum n b y an alph an u m eric label
fo r a m a n u f a ct u r e r s b r an d n a m e o r a
Fe d er a l/ m ilit a r y sp ecifica tion n u m b er .
Sev er a l eq u iv a len t co a tin g m a te r ials
m a y b e lis t ed w it h in t h e s a m e m a t e r ia l
o p tio n n u m b e r. M o r e th a n on e
coating m aterial op tion m ay be listed
in the tabu lation . For sm all jobs, the
co lor m a y b e s p ecifie d in th is co lu m n .

N u m ber of coats (p rim er,


inter m ed iate, an d top coat), thickn ess

Ab rasives
M IO
C o a t in g s

(c) Part 3: E xecu tion. P ar t 3 in clu d e s th e


follow ing ou tline requ irem en ts to com p lete
w ork:

12

P r ot ect ion an d r ep a ir of e xist in g


su rfaces
Em bed d ed m etalw ork in concrete

Specifications
of e a ch ap p lied coa t, a n d to ta l d r y film
thickn ess (DFT) of the coating system
a r e id en tifie d in th e s eco n d colu m n .

Su r f a ce p r e p a r a t io n m e t h o d s a r e
id en tifie d b y let te r or alp h a n u m er ic
la b e l in t h e t h ir d co lu m n a n d a r e
d e fin ed in th e ex ecu tio n p art fo r
su r face p r ep aratio n .
In s t r u c t io n a l n o t es , if s p e c ifie d , a r e
located at either tab le front or en d .

(b) C oating C ategories. Th e co atin g


categories spe cify, by a lph an u m eric labels, the
m a n u fa c tu r ers b ran d n am e o r th e F ed er a l or
m ilita r y sp ecifica tio n n u m b er of t h e co a tin g
m a t er ia l liste d in th e ta bu la tio n s. Th e
categories are su bd ivided accord ing to th e
follow ing th ree esse n tial ch ara cteristics:
C o m p o s i t i o n. L is t t h e g e n e r ic ch e m ica l
co a t in g n a m e
P hy si ca l cha ract eris t ics .W eight p er
g a l lo n , VOC co n ten t, m in im u m ap p lication
te m p er a tu r e, cu r in g tim es at sp ecific
te m p er at u re an d h u m id ity , etc.

(a) Pro duc t Da ta Sh eet. T h e fo llo w in g a r e


the m ost com m on item s on th e p rod u ct da ta
sh eets:

G e n e r i c ch e m ica l co a t in g n a m e
(acrylic, alkyd , ep oxy, p olyur ethan e)

Typ ical u ses, such as on br id ges,


p i p e s , o r w a t er t a n k s

Ser v ice ex p os u re for at m os p h er ic,


b u r ial, im m er sio n (fre sh w a te r or sa lt
w at er ), an d ch em ical r es ista n ce

Color an d gloss availability

P h y sica l or te ch n ical p ro p er ties , su ch


a s w e ig h t p e r g a llo n , s o lid s b y
volu m e, VOC content, pigm ent
ad d itiv es , flash p oin t, an d se rv ice
te m p er at u re re sist an ce

Re co m m en d ed d r y or w et film
th ickn ess

The ore tic a l c ove ra ge ra te pe r ga llon

M ix r a tio (if m u ltico m p on en t s y st em ),


p ot life, a n d in d u ctio n or sw ea t-in tim e
(elap sed tim e interv al to allow the
c he m ic a l re a c tion to be gin for
m u l t ico m p o n e n t m a t e r ia ls b efo r e
a p p lica tio n )

D r y , re co a t, cu r in g , an d fu ll cu r e t im e
p eriod s at tem p eratu re an d hu m idity
ran ges

Perform an ce test results (accelerated


A S TM t e s ts th a t m a y o r m a y n o t b e
listed )

Sh elf life

Sa fe ty pre c a u tions

Sh ip p in g d ata

W arr an ty an d lim itation s of liability

P erform ance requi rement s . A ccelerated


A STM te st in g an d acc ep ta n ce cr ite r ia

12. Manufacturer's Product Data and


Application Sheets. Reclam atio n
sp ecification s requ ire the su bm ittal of the
coating m an u factu rers p rod u ct da ta
(s o m e t i m e s ca lle d t e ch n ica l d a t a ) a n d
a p p licat ion sh ee ts . Th es e s h ee ts sp ecify
t h e m a n u fa ct u r e r s in s t r u c t io n s a n d
r eco m m en d a tio n s. Th e m a n u fact u r er 's
in s t r u c t io n s a n d r e co m m e n d a t io n s h a v e
becom e sp ecification requ irem en ts, u nless the
sp ecificat ion s a re m or e r es tr ictiv e. P ro d u ct
d a t a a n d a p p licatio n s h eets s h o u ld b e k ep t for
fu t u r e r efe r e n ce to v e r ify t h e m a t e r ia l t y p e
a p p lie d . T he p r o d u ct d ata an d ap p lication
sh e e t s v a r y in co n ten t an d fo rm at fro m
m a n u fa c tu r er to m an u factu re. So m e
m a n u f actu r er s co m b in e p ro d u ct d a ta an d
ap p lication into on e sheet. H ow ever , the
sheets p rov ide u seful inform ation for th e
sp ecific m a te r ial.

(b) Applica tion S hee t. The follow ing ar e the


m ost com m on item s on th e ap p lication sheet:

13

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance

14

Su b st r a te ty p es th a t a r e co m p a tib le
w ith th e co a tin g m a te r ia l (e .g .,
a lu m in u m , con cr et e, g a lv a n ize d , ste el,
cast iron , or existin g coated su rfaces)

Su r face p r ep a r a tio n m et h od , n or m a lly


list ed as a m in im u m

Thinn er p rod u ct nam e an d am ou nt to


be ad d ed

Pot-life-tim e of m u lticom p on en t
c o a tin g m aterial at v ario u s
tem p eratu re an d hu m idity ran ges

Lo w e r a n d u p p e r te m p e r atu r e a n d
h u m id ity ra n ge re str ictio n s d u r in g
a p p lica tio n

M o st m a n u fa ctu r er s sta te th a t th e
coating is to be ap p lied only w hen the
su bs tr at e te m p er at u re is 5 d eg re es F,
m i n im u m , a bo v e th e d ew p o in t

D r y i n g , r e co a t , a n d cu r in g t i m e s a t
va riou s tem p eratu re an d hu m idity
ran ges

A p p l ica t io n m e t h o d : b r u s h , ro lle r ,
conv en tiona l airless sp ray , or airless
sp r a y . M a y in clu d e s p ecific
equ ipm en t at re com m en d ed p ressu res,
h os e d iam et er siz es , sp r a y g u n , n oz z le
tip siz es , etc.

13. Addendums and Modifications.


Sp ecifications ar e som etim es cha ng ed to alter
d esig n s, co r r ect er r or s, o r r ed r ess om iss io n s.
The follow ing tw o gen eral m etho d s are u sed to
rev ise spe cifications: (1) ad d en d u m s (also
called a m en d m en ts) are w ritten p age inser ts
t h a t ch a n g e p a r t (s ) o f t h e sp e c ifica t io n b e fo r e
b id d in g o c cu r ; a n d (2) m o d i fica t io n s a r e
w ritten p age inser ts that m od ify p art(s) of the
sp ecifica tion after th e co n tr a ct is a w a r d ed .
M o d ifica tio n s ca n in cu r co st a d ju s tm e n t s to th e
contr act an d are often called chan ge o rd ers.

Chapter IV
Inspector's Role
The coating insp ector ensu res th at: (1) the
w or k is a cco m p lish ed in a t im ely m a n n er in
a c co r d a n c e w ith th e s p ecificatio n s ; (2 ) w ork
a ctiv itie s a r e d oc u m en te d ; an d (3) w or k is
p erform ed safely. The coating insp ector at the
jobsite is eithe r th e contra cting officers or th e
field en gineers rep resentative.
The insp ector shou ld n ot ver bally cha ng e the
r eq u ir em en ts or r eq u ir e m or e r ig id
r e q u i r em e n t s o n t h e co n t r a ct o r th a n w e r e
or ig in a lly sp ecifie d . Th e in sp ect or sh ou ld
contact his su p erv isor for reso lution if the
s p e c ifica t io n s a r e in a d e q u a t e . C o n t r a c to r s m a y
r e q u e s t a v a r ia n t fr o m s p e c ifica t io n s t h a t m a y
o r m a y n o t b e s ig n ifican t. R eg ard les s o f
v a r ian t s ig n ifican ce, t h e in sp ect or sh ou ld
inform his sup ervisor of an y requ ested
c h a n g e s. If a co atin g ap p licato r is n o t
fo llo w in g t h e s p ecificatio n s , th e in s p ector
sh o u ld n o t co n fr o n t t h e ap p lica to r . In st ea d , h e
sho u ld a sk th e coating contra ctor su p erv isor to
d et er m in e w h y th e s p ecifica tio n s a r e n ot b ein g
fo llo w e d . In s o m e ca s e s, a d e v ia t io n m a y h a v e
b e e n a l lo w ed o r th e co atin g co n tracto r
su p e r v i so r m ay n eed to co rrect h is o w n
w or k er s p ra ctices .

14. Primary Responsibilities. Th e fo llow in g


a r e p r im a r y r esp o n sib ilit ie s of t h e in sp ect or :

Ve r ify in w r itin g th a t co a tin g w or k is


being p erform ed in accord an ce w ith
t h e s p ecificatio n s

15. Daily Responsibilities. Th e fo llow in g is


a p artial list of d aily in sp ection resp on sibilities:
(a) Pre paratory.

En su r e s p ecifica tio n s co n ta in all


a d d e n d u m s a n d m o d i fica tio n s

E n s u r e a ll s p e c ifica t io n s u b m it t a l
requ irem ents are m et

(b) Presurface P reparation.

E n s u r e w e a t h e r co n d it io n s a r e
c ond u c ive to bla sting op e ra tions

D e te rm ine p re bla st s urfa ce cond ition


fo r r u s t g r a d e

Ens ur e tha t the s urfa ce is fre e of


irreg u larities (w eld sp atter , slag bu rrs,
sharp ed ges, p its, lam inations, or other
objectiona ble irreg u larities)

Ensu re that ab rasives m eet


s p e cifica t io n r e q u i r em e n t s a n d a r e
w ithin contam ination lim its

Ens ur e the a ir c omp re s s or is fre e of


m ois ture a n d oil c onta m ina tion

(c) Postsurface Preparation.

M on itor w ork activity on a d aily basis,


inclu d ing d eviations from the
sp e cificatio n s

Ens ur e the s urfa ce pr e p a ra tion


m e thod m e e ts s pe c ific a tions
requ irem en ts

En su r e t h e s u r face (an ch or ) p r ofile


m ee ts sp ecifica tio n s r eq u ir em en ts

Rep ort an d record d eficien cies to the


fie ld en g in eer fo r res o lu tio n

Ens ur e the s urfa ce is fre e of


conta m inan ts an d m eets cleanliness
sp ecification s requ irem en ts

En su r e w or k is co n d u cte d in a s a fe
m an ner

15

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


(d) Precoating Applicatio n.

E n s u r e a ll co a t in g m a t er ia ls a re
ap p roved

Ch eck storage ar ea for pro p er


en viron m en tal and safety
requ irem en ts

E n s u r e en v iro n m en tal co n d itio n s


(am bien t an d su rface tem p era tu res,
hu m idity, and d ew p oint) m eet
sp ecification s requ irem en ts

Ensu re m ixing an d thinn ing m eet


m an u factu rers requ irem en ts

resp on sible rev iew ing office is listed in the


r eq u ir ed su b m itt a l n u m b er (RSN ) ta b le in
Sec tion 01330 (Su b m itta ls) of th e C SI
sp ecifications.
Th e co a tin g in sp ect or is n ot u su a lly
r es p on sib le fo r ap p r ov in g or d isa p p r ov in g
contra ctor su bm itted m aterial. H ow ever , the
in s p e ct o r sh o u ld t r a ck c on t r a c to r a n d
R ecla m a t io n c o r r es p o n d e n c e t o e n s u r e t h a t
o n ly ap p r o v ed m a te ria ls a re u se d o n th e
jobsite.
If the TSC in the Den ver Office is the
r es p on sib le s p ecifica tio n r ev iew in g office , it
w ill p rovid e a contra c tor su bm itta l w ith on e of
th e follow ing r esp on ses:

(e) Coating A pplica tion.

Ensu re ap p lication m ethod s m eet


m an u factu rers requ irem en ts

E n s u r e in t e r m e d ia t e co a t a n d t o p c o a t
a p p licat ion s a r e w ith in r eco a t t im e
interv al for tem p eratu re an d hu m idity
r an g es a n d th a t th e y m e e t th e
sp ecifica tio n s or th e m a n u fa ctu r er s
requ irem en ts

C h eck am b ie n t te m p e r atu r e a n d
h u m id ity d u rin g cu rin g p erio d

A p p rov ed . In d ica t es m a t e r ia l ca n b e
p u rchased and ap p lied .
Co nd it io na ll y a p p rov ed .Ind icates the
m at er ial se lectio n is a ccep ta b le a n d th e
m a t er ia l m a y b e p u r ch a se d ; h o w e v er , th e
su b m itt a l is in co m p let e o r is m iss in g
d oc um e nta tion. Re s ubm itta l of inc om p le te or
m iss in g d ocu m en ta tion is r eq u ir ed .
C on d itio n a l ap p r ov a l d oe s n ot im p ly
a c ce p ta nc e for m a te ria l a p p lic a tion.
N o t a p p rov ed .Ind icates the selected
m a t er ia l is n o t a p p r ov ed fo r a p p lica tio n .

(f) Postcoating A pplica tion.

Ensu re th e d ry film thickness m eets


sp ecification requ irem en ts

Inspect d ry film for h olid ay (pinh ole)


d efects

E n s u r e t h a t d e fe ct iv e , d a m a g e d , a n d
d eficient areas are rep aired to m eet
sp ecification r equ irem en ts.

The ins p e ctor s hou ld c he ck ba tc h nu m be rs on


m aterial containers against the ap p rova l letter
batch n u m bers for m aterials tha t arrive o n th e
jo b s it e . C o n t a in e r s w it h b a t ch n u m b e r s th a t
d o n o t co r r e s p o n d t o th e a p p r o v e d m a t e r ia l
b atch n u m b er s sh o u ld b e re m o v ed fr om t h e
jobsite.

17. Documentation. Th e in sp ect or sh ou ld


acqu ire th e follow ing d ocu m en ts:

Fo r a m o r e co m p reh en s iv e lis t o f
resp on sibilities, see ap p en d ix C.

Sp ecifications th at includ e ad d end u m s


a n d m o d i fica tio n s

16. Material Approval. Co n tracto r


su b m itt ed coa tin g m a te r ials ar e n or m a lly
review ed by th e Reclam ation office that either
p rep ared or issu ed the sp ecifications. The

T h e m a n u fa ct u r e r s p r o d u ct d a t a ,
ap p lication , an d M aterial Safety Data
Sh eet (M SD S)

16

Inspector's R ole

Referen ce stand ard s referred to in th e


sp ecifica tio n s t h a t r ela te to th e fie ld
in s p ectio n

Re fer en ce s ta n d a r d s a r e d iscu ss ed in
m or e d et a il for th e p er tin en t
in sp ectio n m eth o d in oth er ch a p te r s.
A p p e n d ix D lis ts r efe r e n ce st a n d a r d s
cited in this docu m ent

18. Instruments, Gauges, and Tools. Th e


insp ector shou ld a cqu ire the equ ipm en t,
in st r u m en ts , an d in st r u ctio n a l m a n u a ls
n ece ss a r y to p er fo r m th e in sp ectio n w o r k .
Sp a r e b a tt er ies sh ou ld b e a v a ilab le if e lect r on ic
in st r u m e n ts are u s ed . T h e ty p es o f
in st r u m en ts w ill be d iscu ss ed in th e fo llow in g
cha p ter s an d ar e listed in a p p en d ix E.
(a) Conflicts. A t t im e s, t h e r e a r e
d isa gr ee m e n ts b etw e en th e co n tr acto r a n d th e
in s p e ct o r o v e r in s t r u m e n t r e a d i n g s s u c h a s
su r fa ce an ch o r p r o file s o r d r y film th ick n ess es.
Th er e m ay b e r ea so n ab le e xp lan at ion s for su ch
d is cr e p a n c ie s. T h e se d i scr e p a n c ie s s h o u l d b e
investigated to av oid futu re conflicts and to
d evelop a w ork ing relationsh ip w ith the
c o n t r a ct o r . T h e fo llo w in g ar e s o m e
p ossibilities for instr u m en t d isagree m en ts:

T h e t w o p a r t ie s a r e n o t u s i n g t h e s a m e
typ e of instru m en t sets:

" O n e in s t r u m e n t m a y b e
m a lfu n ctio n in g

" O n e in s tru m en t m ay b e o u t of
calib ratio n

T h e t w o p a r t ie s a r e u s in g t h e s a m e
typ e of instr u m en ts bu t:

" They ar e u sing d ifferen t


p roced u res

" T h e y a r e ta k in g r e a d in g s a t
d iffe re n t lo ca tio n s

" O n e in s tru m en t m ay b e o u t of
calib ratio n

19. Substrate Inspection. The ins p e ctor


s h o u l d i n sp e c te d t h e s u b s t r at e s u r fa ce b e fo r e
su rface prep aration . Ferrou s su bstrates w ith
localized ru st or m ill scale are m ore p ron e to
p r em a tu r e co a tin g failu r e. Ru st an d m ill sca le
a re a s s hou ld be ins p e cte d m ore thorou ghly f or
clea n lin es s a fte r su r face p r ep a r a tio n . If m ill
s ca le is note d a nd a bra s ive bla s ting is not
sp ecified , notify the field en gine er b ecau se
ab ra siv e b las tin g is r eq u ire d . For m ain te n an ce
coating w ork w her e overcoating is sp ecified ,
t h e ex is tin g c o at in g m a t er ia l s h o u l d b e
insp ected for loose coatings by scrap ing w ith a
sh a r p en ed p u tt y k n ife. O v er co a tin g loo se ly
a d h er in g ex ist in g coa tin g w ill re su lt in
p rem atu re failure.
Fo r ite m s co a te d in a s h op , th e co a tin g s s h ou ld
b e in s p e ct e d a n d id e n t ifie d fo r d a m a g e a n d
faile d coa tin g ar ea s t h a t w ill re q u ir e r ep a ir
e ithe r be fore or a fte r ins ta lla tion.

20. Coating Inspection Checklist Sheet.


R e cla m a tion s p e cific a tion c oa ting ta bu la tions
(see cha p ter III, su bsection 11) id en tify th e
item s to be coated , coatin g m ater ials, the D FTs,
an d th e su rface p rep ara tion m eth od s;
how e ve r, the ins pe c tor ma y w is h to e xpa n d on
th e co a tin g ta b u lat ion s b y cr ea tin g a co a tin g
in sp ect ion ch eck list u n iqu e t o t h e job . Sin ce
sp ecifica tio n coa tin g ta b u lat ion s ca n id en tify
se v er a l ite m s t o b e co a te d w ith in a s in g le
ta bu la tion, a n ins pe c tion s he e t c a n p rovid e for
the in d ividu al coating op eration s an d for the
co m p l e te d i n s p e ct io n fo r a sin g l e it e m t o b e
co a t e d , s u c h a s a p i p e lin e i n t er io r o r a r a d i a l
g a t e . T h e ch e c k lis t ca n b e c o m e a p e r m e a n t
r e co r d o f th e jo b . A c h e ck lis t e xa m p l e ap p e a r s
in ap p en d ix F.

21. Precoating Conference. R e cla m a tion


coating specifications d o no t requ ire a
p r eco a tin g co n fer en ce w ith th e co n tr a ctor .
H ow ever , a m eeting w ith the con tractor to
d is cu s s co a t in g - r ela t ed is su e s w o u l d b e
he lpful. A p re c oa ting c onfe re nc e w ill a llow
the con tractor to kn ow w ha t is exp ected an d to
ou tlin e t h e w or k p r og r a m . Th is m ee tin g
sh ou ld es ta b lish a w or k in g r ela tio n sh ip
be tw een th e con tra ctor a n d Reclam ation . The
fo llo w in g a r e p o s sib le it e m s f or d is cu s sio n a t
t h e m e e t in g :

17

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance

The insp ectors access and safety

Th e co n tr acto rs p r o p ose d o p er atio n ,


inclu d ing equ ipm ent an d p ersonn el

18

The contractors job-specific w orker


health an d safety p lan (a su bm itted
w ritten p lan is req u ired fo r lead or
o t h e r h a z a r d o u s m a t e r ia l r e m o v a l a n d
d isp os a l)

T h e m e t h o d o f d u s t co lle ct io n a n d
d isp osal of u sed abrasives

U nfav orab le w eath er related to


p re p a re d s urfa ce s , a p p lie d c oa tings, or
cu r in g

T h e p l a n fo r co a t in g i n a cce s sib le a r e a s

Ins p e ction m e thod s a nd the nu m ber of


m easu rem en ts

The ty p es of insp ection instru m en ts to


be u sed

T h e N A C E / SSP C r e fe r e n ce st a n d a r d s
t h a t ar e sp e c ifie d , th e v is u a l s ta n d a r d s
to b e m et , an d th e a ccep ta n ce cr ite r ia

T h e co n t r a ct o r s w o r k i n g h o u r s

Th e m a te r ial s to r a g e a r ea , in clu d in g
tem p eratu re, ven tilation, and security

T h e ap p ro v ed s u rface p r ep aration
m eth od s, ab rasiv es, coatin g m ater ials,
ap p lication m ethod s, and curing tim es

Chapter V
Material Storage, Containers, and Shelf Life
C o a t in g m a t er ia ls a rr iv e o n t h e jo b s it e b e fo r e
a p p lica tio n b eg in s, a n d th ey r eq u ir e st o r a g e.
M a n u fa c tu r ers reco m m en d s p ecific p ro vis ions
fo r st o r a g e to p r ev en t co a tin g d ete r io r a tion .
C oa tin g m a te r ials m u st b e u se d w ith in a
sp ecified tim e from m an u factu re or sh ipm en t.

22. Storage. C o a t in g m a t er ia ls sh o u ld b e
s t or e d in a c o v e r ed , w e ll-v e n t i la t e d a r e a a w a y
fr o m sp a r k s, fla m es, a n d d ir ect su n lig h t.
M a n y co a t in g s r e q u ir e a lim it e d t e m p e r a tu r e
r a n g e f or p r o p e r s t o r a g e . C o ld s to r a g e m a y
r e q u ir e a co atin g to b e ex ces s iv ely th in n ed for
a p p lica t io n , r es u l tin g i n lo w s o lid s co n t e n t a n d
a le ss-t h a n -in ten d ed D F T . A t o r b elo w
freezing tem p eratu res, coating s (su ch as w ater
b a s e d m a t e r ia ls ) ca n d e g r a d e t o th e p o in t t h a t
t h e y a r e u n u s a b le . M a t e r ia ls in c o ld s to r a g e
s h o u l d b e m o v e d t o a h e a te d a r e a b e fo r e
a p p lica t io n . A t h i g h t e m p e r a t u r e s , a m a t e r ia l
su c h a s so lv en t-b as ed co atin g m ay g el o r
b e co m e fla m m a b le o r e xp lo s iv e . T h e st o r a g e
sit e sh o u l d b e m o n ito red u s in g a h ig h / low
t h e r m o m e t er .
C o a t in g m a t er ia ls sh o u ld b e st o r ed t o g et h e r b y
t h e sa m e b a tch o r lo t n u m b ers . T w o com p onen t coating system s shou ld be stored
c lo se t o g e th er b u t b e d is tin g u is h ab le fro m one
a n o t h e r . For sto rag e o f s ev eral m o n th s or
lo n g e r , co ntain ers s h o u ld b e in v erted o n a
m o n t h l y b a s is to a v o id e x ce s siv e s e tt lin g a n d
for ea se of fu tu r e m ixin g . Th e o ld es t co a tin g
m aterials sho u ld b e u sed first.
Solvents an d thinn ers shou ld be stored
se p a r a t e l y fro m co atin g m aterials. Sep ara tion
o f s o lv e n t s an d t h in n e r s is a sa fe t y co n c er n
because m an y of these m aterials hav e low er
flash p oint tem p era tu res th an m ost coating s,
a n d t h e y p o s e a p o t e n t ia l fir e h a z a r d .
C o n t r a c to r s w i ll o ft e n s to r e co a t in g m a t e r ia l a t
t h e jo b s it e in t r a ile r s. T ra ile r s w it h n o h e a t in g ,
co olin g , or v en tila tio n sy st em s a r e u n su ita b le
for storage b ecause they becom e cold in w inter

an d hot in su m m er an d hav e limited


v e n t ila t io n . C o a tin g m a t er ia ls sh o u ld b e
st or ed in clim a te co n tr olle d en v ir on m en ts .
The follow ing are gen erally accep ted
reg u lations for stor ing coa ting m ater ials:
Indo or sto rage. N o m or e t h a n 25 g a llon s
o u t s id e o f a p p r o v e d ca b in e t s in a s in g l e a r ea .
Outdoor stora ge. N o m or e t h a n 1,100
g a llo n s o f m a te r ia ls g r ou p ed to g eth er . N o
m ore th an 60 gallon s in ind ivid u al contain ers.
For fu rthe r inform a tion on the s tora ge of
flam m able an d com bu stible liqu ids, refer to
the m a nu fa c tu re r's M SD S a nd R e cla m a tio n
Sa fety an d H ea lth Sta n d a r d s.

23. Containers. C on ta in er s v a r y lar g ely in


volu m e an d com m on ly ran ge from 1 qu art to
55 gallons. Because of app lication eq u ipm ent
lim ita tions , the m os t com m on c onta ine rs on a
job sit e w ill b e eith er 1-g a llo n or 5-g a llo n p a ils.
Single com p one n t m a te ria ls a re s hipp e d in on e
co n ta in e r, a n d tw o or m o r e co m p o n e n t
m ater ials are ship p ed in sep ara te con taine rs,
e a ch o f w h ich h a s th e c a p a c it y t o h o l d t h e t o t a l
com bined volu m e.
A n y c onta ine rs tha t a re d a m a ge d , le a king, or
u nlabeled sh ou ld be r ejected and rem oved
from the job site.

24. Shelf Life. Sh elf life is th e le n g th of t im e


a fte r m a n u fact u r e t h a t a coa tin g m a te r ial w ill
rem ain u sable w hen stored in an u nop ened
co n ta in er , acco r d in g to th e m a n u fa ctu r er .
M a n u fact u r er s n or m a lly sp ecify th e s h elf life
o f a co a t in g o n t h e co n t a in e r o r u s e a s p e c ia l
c ode or ba r c od e tha t s pe c ifie s the da te of
m a nu fa c tu re or the e xpira tion d a te . For
s p e c ia l co d e s or b a r co d e s , t h e in s p e ct o r m a y
n eed to ca ll th e m a n u fa ctu r er to r ea d th e co d e.
In ge n e ra l, m os t coa tings h a ve a s he lf life of
b e t w e e n 6 a n d 12 m o n t h s a t a n o p t i m a l
tem p eratu re, bu t this w ill vary w ith
19

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


m a n u fact u r er an d m a te r ial t y p e. Sh elf life is
no ted on the m an u factu rers p rod u ct da ta
sh e e t . T h e in s p ecto r s h o u ld ch eck th e d ate of
m an u factu re or th e exp iration d ate to
d eterm ine that the exp iration d ate has n ot been
reached . Coating m aterials that h ave exceeded

20

the sh elf life sho u ld b e rem ove d from the


job sit e. C on se q u en ces of e xce ed in g th e s h elf
life includ e gelling, od or, cha ng es in viscosity,
fo r m a t io n o f lu m p s , p ig m e n t s et t le m e n t , a n d
c olor or liqu id s e pa ra tion.

Chapter VI
Surface Preparation
The serv ice life of a coating d ep en d s on th e
d e g r e e o f s u r f a ce p r e p a r a t io n a c h ie v e d a s
m u ch a s it d e p e n d s o n m a t e r ia l s e le ct io n a n d
a p p licat ion . A ll coa tin g sy st em s w ill
even tu ally fail; how ever, pr em atu re failures
ar e o ften th e r es u lt o f in ad eq u at e s u rfa ce
p r e p a r a t i on . Ev e n s u r fa ce p r e p a r a t io n s t h a t
a ch i ev e a n a cce p t a b le m a r g i n o f cle a n lin e s s b u t
leave contam inan ts on th e su rface w ill tend to
lessen th e coating serv ice life. Thu s,
cle a n l in e s s o f t h e s u b s t r a te is a n e s se n t ia l a n d
integral com p onen t of a coating system .

25. Surface Contaminants . Su rfa ce


c o n t a m in a t io n is o n e o f th e m o s t co m m on
cau ses of coating failur es. To achieve th e
m a xim u m se r v ice life of a coa tin g sy st em , it is
ess en tia l to r em ov e su r fa ce co n ta m in a n ts .
(a) Types o f Surface C ontam inan ts. Th e
fo llo w in g a r e th e m o s t co m m o n ty p es o f
su r f a ce co ntam in an ts an d th e co n s eq u en c es of
not rem oving th em :
Rust. Ru st is th e co rr os ion b y p ro d u ct
(fe r r o u s o x id e) o f s teel an d m ay b e lo o se or
m a y ad h er e r ela tiv ely tig h tly to th e su b st r a te .
Rust is porou s and m ay inclu d e m oistu re,
o x y g e n , a n d s o lu b le s a lt s . R u s t w i ll e x p a n d u p
t o e ig h t t im e s th e v o l u m e o f t h e b a s e m e t a l
consu m ed and fu rther corrod e the steel
su bstrate, thu s d islodg ing an y coating ap p lied
ove r it.
Mill scale. M ill sca le is a h ea v y ox id e
la y e r fo r m e d d u r in g h o t fa b r ica t io n o r h e a t
tr ea tm en t o f m et a ls a n d is a b lu ish colo r . M ill
scale will even tu ally brea k loose from the steel
su b st r a te , ta k in g th e co a tin g w ith it. Ste el is
a n od ic to m ill sca le (s te el h a s a low er ele ctr icalch em ical p ot en tia l d iffer en ce t h a n m ill sca le);
ther efore, steel w ill corro d e (sacrifice itself) to
p rotect the m ill scale.
Gre ase a nd o il.Grea se an d oil p rev en t a
coating from ad her ing to the su bstrate.

Dirt and dust. D ir t a n d d u st o n th e


su rface prev en t the a p p lication of a sm ooth
u n ifo rm f ilm a n d w e ak en th e ad h e sio n of th e
coating to the su bstrate.
Soluble sa lts. Solu ble s a lts de p os ite d on a
su rface can rem ain on th e sur face, even after
ab rasiv e clean ing. Solu ble salts w ill in crease
m o istu r e p e rm e a tio n th r ou g h th e co atin g
(osm otic blistering) an d can accelerate th e
co r r os ion r a te u n d er th e co a tin g film
(u n d erfilm corr osion or u n d ercu tting ). Th e
m o s t co m m o n so lu b le sa lts e n co u n te re d in th e
co a t in g i n d u s t r y a r e ch l o r id e s , s u l fa t e s, a n d
m et a llic sa lts . Th e ch lor id e io n is th e m os t
aggr essive.
Water. W a te r w i ll p r ev en t a d h e sio n an d
m a y e it h e r p r o d u c e fla s h r u s t in g b e fo r e
coating ap p lication or it m ay accelerate
u n d er film co r r osio n after co a tin g ap p lica tion .
M ois tu r e in th e liq u id or fro z en st a te w ill
p rev en t ad he sion of the coating to th e
s ub s tra te a nd c a n d is rup t cu ring re a c tions of
coating s. M oistu re con tam ination can cau se
several typ es of failu re.
Chalk. Ch alk is the r esidu e left after the
d ete r io r a tion of th e co a tin g s o r g a n ic b in d er .
Ch alk resu lts from exp osu re of the coating to
d ir ect su n lig h t o r ar tificia l U V lig h t. A ll
co a t in g s ch a l k t o so m e d e g r e e , b u t e p o x ie s a r e
m ore p ron e to cha lk. Ov ercoating chalked
s u r f a ce s w i ll r e s u l t in p o o r a d h e s io n a n d m a y
re s ult in d e la m ina tion (s e pa ra tion of one
co a t in g l ay e r fr o m a n o t h e r co a t in g l ay e r )
failure.
De teriorated co atings. Old , loose,
d e t er io r a t e d c o a tin g s t h a t a r e o v e r co a t e d m a y
p e el, d e la m in a te , o r lift fr om t h e su b str ate an d
take the n ew coating w ith th em .
(b) C om pressed Air C ontam inan ts. A ir
co m p r e s so r s co n t a m in a t e d w it h m o is t u r e a n d
oil can resu lt in ad h esion -related failu res. Th e
21

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


fo llo w in g a r e t w o co m m o n o p e r a t io n s t h a t
tran sfer oil and w ater con tam inan ts from the
com p ressed air sup p ly to the sub strate:

Ab ras iv e s u rface p r ep aratio n


o p er atio n s

Blow ing d ow n th e p rep ared su bstrate


a ft er su r fa ce p r ep a r a tio n to r em o v e
d u st b efo re ap p l yin g th e co atin g

A ir com p r es so r s s h ou ld b e e q u ip p ed w ith in lin e m ois tu r e a n d oil s ep a r a to r s (t r a p s) o n all


lin e s. T h e in s p ecto r s h o u ld h av e th e co n tra c tor
ch eck th e a ir su p p ly for con ta m in a n ts in
accord an ce with A TM D 4285. (See
a p p en d ix G for th is p r oc ed u r e.) It is
r e co m m e n d e d t h a t t h e co m p r e s s ed a ir lin e s b e
checked on ce every 4 h ou rs or after th e
co m p r es so r h a s b ee n tu r n ed off.
(c) Flash Rusting. Flash ru sting (som etim es
called flash ba ck ru sting o r ru st bloom ing) is a
lig h t o x i d a tio n (co rro sio n ) o f th e ferro u s
su rface after su rface p rep aration h as been
co m p let ed . Flas h r u st in g d ev elo p s o n fre sh ly
p r ep a r ed su r fa ce s in th e p r ese n ce of m oist u r e.
A fte r th e m ois tu r e d r ies off, a n y r es u ltin g
cor ro sio n is calle d flash ru stin g an d can occu r
w ith in m i n u te s a fte r su r fa ce p re p ar atio n . Th e
follow ing tw o circu m stan ces are th e m ost
com m on m oistu re sou rces resu ltin g in flash
r u s t in g :

C on d en sa tio n is o ccu r r in g

W at er is u se d in th e s u rfa ce
p r e p aratio n m eth o d

Con d ensation is the form ation of liquid w ater


fr o m w a t e r v a p o r i n t h e su r r o u n d in g a i r a t
certain am bient tem p eratu res an d hu m idity
r a n g e s . C o n d e n s a t io n c a n o ccu r u s in g a n y
su r face p r ep a r a tio n m et h od b eca u se it is
w e a t h e r d ep en d en t. Su rface p r ep aratio n
m e t h od s th a t e m p lo y w a t er ar e w a t er je ttin g
a n d w et ab r a siv e b las t cle a n in g . Flas h r u st in g
ca n b e m in im ize d w h en u sin g w a te r jet tin g
an d w et abr asive blast clean ing b y th e
follow ing m eth od s:

22

Usin g an inhib itive agent. In h ib itiv e


a g en t o r w a sh p r im er , n or m a lly a p h os p h a te , is
inje cte d into the w a te r or bla s t stre a m or
a p p lie d a fte r cle a ning. Re cla m a tion d oe s n ot
p ro h ibit th e u se of in h ibit or s, b u t th e s u rfa ce
s h o u l d b e t h o r o u g h l y w a t e r w a s h e d b e fo r e
co a t in g b e c a u s e h e a v y i n h i b it iv e r e s id u e s ca n
a d ve rs e ly a ffe ct coa ting a d he s ion.
Usin g ho t force d (blown) air. D r y o ff th e
w etted su rface im m ed iately after clean ing w ith
h ot air b low ers.
Using high-pressure, water-jet vacuum
clean ing m etho d. H ig h - w a t e r p r e s su r e
tran sfers enorm ou s ener gy to the su rface, thu s
elevating th e su rface tem p eratu re to ev ap orate
an y m oistu re, an d the v acuu m rem oves
e v a p o r a t e d a n d liq u i d m o is tu r e a w a y .
T o p r e v e n t fla s h r u s t in g , it is a g e n e r a l
in d u str ial p ra ctice n ot to p ro cee d w ith su rfa ce
p rep aration u nless the steel sub strate
te m p e ra ture is 5 d e gre e s F, m inim u m , a bove
th e d ew p oin t. (See ch a p te r VII,
En v ir on m en ta l C on d itio n s .)
Su r fa ce p r ep a r a tion st a n d a r d s N A C E 1/ SSP C SP -5, N A C E 2/ SSP C -SP 10, N A C E 3/ SSP C -SP 6, N A C E 4/ SSPC -SP-7, N A C E 8/ SSPC -SP14,
SSPC -SP15, a nd SSPC -SP11 p rovid e for
reclean ing o r re blasting to rem ov e flash
r u s t in g . T h e su r f a ce p r e p a r a t io n s ta n d a r d s
SSPC -SP2, SSPC -SP3, a n d N A C E 5/ SSPC -SP12
d o n o t sp e c ifica lly a d d r e ss fla s h r u s t in g b u t
r eq u ir e t h a t t h e s u r face b e r ecle a n ed acc or d in g
t o cle a n lin e s s r e q u i re m e n t s o f t h e st a n d a r d
u s e d if ru s t form s on the s u rfa ce . R e cla m at ion
s p e cifica t io n s r eq u i r e th a t a n y s u r fa ce w h e r e
fla s h r u s t o r co r r o s io n b y p r o d u ct s h a v e
fo r m ed b e r ecle a n ed .
If flas h r u st in g is su sp ect ed an d is n ot v isib ly
no ticeable, a goo d d etection m etho d is to
ins p e ct the s urfa ce w ith a bright fla s hlight or
sp otligh t. The ligh t shou ld b e held p arallel to
the s ur fa c e a nd s hine d a c ross it. R us t bloom s
w ill a p p e ar as d a r ke n in g on th e su r fa ce an d
ha ve a r ed d ish or ligh t brow n tint.

Surface Preparation

26. Presurface Treatment. P r io r t o a ct u a l


su rfa ce p re p ar at ion s, all st ee l su rfa ce
im p erfection s are to be corr ected . This is a
Re clam a tio n sp ecifica tio n r eq u ir em en t. W eld
sp atter , slag, bu rrs, p oro sity, sh arp ed ges, p its,
lam in a tio n s (sliv er s), cr ev ices , or ob ject ion a b le
irr eg u lar ities n ee d to b e r ep air ed . Su rfa ce
d ep ressions, such as p its or crevices, can be a
co lle ct io n p o in t fo r e xce s siv e co a t in g m a t e r ia l
t h a t m a y n o t fu lly c u r e . P r o je ct io n s s u c h a s
w e ld s la g , s la g b u r r s , o r s h a r p e d g e s th a t m a y
st ick ou t t h r ou g h th e co a tin g can r es u lt in
p i n p o in t co r r o sio n . A l l t h e se ir r e g u l ar it ie s a r e
t o b e r e p a ir e d b y w e ld in g , s cr a p p in g ,
gr ind ing, or o th er sp ecified m ean s.

(a) Nonme tallic Ab rasive s. There are th ree


b a sic ty p es of n on m eta llic ab r a siv es:
(1) n a tu r a lly occu r r in g ; (2) b y p r od u ct s; an d
(3) m a nu fa c tu re d . The follow ing s e c tions
p r o v i d e a b r ie f d e scr ip t i on o f t h e ty p i ca l u s a g e
a n d t h e d e g r e e of d u s t in g p r o d u ce d b y
n on m et a llic ab r a siv es d u r in g b las tin g
op era tions.
Na turally occu rring.

Nonsilica or heavy mineral sands


(magnetite, olivene rutile,
straurolite). Th es e s a n d s a r e t y p ically
to u g h , d en se , r ou n d -sh a p ed m a te r ia ls.
Th ey ar e e ffect iv e fo r b las t cle a n in g
new steel bu t are not recom m end ed
for m aintenan ce coating w ork. Degree
of d u s ting d u ring bla sting op e ra tions
is m ed iu m .

Flint, garnet, novaculite (siliceous


rock ), and zircon. These are d ense,
tou gh , an gu lar or cu bic abr asives tha t,
because of their high costs, are u sed
p r im a r ily in sp e cia l cle an in g
a p p licat ion s. Th e d eg r ee of d u st in g
d u r in g b las tin g op er a tio n s is m ed iu m
for flint a n d ga rn e t a nd low for
n o v acu lite an d z ir co n .

27. Abrasive Blast Material. Th e a br a siv e


b las t m a te r ial is im p or ta n t b eca u se it
d ete r m in es t h e su r fa ce p r o file p r o d u ce d .
Th er e ar e tw o g en er a l ca teg o r ie s of a b r a siv es:
m etallic and non m etallic. M etallic abrasives
a r e u s e d p r im a r ily t o b la s t cle a n s t ee l a n d
for g ed or cas t ir on w h er e a su r face p r ofile is
se ld o m cr itica l o n th e fin ish ed p r o d u ct.
N o n m e t allic a b r a siv e s , d e p e n d in g o n t h e t y p e
u se d , can p r od u ce t h e d es ir ed su r face p r ofile
a n d clea n lin es s o n h a r d , d en se fer r ou s m et a ls
o r o n so f t m etals (alu m in u m , b ras s , b ro n z e , or
cop p er) w ithou t d am aging or altering th e
m et al s u rfa ce.
Re clam a tio n sp ecifie s SSP C -A B 1, A b r a siv e
Sp ecifica tio n N o. 1, M in er a l an d Slag
A b r a siv es, C la ss A , eith er Ty p e I o r II.
Re clam a tio n sp ecifica tio n s d o n ot p er m it
a b r a s iv e m a t e r ia ls co n t a in i n g t o xic h e a v y
m etals su ch as a rsen ic or so lub le salts in excess
of 0.04 p ercent. Ab rasive m aterial is not to
co n ta in m or e t h a n 1 p er cen t s ilica, b y v olu m e
becau se silica san d p articles cau se silicosis.
Re clam a tio n d oe s n ot sp ecify m et a llic
a b r a siv es . M et a llic ab r a siv es ar e n ot field
ap p licable because of high costs and inability
t o r e cy c le . H o w ev er, Reclam atio n w ill a llow a
co n tr a ct v a r ian ce, if r eq u es te d , to u se m et a llic
a b r a si v e s fo r s h o p s u rface p r ep aratio n ,
p r o v i d e d t h a t th e m e t allic a b r a siv e is a d r y ,
clean , an gu lar steel grit.

Byp rod uct.

Slags (coal, copper, nicke l).Sla g


a b r a siv e s ar e g en e r a lly a g la s sy ,
hom oge ne ou s m ixture of va riou s
oxid e s tha t a re sha rp ly a ng u la r or
cu bic and are efficient for b last
cleaning new , ru sted , or p ainted
s urfa ce s . The s e a bra s ive s a re not
r ecy cled . Th e d eg r ee of d u st in g
d u ring bla sting op e ra tions is high f or
co a l a n d n i ck e l a n d lo w fo r co p p e r .

Agricultural products (corncobs, pea ch


pits, w alnut shells). T h e se a r e
g e n e r a lly r e g a r d e d a s to u g h b u t
lig h t w e ig h t a b r a s iv e s u s e d in s p e cia l
cle a n in g a p p l ica t io n s fo r r e m o v i n g

23

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


p aint, fine scale, and other
contam inan ts w ithou t altering the
m et a l su b st r a te or d ist or tin g th in
m e t als. Th e d eg re e o f d u stin g d u r in g
b l a stin g o p eratio n s is lo w .
Manu factured.

Synthe tic (aluminu m o xide, glass


bea ds, silicon carbide). The se
abr asives can be p rod u ced w ith
sp ecific prop erties for va rying d egrees
of hard ne ss and tou gh ne ss and w ith
sp ecific shap es. H igh cost restricts the
u s e of t h e s e a b r a s iv e s t o s p e c ia l
clean ing a p p lications, an d th ey m u st
be recy cled to b e econ om ical. The
m a in ad v a n ta g es of u sin g sy n th et ic
abr asives are fast cu tting cap ability
a n d n o n ru s tin g of th e su b str ate . Th e
d eg r ee of d u st in g d u r in g b las tin g
o p eratio n s is lo w .

(b) Sa mp ling an d Testing. Ab rasive sam p les


sho u ld b e retained for fu tu re referen ce in th e
e v e n t of co a t in g p r o b le m s . Sa m p l e s ca n b e
tested an d the resu lts retained to either
confirm or r eject abr asives as a p ossible cau se
of failu re. Different ab rasives u sed on the
sam e m etalw ork can p rod u ce differen t
a p p e a r a n c es . T estin g s h o u ld b e co n d u cte d on
th e ab ra siv es b efo re u se to en su r e th a t th e
m a te r ia l d o es n o t co n ta in co n ta m in a n ts .
(c) Sam pling. T h e in s p e c to r sh o u ld r e co r d
t h e m a n u fa ctu rers b ran d n am e, b atch o r lot
n u m b e rs , a n d a b r a siv e ty p e . A b r a siv e
m a t er ia l s h o u l d b e s to r e d i n a d r y
env ironm ent an d be clean, u niform in textu re,
an d m oisture free. It is recom m en d ed tha t a
sm a l l sa m p le o f each ab r as iv e b atch o r lot
n u m ber be k ep t for futu re r eferen ce in case
chan ges occu r in the su rface p rofile.
(d) Te sting. So lu b l e sa lt co n c en t r a t io n s a r e
typ ically low for m ined m ineral abrasives
(SSP C -A B1, ty p e I) a n d sla g ab r a siv es (SSP C A B1, typ e II) th a t a r e a ir coo led or q u en ch ed in
p u r ifie d w a t e r . H o w e v e r , s la g a b r a s iv e s m a y
b e q u e n c h e d in s eaw ater, b rack is h w ater, or
o t h e r s a lt -co n t a m in a t e d w a t e r a n d ,
co n se q u en tly , h a v e a h ig h er so lu b le s a lt

24

co n te n t. A b r a siv es w ith h ig h so lu b le s a lt
conten t shou ld n ot be u sed becau se the salts
ca n con ta m in a te th e s u b st r a te d u r in g b las tin g
op erations and , thu s, cause coating failu re.
M ine ra l a nd s la g a bra s ive s shou ld be te s te d for
the p resen ce of solub le salts by a con d u ctivity
m et er . Co n d u ctiv ity is th e io n ic p r op er ty of a
flu id o r s o lid t h a t p e r m it s t h e p a s s a g e o f a n
ele ctr ic cu r r en t. Solu b le s a lts d iss olv ed in
w ater can be m easu red by a cond u ctivity
m e t er . C on d u ctiv ity m e te rs m e a su r e th e
cond u ctance of all salts (ch lorid es, sulfates,
ferrou s, etc.) in d issolution bu t cann ot d etect a
sp ecific sa lt io n (e.g ., th e ch lo r id e io n ).
R ecla m a t io n s p e c ifie s th a t m in e r a l a n d s la g
a b r a siv es a r e to b e in acco r d a n ce w ith SSP C A B1, an d the stan d ard s cond u ctivity
r eq u ir em en t is n ot to ex cee d 1,000
m icr os iem en s. Th e ch lor id e-s p ecific io n in
a b r a siv es ca n b e te st ed u sin g a tit r a tion k it.
(See ap p en d ix H for te st p r oc ed u r es .) Tes tin g
fo r to xic m eta ls r eq u ir es la b or a to r y m eth od s.
C e r t ifica t io n o r a n a l y s is o f a b r a s iv e m a t e r ia l
co n t e n t is a v a ila b le fr o m t h e m a n u f a ct u r e r .
Althou gh w ater is not consid ered an a brasive,
it is us e d a s a s urfa ce pr e p a ra tion m e d iu m for
p r e v io u s l y co a t e d m e t a lw o r k . W a t e r m a y
contain a n excessive am ou nt o f solub le salts
that, if left as resid u e on th e p rep ared sur face,
can cause th e coating to blister. The w ater
u s e d in w a t er je t tin g o p e r a tio n s sh o u ld b e
tested for high chlorid e ion levels. (See
a p p en d ix I for p r oce d u r es.)

28. Nozzle Blast Pressure. R e cla m a tion


d oe s n ot r eq u ir e ch eck in g th e b las t n oz z le
p r e s su r e . In d u s t r y p r a c tice r e co m m e n d s th a t
the blasting p ressur e be m aintained betw een
90 a n d 100 p ou n d s p er sq u a r e in ch (p si).
R e du c ed p re s s ure s ca n re s u lt in a s ha llow
su rface p rofile d ep th an d a d im inished blast
r a t e efficie n c y . E xce s siv e p r e s su r e s ca n
in cr ea se th e su r fa ce p r ofile d ep th .
Con sequ ently, the p rim e coat ma y n ot cover
t h e p e a k s of t h e p r o file a n d p in h o l e fa ilu r e
m a y r e s u l t. T h e cr it ica l p o in t o f p r e s su r e is a t
the blast nozzle, w her e p ressur e w ill be low er
th a n at th e a ir com p r es so r b eca u se of h os e lin e
p ressu re losses.

Surface Preparation
If th e n oz z le b las t p r es su r e is su sp ect , it is
r eco m m e n d ed t h at th e in sp e cto r r eq u e st th e
coating sup ervisor to check the p ressur e. (See
a p p en d ix J fo r th e p r o ce d u r e.)

29. Surface Preparation Methods. Th e


follo w in g ar e t h e fiv e b as ic ty p es of su rfa ce
p r ep a r atio n :

D e g r e a sin g .
H a n d a n d p o w e r to o l cle a n in g .
A b r a s iv e (w e t o r d r y ) cle a n in g .
W a t e r je t tin g o r p r e s s u r e cle a n in g .
C h e m ica l s tr ip p in g .

Ther e are sev eral stand ard s d escribing the


a b o v e m e t h o d s ; h o w e v e r , R ecla m a t io n h a s
ad op te d SSPC an d join t N A C E/ SSPC su rfa ce
p r ep a r a tio n st a n d a r d s. Th e in sp ect or sh ou ld
e n s u r e t h a t t h e a p p lica b le st a n d a r d s a re
av aila b le o n th e job site . A fter su rfa ce
p rep aration , clean line ss shall be based on the
sp ecifie d st a n d a r d 's cle a n in g r eq u ir em en ts .
Vis u a l st a n d a r d s b y SSPC an d join t
N A C E/ SSPC ar e a su p p lem en t t o a id in
d et er m in in g clea n lin es s b u t a r e n ot th e s ole
con firm at ion re q u ire m en t. Su rfa ce
p r ep a r a tio n st a n d a r d r eq u ir em en ts sh a ll
g o v e r n w h e r e s u r f a ce p r e p a r a t io n a n d v i su a l
st a n d a r d s co n flict . Th e fo llo w in g ar e th e SSP C
a n d jo in t N A C E / SSP C s u rface p r ep aration
st a n d a r d s, in in cr ea sin g or d er of cle a n lin ess .
An a b b r e v iated s u m m atio n is p ro v id ed for
each su rface prep aration stand ard an d the
correspon d ing visua l stand ard to be u sed .
(a) SSPC-SP1 : Solvent C leaning. So lv en t
clean ing is used to rem ove grea se, oil, d irt,
d raw ing an d cutting com p ou nd s, and other
contam inants by solven t w iping, w ater
w a s h in g , cle a n i n g co m p o u n d s , a n d s te a m
c le a n i n g . Th is p ro ced u re is a p rereq u is ite for
all other su rface p rep aration m ethod s excep t
N A C E 5/ SSP C -SP 12 (w a te r je ttin g ) a n d
N A CE 6/ SSPC -SP13 (con crete su rfaces). Th e
r e a s on f o r so lv e n t c le a n i n g is th a t
co n t a m i n a n t s le ft o n th e s u r fa ce ca n b e
im p a cte d in to th e s u b st r a te su r face d u r in g
p rep aration u sing other m ethod s (listed
b e lo w ), r e s u l tin g i n p o o r a d h e s io n a n d
p rem atu re failure.

(b) SSPC-SP2 : Ha nd T ool Clea ning. H a n d


tools are u sed to rem ov e loose m ill scale, loose
ru s t, loos e coa tings , w e ld flu x, w e ld s la g, or
w e ld s p a t te r b y b r u s h in g , s a n d i n g , ch i p p in g ,
or scrapp ing. Tightly ad her ing ru st, m ill scale,
a nd p a int a re a llow e d to re m a in. The us e of
h an d tools is gene rally confined to sm all are as,
sm a ll r ep a ir ar ea s, o r sm a ll in a cce ss ib le ar ea s.
T h e v is u a l s ta n d a r d i s d e t er m in e d b y
com p ar iso n to SSPC -VIS 3 refe re n ce
p h otog rap h s.
(c) SSP C-SP3: Pow er Tool Clea ning. Pow er
tools are u sed to rem ov e loose m ill scale, loose
ru s t, loos e coa tings , w e ld flu x, w e ld s la g, or
w eld sp atter. Tigh tly ad her ing ru st, m ill scale,
an d coating are allow ed to rem ain if they
cann ot be rem ove d by lifting w ith a d u ll p u tty
k n i fe . T h e re q u i r em e n t s o f t h is m e t h o d a r e
sim ilar to SSPC-SP2, excep t that, w ith p ow er
t o ols , la r g e r ar e a s ca n b e cle a n e d m o r e
efficiently. The visua l stand ard is d eterm ined
b y com p ar iso n to SSPC -VIS 3 refe re n ce
p h otog rap h s.
(d) SSPC-SP15: Commercial Grade Power
Tool Cleaning. Pow er tools are u sed to
rem ov e all grease, oil, dirt, d u st, m ill scale, ru st
co a t in g s , o x id e s , co r r o s io n b y p r o d u ct s , a n d
othe r fore ign m a tte r tha t a re vis ible w ithou t
m a g n i fica t io n , e xce p t t h a t ra n d o m s ta in s a r e
a llo w e d o n 3 3 p e r c en t o f e a ch 9 -in c h s q u a r e
a r ea . Stain s m a y con sis t o f ligh t s h a d ow s, lig h t
streaks, and m ild d iscoloration cau sed by r u st,
m ill s ca le, an d p r ev io u s a p p lie d co a tin g s.
Sligh t residu es of rust an d p aint are allow ed to
rem ain a t th e bo ttom of corr osion p its,
p r ov id ed th a t t h e or ig in a l su b st r a te w a s p itte d .
Th is st an d ar d re q u ire s a m in im u m su rfa ce
p rofile of not le ss tha n 1 m il be re ta ine d or
p r o d u ce d . C u r r e n t ly , t h e r e is n o v i su a l
r e fe r e n ce p h o t o g r a p h s fo r t h is st a n d a r d .
(e) NA CE 4 /SSPC -SP7: B rushoff Blast
Clea ning. Br u s h - o ff b la s t cle a n in g e m p l o y s
abr asive blasting to rem ove all grea se, oil, d irt,
d u st , loo se m ill sca le, lo os e r u st , an d loo se
co a tin g s t h a t a r e v isib le w ith ou t m a g n ifica tion .
Tig h tly ad h er in g r u st , m ill sca le, a n d coa tin g s
are allow ed to rem ain if they can not b e

25

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


r em o v ed b y lift in g w ith a d u ll p u tt y k n ife .
Th e v isu al s ta n d ar d is SSPC -VIS 1 refe re n ce
p h otog rap h s.
(f) NAC E 8/SSPC-SP 14: Ind ustrial Blast
Clea ning. In d u s t r ia l b la s t cle a n in g e m p l o y s
abrasive blasting to rem ove all visible grease,
o il, d ir t , a n d d u s t th at are v is ib le w ith o u t
m a g n ificat ion . Tr a ces of t ig h tly ad h er in g m ill
scale, ru st, an d coating resid u e are allow ed to
r e m a i n o n 10 p e r c en t o f e a ch 9 in c h s q u a r e
a r ea , p r o v id ed th a t t h e d ist r ib u tio n is e v en .
T r a ce s of r u s t , m ill s ca le , a n d co a t in g s a r e
allow ed to rem ain if they can not b e rem oved
by liftin g w ith a d u ll p u tty k n ife. Sh ad ow s,
st r ea k s, a n d d isco lor a tio n cau se d b y r u st , m ill
s ca le , a n d p r e v i o u s ly a p p lie d c o a tin g s a r e
accep table. The visua l stand ard is d eterm ined
b y com p ar iso n to SSPC -VIS1 re fer en ce
p h otog rap h s.
(g) SSP C-SP8: Pickling. P ick lin g r em ov es all
m ill sca l e an d ru s t th at are v is ib le w ith o u t
m agn ification, by chem ical reaction (acid b ath )
o r e le ct r o ly s is (an o d ic electrical cu rren t) or
both . Acceptan ce criteria are to be established
betw een contr acting p arties.
(h) NA CE 3 /SSPC -SP6: C om me rcial Blast
Clea ning. C o m m e r cia l b la s t cle a n in g e m p l o y s
abr asive blasting to rem ove all grea se, oil, d irt,
d u st , m ill s cale, ru s t, co atin g s , o xid e, co rrosion
b y p r o d u c t s, a n d o t h e r fo r e ig n m a t te r th a t a r e
v i sib l e w it h o u t m ag n ificatio n , excep t fo r
r a n d o m st a in in g . Stain in g m ay co n s is t of
lig h t s h a d o w s , s lig h t s tr e a k s, o r m in o r s tr e a k s
ca u se d b y r u st , m ill sca le, o r p r ev iou sly
ap p lied coa tin g s. A t lea st t w o-t h ird s o f ea ch
9-in ch -sq u a r e a r ea sh a ll be fre e o f all v isib le
resid u e, and only the ab ove-m entioned
st a in i n g m ay b e p res en t in th e rem ain d e r of
t h e a r ea . T h e v is u a l s ta n d a r d i s d e t er m in e d b y
com p ar iso n to SSPC -VIS 1 refe re n ce
p h otog rap h s.
(i) NAC E 2/SSPC-SP 10: N ear-w hite m etal blast
clean ing. N ea r -w h ite m et a l b las t cle a n in g
em p loys abrasive blasting to rem ove all grease,
oil, d irt, d u st, m ill scale, ru st, coating s, oxid e,
corrosion b yp rod u cts, and other foreign m atter
that are v isible w ithou t m agn ification, excep t
fo r r a n d o m s tain in g . Stain in g m ay co n s is t of

26

lig h t s h a d o w s , s lig h t s tr e a k s, o r m in o r s tr e a k s
ca u se d b y r u st , m ill sca le, o r p r ev iou sly
a p p lied coa tin g s. A t le a st 95 p er cen t o f ea ch 9in ch -sq u a r e a r ea sh a ll be fre e o f all v isib le
r es id u e, a n d th e r em a in d er of t h e a r ea sh a ll
h av e on ly th e ab ov e-m en tion ed stain ing . The
vis ua l sta nd a rd is de te rm ine d by c om p a rison
to SSPC -VIS 1 referen ce p h otog rap h s.
(j) NAC E 1/SSPC-SP 5: W hite M etal Blast
Clea ning. W h it e m e t al b la s t cle a n in g e m p l o y s
abr asive blasting to rem ove all grea se, oil, d irt,
d u s t, m ill s ca le, ru s t, c oa tings , oxid e , c orro sion
b y p r o d u c t s, a n d o t h e r fo r e ig n m a t te r th a t a r e
v isib le w ith ou t m a g n ificat ion . Th e r es u ltin g
b la s te d s u r fa ce is g en e r a lly a u n ifo r m g r a y w hite color. Variation in color cau sed by steel
typ e, origina l su rface cond ition, steel
thickne s s , w e ld m e ta l, m ill or fa brica tion
m ark s, h eat tr eatm en t, heat-affected zon es,
blasting abr asives, or d ifferen ces in blast
p a tt er n is a ccep ta b le. Th e v isu a l st a n d a r d is
d ete r m in ed b y co m p a r iso n to SSP C -VIS 1
referen ce p h otog rap h s.
(k) NACE 5/SSPC-SP12: Surface Preparation
and C leaning of Steel and Other Hard Metals
by High- and Ultra-Pressure Water Jetting Prior
to R ecoating. H igh- or ultra-high w ater jet
b las tin g em p loy s w a te r b las tin g to r em ov e a ll
gr ease, oil, dirt, d u st, m ill scale, ru st coating s,
oxid es, corrosion b yp rod u cts, and other
fore ign m a tte r tha t a re vis ible w ithou t
m a g n ificat ion . Rem ov e n on v isib le s olu b le
s a lt s t o a llo w a b le lim it s t h a t r e q u i r e p h y s i ca l
testing to ver ify. The stand ard d efine s the
fo llow in g fo u r d iffe r en t w a ter p r essu r es:
(1) lo w -p r e s su r e w a t e r cle a n i n g a t le s s t h a t
5,000 p s i; (2) h i g h -p r e s su r e w a t e r cle a n i n g a t
5,000 to 10,000 psi; (3) high -pressu re w ater
jet tin g at 10,000 to 25,000 p si; an d (4) u ltr a h ig h p r e s su r e w a t e r je t tin g a t g r e a t e r th a n
25,000 psi. The d egree of cleanliness is d ivid ed
in t o t w o ca t e g o r ie s : v i sib le co n t a m in a n t s a n d
no nv isible con tam inan ts. Visible contam inan ts
are su bd ivid ed into fou r classifications,
d esignated W J-1 thr ou gh W J-4 (WJ-1 is the
clean est) on the b asis of allow able visible ru st,
coating s, m ill scale, and foreign m atter
v er ified w ith ou t m a g n ificat ion . N on v isib le
contam inants are su bd ivid ed into three
clas sifica tio n s, d es ig n a te d SC-1, SC -2, an d SC-3

Surface Preparation
(SC-1 is th e cle a n es t) o n th e b a sis of a llow a b le
so lu b l e c h lo rid e io n s , iro n -s o lu b le s alts , or
su lfat e io n s. Th e v isib le a n d n on v isib le
a llo w a b le co n t a m i n a n t le v e ls a re sp e c ifie d b y
the d esignation W J-x/ SC-x; x ind icates the
s p e c ifie d d e fin i tio n n u m b e r . T h e v is u a l
stan d ard w ill be d eterm ined by com p arison to
SSPC -VIS 4/ N A CE 7 referen ce p h otog rap h s.
Re clam a tio n sp ecifie s W J-2/ SC -2 for all
im m ersion serv ice exp osu res.
W a te r jet tin g can n ot p r od u ce a su r face p r ofile
w ithou t the ad d ition of abrasives into the jet
flo w a n d , t h erefo re, is n o t s p ecified fo r
su rfaces w ithou t a sur face p rofile, e.g., new
co n st r u ctio n st ee l. Recla m a tio n sp ecifie s t h is
stand ard only for pr eviou sly coated sur faces
that h ave an existing sur face p rofile.

Th is is a n ex celle n t m et h od for r em ov in g old


p aint and contam inants u sing only p ressur ized
w a t er . W a t e r je t tin g e q u i p m e n t ca n b e
v a cu u m s h ro u d e d t o p r e v en t sp r a y a n d h a v e
in - lin e f ilt e r s t o se p a r a t e o u t o ld p a in t a n d
co n t a m i n a n t s . So m e m a n u f a ct u r e r s ar e
exp erim en ting w ith injecting abr asives into the
w a te r -jet st r ea m th a t w ou ld b e ca p a b le o f
p rod u cing a su rface p rofile.
(a) SSPC-VIS 1: Visual Standard for Abrasive
Blast C leaned S teel. This guid e show s a series
of ph otograp hs of un p ainted carbon steel
be fore a nd a fte r a bra s ive bla s t c le a ning. Below
is an abb rev iated exp lanation of the
p r oc ed u r es to follo w b efo r e a n d aft er clea n in g
t h e s te e l. T h e p r o c e d u r e s a r e fo llo w e d b y a n
exam p le.
1.

Befor e a b ra siv e b las t clea n in g , m at ch


the existing su rface con d ition w ith the
initial con d ition sh ow n in on e of the
p h o t o g r a p h i c s ta n d a r d s . In i tia l
co n d it io n s (o r r u s t g r ad e s) a r e
p h o t og r a p h s A , B, C , a n d D a n d a r e
d efin ed in se ctio n 4.1 o f th e st a n d a r d .
V a r io u s a r e a s o f t h e su r f a ce to b e
cle a n e d m a y m a t ch o n e o r m o r e in i tia l
cond ition p h otog rap h s.

2.

Fr om th e s p ecifica tio n s, d et er m in e
the s pe c ifie d s urfa ce pr e p a ra tion
s ta nd a rd . The s urfa ce pr e p a ra tion
sta n d a r d w ill b e on e of t h e fo llow in g :
N A C E 1/ SSP C -SP 5, N A C E 2/ SSP C SP10, N A C E 3/ SSPC -SP6, or N A C E
4/ SSPC -SP7.

3.

Fr o m t a b le 1 in t h e v is u a l s ta n d a r d ,
s e le ct the s pe c ifie d s urfa ce pr e p a rat ion
stan d ard an d the initial cond ition to
ob ta in th e co r r ect p h ot og r a p h ic
d e sig n atio n .

4.

Ev alu at e t h e fin ish ed b las t su rfa ce


against the selected p hotog rap h in step
3 ab ov e t o d et er m in e if th e s u rfa ce
m ee ts t h e s p ecified su rfa ce
p re p a ra tion re qu ire m e nts for
clean lin ess.

Th is is a n ex celle n t m et h od for r em ov in g old


p aint and contam inants u sing only p ressur ized
w a t er . W a t e r je t tin g e q u i p m e n t ca n b e
v a cu u m s h ro u d e d t o p r e v en t sp r a y a n d h a v e
in - lin e f ilt e r s t o se p a r a t e o u t o ld p a in t a n d
co n t a m i n a n t s . So m e m a n u f a ct u r e r s ar e
exp erim en ting w ith injecting abr asives into the
w a te r -jet st r ea m th a t w ou ld b e ca p a b le o f
p rod u cing a su rface p rofile.

30. Photographic Inspection Standards.


T h e in s p e c to r sh o u ld in s p e c t t h e su r f a ce b e fo r e
an d after sur face p rep aration to eva luate
clean line ss. SSPC an d N A CE/ SSPC stand ard
visual reference ph otograp hs are a
s u p p l e m e n t a l a id t o ev a lu a t in g c le a n lin e s s b u t
ar e n ot in te n d ed as a s u b stit u te for su rfa ce
clean line ss requ irem en ts d efine d in the
su r f a ce p r ep aratio n s tan d ard u s ed . Th e re a s on
for in sp ect in g th e s u rfa ce b efo re su rfa ce
p r e p a r a t io n is th at d ifferen t d eg rad atio ns on
th e s a m e s te el s u r face (e.g ., h ea v y m ill sca le
w ith ligh t and heav ily ru sted areas) w ill have a
d iffe r e n t a p p e a r a n c e a ft e r u s in g t h e s a m e
su rface p rep aration m ethod . Thu s, steel
s u r f a ce s th a t a r e a cce p t a b l y cle a n w ill a p p e a r
d ifferen t, d ep end ing on the initial steel
c o n d it io n a n d th e s u r face p rep aratio n m e thod
em p loy ed . Belo w ar e t h e v isu al r efe re n ce
s t an d a r d s fo r a b r a s iv e b la s t cle a n i n g , h a n d a n d
p o w e r t o ol cle a n i n g , w a t e r je t cle a n i n g , a n d
w et ab r a siv e b las t cle a n in g .

27

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


Ex a m ple: A steel trashr ack has been
d e liv er ed t o th e jo bsite u n co ate d a n d
stor ed ou tsid e w itho u t p ro tection . The
t r a sh r a c k is sh o w in g e v id e n ce o f u n ifo r m
co r r o sio n an d n o p ittin g b efo r e co a tin g .
T h e sp e cified s u rface p r ep aratio n m e thod
is N A C E 2/ SSPC -SP10.

sta n d a r d w ill b e on e of t h e fo llow in g :


SSPC -SP2, SSPC -SP3, o r SSPC -SP11.
3.

Step 1: Th e e xist in g su rfa ce


ap p earan ce m ost closely rep resen ts
r u st g r a d e B.

Reclam ation allow s the con tractor to


c hos e the typ e of ha n d or p ow e r tool
to acc om p lish th e w or k . D et er m in e
th e ty p e of to ol to be u se d fr om t h e
c ontra ctor. The follow ing d e s igna tion
cod es are u sed in the stan d ard to
id en tify v ariou s ha n d an d p ow er too ls:
SP 2: H a n d w ir e b ru s h .

Step 2: Ta b le 1 sh ow s th at for su rfa ce


p r e p a r a t i on N A C E 2 / SSP C - SP 10 a n d
ru st gr ad e B, th e fin ished blast
su rface sho u ld corr esp on d to
p h ot og r a p h B SP 10.

SP 3/ P W D : P ow e r w i re br u sh .
(R ecla m a t io n d o e s n o t p e r m it r o ta r y
p ow e r w ire bru s hing be c a us e the t ool
h as th e ten d en cy to bu rn ish or p olish
t h e m e t a l s u r f a ce , t h u s r e m o v i n g a n y
exis tin g su r fa ce p r ofile .)

Step 3: Evalu ate th e fin ished blast


su r face ag a in st p h ot og r a p h B SP 10
to d eterm ine if the su rface m eets
N A CE 2/ SSPC -SP10 cleanliness
req u irem en ts.
(b) SSPC-VIS 3: Visual Standard for Powe rand Ha nd-Tool Cleaned S teel. Th is g u id e
show s a series of p hotog rap hs of un p ainted
an d p ainted carbon steel before an d after
h a n d - a n d p o w e r -t o o l cle a n i n g . Be lo w is a n
abb rev iated exp lanation of the p roced u res to
follow befor e an d after clean ing th e stee l. Th e
p roced u res are follow ed by an exam p le.
1.

2.

28

Be fo r e h a n d - o r p o w e r -t o ol cle a n in g ,
m a tch th e ex is tin g s u rface co n d ition
tha t m ost closely rep resen ts the
a p p earan ce w ith th e in itial co nd ition
sh ow n in on e o f th e p h ot og r a p h ic
stan d ard s. Initial cond ition s (or ru st
g r a d es ) A , B, C , an d D are fo r
u n c o a te d s u r f a ce s ; co n d it io n s E , F , a n d
G a re for p rev iou sly p ainte d su rfaces.
In i tial co n d itio n s are d efin ed in s e c tion
4 .1 o f th e s tan d ard . V ario u s area s of
th e s u rfa ce t o b e clea n ed m ay m at ch
o n e o r m o re in itial co n d itio n
p h otog rap h s.
From the sp ecification s, d eterm ine th e
sp e cified s u rface p r ep aratio n
st an d ard . T h e s u rface p r ep aration

SP3/ SD: Po w er sa n d in g d isc.


SP 3/ N G : P o w e r n e e d le g u n .
SP11: Pow e r rota ry fla p p e e n or
n ee d le g u n (to p ro d u ce a su rfa ce
p r ofile ).
SP11/ R: Pow er tool using n onw oven
d isk s (to re sto re exis tin g su rfa ce
p r ofile ).
4.

Fr o m t a b le 1 in t h e v is u a l s ta n d a r d ,
s e le ct the s pe c ifie d s urfa ce pr e p a rat ion
stan d ard an d the initial cond ition to
ob ta in th e co r r ect p h ot og r a p h ic
d e sig n atio n .

5.

Evaluate th e finished han d or p ow er


tool su rface against the selected
p ho togr ap h in step 4 above to
d e te rm i n e if th e su r fa ce m e ets th e
s pe c ifie d s urfa ce pr e p a ra tion
req u irem en ts for clean lin ess.

Example: An existing coated rad ial gate


r e q u i r e s s p o t r e p a i r s. T h e co a t in g h a s
d et er ior a te d or p ee led off in sm a ll
lo ca liz e d a r e a s, a n d r u s t is ev id e n t b u t
there is no visible pitting . The sp ecified
su r face p r ep a r a tio n m et h od is SSPC -SP11,
a n d th e co n tr acto r u s ed a n e ed le gu n .

Surface Preparation
sp ecifie d d eg r ee of cle a n in g is W J-2.

Step 1: Th e e xist in g su rfa ce


ap p earan ce m ost closely rep resen ts
r u st g r a d e C .

N o t e: The d esignation SC-3 in the


a b ov e e xa m p le d en ot es acc ep ta b le
d eg r ee of cle a n in g for allo w a b le
no nv isible solu ble salt contam inan ts
a fte r w a te r jet clea n in g . Th e g u id e
d oe s n ot at te m p t t o s h ow n on v isib le
co n ta m in a n ts b y p h ot og r a p h ic
illu st r a tio n . Ph y sica l te st in g is
re qu ire d to de te rm ine c om p lia nc e for
n on v isu a l con ta m in a n ts an d is
d iscu s se d in su b se ctio n 28, Te stin g
fo r C h lo r id es o n P r ep a r ed Su r fa ce s.

St ep 2 : Select p o w er to o l d es ig na tion
SP1 1 b ecau s e a n eed le g u n p o w e r tool
w as u sed to p rep are the su rface.
Step 3: From table 1, the finished
su r fa ce p h oto gr ap h t h at co rr esp o n d s
to ru st g ra d e C a n d su rfa ce
p r e p aratio n S SP C -SP 1 1, an d th e tool
u se d is C SP11.
Step 4: Ev alu at e t h e fin ish ed su rfa ce
aga inst p ho togr ap h C SP11 to
d e te r m i n e if t h e su r f ace m e e ts SSP C SP11 clean lin ess req u irem en ts.

3.

Th e gu id e sh o w s p h oto gr ap h s of th e
follow ing fou r d egr ees for flash
ru sting : (1) no ru sting , (2) light,
(3) m ed ium , and (4) heav y. These
d e g re es o f fla sh r u stin g ar e th e
d eg r ee s o f ru st in g allo w ed to r em a in
on th e su r fa ce after w a te r jet clea n in g .
T h e d e g r e es o f fla s h r u s t in g a r e
d en oted in th e g u id e b y th e fo llow in g :
(1) n o le t te r d e s ig n a t io n fo r n o r u s t in g ,
(2) L fo r lig h t , (3) M f o r m e d iu m , a n d
(4) H fo r h e a v y . Fo r e xa m p l e , if lig h t
flash ru sting is allow ed by th e
sp ecificat ion s, a p os sib le su rfa ce
p r e p a r a t io n w o u l d b e N A C E 5/ SSP C SP12 W J-2/ SC-3 L, w he re L is the
a llo w a b le a m o u n t o f fla s h r u s t in g , a n d
it is d e n o t e d i n t h e g u i d e p h o t o g r a p h s
as W J-2 L.

4.

Fr o m t a b le 1 in t h e v is u a l s ta n d a r d ,
select the d egree of cleaning, den oted
by W J-1, -2, -3, or -4, corresp on d ing to
the in itial con d ition to obtain the
c orre ct ph otogra p hic d e s igna tion.

5.

If th e s p ecifica tio n s a llow flas h r u st in g


to r em a in on th e s u r face , u se ta b le 2 in
th e visu a l sta n d a rd t o o bta in th e
corr ect p h oto gr ap h ic d esign ation . The
gu id e s how s ph otogra p hs for the four
d egrees o f rusting p aired on ly w ith the
in i tia l co n d it io n s C a n d D .

6.

Evaluate th e finished w ater jetted


su rface against the selected

(c) NACE 7/SSPC-VIS 4: Guide and visual


reference photographs for steel cleaned by
water jetting. T h is g u id e s h o w s a s eries of
p h o t o g r a p hs o f u n p ain ted an d p ain ted ca rbon
st eel b efo r e an d after w a te r jet clea n in g .
Below is an abb rev iated exp lanation of the
p r oc ed u r es to follo w b efo r e a n d aft er clea n in g
t h e s te e l. T h e p r o c e d u r e s a r e fo llo w e d b y a n
exam p le.
1.

2.

Before w ater jet clean ing, m atch th e


existin g su rface cond ition th at m ost
closely rep resen ts the ap p earan ce w ith
t h e in itial co n d itio n s h o w n in one of
t h e p h o t o g r a p h ic s ta n d a r d s . In i tia l
co n d it io n s (o r r u s t g r a d e s ) B a n d C
(in i tia l co n d it io n p h o t o g r a p h s A a n d B
a r e n o t in clu d ed in th e g u id e) are for
u n co a te d s u r fa ce s. C o n d i tio n s E, F, G ,
an d H are for pr eviou sly p ainted
su rfaces. Initial cond itions are d efined
in s ectio n 4 .1 o f th e s tan d ard . V a riou s
a r e a s o f t h e s u r f a ce t o b e cle a n e d m a y
m a tch o n e o r m o re in itial co n d ition
p h otog rap h s.
From the sp ecification s, d eterm ine th e
sp ecifie d d eg r ee of cle a n in g
d esig n a ted b y on e th e fo llo w in g : W J1, W J-2, W J-3, or W J-4. A p os sib le
s u r fa ce p r e p a r a t io n m e t h o d c ou l d b e
N A C E 5/ SSP C -SP 12 W J-2/ SC -3; th e

29

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


p ho togr ap h in step 4 and 5 above to
d e te rm i n e if th e su r fa ce m e ets th e
sp ecified su rface prep aration requ irem en ts
for clean lin ess.
Ex a m ple: T h e co atin g o n th e in terior
s u r f a ce o f a n e x is t in g s t e e l p ip e h a s
d e t er io r a t e d , a n d e x te n s iv e r u s t in g a n d
p ittin g is ev id en t. Th e s p ecified su rfa ce
p r e p a r a t io n m e th o d is N A C E 5/ SSP C SP12, WJ-2/ SC-2 L.
Step 1: Th e e xist in g su rfa ce
ap p earan ce m ost closely rep resen ts
r u st g r a d e D .
Step 2: From table 1, the finished
su r fa ce p h oto gr ap h t h at co rr esp o n d s
t o ru s t g rad e D an d d eg ree o f
clea n in g W J-2 is D W J-2.
Ste p 3: Fro m ta b le 2, th e a llow a b le
ligh t flash ru sting to rem ain on the
fin ish ed su r face is p h ot og r a p h D W J-2
L, co rr esp o n d i n g to ru s t g r ad e D
a n d lig h t fla sh r u st in g L.
Step 4: Evaluate th e finished w ater
je t te d s u r f a ce a g a in s t p h o t o g r a p h D
W J-2 to d eterm ine if the su rface m eets
N A CE 2/ SSPC -SP10 cleanliness
r e q u i r e m e n t s a n d a g a in s t p h o t o g r a p h
D W J-2 L fo r allo w a b le r em a in in g
su rface flash ru st.
N o t e: In t h e a b o v e ex a m p le , if lig h t
flash ru sting is no t allow ed by th e
sp ecificat ion s (i.e., th e s u rfa ce
p r e p a r a t io n m e th o d is N A C E 5/ SSP C SP12 W J-2/ SC -2), sele ctio n an d
ev a lu a tio n of p h ot og r a p h D W J-2 L in
steps 3 and 4 are exclu d ed .

31. Alternative Surface Preparation


Methods. Ther e are altern atives to
t r a d it io n a l ab ras iv e b las t clean in g m eth od s
th at m ay red u ce su rface p rep ara tion costs,
d u s t, o r fo u lin g o f m a ch in e r y b y sm a ll a b ra siv e
p articles. These altern ative m eth od s, u n less
ot h er w ise n ot ed , ass u m e a n exis tin g su rfa ce
(anchor) pr ofile on th e sub strate surface does
exist. If a su rface p rofile d oes not exist, or n ew

30

m a t e r ia l r e q u i r e s a d e e p e r p r o file , t r a d i t io n a l
a b r a siv e b la st cle a n in g m u st b e em p lo y ed .
Th e fo llow in g se ctio n s p r ov id e a lte r n a tiv e
cleaning m ethod s w ith an abbr eviated
d e scr ip t io n .
(a) Sponge A brasive B lasting. This m e tho d
follow s th e tra d ition al abr asive b last m eth od s,
e xce p t t h a t th e a b r a siv e p a r t icle s a r e
en cap su lated in a sp on ge m ater ial. Th e
sp ong e m aterial p reven ts abrasive pa rticles
from brea king u p an d d iffusing on im p act,
t h u s r e d u cin g t h e a m o u n t o f d u s t . Sp o n g e
bla sting c re a te s a bou t 10 to 20 p e rc ent of
t h e d u s t t h a t w o u ld b e cr e a te d b y
n on en cap su lated ab ra sive m ater ials. Th e
m etho d d oes create a su rface pro file, an d the
su r fa ce cle a n lin ess ca n b e co m p a r ed to SSP C VIS 1.
(b) So da B icarb onate B lasting. This m e th od
p rop els larg e crystals of sod a bicarbon ate
(b a k in g so d a ) b y p r es su r ize d air or w a te r . It is
u s ed m o stly as a str ip p e r fo r cle an in g
co n ta m in a n ts an d for th in coa tin g s. Th er e is
n o s u r face clea n lin es s s ta n d a r d for th is
m ethod ; how ever, cleanliness can be sp ecified
to m eet th e req u irem en ts of a consen su s
su r face p r ep a r a tio n (e.g ., N A C E 3/ SSPC -SP6).
(c) Ice Blasting. Th is m et h od p ro p els ice
p ar ticles b y p re ssu riz ed air . O n im p act , th e ice
exerts a shee r force across the su bstrate
su r face , re m ov in g con ta m in a n ts an d th in
coating s. If d ry ice is u sed , it sho u ld n ot be
u s e d in c onfine d s pa c e s be ca u s e of c a rbon
d ioxid e b u ild u p . Th er e is n o s u rfa ce
cleanliness stand ard for this m ethod ; how ever,
clean line ss can be sp ecified to m eet the
re q u ire m en ts o f a co n se n su s su rfa ce
p r ep a r a tio n (e.g ., N A C E 3/ SSPC -SP6).
(d) Chem ical Strip pers. C h e m ica l s tr ip p e r s
c a n be cla s s ifie d into tw o ge ne ric c omp os ition
typ e s : (1) bond bre a ke rs a nd (2) c a us tic . Bond
b r ea k er st r ip p er s w or k b y b r ea k in g th e p a in t's
m o le cu la r b on d s b etw e en p a in t la ye rs a n d
b e t w e e n t h e p a i n t a n d t h e s u b s t r a te s o t h a t
p a in t w ill cr in k le u p an d b e ea sily r em ov ed .
Bond break er strip p ers can contain tolu ene,
m e t h yle n e ch lo rid e , o r m e th y l e th y l k eto n e
th a t r em ov es p a in ts in a r ela tiv ely sh or t t im e

Surface Preparation
b u t m a y b e co n sid er ed h a z a r d o u s t o w o r k er s.
Le ss h a z a r d ou s b on d b r ea k er s co n ta in N m ethyl-pryr rolid one (N M P) or d ibasic ester
(DBE) com p ou n d s, bu t th ese rem ov e p aint less
q u ick ly . Bo n d b r e ak e r s tr ip p e rs w ill r em o v e
a ll co a tin g s e xcep t o il-b a se d , in o r g a n ic, a n d
m e t allic co a t in g s . C a u s t ic s tr ip p e r s w o r k b y
s o ft e n in g t h e e n t i r e p a in t s y s te m r a t h e r t h a n
b r e a k in g m o le cu l a r b o n d s . C a u s t ic s tr ip p e r s
ca n con ta in so d iu m , calciu m , an d m a g n es iu m
hy d roxid e. Cau stic strip p ers are r estricted to
oil-based p aints bu t w ill not w ork on oil-based
p a in ts th a t a r e p ig m en te d w ith alu m in u m
flak es . Th is is b eca u se h y d r og en g a s is
g en er a te d w h en cau st ic com p ou n d s co m e in
contact w ith alum inu m , thu s p rev en ting th e
ca u st ic st r ip p er fro m p en et r a tin g th e p a in t
system .

C h e m ic a l s trip p e rs a re com m only u s e d for


sm all areas w her e p ow er is not av ailable,
a bra s ive a nd w a te r je t bla s ting is not
e conom ic a lly fea s ible , hos e d is ta nc e is too
gre a t to a chie ve ne c e ss a ry a ir p re s s ure for
b las tin g op er a tio n s, o r w h er e a cces sib ility is
lim ited. Ch em ical strip p ers are a lso used to
m in im ize air b or n e p a in t p a r ticle s fo r or g a n ic
p a in ts or h ea v y -m eta l b a se d p a in ts (e.g ., lea d ).
In g e n e r a l, ch e m ica l s tr ip p e r s m a y b e m e s s y ,
m a y re q u ir e r ep e t it iv e ap p lica tio n s t o r em o v e
a ll fo r e ig n m a t t er fr o m t h e s u b s t r a te , a n d m a y
leave a resid u e on th e sub strate that requ ires
so lv en t clea n in g . Th er e is n o s u rfa ce
cleanliness stand ard for this m ethod ; how ever,
clean line ss can be sp ecified to the
re q u ire m en ts o f a co n se n su s su rfa ce
p r ep a r a tio n (e.g ., N A C E 3/ SSPC -SP6).

31

Chapter VII
Environmental Conditions
Cold w eath er, high h u m idity, w ater, fog, frost,
m i st, r ain , ice , a n d sn o w a re so m e of th e
en viron m en tal factors d etrim en tal to the
p e r f or m a n c e o f co a t in g s . C o a tin g s s h o u l d b e
a p p lie d u n d e r o p t im u m e n v i r o n m e n t a l
co n d itio n s, b u t t h e w ea th er can ab r u p tly
ch a n g e. Th e p r ev a ilin g en v ir on m en ta l ru le-o fth u m b is t h a t e v a p o r a tio n sh o u ld b e occu r r in g .
C o m m o n s e n se , t h e m a n u f a ct u r e r s
instru ction s, an d ind u stry p ractices ap p ear to
be the m ost com m only follow ed gu idelines
r eg a r d in g en v ir on m en ta l con d itio n s d u r in g
co a tin g ap p lica tio n an d th e cu r in g p er io d .
F a ilu r e t o co n f o r m w it h e n v i r o n m e n t a l
r e st r ic tio n s res u lts in a v ariety o f ap p lica tion
failu res.

32. Environmental Factors Affecting


Coatings. Th e fo llow in g ar e fiv e
en v ir on m en ta l fact or s t h a t r eq u ir e m on ito r in g
d u r i n g co a t in g a p p l ica t io n a n d t h e cu r e
p e r io d . (Se e ap p en d ix K fo r tes t p ro ced u re s on
th e fa cto r s b elo w .)
(a) Amb ient T em perature. D u r in g th e
a p p lic a tio n o f co atin g s , Reclam atio n
sp ecificat ion s r eq u ire th at th e a ir a n d su rfa ce
t e m p e r a t u r e b e 50 d e g r e e s F o r h i g h e r a n d
w it h in t h e m a n u fa ct u r e r s u p p e r t e m p e r a tu r e
lim it or acco r d in g to th e m a n u fa ctu r es
in st r u ctio n s, w h ich ev er is th e m or e r es tr ictiv e
r e q u i r em e n t . E xce p t io n s a r e m a d e fo r co a t in g s
fo r m u la te d fo r co ld w ea th er ap p lica tio n s.
Am b i e n t (a ir) tem p eratu re is im p o rtan t for
su c ce ssfu l film fo rm atio n an d cu rin g . Som e
ep ox y coa tin g s a p p lied b elo w 50 d eg r ee s F w ill
n ot cu r e, a n d cu r in g w ill n ot p r oc ee d ev en if
tem p eratu res exceed 50 d egrees F at a later
tim e.
A g en er a l ru le-o f-th u m b in th e co a tin g
ind u stry is to ap p ly coatings at am bient
tem p er at u re s b etw ee n 40 an d 95 d eg re es F,
d ep en d in g on th e co a tin g m a te r ial.

(b) Su rface Sub strate Tem perature.


R ecla m a t io n s p e c ifica t io n s r e q u i r e th a t
co a t in g s b e a p p lie d w h e n t e m p e r a tu r e s a r e
50 d egrees F or h igher an d w ithin th e
m an u factu rers u p p er lim it or accord ing to
t h e m a n u f a ct u r e r s in s t r u ct io n s . T h e m o r e
r est r ict iv e r eq u ir em en t w ill b e fo llo w ed .
In gener al, ind u stry p ractice requires
su r face te m p er a tu r e b et w ee n ab ou t 40
a n d 125 d eg r ees F.
(c) Relative Hu mid ity. R e cla m a tion d oe s not
sp ecify lim its for r ela tiv e h u m id ity ; ra th er , it
sp ecifies that th e coating be ap p lied w ithin th e
m a n u fa ctu r er s r eco m m en d ed h u m id ity r a n g e.
G en er a l in d u st r y p r a ctice r eq u ir es a m a xim u m
relative hu m idity of abou t 80 to 85 p ercent,
e xce p t fo r t h o se co a t in g s t h a t a r e le ss m o i st u r e
s e n s it iv e o r a r e m o i s tu r e cu r e d . H o w e v e r , a s
a gen eral ru le-of-thu m b, the closer to th e
op tim u m relative h u m idity, the m ore likely to
a ch iev e th e d esig n ed se r v ice life .
(d) D ew Poin t. Th e d ew p oin t d et er m in es if
m o is tu r e w ill fo r m o n t h e fe r r o u s su b s t r a te s b y
co n d en sa tion or if m oist u r e w ill e v a p or a te .
M oisture w ill form on ferrou s su bstrate
su rfaces w he n th e d ew p oint is higher tha n th e
s u r fa ce te m p e r a t u r e . C o n v e r s ely , m o is tu r e
w ill n ot for m w h en th e s u r face te m p er a tu r e is
h ighe r th an th e d ew p oint. Dew p oint is a
fun ction of am bient tem p eratu re, sub strate
tem p eratu re, an d relative h u m idity. All three
o f t h e se e n v ir o n m e n t a l co n d it io n s m u s t b e
kn ow n to d eterm ine th e d ew p oint.
Reclam ation sp ecification s requ ire that th e
fer r ou s s u b st r a te te m p er a tu r e b e a m in im u m
of 5 d egrees F higher th an the d ew p oint w hen
co a t in g s a r e a p p lie d . Th e co a t in g i n d u s tr y
im p ose s t h e sa m e d ew p oin t r est r ict io n .
Reclam ation specifications requ ire su rfaces
th a t a re n ot th o ro u g h ly d r y to be h ea te d o r th e
e n v i r o n m e n t co n t r o lle d b y d e h u m id ify in g a n d
heating equ ipm ent to d rive off m oistu re.
33

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


M oisture cond en sation w ill begin w he n th e
su bstrate tem p eratu re is less than the d ew
p o in t . To a llo w fo r p o s s ib le in s tru m en ta tion
e r r o r o r v a riatio n , a m in im u m s afety m argin of
5 d e g re es F su b str ate te m p e r atu r e a bo v e th e
d e w p o i n t is r eg a r d e d a s a g e n e r a l in d u s t r y
requ irem en t.
(e) W ind. R ecla m a t io n d o e s n o t sp e c ify a
m a xim u m w in d v elo city r es tr ictio n in coa tin g
ap p lication s. W ind becom es a factor w he n it

34

overcom es the sp raying op eration an d carries


coating p articles aw ay from the intend ed
s u r fa ce . T h is p r o b le m is k n o w n a s a ir b o r n e
ov er sp r a y . A ir b or n e o v er sp r a y m a y r es u lt in
p r e m a t u r e d r y i n g o f t h e co a t in g b e fo r e
r e a ch i n g t h e in t e n d e d s u r f a ce , a lo w e r D F T a t
th e sp ra y a p p lication p oin t, a h igh er D FT
d o w n w in d , o r sp r a y b ein g ca rr ie d to ad ja ce n t
veh icles, hom es, or oth er su rfaces not intend ed
to be coated. Com m on sen se shou ld be u sed
to av oid airbo rn e ov ersp ray p rob lem s.

Chapter VIII
Application and Curing
C o a t i n g a p p licatio n is next in imp ortan ce after
su rface p rep ara tion, an d accou n ts for m ost
failu re s. A coa tin g is n ot a fin ish ed p ro d u ct
u ntil it ha s been su ccessfu lly ap p lied to the
st ee l su b st r a te an d cu r ed . Co a tin g
p e r fo r m a n c e is a ffe ct e d d u r in g a p p lica t io n a n d
cu r in g b y t e m p e r a t u r e , r e la t iv e h u m id it y , a n d
d e w p o in t . (Se e ch a p t e r VII, E n v ir o n m e n t a l
C o n d it io n s . ) M i x in g , n u m b e r o f co a t s a n d
th ickn ess, and ap p lication tech n iqu e w ill also
affect coating p erform an ce. N ot obser ving the
env ironm ental restrictions or im p rop er
ap p lication tech n iqu es can resu lt in d efects,
p rem atu re failure, or red u ced serv ice life.

33. Application Temperature and Humidity


Restrictions. E n v ir o n m e n t a l co n d it io n s a r e
n o t a lw a y s co n t r o lla b le . W e a t h e r m a y
abr u p tly cha ng e, an d cond ition s m ay v iolate
the m an u factu rers tem p eratu re an d hu m idity
r e st r ict io n s . U n l e ss co n d it io n s ca n b e
c o n t r o lle d by d eh u m id ify in g , h eatin g , o r a
co m b in a tio n of b ot h , field ap p licat ion sh ou ld
p r o ce ed on ly d u r in g fa v o r a b le w ea th er .
Coa ting in h igh h u m idity ar eas, su ch as th e
in t e r io r s o f v a u l t s o r p i p e s , s h o u l d b e
p er for m ed on ly w h en th e e n v ir on m en t is
co n tr o lle d b y d eh u m id ify in g , h ea tin g , or b oth .
Reclam ation sp ecification s p rov ide th e
follow ing tem p eratu re an d hu m idity
r estr ictio n s, u n less th e m a n u fa ctu r er s
instru ction s are m ore string en t:

Relative h u m idity sh all be w ithin th e


m an u factur ers lim its.

34. Coating Layers. Re clam a tio n ty p ically


sp ecifie s t h e n u m b er of co a ts to b e a p p lied in
t h e co a t in g t a b u l a tio n s . T h e fo llo w in g t e r m s
p rov id e a d escription of the coat ing lay ers:
(a) Strip e Coat. Stripe coats are ap p lied
to p rep are d bar e m etal ed ges, bolth ead s,
w e ld s , co rn e rs, a n d sim i la r e d g es b efo re th e
p r i m e co a t is a p p lie d . St r ip e c o at s a r e
n ece ss a r y b eca u se , as th e co a tin g d r ies , te n sile
forces are created at the ed ges, forcing th e
coating to p u ll aw ay from the ed ge in b oth
d irections, resulting in a th inn er coating at th e
e d g e . St r ip co a t s p r o v i d e a n a d d it io n a l
t h ick n e s s b u i ld u p t o p r e v e n t t h i n , D F T a t
ed ges.
(b) Prime Co at. Prim e coats are ap p lied
ov er th e e n tir e s u r face to b e co a te d , in clu d in g
strip e coated ar eas. The p rim e coat mu st cover
th e p eak s of th e su rface p ro file. Th e
co n se q u en ce o f n ot cov er in g th e p ea k s is
p i n p o in t r u s t in g .
(c) Interme diate Co at. Interm ed iate
co a ts ar e a p p lied ov er th e p r im er to p r ov id e
a d d itio n a l p r ote ctio n or to se a l th e p r im er .
M u ltip le inter m ed iate coats can b e ap p lied to
bu ild u p th e film th ickn ess.

A ir an d su b st r a te te m p er a tu r es sh a ll
b e a b ov e 50 d eg r ee s F d u r in g
a p p lica tio n an d c u rin g an d w ith in th e
m a n u fa ct u r e r s u p p e r t e m p e r a tu r e
lim it.

(d) To pco at. Top coats or finishe d coats


are ap p lied over the p rim er or in term ed iate
coat for color aesthetics or to p rotect the
u n d e r lin i n g c oa t in g m a t e r ia l fr o m s u n lig h t a n d
U V light.

Su r faces sh all b e a m in im u m o f
5 d eg r ee s F a b ov e t h e d ew p oin t
te m p er a tu r e a t t h e t im e o f coa tin g
a p p lica tio n .

(e) Ba se Coat. Base coat is a term often


u s e d t o d e s cr ib e a s elf-p r im in g m a t e r ia l
ap p lied in m u ltip le coats. The ter m , base
co a ts , is u se d in st ea d of p r im er ,
in te r m ed iat e, an d t op co a t b eca u se all

35

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


thr ee coats are of the sam e m aterial. Base coats
a r e n o t n o r m a lly co n s id e r e d s u n l ig h t o r U V
resistant.

35. Mixing. Befo r e a p p licat ion , th e co a tin g


m a t er ia ls r eq u ir e m i xin g to m a k e th e p ain t
h o m o g e n e o u s a n d u n i fo r m . L iq u id s a n d
p igm ents of different d ensities m ay sep arate,
se tt le, o r for m a s k in w ith in th e s h ip p in g
container. M ixing is to be p erform ed
accord ing to th e m an u factur ers instru ction s.
C o a t i n g s a r e eith er s in g le-co mp o n en t o r
m u ltip le-co m p on en t. M os t m u ltip leco m p o n en t co a tin g s a r e tw o -co m p o n en t.
Epo xies are an exam p le of a two -com p onen t
co a tin g . Th ey co n ta in a r esin an d a h a r d en er .
The com p onen ts of a m u ltiple-com p onen t
co a tin g can b e in eq u a l p r op or tio n s (e .g., 1:1)
o r u n e q u a l p ro p o rtio n s (e.g ., 1:4 ). P ro p o rtions
are d eterm ined by vo lum e. Com p on en ts m u st
be sh ipp ed in sep ara te con taine rs. Regard less
of the p rop ortion volu m e for m u ltipleco m p on en t m a te r ials , th e m a n u fact u r er w ill
ship on e container large en ou gh to ho ld a ll the
co m p o n e n t s fo r m ix in g .
The follow ing a re com m on m ixin g m eth od s:

M an u ally p ad d lin g (the m ost


in efficie n t m et h od ).

M e c h a n ica lly a g it a tin g o r p a d d lin g .

Sh a k i n g .

Bo x in g ( r e q u i r es p o u r in g t h e m a t e r ia l
from the original ship p ing container
in to an em p ty con ta in er an d r ep ea tin g
th e p rocess sev era l tim es). It is m ost
often u sed for sing le-com p on en t,
m oistu re-cur ed m ater ials.

If th e m an u factur er r ecom m en d s th inn ers,


they are ad d ed in the r ecom m en d ed am ou nts
d u ring m ixing. After m ixing, som e m u ltipleco m p on en t m a te r ials r eq u ir e a 10- to 30m in u t e in d u ct io n p e r io d t o a llo w ch e m ica l
r e a c tio n s t o b eg in b efo re ap p licatio n .

36

36. Application Method. O n ce t h e s u rfa ce


su b str ate h as b ee n p ro p er ly p r ep a r ed a n d
env ironm ental cond itions are w ithin sp ecified
to ler a n ces , th e a p p licat ion of t h e co a tin g
m aterial m ay p roceed. There are severa l
equ ipm en t choices from tran sferring the
co a tin g fr om th e co n ta in er to th e su b st r a te .
A p p lica tio n eq u ip m e n t m a y b e d icta te d b y th e
m a te r ia l ty p e an d th e siz e of th e su r fa ce ar ea .
Th e m a n u fact u r er s in st r u ctio n s w ill n or m a lly
p rovid e the p re fe rre d a p p lic a tion m e thod for
sm a ll a n d la r g e ar ea s.
The follow ing is a de s c rip tion of a pp lic a tio n
equ ipm en t an d m eth od s.
(a) Brush. The re tw o ge ne ra l type s of
bru s he s : w a ll a nd s a s h. The y c ome in va riou s
sizes, shap es, and bristle typ es. For steel
s ub s tra tes , w a ll bru s he s a re norm a lly u s e d f or
sm a ll a r ea s, r ep a ir ar ea s, a n d cr ev ice s o r g a p s.
W a ll or ov a l b r u sh es ar e w ell s u ite d for st r ip e
coating irregu lar su rfaces su ch as ed ges,
corn ers, bolth ead s, an d sim ilar a rea s. Sash
bru s he s a re be tte r s uite d for coa ting n a rrow
are as.
(b) M itten. M i t te n o r p a i n t p a d s h o ld m o r e
co a tin g th a n a b r u sh , b u t t h ey r eq u ir e a tr a y .
Th is a p p licat ion m et h od is u se d for sm a ll,
ir r e g u l a r ly s h a p e d s tr u ct u r e s s u c h a s
h an d rails.
(c) Ro ller. R o lle r s co n s is t o f t w o g e n e r a l
p a rts : cove r a n d c ore. The cove r is the s e ct ion
th a t a p p lies th e co a tin g an d w ill v a r y in
d iam eter, len gth , fabric typ e, an d fiber len gth
(n a p ). R o lle r s a r e n o r m a lly u s e d f o r la r g e fla t
a r e a s (h o r iz o n t a l a n d v e r t ica l s u r fa ce s) t h a t ar e
t o o la r g e fo r b r u s h a p p lica t io n o r w h e r e
ov er sp r a y can n ot b e t ole r a te d . Th r ee b a sic
typ e s of rolle rs a re dis cu s s e d be low .
Pipe roller. Pipe rolle rs cons ists of tw o or
m ore rolle rs hinge d toge the r to conform to a
curv ed sur face such a s a sm all-diam eter p ipe.
Fence ro ller. Fe n ce r o lle r s h a v e a n e x tr a
long n a p s o tha t w he n a p p lying a c oa ting fr om

Application and Curing


o n e si d e o f a h u r rican e o r w ire fen ce, th e long
n ap w ill cov er b oth sid es.
Pressure roller. Pressu re rollers feed a
p e r fo r a t e d co re w ith a s tead y s u p p ly o f
co a t in g m a t er ia l fr o m a p r e s su r i z ed t a n k .
(d) Conventional Spray (applied cold or
hot).
Equipm ent. A n air com p r es so r , an oil
a n d w a t e r s ep arato r, a p res s u re tan k (p ot) or
p u m p , a ir a n d flu i d h o s es , a n d a s p r a y g u n a r e
ne ed ed . For ho t sp ray , a h eater is ad d ed to
h ea t th e m at er ial to ab ou t 150 to 160 d eg re es F.
Working principle. C om p r es se d air is
in t r o d u ce d in t o t h e co a t in g s t r e a m a t t h e s p r a y
g u n n oz z le, th u s b r ea k in g d ow n th e co a tin g
in t o t in y d r o p l e t s (co a t in g a t o m iz a t io n ) a n d
p rop elling the coating to the su rface sub strate.
Ad van tages. T h e co n v e n t io n a l sp r a y
m et h od p r ov id es m or e fin ely at om ize d coa tin g
p a r t icle s, r e su l t in g i n a sm o o th e r a n d m o r e
u n ifor m film . Lar g e a r ea s ca n b e co v er ed in a
relatively sh ort tim e. Op erator control of the
sp ray gu n is excellen t. Th e sp ray gu n h as a
high d egree of versatility regar d ing d ifferen t
co a tin g m a te r ials an d sp r a y p a tt er n s. Str ip in g
c a n b e a cc omp lis h ed b y th is meth o d .
Fo r h ot sp r a y ap p licat ion , th e v isco sit y is
low ered to im p rove a p p lication o r to m eet
m inim u m m aterial tem p eratu re.
Disa dva ntag es. T h e co n v e n t io n a l sp r a y
m eth o d u se s la r g e am o u n ts of a ir .
C o n se q u e n tly , tran s fer efficien cy is lo w
(m at er ial is lo st) b eca u se of b ou n ce b ack
(rebou nd ) an d oversp ray. The rebou nd m akes
it d ifficu lt t o co a t co r n er s a n d cr ev ices . Th is
m et h od is n ot g en er a lly su ita b le fo r h ig h -b u ild
co a tin g m a te r ia ls w ith o u t e xcess iv e th in n in g .
Use . Th is m et h od is u se d on n ea r ly all
R e cla m a t io n s tru ctu res w h ere o v ers p ray is not
a concern. The h ot spr ay m ethod is u sed
d u r i n g co o le r w e a t h e r .
(e) High-Volume, Low-Pressure (HVLP)
Spra y.

Equipm ent. Th is m e th o d r eq u ir es a h ig h v olu m e a ir su p p ly (com p r es se d air or tu r b in e


g e n e r a t o r ), a m a t e r ia l s u p p ly s y s te m , a n d a n
H VLP sp r a y g u n .
Working principle. A h ig h v olu m e o f air
a t o m i z es th e co a t in g m a t er ia l a t a lo w p r e s s u r e
an d tran sfers the atom ized coating p articles to
the su bstrate by low p ressur e.
Ad van tages. The m ethod has a b etter
t r a n s fe r e fficie n c y (le s s m a t e r ia l lo s t) t h a n h a s
th e co n v en tio n al s p ra y m et h od , an d b ou n ce
ba ck an d ov ersp ra y a re r ed u ced . Th e H VLP
sp ray g u n is m ore controllable than other
sp ray gu ns. The m etho d w ork s w ell w ith
h ig h -so lid s co a tin g m a te r ial.
Disa dva ntag es. The cove ra ge or
p r o d u ct io n r a t e is le s s t h a n w it h o t h e r s p r a y
m ethod s, and the m ethod m ay not atomize
certain coa ting m ater ials.
Use s. This meth od is lim ited to sm aller
a re a s or s urfa ce s tha t conta in nu m e rou s
recesses.
(f) Airless Spray (Ap plied Co ld or Ho t).
Equipm ent. This m eth od req u ires a
p ow er so u r ce (e lect r ic m ot or or air
co m p r ess or ), a h y d r a u lic p r ess u r e p u m p , a
h i g h -p r e s su r e flu id h o s e , a n d a n a i r le s s s p r a y
g u n w ith a s a fet y ex te n sio n tip .
Working principle. A t om i za tio n of th e
co a t in g i s a ch i e v e d b y f o r cin g t h e m a t e r ia l
th r ou g h a s m a ll or ifice u sin g h y d r a u lic
p r e s s u r e r a th e r t h a n a ir p r e s su r e . T h e h ig h p r e s s u r e p u m p m u l t ip l ie s t h e in p u t p r e ss u r e
by a m inim u m factor of 30, su ch th at th e
ou tp u t p ressur e at the sp ray g u n p rod u ces
p r e s su r e s u p t o a b o u t 6,000 p s i. T h e sp r a y g u n
ha s a fixed orifice size an d variou s fixed ang les
t o a llo w s e v e r a l s p r a y f a n p a t t e r n s a n d
t h ick n e s s e s t o b e ap p lie d w it h t h e s a m e
a m ou n t o f m a te r ial.
Ad van tages. This meth od p rovid es
g r ea te r cap a city for ap p ly in g h ig h b u ild
coating s, gr eater su rface p en etra tion b ecau se
of high a p p lic a tion p re s s ure s , high c ove ra ge or

37

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


p r o d u c t io n r a t es , t h e ca p a c it y to a to m iz e h ig h
v i sco s it y m a t e r ia l, r e d u ce d o v e r s p r a y a n d
b ou n ce b a ck , an d th e p ot en tia l for r ed u ced oil
a n d w a te r co n ta m in a tio n .

Use s. This m e thod is s uita ble for


m e d i u m t o la r g e su r f a ce a r ea s w h e r e
o v er sp r a y a n d r eb ou n d a re n ot a co n ce rn .
(h) Electrostatic Spray.

Disa dva ntag es. T h is m eth o d d o es not


p rod u ce the finely atom ized coating p articles
t h a t a r e p r o d u ce d b y c on v e n t io n a l sp r a y , a n d
it is n ot su ited for h igh qu ality finishe s. The
o p e r a t o r h a s le s s co n t r o l o f t h e s p r a y g u n t h a n
w it h t h e co n v e n t io n a l s p r a y m e t h o d , a n d t h e r e
is a h igher p oten tial for ap p lication d efects
th an w ith th e con ve n tion al sp ra y m eth od . The
h igh p ressu res ar e cau se for safety con cern s.
Use s. T h is m e t h o d is b es t s u it e d t o la r g e
su r fa ce ar ea s w h er e ov er sp r a y is n o t a co n ce r n .
It is u se d on n ea r ly all Re cla m a tio n st r u ctu r es.
T h e h o t sp ray m eth o d is u s ed fo r ap p lication
d u r i n g co o le r w e a t h e r .
(g) Air-A ssisted Airless Spra y. Air-assisted
a ir le s s s p r a y a p p lica t io n e q u ip m e n t w a s
d eveloped to comb ine som e of the ad van tages
of con ven tional and airless spr ay sy stem s into
one system .
Equipm ent. This m eth od req u ires a
h y d r a u lic p r es su r e p u m p (500 to 1,000 p si),
h o s e s , a n a i r co m p r e s so r (10 t o 15 p s i), a n d a
sp r a y g u n .
Working principle. T h e ato m izatio n of
the coating is sim ilar to th e atom ization of the
airless sp ray er, bu t the p ressu re is low er at th e
o r i fic e o f t he s p r ay g u n w ith th is m eth o d ,
n or m a lly at ab ou t 10 p si.
Ad van tages. T h is m e t h o d p r o v i d e s m o r e
finely atom ized coating p articles, a low er
p otential for ap p lication d efects, and better
o p er ato r co n tr ol o f th e sp r a y g u n th a n th e
a ir les s m et h od . A lso , tr a n sfe r efficie n cy is
b e t te r th a n w it h t h e co n v e n t io n a l s p r a y e r .
Disa dva ntag es. This meth od is not su ited
fo r h i g h - q u ality fin is h es b ecau s e ato miz a tion
a p p r o a c h e s b u t d o es n o t eq u al ato m ization
w ith th e co n v en tio n a l sp r a y er m et h od . Th is
m e t h od p r od u ce s o ve rsp r a y a n d r eb ou n d .

38

Equipm ent. Th e eq u ip m e n t u s ed in th e
electrostatic sp ray m etho d is sim ilar to
conven tiona l, airless, and air-assisted spr ayer
e q u i p m e n t , e xce p t t h a t an e le ct r o st a tic, h i g h voltage su p p ly is requ ired.
Working principle. A t o m iz e d c o at in g s
a r e a p p lied to th e s u b st r a te b y con v en tio n a l,
air less , or air -as sist ed sp ra y eq u ip m en t, w h ich
is con n ected to an electr ost a tic p ow er so u r ce .
The coating m aterial is p ositively charged ,
an d the su bstrate is neg atively charg ed
(conv entional electrical theor y). Sp rayed ,
p ositively charged , atom ized coating p articles
are attracted to n egatively charg ed sub strate.
Ad van tages. T h e e le ct r o st a t ic s p r a y
m e thod is ca p a ble of a p p lying c oa tings to od d
sh a p es a n d a ro u n d co rn e rs, a n d o ve rsp r a y a n d
r e b o u n d m a t er ia l in c o n fin e d s p a ce s a r e
rea ttracted to th e su bstr ate. This m eth od h as a
h igh tr an sfer efficiency r ate an d p rod u ces a
u n ifo rm f in ish .
Disa dva ntag es. Th e w in d m a y ca rr y th e
co a tin g m a te r ial a w a y , th e m et h od allo w s o n ly
on e thin coat, the cov erag e an d p rod u ction rate
a r e less th a n w ith th e oth er sp r a y m eth od s, a
co n d u ctiv e co a tin g for m u lat ion is u su a lly
r e q u i r ed , t h e m e t h o d is u n s u it a b le fo r la r g e
stru ctu res, an d th is m eth od p resen ts a
p o t e n t ia l e le ct r ica l s h o ck h a z a r d .
Use s. Th is m et h od is su ite d to sm a ll
a r e a s b e h i n d co r n e r s , r e ce s se d a r e a s, ir r e g u l a r
a r e a s, o r a r ea s th a t ca n n o t b e co a t ed b y
conv en tional-typ e ap p lication equ ipm en t.
(i) Plural Comp onent S pray. T h is sp r a y
ap p lication m etho d is the m ost com p lex of the
spray equipm ent group an d should be used by
a p p lica t o rs w h o a r e t r a in e d a n d ce r tifie d b y
the c oa ting m a nu fa c tu re r. This a pp lic a tion
m e t h o d i s co m m o n ly u s e d t o ap p ly t w o o r

Application and Curing


m o r e co m p o n e n t m a t e r ia ls (h e n c e, t h e te r m
p lu r a l ) s u c h a s p o l y u r e t h a n e s a n d p o ly u r e a s
t h a t c a n h a v e an ex trem ely s h o rt s et p eriod
(3 to 30 se co n d s fo r m a te r ial t o h a r d en ).
Equipm ent. This m eth od req u ires a
p r o p o r t io n in g p u m p , a m i x m a n i fo ld , a m ix er ,
a s p r a y g u n , m a t e r ia l s u p p ly c on t a in e r s , a n d a
s o lv e n t p u r g e (flu s h ) co n t a in e r . M a t e r ia l ca n
b e a p p lie d b y c o n v e n t io n a l, a ir le ss , o r a ir a s sis t ed s p r a y e q u ip m e n t , b u t sp e cia l s p r a y
g u n s a re re qu ir ed . Th e eq u ip m e n t a n d
m at er ials m ay b e h ea te d to d ecr ea se th e cu re
p e rio d a n d a llo w fo r cle an u p .
Working principle. In d iv id u a l
co m p on en ts ar e m ixe d th r ou g h a m et er in g
sy st em th a t in clu d es a p r op or tio n in g p u m p , if
m i x r atio s a re oth e r th a n on e -to -o n e, a n d
d eliv er ed at t h e sp r a y g u n or at t h e sp r a y tip .
Th is m et h od elim in a te s p r em ixin g in a
p ressu re p ot.
Ad van tages. W ith th is m et h od , it is
p ossible to ap p ly high -bu ild , high -viscosity
m a t e r ia l s in o n e p as s , elim in ate lim ited p ot
life, an d m ay p rov id e red u ced cur e tim es.
Disa dva ntag es. This meth od requ ires
p r e cis e p r e s e tt in g o f p r o p o r t io n i n g a n d
tem p eratu re system s. It requ ires im m ed iate
an d th oro u gh clean ing o f equ ipm en t after u se
to p r ev en t m a te r ial fr om se tt in g u p . It is
imp ractical for sm all jobs; it requ ires trained
op erators fam iliar w ith th e specific equ ipm ent
an d m aterial to be u sed .
Use s. It is su it a b le fo r la r g e s u r f ace s th a t
a r e s u b je ct t o b u r ia l, im m e r s io n , an d ch e m ica l
ex p os u r es r eq u ir in g th ick b a r r ier coa tin g
m a te r ial.

37. Application Technique. Reclam at ion


d oes n ot sp ecify the p roced u re or tech niqu e to
a p p ly th e co a tin g . Recla m a tio n r eq u ir es on ly
tha t the coating be ap p lied in accord an ce w ith
th e m an u factur ers instru ction s. These
instru ction s are p rov ided in the
m a n u f actu r er s a p p lica tio n sh e et. Th e
a p p lic a tio n tech n iq u e u s ed b y th e ap p lic a tor
w ill v a ry slig h tly w ith th e ty p e of e qu ip m e n t
a n d m a t er ia l. M o s t co a t in g jo b s ar e

a c com p lis he d u s ing b ru s h, rolle rs , s pra y e rs, or


a co m b in a t io n o f th e s e to o ls ; h o w e v e r , s p r a y
equ ipm ent is the m ost com m only u sed
m e t h o d . Se v e r a l g o o d p r a ct ice t ip s fo r s p r a y
a p p lic a tions a re d is cu s s e d be low .
(a) Po t Pressures. The p re s s ure p ot
s hou ld ha v e tw o p re s s ure ga u ge s : one for pot
p ressu re an d on e for atom ization of the
c oa ting m a te ria l. The pr e s s ure p ot re gula to r
s hou ld p rovid e s uffic ie nt p re s s ure to m ove
co a t in g m a t e r ia l t h r o u g h t h e h o s e t o th e s p r a y
gu n. The a tom iz a tion p re s s ure re gu la tor
sh o u ld b e se t h ig h en o u g h to ato m iz e th e
co a tin g m a te r ial. A se tt in g th a t is to o lo w w ill
c a us e the m a te ria l to clu m p or p os s ibly clog
th e sp r a y g u n .
(b) Air Co mp resso r. C om p r es se d air
s hou ld flow a t a s te a d y ra te . Pu ls a tion of
m aterial from the sp ray g u n n orm ally ind icates
a n in a d e q u a t e a ir s u p p l y .
(c) Spray G un T echniqu e. T h e sp r a y g u n
s hou ld be he ld p e rp e nd ic ula r to a nd a bou t
18 in ch es aw a y fro m th e s u b st r a te . Th is
d is t an c e m a y v a r y s lig h t l y w i t h d iffe r e n t sp r a y
a p p a r a tu s . A n g l in g , t ilt in g , o r h o ld in g t h e g u n
too close or too far aw ay cou ld cau se the
co a tin g to sa g or d r y b efo r e h ittin g th e su r fa ce .
The s pra y p a tte rn s hou ld ove rla p the p re vious
p ass by a p p roxim ately 50 p ercent, and the
stroke length o f each p ass shou ld be b etw een
18 to 36 inches. The ap p licator shou ld m ake a
p a ss o f th e sp r a y g u n b y m o v in g th e ar m a n d
bod y, rather tha n r otating th e w rist to fan the
gun.

38. Drying, Recoating, and Curing. D r yin g


a n d cu r in g a r e n o t i n t er ch a n g e a b le t er m s a s
th ey r elate to coatin gs. SSPC d efin es cu re a s,
Th e p r oc es s o f ch a n g in g th e p r op er tie s o f a
p aint from its liquid state into a d ry, stable,
solid p rotective film by ch em ical reaction w ith
oxyge n, mois ture , or c he m ic a l a d d itive s , or by
t h e a p p lica t io n o f h e a t o r r a d ia t io n .
A c co r d i n g t o th i s d e fin i tio n , co a t in g s t h a t fo r m
p rote ctive film s w ithou t che m ic a l re a c tion d o
n ot cu r e, b u t o n ly d r y to for m a film . D r y in g is
th e loss of solve n t or w ater , and th e p rocess
m a y o r m a y n o t fo rm a p r o te ctiv e film . C u r in g
w ill alw a y s p r od u ce a p r ot ect iv e film .

39

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


O nce th e coating ha s been ap p lied , the
in sp ect or can d o lit tle , exce p t t o p r ot ect n ew ly
coated su rfaces from being d am aged an d no te
te m p er a tu r e a n d h u m id ity d u r in g th e cu r in g
p er io d to en su r e th a t p r o p er cu r e is o b ta in ed .
M an u factu rers instr u ction s m ay list a va riety
o f t im e p e r i o d s fo r d r y in g , r eco a t in g , a n d
cur ing at v ariou s tem p eratu re an d hu m idity
co m b in a t io n s . T h e se tim e p e r io d s a r e
d iscu ss ed b elo w .
(a) D rying. D r yin g is th e p er io d w h e n a
co a t e d i te m ca n b e m o v e d o r w h e n i t ca n
a ccep t t r a ffic w ith ou t d a m a g in g th e co a tin g
b e fo r e fu l l cu r e a t a r efe r e n ce d t e m p e r a t u r e
an d h u m id ity . M os t m an u fact u re rs p ro d u ct
d a ta sh eets r efer to d r y in g tim es a s ta ck fr ee,
t o t ou ch , to h an d le, o r, to sta ck (t o s ta ck
ite m s o n e o n to p of a n ot h er , e.g ., p ip e
stacking), m eaning the tim e betw een
a p p lic a tio n an d w h en th e s u r face is tack fre e or
d r y en o u g h to to u ch , to h a n d le, or to st a ck .
Re clam a tio n sp ecifica tio n s co n sid er a co a tin g
t o b e d r y w h en it can n o t b e d is to rted o r
r e m o v e d b y e x er t in g s u b s t a n t ia l, b u t le s s t h a n
m a x im u m , p r essu r e w i th th e th u m b an d
tu rn ing th e thu m b th rou gh 90 d egrees in th e
p la n e of th e co a tin g film .
(b) Recoating. This is also referred to as to
r eco a t or r eco a t w in d ow . Th is is t h e t im e
p e r io d w h e r e a p r e v i o u s c oa t in g c a n r e ce iv e a n
interm ed iate coat or a topcoat at a referenced

40

t e m p e r a t u r e a n d h u m id it y . W h e n t h e r e co a t
w in d ow h a s b ee n ex cee d ed , th e co a tin g
su rfa ce m ay re q u ire fu rt h er su rfa ce
p r e p a r a tio n fo r w h i ch m o s t m a n u fa ct u r e r s
recom m end abrad ing the su rface or solvent
a p p lica t io n o r b o th . R eco a t w in d o w s v a r y
w idely, from a few m inu tes to a m on th o r
lon g er , d ep en d in g on th e t y p e o f coa tin g
m a te r ial. If te m p er a tu r e a n d h u m id ity ar e n ot
sho w n o r are ou tsid e the listed valu es on the
m a n u fact u r er s in st r u ctio n s, th e co a tin g
m a n u fa ctu r er sh ou ld b e co n su lted .
Reclam ation sp ecification s sp ecify the
m a nu fa c tu re rs re com m e nd e d re coa t w ind ow
becau se recoat w ind ow s var y gr eatly w ith
m a te r ia l ty p e.
(c) Cu ring. This is the ne c e ss a ry tim e pe ri od
at a referen ced tem p eratu re an d hu m idity
com bination to allow the coating to com p lete
t h e ch e m ica l r e a ct io n a n d t o a ch i e v e st r u c t u r a l
integrity so th at it w ill be read y for th e
in t e n d e d s e r v ice e xp o s u r e . E xce ss iv e m o is tu r e
a n d lo w o r h i g h h u m id it y o r te m p e r a t u r e ca n
stop or r etar d th e cu ring p rocess. Mo st
m a n u fact u r er s in st r u ctio n sh ee ts p r ov id e
inform ation for cu re tim e an d cur e tim e to
im m e rsio n .
C u r r en tly , th er e is n o a ll-en co m p a ss in g
m e t h o d t o d e t e r m in e i f a co a t in g h a s
com p letely cu red .

Chapter IX
Field Inspection and Testing
Field in sp ection an d testing is necessary to
en su r e co a tin g p er for m a n ce a n d to v er ify
s p e c ifica t io n a c ce p t a n c e . Fie ld in s p e ct io n a n d
te st in g ar e p er for m ed in th e fo llow in g coa tin g
areas: (1) su rface prep aration , (2) w et p aint,
(3) h a r d e n e d p a in t , a n d (4) d e st r u c tiv e t es tin g .

39. Surface Preparation Tests. Th e


follow ing tests are perform ed on p rep ared
su r face s b efo r e co a tin g ap p licat ion s a n d ar e in
ad d ition to the p hotog rap hic stand ard s (see
ch a p te r VI, su b se ctio n 29, P h ot og r a p h ic
In sp ect ion Sta n d a r d s ).
(a) Testing for Chlorides on Prepared
Surfa ces. Solu b le s a lts , esp ecia lly th e ch lor id e
ion, if left on p rep are d su rfaces, can cau se
co a tin g s t o b list er . If ch lor id e co n ta m in a tio n is
s u s p e c te d , Re cla m a t io n s p e cifica t io n s r eq u i r e
t e st in g t o d e t er m in e t h e p r e s en c e a n d
con cen tr at ion of ch lor id e io n s a fter th e s u rfa ce
p r ep a r a tio n of p r ev io u sly co a te d m eta lw or k .
(See ap p en d ix L fo r p r oc ed u r es .) If N A C E
5/ SSPC-SP12 sur face p rep aration is sp ecified ,
th e st a n d a r d r eq u ir es t est in g fo r so lu b le sa lts.
For im m ersion serv ice exp osu re, the
accep tan ce criteria for chlor id es is 7
m icr og r a m s p er sq u a r e ce n tim et er or les s.
(b) Su rface Profile and Adhesio n. Su rfa ce
p r o f ile (o r an ch o r p attern ) is th e to p o g ra p hy of
the finished , abrasively blasted sur face. W hen
view ed p erp end icu lar to the sur face p lane,
ja g g ed p e ak s a n d v a lle y s ca n b e o b se rv e d .
V a r io u s p e a k h e i g h ts a n d v a l le y d e p t h s ca n b e
a ch ie v ed b y t h e ty p e a n d s iz e o f t h e a b ra siv e
m a t er ia ls u s e d . Su r f a ce p r o file is cla s sifie d b y
d e p t h an d t extu r e p r o d u ce d . D ep t h is th e
m easu rem ent of the aver age d istance betw een
the p eaks an d the v alleys. Textu re is the
a n g u la r fin i sh e d a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e p e a k s a n d
v a lle y s, r a n g in g fr o m ja g g ed to r o u n d ed . A
ja g g e d t e xt u r e w ill n o r m a lly p r o d u c e b et te r
a d h e sio n .

The p u rp ose of the su rface pro file is to


p rom ote ad he sion of the coating to th e
su b str at e. A b ra siv ely b las tin g a s u rfa ce
in c r ea s es th e s u r fa ce a r ea , t h u s p r o d u cin g a
gre a te r a re a for c oa ting a d he s ion. A d he s ion
st r en g th is p r im a r ily ach iev ed b y ion ic
b on d in g be tw e en th e co atin g an d t h e
su bstrate. Intercoat ad hesion is achieved
ch iefly b y cov ale n t b on d in g . In g en er al, th ick
co a tin g s r eq u ir e a d ee p er p r ofile th a n th in
co a tin g s. Th er e is an op tim u m su r face p r ofile
d ep th for th e s p ecifie d coa tin g m a te r ial. If a
p rofile is too sha llow , the c oa ting m a y not
a ch iev e p r op er ad h es ion . If a su r face p r ofile is
to o h ig h , th e co a tin g m a y n ot cov er th e p r ofile
p eak s, resu lting in p inp oin t ru sting . The
m an u factu rers pr od u ct d ata sheet
re com m en d s th e s u rfa ce p ro file for ea ch
s p e cific co a t in g p r im e r .
The p rofile m ay b e m easu red w ith an y of the
fo llo w in g :

Su rfa ce pr ofile com p a ra tor

D i al s u r fa ce p r o file g a u g e

Sp rin g m icro m et er an d re p lica


im p r e s sio n t a p e

Reclam ation specifies the sp ring m icrom eter


a n d r ep lica im p r essio n ta p e m e th o d u s in g
N AC E RP 0287, Stand ard Recom m end ed
P ra ctice fo r Fie ld M ea su re m en t o f Su rfa ce
Profile of Abrasive Blast Cleaned Steel
Su rfaces Using a Rep lica Tap e. (See
a p p en d ix M fo r th e p r oce d u r e.)
Som e old e r ve rs ions of Re cla m a tion
sp ecification s sp ecify ASTM D 4417, Stand ard
Te st M e thod s for Fie ld M e a s ure m e nt of
Su rfa ce Profile of Bla s t C le a ne d Ste e l, m e t hod
C. Essen tially, N A CE RP 0287 an d A STM D
4417 ar e e q u iv ale n t, p ro v id ed th at th e co rr ect
m il ran ge rep lica tape is used .

41

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


D u r in g in sp ect ion s, p r ot ect iv e g lov es sh ou ld
be w orn to avoid contam inating the finished
p r ep a r ed su r fa ce w ith oil a n d sa lt p er sp ir a tion .
W h e r e fo o t tr a ffic is u n a v o i d a b l e, s u c h a s
w ithin p ipe interiors, p lastic slip cover booties
are recom m end ed .
(c) Dust. U se clea r ce llop h an e t ap e (o ffice
v a r i e t y ) t o d eterm in e am o u n t o f d u s t from
a b r a s iv e b la s tin g a n d o t h e r s ou r ce s th a t h a s
no t been blow n o r v acu u m ed off. Press th e
ta p e o n th e s u r face , p ee l off, a n d v isu a lly
observ e the a m ou nt o f du st that sticks to th e
t a p e . C le a n th e tes t area w ith aceto n e o r
a l co h o l t o r em o v e tap e ad h es iv e fro m
p r ep a r ed s u r fa ce . Th e te st ta p e sh o w in g th e
d u st p a r ticle s ca n be d o cu m e n te d b y a p p ly in g
it t o t h e d a ily in sp ect ion r ep or t o r an ot h er field
rep ort.

40. Wet Film Thickens. Reclam ation d oes


n ot req u ire testing th e w et film th ickn ess
(WFT). W FT is m easu red in accord an ce w ith
A STM D 4414. (Se e p p e n d ix N f or th e
p r oc ed u r e.) H ow ev er , it is a u se fu l
m easu rem en t for th e follow ing p u rp oses:

To v er ify th a t a con sis te n t t h ick n es s is


be in g a p p lied . A co n siste n t W FT
sh ou ld d ry into an ev en DFT.

T o p red ict th e res u ltin g D F T. Som e


m an u factu rers instru ctions state a w et
film thickness coating a p p lied at a
cer ta in n u m b er of m ils w ill re su lt in a
p r ed ete r m in ed D FT. Fo r ex a m p le, a
co a tin g ap p lied 10 m ils w et w ill re su lt
in a D FT of 8 m ils. H ow ever , if the
m a n u factu rers in s tru ctio n s d o n ot
state the D FT that w ill result from the
W FT, it can be calculated . (See
a p p e n d ix O fo r fo rm u la s a n d
exa m p les.)

M easu ring th e W FT on q u ick d ry ing m ater ials,


s u c h a s in o r g a n ic z in c s , m a y y ie ld le s s t h a n
accur ate r ead ings.

41. Hardened Painted Surfaces. On ce a


co a t in g s y s te m h a s d r i ed o r h a r d e n e d , b u t
before the recoat w ind ow has exp ired,
Re clam a tio n sp ecifica tio n s im p os e t w o cr ite r ia

42

for accep tan ce. The first is to m eet the


m i n im u m a n d m a xim u m D F T, a n d th e se co n d
is to d etect and rep air an y p inh oles in th e
coating or d am ag ed are as.
(a) D ry Film Thickness. Th e D FT o f a co a tin g
c a n be m e a s ure d w he n the m a te ria l d ries or
h a r d e n s b u t b e f or e t h e r e co a t w i n d o w h a s
expired . The thickness is com m only sp ecified
in m ils, a lth ou g h som e m a n u fa ctu r er s
ins tru c tion s he e ts w ill a ls o us e m ic rome te rs (or
m icr on s) in th e m et r ic sy st em . Th e fo llow in g
p rov id es conv ersion s of these u n its:
1 m il = 0.001 in ch = 25.4 m icrom eters
1 m icr om et er = 0.000001 m et er = 0.039 m il
Reclam ation specifies that th e har d ened coated
su r face sh a ll m ee t a m in im u m an d m a xim u m
s pe c ifie d thickne s s . D FT is m e a s ure d for
qu ality con tr ol a n d sp ecification D FT
accep tance criteria. There are n u m erou s typ es
o f D F T g a u g e s a v a ila b le o n t h e co m m e r cia l
m ark et. Th ese ga u ges m easu re th e th ickn ess
of a n on co n d u ctiv e co a tin g on a m a g n et ic
co n d u ctiv e (fe r r ou s) o r n on m a g n et ic
cond u ctive (alu m inu m , brass, bron ze, copp er,
et c.) su b st r a te . Th er e a r e D FT g a u g es av a ilab le
th a t w ill re a d on ly m a g n et ic or n on m a g n et ic
su b st r a te s a n d g a u g es t h at w ill m ea su r e b oth .
Th e in sp ect or sh ou ld en su re th at th e co rr ect
su b str ate ga u g e is b ein g u se d a n d th a t th e
g a u g e r a n g e is w i th i n t h e film t h ick n e s s t o b e
m e a su red .
SSPC-PA2 . Reclam ation sp ecifies that th e
DFT is to be m easu red in accord an ce w ith
SSPC -P A 2, M ea su r em en t o f D r y C oa tin g
Thickness w ith M agn etic Gag es, w ith the
e xce p t io n o f t h e fo llo w in g :

Section 5 .2.1. The sp ecified


m in im u m p er cen ta g e t h ick n es s is
chan ged from 80 to 90 p ercent.

Section 5 .2.2. The sp ecified


m a xim u m p er cen ta g e t h ick n es s is
chan ged from 120 to 150 p ercent.

DF T gauges. T h e ty p e s o f D F T g a u g e s a r e
d eterm ined by th e specific m agn etic prop erties

Field Inspection and Testing


of the instru m en t being u sed in m easu ring the
c o a tin g t h ic k n es s , rath er th an b y th e read ou t
m od e (an alog or d igital). The stand ard d oes
not cover D FT gau ges u sing an ed d y cur ren t
m e th od .

(Se e ap p e n d ix P fo r ca lib r a t io n a n d p r o c ed u r e
fo r e ach g a u g e ty p e a n d a D F T p r o c ed u r e
ex a m p le.).
1.

The follow ing sections d escribe DFT gaug es


w it h in t h e s ta n d a r d .

P u l l o f f g au g e s .In g en er a l, p u lloff
g a u g es u se a p er m a n en t m a g n et in
co n t a ct w it h t h e co a t e d s u r f a ce a n d a
calib ra te d sca le to m ea su re th e fo rce
requ ired to p u ll the m agn et from the
co a te d su r fa ce . Th e sca le is n o n lin ea r .
Th e fo llow in g ar e t w o t y p es of p u lloff
gau ges an d their ap p roxim ate
thickn ess range:

" Ban a n a g a u g e (0 t o 200 m ils).


" P en cil g a u g e (0 t o 30 m ils).

C o n s tan t p re s s u re p ro b e g a u g e s.
The g en eral w ork ing p rinciple of the
constan t p ressu re p rob e gau ge is that a
p r o be exe rts a co n sta n t p r essu r e o n th e
co a t ed s u r fa ce , a n d e le ct r o n ic cir cu i t ry
c o nv erts a referen ce sig n a l in to a
c o a tin g th ick n es s th at is d is p lay e d on
a n an a lo g o r d ig ita l scr ee n .

Termin olog y and definition . Th e


p roced u re for d eterm ining the D FT involves
t a k in g a n u m b er o f g au g e read in g s at ran d om
lo c a tio n s. Th es e read in g s are called s p o t
m e a su r em e n t s. It is im p o rta n t to u n d e rsta n d
g au g e re ad in g an d s p o t m e a su r em e n t
te r m in olo g y b eca u se w ith ou t co m p r eh en d in g
th e m ea n in g o f th e te rm s, th e SSPC -PA 2 DFT
p r o ce d u r e co u ld b e co n d u cted in co r r ectly .
De f in i t io n s o f g au g e read in g an d s p ot
m e a su r e m e n t are p res en ted b elo w :

Take 5 sp ot m easu rem en ts (at least


3 ga u ge re a d ings p e r s pot
m ea su r em en t) s p a ced r a n d om ly
w ithin e a ch 100-s qu a re -foot a re a for
D FT me a s u re m e nts . The nu m be r o f
100- s qua re -foot a re a s w h e re the s pot
m easu rem ents are to be taken is based
on th e tot al coated su rface ar ea. Th e
100-sq u a r e-fo ot ar ea s a r e r a n d om ly
se lected w ith in th e to ta l co a te d ar ea .
Ta ble 8.1 p rovid e s the crite ria for
d et er m in in g th e n u m b er of 100s qu a re - foot a re a s for s pot
m e a s u r e m e n t s co r r e s p o n d in g t o t o t al
co a t e d s u r f a ce a r e a .
Su r face ar ea s o f irr eg u lar ly or od d ly
sh ap ed stru ctu res, su ch as tr ash racks,
chan nels, and I-beam s, m ay exceed
1,000 squ are feet becau se th ese
st r u ctu r a l m em b er s a r e m a n y sid ed .
The insp ector shou ld r ou gh ly calcu late
the area to d eterm ined the total coated
s u r f a ce a r e a .

2.

Calibrate th e DFT instru m en t for the


an ticip ated DFT rang e.

3.

M ea su re th e h ar d en ed coa te d su rfa ce
w it h t h e ca lib r a t e d D F T in s t r u m e n t a t
the n u m ber o f sp ot m easu rem en ts
in d ica t e d i n t a b le 1. D i sr e g a r d
in c o n s is t en t h i g h o r lo w r e a d i n g s t h a t
ca n n ot b e r ep ea te d . Th e fo llow in g
are th e n u m ber of gau ge r ead ings,
sp ot m easu rem ents, and avera ging p er
100- s q u a r e - fo o t a r ea :
a.

Gauge read ing. A s in g l e r ea d in g a t


on e p oint.

Spo t measu rem ent. T h e a v e r a g e o f a t


le a s t t h r e e g a u g e r e a d in g s t a k e n a t
d iffere n t p oin ts w ith in a 1.5-in ch d ia m e t er cir cu la r a r e a .

Outline pro cedure. T h e fo llo w in g i s a n


a b b r ev ia te d ou tlin e of SSP C -P A 2 p r o ce d u r e.

D ete rm i n e th e 5 sp o t m e a su r em e n t
locations requ ired p er 100-squ arefo o t a r ea .

b . Ta ke 3 ga u ge re a d ings p e r s pot
m e a su r em e n t a n d a v er ag e th e
3 re a d ings . This is a tota l of
15 g a u g e r ea d in g s, m in im u m
(3 ga u ge re a d ings x 5 s pot
m ea su r em en t lo ca tio n s p er 100sq u a r e-fo ot ar ea ).

43

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


Table 1.Number of spot measurements based on total coated surface area
Total coated surface area

Number of 100-square-foot areas for spot measurements

Less than 300 square feet

Each 100-square-foot area within the total area.

Greater than 300 square feet


but less than 1,000 square feet

Three (3) 100-square-foot areas within the total area

Equal to and greater than


1,000 square feet

Three (3) 100-square-foot areas for the first 1,000 square feet within the
total area; plus
One (1) 100-square-foot area for each additional 1,000 square feet of
coated areas or fraction thereof

c.

A v erag e th e 5 in d iv id u al s p o t
m ea su r em en ts to ob ta in a s in g le
avera ged valu e for the 100-squ arefo o t a r ea .

4.

Rep eat step s 2 thr ou gh 5 for th e


rem ainin g 100-squ are -foot a rea s.

5.

D et er m in e m in im u m an d m a xim u m
t h ick n e s s a cce p t a n c e cr it e r ia .

6.

M inim u m accep tance.


a.

A n y n u m b e r o f in d iv id u a l g a u g e
r e a d i n g s m a y b e le s s t h a n
90 p ercent of the sp ecified
th ickn ess.

b . N o s in g le av erag ed s p o t
m eas u rem en t in 10 0-s q u are-foot
area m ay b e les s th an 90 p er c ent of
th e sp ecifie d th ick n ess ..
W he re av erag e sp ot m easu rem en ts
are less than 90 p ercent of the
s p e c ifie d t h ick n e s s , a d d it io n a l
m easu rem en ts m ay b e taken to
red efine the n oncon form ing area
7.

M axim u m accep tance.


a.

A n y n u m b e r o f in d iv id u a l g a u g e
read ings m ay exceed 150 percent
of the sp ecified th ickn ess.

b . N o s in g le av erag ed s p o t
m easu rem en t in a 100-squ are-foot

44

area sh all exceed 150 p ercent of the


sp ecified th ickn ess.
W he re av erag e sp ot m easu rem en ts
exceed 150 percent of the specified
t h ick n e s s , a d d it io n a l
m easu rem en ts m ay b e taken to
r e d e fin e t h e n o n co n f o r m i n g a r e a .
(b) D iscontinuity (Ho liday) T esting.
Reclam ation sp ecifies that coating s su bject to
b u r i a l o r im m e r sio n s e rv ice e xp o s u r e s b e
te st ed fo r h olid a y s (i.e., p in h oles a n d v oid s).
H olid ays p rov ide a n a ven u e for m oisture to
p enetrate th rou gh the coating to the su bstrate,
le a d i n g t o g e n e r a l co r r o s io n , p it t in g , a n d
u n d e rfilm c or ro sio n .
The re a re tw o typ e s of holid a y te s ting: low
v o lt a g e a n d h i g h v o lt a g e. T h e ap p lie d v o l ta g e
is based on the coating thickness an d the
co a t in g d ie le ct r ic s tr e n g t h . L ow -v o lt a g e
te st er s a r e u se d on th in film s (20 m ils a n d les s),
a n d h ig h -v olt a g e t es te r s a r e u se d on h ig h b u ild
film s (20 m ils o r g r e a te r ) o r a s d e t er m in e d b y
th e m a n u fa ctu r er to p r ev en t coa tin g d a m a g e.
U sing v oltages tha t are too h igh or leaving th e
in s t r u m e n t in o n e p la ce to o lo n g m a y d a m a g e
the coating by sp ark ing or bu rn ing th rou gh the
coating . Thin coating s are m ore su sceptible to
v o l ta g e d a m a g e . T es t in g o f co a t in g s t h a t
con ta in ele ctr ically con d u ctiv e p igm en ts s u ch
a s a lu m inu m fla ke s , gra p hite , or z inc is not
r e co m m e n d e d b e c au s e a n e le ct r ic d is ch a r g e
m a y sp a r k th o u g h t h e co a tin g a t co n d u ct iv e
p a r ticle s, d a m a g in g th e co a tin g or in d icat in g
d iscontinu ities w her e non e exist. Su ggested

Field Inspection and Testing


voltages at DFT ranges are p rovid ed in table 1
of t h e N A C E RP 0188.
Re clam a tio n sp ecifie s t h a t t es tin g b e in
accord an ce w ith N A CE RP 0188, except th at:

Te st in g is n ot r eq u ir ed on con d u ctiv e
co a tin g s p ig m en te d w ith alu m in u m ,
g r a p h ite , zin c, or ot h er ele ctr ically
cond u ctive p igm en ts.

U sin g a d et er g en t w et tin g so lu tio n is


not p erm itted (d etergen ts m ay cover
ove r p inh oles after testing, leav ing th e
false im p ression th at no p inholes
ex ist ).

P r ev iou s v er sio n s o f Recla m a tio n coa tin g


sp e c ific a tio n s referen ce A S TM D 5 16 2 for
h olid ay test ing . ASTM D 5162 an d N A CE RP
0188 are essentially equivalent, but th e N AC E
v er sio n is m o r e co m p lete an d ea sie r to fo llo w .
(See ap p en d ix Q fo r th is p r o ce d u r e.)

Metho d B. This m e thod is prim a rily f or


laboratory u se, althou gh it is often em p loyed
in th e fie ld . The m e thod is not s uita ble for
co a tin g s w ith a th ick n ess g r ea te r th a n 5 m ils.
A lattice pattern of 6 to 11 evenly spaced
ho rizon tal and ver tical lines are cu t into the
co a tin g to th e s u b st r a te . Pr es su r e-s en sit iv e
t a p e i s a p p lie d o v e r t h e la t t ice p a t t e r n a n d
p u lle d o f f. C o a tin g a d h e s io n is a ss es se d b y
m a king the be s t m a tch to a c om p a rison s c ale of
0B (lo w e s t) t o 5B (h i g h e s t) o f n a r r a t iv e a n d
p ho togr ap hic d escrip tions p rov ided in the
s ta n d a r d .
(b) Adhesion, Pulloff Method (ASTM D
4541). T h is m e t h o d is m o r e q u a n t it a tiv e b u t
re qu ire s a n e xpe rie nc e d op e ra tor for
r e p r o d u c ib ilit y . T h e se te st e rs a re
recom m end ed for flat hor izontal su rfaces
u n less oth erw ise stated in th e ap p en d ix. Th e
s ta nd a rd lis ts the follow ing th re e type s of
tester s in th e an n ex:

42. Destructive Test Methods. D e st ru c tiv e

Typ e I, fixed. Typ e I testers are restricted


to labora tory u se.

test m etho d s are n orm ally u sed to eva luate


ov er co a tin g or aid in d et er m in in g a co a tin g
failure. The follow ing sections are abbr eviated
d e scr i p t io ns o f th e d es tru ctiv e tes tin g m e thod s
list e d i n t h e ab o v e P h y s ical Co atin g In s p e ction
Su r v e y m e th o d .

Typ e II, fixed alignm ent. T y p e II t es te r s


w e r e d e v e lo p e d fo r la b o r a to r y u s e b u t a r e
em p loyed in th e field . Typ e II are th e m ost
co m m on p u llo ff a d h esio n te st er s fo r fie ld u se .
(See ap p en d ix R fo r th is p r oce d u r e.)

(a) Adhe sion, T ape Metho d (ASTM D 3 359).


Th is t es t is con sid er ed su b ject iv e a n d sh ou ld
be p erform ed by qu alified and exper ienced
p ersonn el. The choise of test m ethod d ep end s
on coating th ickn ess.
Metho d A. T h is m eth o d is u s ed o n
co a tin g s 5 m ils th ick or g r ea te r . A n X cu t is
m ad e in th e coating to the su bstrate. Pressu res e n s it iv e t a p e i s a p p lie d o v e r t h e X cu t a n d
p u lle d o f f. C o a tin g a d h e s io n is a ss es se d b y a
co m p a r iso n sca le o f 0A (low es t) t o 5A
(h i g h e st ), as d es crib ed b y w ritten d efin it ions
p r o v i d e d in t h e s ta n d a r d .

Typ e III, self-aligning or hyd raulic. T y p e


III testers w ere d ev elop ed for labor ator y u se
bu t ar e em p loyed in th e field . (See ap p en d ix S
fo r p r oce d u r e.)
Dry film thickness by Tooke gauge (ASTM D
4138). The Tooke ga ug e is us e d for
m e a s u r i n g t h e n u m b e r o f co a t s a p p lie d a n d
D F T if t h e co a t in g l ay e r s ca n b e id e n t ifie d b y
color d ifferen ce or by a d istinctive line. (See
a p p en d ix T fo r th is p r oce d u r e.)

45

Chapter X
Maintenance Coatings
Reclam ation infrastru ctures m ay still be coated
w it h t h e o r ig in a l m a t e r ia ls fr o m t h e in i tia l
in st a llat ion or th ey m a y h a v e r ece iv ed fu ll,
p artial, or sp ot coating rep air in th e
in te r v en in g y ea r s. O b v iou sly , an y coa tin g
m a t e r ia l h a s a fin i te s er v i ce life , a n d
m a in t e n a n c e co a t in g s h a v e b e co m e a n
im p ortan t com p on en t in m aintaining the
stru ctu ral integ rity of h igh-cap ital-cost
infrastr u ctu res.

43. Definition. A s im p lified d efin itio n of


m a in t e n a n c e co a t in g s is th e r e co a t in g o f a n y
existing coated su bstrate sur face to p reven t
co r r o sio n or to m a in ta in ap p ea r a n ce .

m a y also b e a m a jor co n sid er a tion , an d th ese


asso ciated costs m ay be d ifficu lt to asse ss. To
p rovid e a ba s is for risk e va lua tion, ins p e ction
of the coating an d sub strate is recomm end ed .

46. Inspection. To d e te rm in e th e co r re ct iv e
a c tion re qu ire d , s truc ture s id e ntifie d for
m a in t e n a n c e co a t in g s w o r k sh o u ld b e
in s p e ct e d b e f or e b e g in n in g w o r k . P r e lim in a r y
w o rk sh o u ld in clu d e ga th e rin g ba ck g ro u n d
in for m a tio n on th e s tr u ctu r e, in clu d in g
location , original installation d ate, d im en sions,
d r a w in g s, s u b st r a te ty p e, an d co a tin g h ist o r y .
The coating history sh ou ld includ e the
follow ing inform a tion, if know n:

44. Purpose. Th e b a sic p u r p os es of a

Se r v ice e xp o s u r e

c o a tin g p r o g ram to m ain tain Reclam ation


st r u c t u r e s a re to :

Typ e of sub strate

P r e v e n t s ig n i fica n t lo s s o f m e t a l

Su r face (an ch or ) p r ofile

Pr ev en t s ig n ifican t d eg r ad atio n of
co a t in g m a t e r ia l

A g e o f co atin g

Type of e xis ting c oa ting m a te ria l o r


brand nam e

D FT

Id e ntific a tion a n d c once ntra tion of


to xic m et a ls in th e e xist in g coa tin g
(ca d m iu m , ch r om iu m , lea d , et c.)

M ain ta in ae sth et ics or th e a p p ea ra n ce


of stru ctures exp osed to p u blic view

Id en tify b y co lo r co d e

M inim ize fu tu re rep air costs

45. Risk Evaluation. Risk ev a lu a tio n is


p rim ar ily a p ro ject office resp on sibility. Th e
ov er r id in g or u ltim a te con sid er a tio n in
ev a lu a tin g r isk s a ss oc iat ed w ith coa tin g s is
w h e t h e r t h e co a t in g i s m a in t a in i n g s t r u c tu r a l
in te g r ity or if coa tin g d eg r a d a tio n is a llow in g
corrosion to p roceed , lead ing to th e p ossibility
o f s tr u ct u r a l fa ilu r e . T h e r e is n o s ta n d a r d
m eth od to ev alu ate r isks; h ow ev er, the m ost
b a s ic a p p r o a ch i s t o co m p a r e e st im a t e d p a r t ia l
or total m etalw ork rep lacem en t costs w ith the
es tim a te d cos ts of a m a in te n a n ce co a tin g
p r o g r a m . Sa fe t y t o th e p u b lic a n d w o r k e r s

(a) Insp ection Sch edu le. Id e a lly, ins p e ctio n


su rv eys sh ou ld b e cond u cted ev ery 3 to
5 y e a r s, d e p e n d in g o n t h e s er v ice e xp o s u r e
a n d t h e s tr u ct u r e t y p e . T h e 3- t o 5-y e a r
in te r v a l is r ea so n a b le fo r st r u ctu r es sit u a te d in
atm osp her ic service exposu re. For structu res
re qu iring d e w a te ring, a 5-ye a r ins pe c tion
inte rva l m a y not be a c hie va ble ; how e ve r, s om e
d esign ated interval shou ld be initiated .
(b) Insp ection Types. The typ e of ins p e ction
su rvey d ep end s m ainly on the tim e allotted
a n d acc es sib ility . Ext er ior su r face s in
47

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


a tm os p h er ic ex p os u r es ar e r ea d ily acc es sib le
fo r i n sp e c t io n . In terio r in s p ectio n s o f
p enstocks, p iping, scroll cases, and other
w ater-bearing sur faces requ ire a plann ed
o u t a g e to d e w a t er . In t e r io r in s p e c tio n s a r e
consid ered confine d sp ace, an d ap p rop riate
safety requ irem en ts m u st be m et.

e le m e nts (be a m s , c onne c tions , e d ge s , e tc.) o f


the stru cture or facility are insp ected
s ep a r a t e ly .
1.

O b se r v e a n d d oc u m en t t h e fo llow in g
coating cond ition s:

D e fe ct s: b lis te r in g , ch a l k in g ,
c ra cking, e ros ion, de la m ina tion,
p inh ole s , p e e ling, un d e rc utting, or
oth er d efects

A p p e a r a n c e: co a t in g o r t o p co a t
lo ss , ab r a sio n st r ea k s, r u st st a in in g ,
fading color, w eathering , or oth er
ab n or m al a p p ea ra n ce

There are fou r typ es of inspection: thr ee typ es


ar e coatin g r elated an d on e is stru ctu ra l. Th e
four typ es are:

Gen eral overview sur vey


Detailed visual sur vey
Ph ysical coating insp ection su rvey
Stru ctural sur vey

F or m o s t R ecla m a t io n s t r u c t u r e s , t h e g e n e r a l
o v e r v i e w a n d d etailed v isu al s u rv ey m ethod s
a r e su f fic ien t to id en tify co atin g an d co r rosion
d eterior ation tren d s.
Genera l overview survey. Th is qu a lit at iv e
s u r v e y ca n b e a cco m p l is h e d i n a fe w h o u r s
a n d is a d e qu ate to ascertain s ev ere co rro s ion
cond ition s an d d egra d ed coating s. On ly the
m a jo r fe a tu r e s o f t h e st r u c tu r e o r fa cilit y a r e
inspected .
1.

2.

3.

T h e g en e r a l co n d it io n o f co a t in g ;
ch eck fo r d efects o r d eterio r a tion

A n y ev id e n ce of r u stin g

D et er m in e t h e t y p e o f to xic m et a lb a se d p a in t a n d its con cen tr a tio n , if


p resen t.
R a t e th e co n d itio n o f th e co atin g on
e a ch m ajo r s tru ctu ral featu re as good ,
fa ir , o r p o o r .

Type : u niform ru s te d s u rfa ce or


p itt in g

" On flat or cur ved sur faces


" At corn ers or ed ges
" U n d e r b lis te r s

E st im a t e t h e a m o u n t o f r u s t b y
u sing SSPC -VIS 2. (See ap p en d ix U
fo r p r oce d u r es.)

M etal loss: m inim al or significan t.

Visu ally observ e:

De tailed visua l surve y. The time r equ ired


t o co n d u c t th i s s u r v e y v a r ie s fr o m a fe w h o u r s
to abo u t 1 da y, d ep en d ing on the size of the
stru cture. This sem iquan titative su rvey
r e q u i r e s a m o r e d e t a ile d d e s cr ip t io n a n d
d o cu m e n t a t io n o f th e c o a tin g c o n d it io n a n d
co r r os ion . M a jor fea tu r es an d st r u ctu r a l

48

2. By ob se r v a tio n , d oc u m en t t h e fo llow in g
ru st cond ition s:

3. D et er m in e t h e t y p e o f to xic m et a lb a se d p a in t a n d its con cen tr a tio n , if


p resen t.
4. Rate each stru ctural com p onen t
s e p a r a t e ly a s g o o d , fa ir , o r p o o r a n d
co m b in e th e r esu lts. U sin g SSP C -VIS 2
to es tim a te th e a m ou n t o f ru st is
p referred m ethod . A w eighting system
o r sp r e a d s h e et ca n h e lp f a cilit a te b y
co m b in i n g in d iv i d u a l r a t in g s in t o a n
ov era ll assessm en t, settin g p riorities,
a n d d e v e lo p i n g q u a n t it ie s fo r a
p relim inary cost estima te.
Physical co ating inspe ction survey. Th e
tim e re qu ire d to cond u c t this s urv e y is from
1 d a y t o s ev e r a l d a y s , d e p e n d in g o n s t r u c tu r e
size an d access to th e coate d su rface. The

Maintenance Coatings
su rvey incorpor ates the observ ations recorded
in th e D et a iled Visu a l Su r v ey w ith q u a n tit a tiv e
m easu rem ents. This surv ey evalu ates w heth er
a n e x ist in g co atin g can b e s p o t rep aired or
ov er co a te d or if fu ll re m ov a l an d r eco a tin g is
requ ired . For a h igher level of confid en ce, the
su rvey shou ld be cond u cted by a certified
N A CE or SSPC coating sp ecialist.
1. O b se r v e a n d d oc u m en t t h e fo llow in g
coating cond ition s:

D e fe ct s: b lis te r in g , ch a l k in g ,
crack in g , ero s io n , d elam in atio n,
p in h o les , p eelin g , u n d ercu tting, or
oth er d efects
A p p e a r a n c e: co a t in g o r t o p co a t
lo s s, a b r a sio n s tr e a k s, r u s t st a in i n g ,
fading color, w eathering , or oth er
abn orm al app earan ce.

2. O b se r v e a n d d oc u m en t t h e fo llow in g
ru st cond ition s:

T y p e: u n ifo rm ru s ted s u rface or


p itt in g

" On flat or cur ved sur faces


" At corn ers or ed ges
" U n d e r b lis te r s

Rust rating b y SSPC-VIS 2. (See


a p p en d ix U fo r p r o ce d u r e.)

M e t a l lo s s: m in i m a l o r s ig n i fica n t

3. P er for m th e fo llow in g q u a n tit a tiv e


m easu rem en ts:

Test ad he sion by on e or b oth of the


follow ing m eth od s:

" P u lloff (A STM D 4541)


" Ta p e (A STM D 3359)

D et er m in e D FT (SSPC -P A 2)

D ete rm i n e th e p re se n ce an d
co n cen tr a tio n of s olu b le s a lts , if
p r ese n t

D ete rm i n e th e ty p e an d
concentration of toxic m etal-based
p a in t, if p r ese n t

D et er m in e t h e d ep th an d fre q u en cy
of corro sion p its

U se a kn ife to d eterm ine th e length


of u nd e rc utting c orros ion

U se a To ok e g au g e to d e te rm i n e th e
n u m b e r o f co a t in g s

M easu re th e steel w all th ickn ess


w it h a n u lt r a so n ic t h ick n e s s g a u g e

A p p ly te st p a tch es to d et er m in e if
the c oa ting is com p a tible for
ov er co a tin g (A STM D 5064)

Struc tural inspection. T h e s tr u ct u r a l


ins p e ction c a n be c ond u c te d in c onju nc tion
w it h a n y o f th e a b o v e s u r v e y s . St r u c t u r a l
m e m be rs a nd c omp one n ts a re ins p e cte d for
se v er e m et a l los s, b r ok en join ts , d efe ctiv e
w e ld s , b e n t m e m b e r s , o r o t h e r st r u c t u r a l
d efe cts . N or m a lly , in sp ect ion s a r e b y v isu a l
o bse rv a tio n .

47. Toxic-Based Paints. D u r in g th e


in sp ect ion , sa m p les of t h e e xist in g coa tin g
m a t er ia l sh o u ld b e an a ly ze d to d e te rm i n e th e
typ e an d con cen tra tion of toxic m etals. The
co m m o n t o xic m e t als in p r e -1990s p a in t a r e
ca d m iu m , ch r o m iu m , co b a lt , a n d le a d ;
h ow ev er , ar se n ic, ba riu m , be ry lliu m , m er cu ry ,
silver, seleniu m , van ad ium , or oth er hea vy
m et a ls m a y b e p r es en t in v er y low lev els .
The m ost com m on h eavy m etal in p aint u sed
on Re clam a tio n p r oject s is r ed lea d p r im er . It
w a s a n e xce lle nt c orros ion inh ibiting p rimer on
m e t a l s u r f a ce s . T h e u s e o f r e d l e a d p r im e r h a s
d r a m a t ica lly d e clin e d in t h e co a t in g i n d u s tr y
since the late 1980s, and Reclam ation no long er
sp ecifies red lead p rim er. There is no p roblem
w ith r ed le ad p r im e r as lo n g a s it r em a in s
intact on th e structu re.
Th e p r ob lem w ith lea d -b a se d p a in ts is
co n ta m in a tio n of t h e lo ca l en v ir on m en t (s oil
a n d w a t e r ) a n d e x p o s u r e t o h u m a n s . L ea d

49

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


ex p os u re n or m ally occu rs d u rin g th e s u rfa ce
p r e p a r a tio n p r o ce ss , a s old co a t in g s a r e
r em o v ed an d lea d p a r ticle s b eco m e air b or n e.
T h e e n v i r on m e n t is co n t a m in a t e d b y le a d
p a r t icle fa llo u t . H u m a n s a r e co n t a m i n a t ed b y
inh aling or ing estin g th e lead p ar ticles. The
m o s t s e r io u s a d v e r s e h e a lt h e ffe ct o f le a d
e x p o s u r e i s p e r m a n e n t d a m a g e t o th e c en t r a l
ner vou s system .
(a) Te sting. Te st in g of e xist in g coa tin g
m a t er ia ls sh o u ld b e p er fo rm e d b e fo re sta rtin g
con tra ct or m ain ten an ce coatin g w or k. The
p u r p o s e o f t e st in g i s t h r e e fo ld : (1) t o m i n i m i z e
exp osu re to en viron m en t an d w ork ers; (2) to
red u ce surface p rep aration costs; an d (3) to
d e te rm i n e th e ty p e an d c on ce n tr atio n of a n y
toxic m etals p resen t. Th e follow ing te st
m ethod s are recom m end ed :
Screen te sting. Screen tests w ill ind icate
t h e p r e se n ce o f to x ic metals b u t w ill n o t
in d ic a te t h e co n cen tratio n . Th es e tests a re not
in t e n d e d t o e q u a l o r r ep l a ce la b o r a to r y
a n a ly sis . Th e fo llow in g tw o co m m on to xic
m et a ls ca n b e d et ect ed b y colo r ch a n g e u sin g
p rem ixed rea gen ts:

Lead at concentr ations of 2,000 par ts


p e r m illio n (p p m ) (0 .2 p ercen t) o r
m or e. (See ap p en d ix V fo r
m a n u fact u r er 's in for m a tio n an d th is
p roced u re.)
C h r o m a t e (a s C r +6) at co n cen trations of
3 microgram s or m ore. (See
a p p e n d ix W fo r m a n u fa ctu r e a n d
p roced u re.)

Lab oratory testing. Paint chip sam p les


shou ld be tak en an d p rovid ed to an accred ited
la b o r a t o r y fo r an aly s is to v erify co n cen tra tion,
ev en if screen tests w ere n ot p ositive . The
resu lts shou ld be ev aluated by a certified
in d u st r ia l h y g ien is t. (See ap p en d ix X for
sam p lin g, lab ora tory testing , estim ated costs,
a n d w e b s it e s fo r a ccr e d it e d l a b o r a to r ie s a n d
in d u st r ial h y g ien ist s b y city an d Sta te ).

48. Worker Protection from Toxic-Based


Paints. Blasting o p era tions a re th e m ost
likely event w her e lead is inhaled or ingested

50

b eca u se th e p a r ticle s a r e t oo sm a ll to b e v isib ly


s e e n. Le a d d u s t on the s kin is not ha z a rd ou s
as long as it is not inh aled or ingested . Prop er
r e sp i r a to r y p r o t e ct io n , co n s is tin g o f e it h e r a ir fe d re s pira tors , p os itive p re s s ure hood s , or
ne ga tive pr e s s ure H EPA filte r-c a rtridge h al f or
fu ll faced resp irato rs, sh ou ld be w or n . The
follow ing p rov id es som e com m on sen se
p r o t e ct io n b u t d o e s n o t in c lu d e a ll n e ce ss a r y
req u irem en ts:

W e a r w o r k clo t h in g d u r in g r e m o v a l
o p e r a t io n s a n d h a v e c lo t h in g i n d u s t r ia l
w a s h e d b y c on t r a ct o r or o w n e r .

W e a r re s pira tory pr ote ction


a p p r o p r i a t e t o co n c e n t r a tio n l ev e l a n d
e xpos u re tim e pe riod .

W a s h h a nd s a nd fa c e be fore e a ting or
smoking.

A fter w ork , show er an d chan ge into


street clothing to p reven t
co n t a m in a t in g y o u r v e h i cle , h o m e , a n d
fa m ily .

F or co m p r e h e n s iv e r e q u i r e m e n t s fo r p e r s o n a l
s a fe t y , s e e t h e fo llo w in g C o d e o f F ed e r a l
Re g u lat ion s (C FR):

29 C FR 1910.1018, A r se n ic

29 C FR 1910.1027, C a d m iu m

29 CFR 1926.55, Ga ses, Vap ors, Fum es,


Du sts, an d M ists

29 CFR 1926.62, Lead

49. Lead Exposure Levels by Removal


Methods. E n g in e e r s, m a n a g e r s, a n d w o r k e r s
s hou ld be a w a re tha t s urfa ce pr e p a ra tion
m eth od s w ill g en er a te air b or n e lea d p a r ticle s.
The O ccu p ational Safety an d H ealth
A d m in i st r a t io n ( O SH A ) m o n i to r e d s e v e r a l
t y p e s o f le a d r e m o v a l o p e r a t io n s fo r t y p i ca l
an d m axim u m exposu res. The m onitored
r e s u l ts in d ica t e h ig h e x p o s u r e le v e ls , a n d n o
su r face p r ep a r a tio n m et h od w ill n ot to ta lly
elim in at e a irb or n e le ad p ar ticles . Vacu u m
s hrou d e d e qu ip m e nt w ill re d u c e the a m ou nt

Maintenance Coatings
of airbo rn e p articles bu t w ill not elim inate
t h e m . T a b le 2 p ro v id es O SH A res u lts for
t y p i ca l a n d m a x im u m le a d e x p o s u r e le v e ls b y
r e m o v a l m e th o d .

Table 2.Typical and maximum lead exposure levels


in micrograms per cubic meter by removal method
Typical
exposure

Maximum
exposure

Open blast cleaning

17,300

59,000

Blast cleaning in
containment system

25,700

59,000

Welding, cutting, or
burning

600

28,000

Hand tool cleaning

45

167

Power tool cleaning

735

20,600

Chemical stripping

11

476

500

2,100

Removal method

Movement (air, foot


traffic, cleanup, etc.) in
the containment system
(causes particles to
become airborne)

50. Corrective Action. A fte r o n e o f th e


a b o v e in sp ect io n su r v ey s (s ee ch a p ter X,
su bsection 47(b), Insp ection Typ es) has been
co m p l e te d a n d e v a lu a t e d , th e co a t in g m a y b e
in so m e s ta te of d et er ior a tio n , th u s r eq u ir in g
co r r e ct iv e a ct io n . C o r r e ct iv e a ct io n m a y r a n g e
fr o m n o p a in tin g to fu ll r em o v a l a n d r eco a tin g .
Th e fo llow in g se ctio n s p r ov id e a lte r n a tiv e
r e m e d ia l o p tio n s b as ed o n th e in s p ectio n
assessm en t.
(a) No Pa inting R equ ired. T h e in s p ection
assessm en t ind icates the follow ing: (1) the
c o a tin g i s in g o o d to excellen t co n d itio n ;
(2) th e s er v ice e n v ir on m en t is m ild ; (3) litt le
co r r os ion is e xp ect ed to p r og r es s a t co a tin g
film b reaks; (4) m inor d iscoloration is noted
b u t a p p e a r a n c e is n o t a n im p o r t a n t fa ct o r ; a n d
(5) no significant m etal loss is noted .
E sse n t i a lly , th is o p tio n m ean s d o n o th ing for
x n u m b e r y ea rs. It d o e s n o t m e a n ?d o
n ot h in g for ev er . It m ea n s t h a t t h e co a tin g
m a i n t e n a n ce p ro g ram is d elay ed u n til s om e
tim e in th e fo r es ee a b le fu tu r e w h en coa tin g

d e te riora tion re qu ire s a tte ntion or u ntil s om e


tim e w hen coating m aintenan ce is sched u led
w ith oth er m a jor m a in te n a n ce p r og r a m s.
A n ot h er r ea so n for n ot p a in tin g is th a t fu n d in g
m ay n ot be av ailable for x n u m ber of year s.
(b) Sp ot R epa irs. Sp ot rep airs are in or d er
w he n th e insp ection assessm en t ind icates the
follo w in g : (1) th e co a tin g is d et er ior a tin g in
localized areas; (2) the service environm ent
is m ild to corrosive; (3) corro sion is exp ected to
p rog ress at coa ting film br eak s;
(4) d isco lor at ion is n ot ed b u t a p p ea ra n ce
m a y o r m a y n o t b e a n im p o rta n t fa cto r; a n d
(5) m inor m etal loss is noted .
T h is o p t io n i s a p p r o p r i a t e fo r is o la t e d a n d
relatively sm all areas that d o no t exceed
1 p e r ce n t o f t h e t o ta l co a t e d s u r f a ce a r e a a n d
a r e n ot in a h ig h ap p ea r a n ce a r ea . If colo r is
im p orta nt, s uc h a s in a pu blic a re a , ta ke color
chip sam p les to th e coating m an u factu rer to
m a t ch t h e e x is t in g c o lo r b e ca u s e th e o r ig in a l
coating color m ay h ave fad ed .
Sp ot re pa irs a re a via ble op tion for
at m os p h er ic, bu ria l, an d im m er sio n se rv ice
exp osu res.
(c) Spo t Repairs Plus Full Recoa t. Sp ot
re p a irs a re in ord e r w he n the ins pe c tion
assessm en t ind icates the follow ing: (1) the
co a t in g i s d e t er io r a t in g i n lo ca liz e d a r e a s t h a t
r e p r e s e n t b e t w e e n 1 a n d 3 p e r ce n t o f t h e t o ta l
a r e a an d a r e ex p e ct e d t o d e t e rio r a te fu r t h e r ;
(2) the service env ironm en t is m ild to
corrosive, (3) corrosion is expected to p roceed
a t co a tin g film b r ea k s, (4) d isco lor a tio n is
note d a nd a p p e a ra nc e is a fa c tor, a nd (5) m inor
to m od erate m etal loss is noted .
T h is o p t io n is a p p r o p r i a te fo r co a t in g s t h a t a r e
in r e l at iv e ly g o o d co n d it io n b u t d e f ect s a n d
co r r os ion ar e n ot icea b le. Th e co a tin g sh ou ld
still be resilient, it can still hav e a red u ced
D FT, a n d a d h e sio n sh o u ld b e go od w h e re th e
coating has n ot d eteriorated . W hen
ov er coa tin g an exis tin g p ain t, a t es t p at ch
sho u ld b e ap p lied to d eterm ine com p atibility
betw een th e coating m ater ials. The test
p a t ch e s s h o u l d b e e v a l u a t e d b e t w e e n 1 a n d
3 m on th s after ap p lica tion . T h e str u ctu r es

51

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


ap p ea ra n ce m ay b e o f ae sth et ic im p or ta n ce
(s u c h a s w h e n i n p u b lic v i ew ), a n d a fu ll r e co a t
w ill pr ov id e a u n iform color an d gloss.
Th e s p ot r ep a ir p lu s fu ll re co a t is a v iab le
op tio n for coa tin g st r u ctu r es in at m os p h er ic
service exposu res, bu t it is not recom m end ed
for bu rial and im m ersion serv ice exp osu res.
(d) Com plete Rem ova l and Recoat.
C o m p le t ely r e m o v i n g t h e o ld co a t in g a n d
r e c o a tin g i s in o rd er w h en th e in s p ectio n
assessm en t ind icates the follow ing: (1) the
co a t in g i s d e t er io r a tin g i n lo ca liz e d a n d la r g e
areas r ep resen ting gr eater th an 3 per cent of the
total area, and it is exp ected to d eteriorate
furth er; (2) the service env ironm en t is m ild to
corro sive; (3) corr osion is expected to p rog ress
a t co a tin g film b r ea k s; (4) d isco lor a tio n is
n ot ed an d m ay or m ay n ot b e a n ap p ea ra n ce
fa ct o r ; a n d (5) m o d e r a t e t o sig n i fica n t m e t a l
loss is noted .
Th is o p tio n is co n d u civ e t o co a tin g s t h a t a r e in
p oo r con d itio n an d ar e n o lo n g er p r ot ect in g
th e s u b st r a te . Th is o p tio n r eq u ir es fu ll
r e m o v a l o f a ll t h e e xis t in g c o a tin g m a t e r ia l a n d
recoating the en tire su rface.
C om p let e r em ov a l an d r eco a tin g is a v iab le
op tio n for at m os p h er ic an d im m er sio n se rv ice
exp osu res.

51. Material Selection Factors. T h e r e a r e


nu m erou s factors to be considered w hen
se lectin g a co a tin g to m eet s p ecific co n d itio n s.
The m ost basic factor is the env ironm en t the
coa tin g w ill be su b ject ed to (e.g ., atm os p h er ic,
bu rial, or im m ersion su rface exposu re). (See
ch a p te r I, su b se ctio n 6, Se r v ice E xp os u r es .)
Coatings sh ou ld be selected for their intend ed
u se (i.e., a co a tin g for m u lat ed for at m os p h er ic
se r v ic e e x p o s u re is n o t s u itab le fo r
imm ersion). The follow ing are som e other
factors to be taken into consid eration w hen
se lect in g a co a tin g m a te r ial:
(a) Coating Prop erties.

52

A b ra sio n or er os ion re sist an ce


Ad hesion of pr imer
A p p ea ra n ce

C olo r a n d g lo ss r ete n tio n .


R e coa t w ind ow
C u r e o r d r y tim e
Flexibility
M ild ew or fu n g u s r es ista n ce

(b) Su itability to Sub strate Type.

Fe rrous (s te el or iron)

N onferrou s (alum inu m , brass, bron ze,


o r co p p e r )

C o n c r et e o r m a s on r y

O l d c o at in g s

W ood

(c) Environ me ntal.

Tem p eratu re an d hu m idity extrem es


a n d v a ria tio n s

C av ita tio n .

C h em ical co n ta ct

Tr a ffic, foo t o r v eh icle

52. Scheduling. A c ce ss ib le st r u c tu r e s a r e
r e la t iv e ly e a s y to s ch e d u le fo r in s p e ct io n a n d
m a in te n an ce co atin g w o r k. H o w e ve r, m a n y
R e cla m a tion s tru c tu re s s uc h a s inte rior of
tu rb ines, p u m p u n its, p en stocks, d raft tu bes,
d ischarge lines, and other interior w ater
be a ring s ur fa c es a re diffic ult to a cc es s w ith ou t
a s ch e d u l e d o u t a g e a n d m a n y a r e a s ca n n o t b e
d ew atered in excess of 5 years. Therefore,
p lanned or u np lanned ou tages shou ld be tak en
a d v a n t a g e o f fo r e it h e r in s p e c tio n o r co a t in g s
w ork.
In s ch e d u l in g a p la n n e d o u t a g e to p e r fo r m
m a in te n a n ce co a tin g w or k , th e r ev en u e lo ss in
e le ct r icit y o r w a t er d e liv e r y n e e d s t o b e
a cco u n te d for sin ce r ev en u e lo ss w ill like ly
b e co m e a sig n i fica n t fa ct o r .

Chapter XI
Galvanizing
Ga l v a n i z in g is th e ap p licatio n o f zin c o n to a
st ee l su r face . Zin c is a n od ic to st ee l (i.e., zin c
w ill sa cr i fice its elf to p ro tect steel fro m
c o r r o sio n ) . Reclam atio n s p ecifies n u m erou s
st eel m eta lw o r k ite m s t o b e g a lv a n iz ed .
M etalw ork item s m ay ran ge from sm all item s
s u c h , a s b o lt s a n d n u t s , t o la r g e it e m s , s u c h a s
gates. The follow ing are reason s to coat over
g a lv a n izin g : (1) to for m a b a r r ier coa tin g in
bu rial or im m ersion serv ice exp osu res b ecau se
the z inc w ill be rap idly con su m ed ; (2) to
rep air da m aged areas; and (3) to im p rove

aesthetics (color ap p earan ce). Coating ov er


galvan ized su rfaces pr esents u niqu e p roblem s
th a t a r e ch a r a cte r ist ic of z in c an d th e co a tin g
m aterial selected .

53. Galvanizing Methods. T h e r e a r e s e v e r a l


m ethod s to use w hen ap p lying zinc. Table 3
p rovid e s the m os t com m on m e thod s for
g a lv a n izin g an d in clu d es m a n u fact u r in g
p r oc es se s, sp ecifica tio n r efe r en ces , zin c coa tin g
th ickn es se s, an d ty p ical a p p licatio n s for ea ch
m e th od :

Table 3.Galvanizing methods


Method

Process

Specifications

Thickness

Typical application

Electrogalvanizing

Electrolysis

ASTM A 591

Up to 0.14 mil

Interior service exposure: appliance


panels, studs, and acoustical ceiling
members

Zinc
plating

Electrolysis

ASTM B 633

0.2 to 1.0 mil

Interior or exterior service exposure:


fasteners and hardware items

Mechanical
plating

Peening

ASTM B 695

0.2 to 4.0 mil

Interior or exterior service exposure:


fasteners and hardware items

Continuous
galvanizing

Hot-dip

ASTM A 653

Up to 4.0 mil

Interior or exterior service exposure:


roofing, gutters, culverts, automobile
bodies

Hot-dip
galvanizing

Hot-dip

ASTM A 123
ASTM A 153

1.4 to 5.0 mil

Interior or exterior service exposure:


nearly all shapes and sizes, ranging
from nails, bolts, and nuts to large
structural items

Thermal
Spraying

Hot zinc
spray

AWS C2.2

3.3 to 8.3 mil

Interior or exterior service exposure:


items that cannot be galvanized by
other methods because of their size
and shape or because galvanizing
must be performed onsite.

Zinc-rich
painting

Brush, roller,
airless, or
conventional
spray

Varies with
owner's or
manufacturers
specifications

0.6 to 5.0 mil


per coat

Interior or exterior service exposure:


Items that cannot be galvanized by
other methods because of their size
and shape or because galvanizing
must be performed onsite. Aesthetics
(color).

53

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


M ost Reclam ation galvan ized m etalw ork item s
th a t r eq u ir e p a in tin g ar e b y th e h ot -d ip
p r o c e ss . T h is m e t h o d r e q u i re s t h e m e t a lw o r k
ite m s t o b e im m er se d in a b a th of m olt en zin c
th a t cla d s t h e m et alw or k su r face in a n ea r ly
p u r e z in c la y e r .

a n d s eco n d p h a s e r e a ct io n s m a y co n t in u e fo r 1
to 2 y ea r s a fte r th e g a lv a n ize d m a n u fact u r in g
p r o ce s s is fin i sh e d , d e p e n d in g o n t h e lo ca l
en viro n m en t. Zinc carbon ate (third p h ase
r e a ct io n ) is a d e n s e , in s o lu b le m a t e r ia l t h a t
fo r m s th e p r o t e ct iv e la y e r . T h e fin a l
g a lv a n i z ed s u r fa ce is a d u ll m a t te g r a y .

54. Zinc Corrosion and Service Life. Z in c,


b y i t se lf, d oes n o t co rro d e lik e s teel. C o rros ion
of zinc is achieved by exp osing zinc to oxygen
a n d m o ist u re. Th e res u lt is a w h ite co rro s ion
b y p r o d u c t . Ba r e g a lv a n i z ed m e t alw o r k
im m ersed in seaw ater m ay last for 6 m on ths
b e fo r e b e in g c o n s u m e d . Ba r e g a lv a n i z in g m a y
la st 5 t o 10 y ears in fres h w ater, d ep en d ing on
t h e w a t e r ch e m is tr y . H o w e v e r , b a r e
g alv an izin g in an at m os p h er ic ser v ice
expo su re w ill form a p rotective layer betw een
1 an d 2 y ea r s a fte r th e in itia l g a lv a n izin g
p rocess, and this protective layer im p ed es
fu r t h e r c o r ro s io n . Th e s erv ice life o f
atm osp her ic galvan ized m etalw ork h as been
kn ow n to exceed 50 yea rs.

Zinc oxide, zinc hy d roxid e, an d zinc carb on ate


p r o d u cts d o n o t fo rm u n ifo rm l y o ve r th e
g a lv a n ize d su r face or to a u n ifor m d ep th . A ll
th r ee p r od u cts ar e a w h itis h colo r an d n ea r ly
im p os sib le to v isu ally d istin g u ish fro m ea ch
ot h er . W ith ou t k n ow in g w h ich zin c
com p ou nd is p resent, coating ov er galvan ized
su rfa ces b eco m es p ro b lem at ic.

56. Contaminants. C on ta m ina n ts on


galvan ized su rfaces are zinc ash r esid u es
d e p o site d d u r in g th e ga lv a n iz in g p r oce ss a n d
n a t u r a l occu r r i n g w h i te o xid e st a in t h a t fo r m s
d u ring s tora ge . The follow ing tw o s e ctions
p rov id e a m ore d etailed d escription of zinc ash
an d stora ge sta in con tam inan ts.

55. Zinc Chemical Reactions. Z i n c is a n


active m etal and w ill react w ith oth er elem en ts
to for m ox id es an d com p ou n d s. Th e fo llow in g
zinc com p ou nd s are form ed on th e galvan ized
su rface:

Z in c ox id e is for m ed ab ou t 24 t o 48
h o u r s aft e r t h e g a lv a n i z in g p r o ce ss b y
the r eaction of zinc w ith oxyge n in the
a ir .

Z in c h y d r oxid e is fo rm e d b y th e
r e a c tio n o f th e zin c w ith m o is tu r e from
r a i n , d ew , o r h ig h co n d en s atio n .

Z in c ca rb on a te is fo rm e d b y th e
r ea ctio n of z in c ox id e a n d zin c
h y d ro x id e w ith carb o n d io x id e from
fr e e flo w in g a ir .

Z in c ox id e (fir st p h a se r ea ctio n ) an d zin c


h y d r o xid e (s eco n d a r y p h a s e r e a ct io n ) a r e
p r o d u c t s t h a t ar e w a t e r so lu b l e an d n o t v e r y
d en se. These p rod u cts adh ere v ery loosely to
t h e su b s t r a te su r f a ce . P a in t d o e s n o t a d h e r e
w e ll to zin c o xid e a n d z in c h y d r oxid e , a n d
p a in tin g ov er th es e m ate r ials w ill p r ob a b ly
resu lt in p rem atu re coatin g failu re. The first

54

(a) Zin c Ash . In th e ga lvan izing p rocess,


p a rtic le s of oxid iz e d z inc floa t on the s u rface of
th e m olt en b a th . W h en th e m et a lw or k is
rem oved from the bath , resid u e of oxid ized
z in c p a r ticle s ca n r em a in on th e m eta lw or k . A
thin layer of resid u e can form on th e sur face,
a n d th is r esid u e is r efer r ed to as z in c a sh .
(b) W et Sto rage Stain. N ew ly galvan ized
it e m s a r e s to r e d a n d s h ip p e d . If t h e st o r ag e
area o r sh ipp ing con tainer p rev en ts the
cir cu lat ion of ca r b on d iox id e in fre e flo w in g air
cond ition s, a w hite ru st w ill form on the
ga lvan ized su rface. This is a na tu ral p rocess
t h a t is o ft e n r efe r r ed t o as w h it e s to r a g e
sta in . W h ite s to ra g e s ta in re su lts fr om a la ck
o f ca r b o n d io x id e t o co n v e r t z in c o xid e a n d
zinc hy d roxid e to the stable zinc carb on ate
com p ou nd . If left u nchecked and sufficient
m o is tu r e i s p r e s e n t , a ll t h e z in c m a y b e
co n s u m e d (r a r e o ccu r r e n c e), o r t h e z in c m a y
b e co n s u m e d in p a t ch y a r e a s , o r t h e r e su lt m a y
be r ed u ced zinc th ickn ess.
T o p r e v e n t w h i te st o r ag e st a in , m a n u fa ct u r e r s
m ay p erform a p osttreatm ent p rocess. The

Galvanizing
follow ing are th e m ost com m on p osttreatm ent
m e t h o d s a n d t h e ir e ffe ct s o n p a in t in g :
Apply a coating of oil to form a barrier
from mo isture. Pain ts w ill not a d h ere to oils,
a n d a p p ly in g o il w ill r e su l t in a d h e s io n fa ilu r e
if the oil is not rem oved .
T o ch e c k fo r th e p res en ce o f o il, p erfo rm a
w a te r b ea d te st . Pla ce a d r op of w a te r on th e
su rface. If the w ater b ead s, it ind icates the
p r es en ce o f oil.
Quen ching (coo ling in a water bath).
W a t e r m a y co n tain g r eas e an d o ils th at floa t on
the w ater su rface and contam inate th e
g a lv a n ize d su r face , re su ltin g in coa tin g
a d h e si o n failu re if th e g reas e an d o il are not
rem oved .
Chrom ate q uenching . Typ ically, pa ints
w ill not ad her e to galvanized sur faces treated
b y th is m et h od . Ch r om a te q u en ch in g is b ein g
d isco n tin u e d b eca u se of h u m a n sa fe ty an d
en viro n m en tal concern s.
Pho sphate q uen ching . A d h e sio n of p a in t
is im p r o v e d b y th is m eth o d .
Ther e is no easy field test to d eterm ine th e
ty p e of q u en ch tr ea tm en t t h a t w a s u se d , if a n y .
The m ost reliable m etho d is to contact the
g a l v a n i z in g s h o p .
(c) Depo sited C ontam inan ts. Dep osited
co n t a m in a n t s a r e fo r e ig n s u b s t a n ce s th a t
accu m u late on th e ga lvan ized su rface. The
m ost com m on con tam inants are d irt, grease ,
o il, a n d s o lu b le s a lt s . C h l o r id e s a lt s a r e
aggr essively d estru ctive to galvan ized
m et a lw or k . For p r ot ect ion ag a in st ch lor id e
co n t a m i n a t io n , g a lv a n i z ed it e m s s h o u l d b e
p r o t e ct e d b y co n tain ers d u rin g tran s p o rt or
storage.

fo r m a t io n o f r ea ct iv e z in c o xid e a n d
zin c hy d ro xid e com p ou n d s. The
chem ical reaction m ay con tinu e for 1 to
2 years, d ep end ing on local w eather
co n d it io n s a n d m e t alw o r k g e om e t ry .
Weath ered galva nized m etalw ork.
T h e s u r fa ce h a s co m p le t ed ch e m ica l
co n v er sio n fro m zin c ox id e a n d zin c
h y d r o x id e co m p o u n d s to n o n r ea ct iv e
zinc carbon ate.
(a) Newly Ga lvanized Metalw ork. Z in c is st ill
r e a ct iv e o n n e w ly g a lv a n i z e d m e t a lw o r k , a n d
se v er a l con ta m in a n ts m a y ex ist , su ch as oil
co a tin g or p os tt r ea tm en t a p p lied at th e p oin t
o f g a lv a n i z in g . Ea ch s p e cific co n t a m in a n t m a y
re qu ire a s pe c ia liz e d s urfa ce pr e p a ra tion
m et h od . Th e fo llow in g ste p s a re su rfa ce
p r ep a r a tio n m et h od s fo r r em ov a l of s p ecific
conta m inan ts:
Rem ova l of white sto rage stain (w hite ru st),
if prese nt. A p p ly a 1- t o 2-p er cen t a m m on ia
solution by b ru sh or sp ray . For severe w hite
st or a g e s ta in , ap p ly 1 p a r t a cet ic or citr ic acid
to 25 p arts of w ater. Thorou gh ly rinse th e area
w h e r e th e s o lu t i on w a s ap p lie d w it h w a r m
p o t a b le w a t er a n d a llo w t h e a r ea t o a ir d r y .
Rem ova l of dirt, grease, an d oil.So lv en t
cleaning in accord an ce with SSPC-SP1. W aterb a s e d e m u ls ifie r s a n d a l k a lin e c le a n e r s h a v e
b ee n sh ow n to w or k b es t. En su r e t h a t a lk a lin e
clea n er s h a v e a p H of le ss th a n 12 b eca u se zin c
w ill d issolve in h ighly a lkalin e solu tions.
A p p l y cle a n in g s o lu t i on s b y d i p p in g ,
sp r a y in g , or b r u sh in g w ith so ft b r ist le b r u sh es.
D ip p i n g a n d sp r a yin g w o r ks b est w h e n th e
cleaning solu tion is at abou t 140 to 185 d egrees
F. Thor ou gh ly rinse the a rea w he re th e
solven t w as ap p lied w ith h ot p otable w ater
a n d a llo w t h e a r ea t o a ir d r y .

s u r fa ce p r e p a r a t io n o f g a lv a n i z ed m e t alw o r k
b efo re p ain tin g d e p en d s on w h e t h er th e
m etalw ork is new ly galvan ized or w eathered :

Rem ova l of zinc ash. A p p ly a 1- to


2-p er ce n t a m m on ia so lu tion b y b r u sh or sp r a y .
Th or ou g h ly r in se th e a r ea w h er e t h e a m m on ia
solu tion w as ap p lied w ith w arm p otable w ater
a n d a llo w t h e a r ea t o a ir d r y .

Newly galvanized m etalw ork. Th e


su r face is u n d er g oin g th e a ctiv e

Repair of physical defects (high spots and


dro plets). H ig h sp o ts o ccu r w h e n exce ss z in c

57. Surface Preparation. T h e m eth o d of

55

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


r u n s d ow n th e e d g es of m et alw or k as it is
rem ov ed from th e m olten ta n k. The excess
z in c fo r m s p r o tr u sio n s o r ir r eg u la r ed g es.
H igh sp ots shou ld be g rou nd off w ith a p ow er
t o ol. D r o p l e ts fo r m a t m e t a lw o r k e d g e s w h e r e
zinc dr ains w hen the m etalw ork is rem oved
fr o m t h e m o lten b ath . D ro p lets can b e gr ou nd
d ow n or kn ocked off by p ow er tools. W hen
u sing p ow er tools, d o n ot grin d off the z inc to
less than th e req u ired th ickn ess.
If the z inc on m etalw ork ha s been rem ove d to
bare m etal or thinn ed below the sp ecified
t h i ck n e ss d u rin g s h ip p in g , co n s tru ctio n ,
ha nd ling , or installation, the d am aged
g a lv a n ize d ar ea s ca n b e r ep a ir ed b y coa tin g
w it h a z in c -r ich p r im e r .
Removal of zinc oxide and zinc hydroxide
com pound s. Th e r ea ctiv e z in c ox id e a n d zin c
hy d roxide com p ou nd s m ay n ot hav e been
co m p let ely r em ov ed d u r in g th e in itia l clea n in g
p r o c e ss, a nd th ere is n o s im p le field d etection
m ethod . To avoid p rem atu re coating failu re,
the coating ind u stry recom m en d s one of the
fin a l s u r fa ce p r e p a r a t io n m e t h o d s b e
e m p lo y e d t o r e m o v e r e a c tiv e z in c o xid e a n d
zinc hy d roxid e com p ou nd s; ho w ever , the
coating m an u factu rer sho u ld be consu lted
b e fo r e a p p ly in g th e p rim er b ecau s e so m e of
the m etho d s m ay n ot be com p atible w ith the
z in c -r ich p r im e r :
Pho sphate treatm ent. A p p ly a p ho sp ha te
co n ta in in g so lu tio n to for m a n on r ea ctiv e z in c
p ho sp ha te layer on the su rface and inh ibit the
for m atio n of z in c ox id es . Th e t r ea tm en t w ill
slig h t l y e t ch th e s u rface, p ro d u cin g an anc hor
p r ofile for th e co a tin g p r im er . A p p licat ion is
by im m ersion , spr ay , or soft br istle bru sh . The
s o lu t io n i s le ft o n fo r a b o u t 3 to 6 m in u t e s a n d
r in se d off w ith p ot a b le w a te r . Co lor a tio n is
retu rn ed to the galvan ized su rface after
w a s h in g s o th a t a n y m is se d a r e a s w i ll b e
v isib le a n d can b e r et re at ed . A llow th e s u rfa ce
t o air d r y b e fo r e co a t in g .
Fo r n e w co n s t ru c t io n m e t alw o r k it e m s t h a t a r e
s p e c ifie d t o b e co a t e d , p h o s p h a t e q u e n ch i n g a t
the ga lvanizing p lant w ill prod u ce high er
qu ality an d at less cost than ap p lication in the
field .

56

Zinc-rich p rim er sh ou ld n ot be ap p lied to


p ho sp ha te treated su rfaces. The p ho sp ha te
w ill fo rm a n in su la te d b ar rie r b etw e en th e zin c
p a in t p a r ticle s a n d th e zin c g a lv a n iz ed m eta l.
To b e e ffectiv e, z in c-rich p rim er s r eq u ire d ire ct
co n ta ct b et w ee n th e z in c p a r ticle s in th e p a in t
a n d th e zin c m eta l o n th e g a lv a n iz ed su r fa ce .
Wash p rime rs. W a sh p r im e r s a re co atin g
m a te r ials for m u lat ed to n eu tr a lize su r face zin c
oxides an d zinc hy d roxid es an d to etch th e
ga lva niz e d s u rfa ce , p rod u c ing a n a nc hor
p rofile for th e coating p rim er. Typ ically, the
m a n u fa ct u r e r r e co m m e n d s a sin g l e th i n co a t
be ap p lied by b ru sh or sp ray at abo u t 0.3 to
0.5 mils. At th is thickn ess, the galvan ized
su rface sho u ld sh ad ow or reta in a n ear m atte
g ra y ap p ea ra n ce. If th e g alv an ize d su rfa ce
becom es hid d en, the w ash p rim er w as ap p lied
too thic kly, a nd it m a y d e la m ina te be c a us e of
th e w a sh p r im e r s p o or co h esiv e str en g th .
A c o m m o n w a s h p r im e r is p o l y v in y l b u t y r a l
(SSPC Pa int Sp ecification N o. 27). O th er w ash
p r im er for m u lat ion s a r e co m m er cially
available.
Acrylic passivatio n. A p p licat ion of a n acid ic
acrylic solu tion w ill passivate or neu tralize th e
r e a ct iv e z in c o xid e s a n d z i n c h y d r o x id e s a n d
rou ghe n the s ur fa c e, p rod u c ing a n a nc hor
p r ofile for th e co a tin g p r im er . Th e s olu tio n is
a p p lied at ab ou t 0.04 m il (1 m icr on ). Th is
m e t h o d i s co n s id e r e d a p p lica b le o n ly fo r v e r y
th in la y er s o f z in c o xid es a n d zin c h y d r oxid es.
T h e s olu t io n m u s t b e d r y b e fo r e a p p ly in g a n y
co a tin g m a te r ial.
Sweep blastin g. This is a light blast
clea n in g m et h od to r em ov e t h e r ea ctiv e z in c
o x id e s a n d z i n c h y d r o x id e s a n d t o p r o d u ce a n
a n ch or p r ofile for th e co a tin g p r im er . Soft
a b r a s iv e s sh o u ld b e u s e d t o r e d u ce s ig n i fica n t
z in c m et a l los s a n d sh ou ld h a v e a M oh s scale
h a r d n e s s o f 5 o r le s s a n d a p a r t i cle s iz e
b e t w e e n 8 t o 20 m ils . T y p ica l a b r a siv e s ar e
alu m inu m or m ag n esiu m silicate, corn cobs,
w a ln u t sh e l l, lim e s to n e , a n d s o m e m in e r a l
san d s.

Galvanizing
Th e b las t n oz z le s h ou ld b e h eld at a r ela tiv ely
low ang le to rem ove th e reactive zinc oxid es
a n d zin c h y d r ox id es . H old in g th e b las t n oz z le
p er p en d icu lar to th e s u r face can q u ick ly
rem ove sou nd zinc m etal. Op tim al am bient
cond ition s for sw eep blasting are 70 d egr ees F
an d 50 p ercent or less relative hu m idity. After
sw ee p b las tin g , coa t t h e s u r face w ith in
24 h ou rs.
(b) W eath ered Galvanized Metalw ork. Fu lly
w e a t h e r e d g alv an izin g w ith an o u td o o r
ex p os u r e o f b et w ee n 1 an d 2 y ea r s s h ou ld
h a v e c o m p le t ely c on v e r t e d t h e z in c o xid e a n d
z in c h y d r ox id e co m p ou n d s t o fo r m a s ta b le
(n on r ea ctiv e) p r ot ect iv e la y er of z in c
car b on at e. Th e m os t co m m on su rfa ce
p r e p a r a t i on m e t h o d is w a t e r p o w e r w a s h in g a t
a p ressu re of abou t 1,450 psi to rem ove d irt,
g r e a se , a n d o il. H ig h e r p r e s s u r e s s h o u l d b e
a v o i d e d t o red u ce th e risk o f rem o v in g s ou nd
zinc. Sw eep blasting is ano ther m ethod u sed ,
often u sed after w ater p ow er w ash ing to
p r o m o t e a d h e sio n o f t h e p r im e r .
Aged or weathered galvanized
me talwork. O l d , a g e d g a l v a n i zin g t h a t h a s
b ee n in se r v ice fo r se v er a l y ea r s a n d is
sho w ing ev iden ce of d eterioration p resen ts
a d d it io n a l p r o b l em s a n d r e q u i r e s r e m e d ia l
su r f a ce p r ep aratio n m eth o d s d ifferen t fr om
those ap p rop riate for n ew ly galvan ized
m e t alw o r k .
De t e r io r a t ed areas m ay s h o w a red d is h -brow n
st a in . Th i s co lo r s tain m ay b e m is tak en for
co r ro sio n o f t h e s te el b a se m e t al. Ju s t a b ov e
t h e in t e r fa ce b e tw e e n t h e s te e l b a s e m e t a l a n d
th e z in c th a t w a s a p p lied d u r in g th e h ot d ip
g a lv a n izin g p r oc es s, a zin c-iro n allo y lay er is
fo r m e d . Th e z in c -ir o n a llo y la y e r m a y b e
co r r o d in g r a t h e r t h a n t h e s te e l b a s e m e t a l, a n d
be bleed ing thr ou gh the m ore p u re zinc above,
r e su l t in g i n th e red d is h -b ro w n s tain . Z inc -iron
a lloy is b r ow n ish , an d st ee l cor r os ion is
red d ish. It is difficu lt to visu ally d istin gu ish
t h e d i ffe r e n ce b e tw e e n th e t w o m e t als b y
co lo r .
A m a g n e t ic o r e le ct r o n ic D F T g a u g e c an b e
u sed to d eterm ine if the steel base m etal or the

z in c-iro n allo y is co r r od in g . Since zin c is


n on m a g n et ic, m ea su r in g ov er zin c w ill
p r od u ce a th ick n es s r ea d in g . A r ea d in g
show ing thickness ind icates galvanized
m a te ria l is pre s e nt (i.e ., brow nis h c olor) (ho t
d ip ga lva niz ing is a pp lie d a t a thic kne s s of
a bou t 2 to 5 m ils ). R e a dings tha t s how no
th ickn ess ind icate ferro u s ru st (i.e., red d ish
co lor in d icat es zin c h a s b ee n con su m ed ). Th is
is im p o r t a n t b e ca u s e t h e ar e a s t h a t ar e
b r ow n ish m a y st ill h a v e s u fficien t g a lv a n izin g
m a t er ia l le ft in ta ct, a n d th is w i ll a ffe ct th e
su rface p rep ara tion r equ irem en ts.
The su rface p rep aration of old , aged
ga lvan izing r equ ires the follow ing ste p s:
1. W ater p ow er w ash the en tire sur face to
re m ove d irt, oil, a nd gre a s e a t a bout
1,450 p si.
2. A b r a siv ely b las t (N A C E 3/ SSPC -SP6)
or p ow er to ol (SSP C -SP3 o r SSPC -SP11)
c le a n the ru s te d re d d is h a re a s (little or
n o g a l v a n i zin g i n t a ct ) t o b a r e s t ee l a n d
feathe r th e ed ges.
3. H a n d (SSP C - SP 2) o r p o w e r t o ol cle a n
(SSP C - SP 3) t h e b r o w n i sh - co lo r e d a r e a s
(g a lv a n i z in g i n t act ), e n s u r in g n o m o r e
g a lv a n izin g is r em ov ed th a n is
n e ce ss a r y .
4. Sw eep blast the en tire galvan ized
su rface to pr om ote th e ad he sion of the
p rim er coat.

58. Coatings. N u m e r o u s c oa t in g m a t e r ia ls
ca n b e a p p lied ov er g a lv a n izin g ; ho w ev er , it is
b es t t o e n su r e t h a t t h e m a te r ial s ele cte d is
com p atible w ith zinc. The selection d ep end s
n ot on ly on com p a tib ility b u t a lso , in cer ta in
cas es , on ch em ical tr ea tm en ts, su rfa ce
p r ep a r a tio n , an d se r v ice e xp os u r e. C on su lt
th e co a tin g m a n u fact u r er or th e s p ecific
p rod u ct da ta shee ts for com p atibility w ith
sp ecific ch em ical tr ea tm en ts a n d su rfa ce
p r ep a r a tion m eth od s .
(a) Coating Se lection . T h e fo llo w in g c o at in g s
a r e su i t ab le to o v e r co a t g a lv a n i z in g u n d e r

57

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


at m os p h er ic, bu ria l, an d im m er sio n se rv ice
cond ition s:

Bu r i a l o r im m e r sio n s e rv ice e xp o s u r e

" Co al tar ep oxy

A t m o s p h e r ic s er v ice e xp o s u r e

" Ep oxy
" A cr y lic or w a te r -b or n e a cr y lic
" M o istu r e cu r ed u r eth a n e
" Acrylic latex
" Z i n c-r ich e p o x y fo r d a m a g e d a r e a s
" W aterborn e latex
" Z in c-r ich m o istu r e cu r ed u r eth a n e
" Z in c-r ich ae r os ol s p r a y for r ep a ir in g
d am aged areas of bare galvan ized
su rfaces

" E p o x y p r i m e r w it h U V - r es is t an t
a lip h a t ic u r e t h a n e t o p c o a t

" M oistu re-cu red u rethan e p rim er


w ith U V-r esista n t a lip h a tic u r eth a n e
topcoat

" Zinc-rich ep oxy or m oistu re-cu red


u r e t h a n e p r im e r w it h U V - r es is t an t
com p atible top coat for d am aged
areas

58

fo r d a m a g e d a r e a s
Do n ot u se oil-ba sed or a lkyd coating s u n less
the y a re s p e cific a lly formu la te d for
g a lv a n iz in g . Z in c is an alk a lin e m eta l.
M oisture w ill eventu ally p erm eate th rou gh the
coating film . The zinc and bind ers in oil-based
or a lkyd c oa tings re a c t in th e pr e s e nc e of
a lk a lin ity an d m ois tu r e t o fo r m a m et a llic
so a p . Th is p r oce ss is calle d sa p on ifica tion .
C a s e h i st o r ie s s h o w t h a t oil-b a s ed a n d a lk y d
co a t in g s t h a t a r e ad h e r in g w e ll w ill r e q u i re
a b o u t 6 m o n t h s t o 1 y e a r a ft e r a p p lica t io n i n a n
ou td oo r en v ir on m en t t o b eg in to fail.

Chapter XII
Coating Failures
Coatings fail for m an y reason s. These failu res
c a n b e r e la t ed to m aterial s electio n ,
form u lation, ad hesion, substrate typ e,
a p p lic a tio n , stru ctu re d es ig n , o r ex terio r
for ces . Th es e r ela te d failu re ty p es m ay act
ind ep en d en tly of each oth er or in concert w ith
each oth er. The read er is strong ly u rged to
p u r ch a se on e o f th e p h ot og r a p h ic coa tin g
fa ilu r e b o o k s lis ted in ap p en d ix B.

59. Material Selection. To p r ote ct th e


su bstr ate, coatings a re r equ ired to resist
d e t er io r a t io n f r o m a t m o s p h e r ic, b u r ia l, a n d
im m e r sio n s erv ice ex p o s u re. N o o n e ty p e of
coating has ev er been d eveloped to p rotected
a ll su b st r a te ty p es in all ser v ice ex p o su r es.
R a t h e r , m a n u factu rers fo rm u late co atin g s for
s p e c ific s e r v ice e xp o s u r e s . C o a t in g m a t e r ia l
se lectio n is g en er ally b as ed on se rv ice
expo su re su itability, past history p erform an ce,
recom m en d ation s from oth er facility ow n ers,
an d accelera ted p erform an ce tests.
The follow ing are som e exam p les of im p rop er
m a t e r ia l se lectio n :

Se lectio n o f a p ain t fo r th e w ro n g
s e r v ice e xp o s u r e . Fo r e xa m p le , if a n
a t m o s p h eric co atin g is sp ecified for
im m e r sio n s e rv ice e xp o s u r e , fa ilu r e
w ill occu r in a r ela tiv ely sh or t t im e
p er io d .
Se lectio n o f a p ain t b as ed s o lely on
co st s. N o t a ll p a in ts ar e eq u a l. A
m a n u factu rer m ay p ro d u ce s o m e
excellent p rod u cts but o ther p aints
fr o m th e s am e m an u factu rer m ay not
p e r f or m w e ll. A s a r u l e-o f-t h u m b ,
w h at y o u p ay fo r is n o rm ally w h a t you
get, and this, in gen eral, ap p lies to
p aint m ater ials.
Se le ct io n o f a p a in t b a s e d s o le ly o n a n
u n s u b sta n tia te d o p in io n . A p e rso n

w it h lim it e d k n o w le d g e o f in d u s t r ia l
co a tin g s ca n se lect th e w r on g or p oo r ly
p er for m in g m a te r ials , re su ltin g in
p r em a tu r e fa ilu r e.

Se le ction of a pa int s ys tem tha t is no t


c omp a tible w ith a n othe r p a int. For
exam p le, a coating p rim er
m a n u f actu r ed b y on e co atin g co m p a n y
s h o u ld n o t b e t o p c o at e d w it h a m a t e r ia l
m a n u fa ct u r e d b y a d i ffe r e n t co m p a n y ,
e ve n if the tw o c oa ting m a te ria ls a re of
th e sam e gen eric typ e, such as a
p olya m id e e poxy. Inc om p a tibility of
solven ts betw een tw o sim ilar p aints is a
com m on cau se for p rem atu re failure.

60. Formulation. Fo r m u l a tio n fa ilu r e s a r e


failu r es th a t a r e in h er en t w ith in th e co a tin g
m a t er ia l itse lf. Th e co m p o n e n ts o f a co atin g
co n sis t o f r esin s, s olv en ts , an d p ig m en ts , an d
th ey ar e m ixe d in v a r io u s p r op or tion s.
Im p rop er com p on en t m ixtu re d u ring the
m a n u fa ctu r in g p r oce ss ca n lea d to fa ilu r e.
Form u lation failur es are su bd ivided into th e
follo w in g or g a n ic an d in or g a n ic coa tin g
cla sses:
(a) Fo rmulatio n - O rgan ic Co atings. O r g a n ic
co a tin g s ca n fail b eca u se of ch a n g es in
form u lation, raw m aterials, imp rop er
p rop ortioning, insu fficient m illing , and other
m an u factur ing p rocesses, . Table 4 p rov id es a
d escription of form u lation for or ga n ic failur es,
the cau se of failu re, and the r em ed y for th e
failu res.
(b) Fo rmulatio n - Ino rgan ic Zinc. In or g a n ic
co a t in g s s u f fe r fr o m in h e r e n t p r o b l e m s t h a t
resu lt in failu res cau sed p rincipally by silicate
v eh icles an d m et a llic zin c th a t a r e u se d in th eir
c omp os ition. Ta ble 5 p rovid e s a de s c rip tion of
th e t y p es an d cau se s o f in or g a n ic zin c coa tin g
failu res an d th e rem ed ies for th e failu res.

59

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


Table 4.Formulation-related failures for organic coatings
(modified from SSPC, Good Painting Practice, volume 1, third edition, 1997)
Failure description

Cause

Remedy

ALLIGATORING - Very large


macrocracking, generally crosshatched pattern.

Internal stress where surface


shrinks more rapidly than the
body of the coating. Hard
topcoat applied over soft
undercoat.

Remove failed coating. Apply thin coats


and thoroughly dry before applying
additional coats. Never apply hard
topcoat (epoxy) over soft coats
(asphalt).

CHALKING - Surface is soft,


powdery, and easily removed
by wiping.

Surface disintegration caused


by UV sunrays on an organic
resin binder; formulated with
improper pigmentation.

Select coatings formulated with UVresistant resins (acrylics) and light


stable, high hiding pigments.

CHECKING - Surface
phenomena with uneven, small,
noncontinuous fissures in
coating that do not penetrate to
the substrate.

Surface stresses resulting from


shrinkage caused by
weathering and continued
coating polymerization and
oxidation.

Select a coating formulated with


weather-resistant resins, inert
reinforcing pigments, and light stable
pigments.

CRACKING - Small breaks in


coating to substrate. May be
linear, cross-hatched, or
curved. Cracks may or may not
be continuous.

Stress set up in coating


because of continued
polymerization and oxidation;
improper pigmentation or
improper coating system.

Select coating formulated from


nonreactive, weather-resistant resins;
reinforcing pigments; and nonreactive
colored pigments. Primer must be
compatible with intermediate and finish
coats.

DISCOLORATION - Yellowing,
graying, or darkening of
coating.

Resin or pigment color change


caused by weather or chemical
reaction.

Select coating formulated with both


color stable resins and pigments.

EROSION - Similar to chalking.


Surface removed on high spots
and brush marks to base or
primer coating.

Chalking mechanism, coating


surface removed by weathering
and abrasion.

Select a tough, chalk-resistant coating


with good flow out characteristics that
will form a smooth film.

MICROORGANISMS - Blotchy
brown or black spots on coating
surface causing poor, dirty
appearance with softening or
slimy feel.

The biodegradation of the


coating by bacteria or fungi.
Bacteria or fungi use coating
ingredients for nourishment.

Use oil coatings containing permanent


fungicide or bactericide. Nonoil
coatings should use modifiers that will
not biodegrade.

MUD CRACKING - Large


cracking. Coating may curl at
cracks and lose adhesion.

Rapid drying of high filled


coatings, especially waterbased materials (water
emulsion paints).

Select coatings with strong adhesion.


Apply coatings under proper drying
conditions and avoid sags or areas of
excess thickness during application.

WRINKLING - Furrows and


ridges in coating surface. May
be linear or random pattern.
Wrinkle may be fine or quite
large.

Surface reaction where surface


of coating expands more rapidly
during drying than does the
body of the film.

Select coating with even, thorough


drying characteristics. Apply evenly
and avoid excessive thickness.

60

Coating Failures
Table 5.Formulation-related failures for inorganic zinc coatings
(modified from SSPC, Good Painting Practice, volume 1, third edition, 1997)
Failure description

Cause

CHECKING - Usually fine, visible, or


microscopic checks. Does not
penetrate to the substrate.

The zinc pigment to binder ratio is


high, causing rapid drying and
resulting in surface cracking.

Formulation should include


reinforcing pigments. Apply
coating as thin as
recommended. Apply second
coat only if necessary. Apply
under favorable conditions.

CHEMICAL - Pinpoint rusting


progressing from spotty to
continuous area.

Acid or alkali reaction on both


silicate binder and metallic zinc.

Apply resistant topcoats over


inorganic zinc coatings.

MUD CRACKING - Fine to fairly


large segments, about 1/4-inch
across, flaking from the coating
surface.

Application too heavy or drying


too rapidly.

Apply coating at no more than


recommended thickness and
apply under favorable drying
conditions.

PINPOINT RUSTING - Pinpoint


spots of corrosion progressing from
a few spots per square foot to almost
continuous rusting.

Uneven coating thickness. Thinly


coated areas show failure first.
This is a normal failure pattern for
inorganic zinc coatings.

Apply a maintenance coat at


first sign of pinpoint failure.

61. Adhesion. A d h e s io n fa ilu r e s a r e


nu m erou s and can be catastroph ic. Failures
are cau sed for a nu m ber o f reasons. On e of the
m os t co m m on r ea so n s fo r ad h es ion failu r e is
p a in tin g ov er a co n ta m in a te d su b st r a te .
C o n ta m in a te d su r fa ce s p r ev en t a d h esio n .
Solub le salts left on th e su rface pro m ote
o sm o t ic b lis terin g w h ere m o is tu re o r g ase ou s
v a p or is tr an sm i tte d th r ou g h th e
se m ip e r m e ab le co atin g m aterial, an d g as e s or
liqu ids can form betw een the coating an d the
su b st r a t e. T ab le 6 p ro v id es a d es crip tio n of
t h e t y p e s a n d ca u s e s o f a d h e s io n f a ilu r e s a n d
th e rem ed ies for th e failu res.

Remedy

m os t com m on s u bs tra te s a re s tee l, c a st iron,


a lu m in u m , zin c, co p p er , co n cr ete , an d w oo d .
These sub strates all have d ifferen t
ch a r a cter ist ics , su ch as d en sit y , p or osit y , an d
chem ical reactivity. Steel is ver y d en se
(related to su rface sm ooth n ess), n on p oro u s,
an d less chem ically reactive th an other
s u b s t r a t e m a t e r ia ls . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d ,
concrete is not a h igh d ensity (non u niform ed
s u r fa ce ) m a t er ia l; it is p o r o u s a n d v e r y
chem ically reactive. This sim p lified
com p arison illustrates the d ifferen ces betw een
s ub s tra te typ e s . Ta ble 7 p rovid e s a de s c rip t ion
of the typ es and causes of su bstrate failu res
an d th e rem ed ies for th e failu res.

62. Substrate. Th e t y p e o f su b str at e s u rfa ce


can be a factor related to coating failu res. The

61

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


Table 6.Adhesion-related failures
(modified from SSPC, Good Painting Practice, volume 1, third edition, 1997)
Failure description

Cause

Remedy

BLISTERING - Small to large


(1/32 to 1 inch plus)
hemispherical bubbles in the
coating that contain gases or
liquids. Bubbles may range
from 1 per square foot to
several hundred per square
foot.

Blisters may be due to poor


surface preparation, internal
soluble materials (salts), or poor
wetting of substrate. Osmosis
causes absorption of gases into
substrate or solvent entrapment
(also referred to as solvent
blistering).

Select a coating with very strong


adhesion strength and low moisture
vapor transfer rate. Ensure clean
substrate with proper surface
preparation and reduced soluble salt
levels to suit service exposure.

FLAKING or SCALING - Small


to large (1/16 to 1 inch plus)
pieces of coating, curling at
edges. Easily removed from
surface, leaving substrate
exposed.

Normally, coating is brittle, with


internal shrinkage characteristics
and marginal adhesion strength.
Oil type coatings may scale or
flake from galvanized surface
(never apply an alkyd to a
galvanized surface).

Select a coating with very strong


adhesion strength and low moisture
vapor transfer rate. Ensure clean
substrate with proper surface
preparation and reduced soluble salt
levels to suit service exposure. For
galvanized surfaces, use a primer
compatible with zinc.

INTERCOAT DELAMINATION Coatings that do not adhere to


the previous coat. Failure is
between the primer and the
intermediate coat or between
the intermediate coat and the
top coat. The substrate is not
normally exposed.

Coating material is not


compatible with undercoat;
undercoat surface may be
contaminated with dust, dirt,
overspray, or other
contaminates; or undercoat may
have cured beyond maximum
recoat time.

Select a coating with good


compatibility and adhesion between
coats. Ensure that the undercoat
surface is clean before applying the
next coat. For epoxies, do not expose
to moisture (water and humidity) or
excessive sunlight before applying the
next coat.

PEELING - Coating may be


smooth and lying on the surface
or hanging in shreds. Little or
no adhesion is evident.

Adhesion is less than the tensile


strength of the coating. Coating
peelings can easily be pulled
from the surface down to bare
substrate.

Select a coating with very strong


adhesion strength and low moisture
vapor transfer rate. Ensure that the
substrate is clean, the surface has
been cleaned properly, and salt has
been reduced to levels suited to the
service exposure.

UNDERCUTTING - Corrosion
byproducts from the substrate
build up under the coating and
will break the coating at edges
or pinholes. The corrosion
progresses under the coating.

Poor adhesion because of


improper surface preparation
(dirt, dust, soluble salts, other
contaminates); smooth surface
(no surface profile); or coating
incompatibility with the substrate
surface.

Select a coating with very strong


adhesion strength. Apply coating over
a surface that has been abrasively
cleaned or cleaned by water jet
blasting. Use of a zinc-rich primer
reduces undercutting.

63. Application. Co ating failur es are m ost


c o m m o n l y related to th e m eth o d o f
a p p lic a tio n. Th ere are a v ariety o f reas ons for
a p p licat ion -re lat ed failu r es th a t h a v e n ot h in g
to d o w ith m aterial selection or im p rop er
form u lation. These failu res are m ainly cau sed
b y h u m a n s. T h er e ar e n u m er o u s e xa m p les,

62

r an g in g fr om f ailu r e to u n d e rsta n d th e
co n se q u en ces of im p r op er ly p r ep a r in g
su rfaces to im p rop erly ap p lying coating s to
ru s hing the job. Ta ble 8 p rovid e s a de s c rip t ion
of ap p lication failu res, the cau se of the failur es,
an d the rem ed y for the failures

Coating Failures
Table 7.Substrate-related failures
(modified from SSPC, Good Painting Practice, volume 1, third edition, 1997)
Failure description

Cause

Remedy

AGED STEEL - The surface


includes blisters, rust, pitting,
tubercles, or adhesion loss in
areas where the substrate was
exposed to a corrosive
environment.

Substrate surface retained


minute corrosion byproducts or
contaminants even if it was
abrasively blasted or water jet
blasted to a high degree of
cleanliness.

Water jet blast surface with water;


dilute phosphoric acid; or saltbonding, chemical-removal
solution. Apply an anticorrosion
primer or barrier coating with high
adhesion strength.

AGED CAST IRON - The surface


includes blisters, rust, pitting,
tubercles, or adhesion loss in
areas where the substrate was
exposed to a corrosive
environment.
A silver gray to a dark gray color
may indicate graphite corrosion.
This kind of corrosion can be
easily cut or pierced with a knife.

Cast iron has a rough, more


porous, crystalline surface matrix
than steel, causing more
moisture to be retained.

Water jet blast surface with water or


salt-bonding chemical removal
solution. Heat surface to hot-totouch to drive off moisture. Brush
apply primer while surface is warm
to allow a maximum wet-coat
penetration. Select compatible
intermediate coat and/or topcoat.

GALVANIZED or METALLIC
ZINC - White zinc corrosion byproduct developing under or
breaking through the coating.

Formation of zinc salts (oxide,


sulfide, oxychloride, zinc soaps)
under the coating.

Brush or low-pressure water-jet


blast zinc surface or treat with
commercial zinc treatment solution.
Select an inert, nonoil primer with
high adhesion strength.

ALUMINUM - White aluminum


corrosion by-product is causing
pinpoint coating failure, adhesion
loss from smooth surface,
blistering, or pitting.

Environmental pH outside the


range of 5 to 8.5. Lack of
accessible oxygen. Lack of
adhesion to a very smooth
aluminum oxide surface, i.e., lack
of sufficient surface profile.

Light dust blast or soft abrasive


blast or treat with commercial
aluminum treatment solution.
Select a compatible primer with
high aluminum surface adhesion
strength.

COPPER - Blue or gray-green


corrosion by-products, adhesion
failure blistering, or pitting.

Lack of adhesion to a very


smooth copper surface (no
surface profile) or the presence of
oxides on surface.

Light brush blast, soft abrasive


blast, or treat with commercial
copper treatment solution. Select a
compatible primer with high copper
surface adhesion strength.

CONCRETE - Adhesion loss,


blistering, or peeling of coating.

Chemically reactive and high


moisture content. Formation of
calcium salts under the coating.
Pinholes, air, and water pockets
in concrete surface. Water vapor
transmission through concrete.

Abrasive blast or water jet blast


(acid etching not recommended) to
obtain clean and dry surface.
Select a low molecular weight, high
penetrating primer with high alkali
resistance (coal tar epoxy or
modified epoxy).

For graphite corrosion, it is the


selective leaching of ferrous ions
from some cast irons, normally
gray cast iron.

64. Design. N u m er ou s co a tin g failu r es


occur , not b ecau se of m isform u lated m ater ials,
d e fic ie n t su r face p rep aratio n , o r ap p lication
er r or s b u t b eca u se of t h e in h er en tly d ifficu lt
p rob lem s p resen ted by th e d esign of the
s tr u ct u r e. M o s t d e s ig n e rs d o n o t h a v e
corro sion m echa n ism s an d coating op era tions

in m in d w h en th ey d esig n st r u ctu r es.


H o w e v er , w i th th e p ro p er se le ctio n of co atin g
m a t er ia ls a n d a p p lica tio n te ch n iq u e s, m a n y
d esign inad equ acies can be over com e. Table 9
p rov ides a d escrip tion of d esign failu res, the
cau se of the failur es, an d the r em ed y for th e
failu res.

63

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


Table 8.Application-related failures
(modified from SSPC, Good Painting Practice, volume 1, third edition, 1997)
Failure description

Cause

Remedy

IMPROPER MIXING - Coating is


too thin, pigment distribution is
nonuniform, or both. Entire or
localized areas may have poor
adhesion, uneven color,
checking, or cracking.

Failure to sufficiently mix material,


resulting in improper pigment-tovehicle ratio; settled pigment
remains in bottom of container.

Thoroughly mix the liquid material


to an even, smooth, homogeneous
consistency, with no color variation.
During use, continue mixing as
necessary. Mechanical mixing is
the preferred method.

IMPROPER THINNING - Poor


adhesion or pigment flotation,
resulting in uneven color.
Separation of pigment and
vehicle after application, resulting
in pinholing or blushing.

Thinner is incompatible with


resins or pigments. Improper
drying, resulting in surface
tension change. Thinner
evaporated too rapidly causing
moisture to condense on liquid
coating. Excessive thinner,
resulting in curdling or
flocculation of pigment.

Use only the manufacturers


recommended thinner for selected
coating material in the amounts
specified. Add thinners slowly and
mix thoroughly.

IMPROPER ENVIRONMENTAL
CONDITIONS - Blistering and/or
poor adhesion caused by damp,
humid conditions. Powdery
coating where drying occurred too
rapidly (overspray). Soft, uncured
coating.

Ice, moisture, condensation


(above dew point), or standing
moisture on surface before
application. Lack of proper cure
because the temperature and/or
humidity were outside restrictive
range.

Apply coatings using the


manufacturers environmental
(temperature, humidity, dew point,
and surface condition) restrictions
or more restrictive requirements.

IMPROPER THICKNESS Where coating is thin, pinpoint


corrosion areas result. Where
coating is overly thick, checking,
cracking, or flaking result.

Improper applicator technique:


too close or too far away during
spraying; incomplete or excessive
spray passes. Difficult areas
(restrictive accessibility or space).

Use proper application techniques


for even passes and overlaps,
follow the manufacturers
application instructions, and use
the equipment recommended by
the manufacturer.

AMINE BLUSHING - Oily, ambercolored film on coating surface for


aliphatic, amine-cured epoxy
materials.

Material applied relatively thickly


on cold, damp days or in similar
environments where amine rises
to surface and reacts with carbon
dioxide and moisture in the air.

Wait for proper temperature and


humidity before application.

BLUSHING - Milky or whitish


appearance of coating film with a
dull or flat finish.

Moisture condensation on coating


in high humidity because of fast
evaporation or unbalanced
thinners. Occurs most often on
hot, humid days or in similar
environments.

Wait for improved humidity, reduce


atomizing air pressure to a
minimum, or add evaporation
retardant to thinner.

BLEEDING - Staining of topcoats.

Soluble resins or pigments in


undercoat migrate to topcoat.

Seal undercoat with coating in


which bleeding components are
insoluble.

CRATERING - Small, uniform


indentations in coating film (also
referred to as pitting).

Air pockets trapped in wet film


during spray application.

Abrasive blast, water jet blast, or


roughen affected area; ensuring
removal of contaminants within
craters; and reapply coating.

FISHEYES - Separation or pulling


apart of wet film to expose
underlying coat or substrate.

Coating applied over dirt, oil,


silicone, or incompatible coating
material.

Remove all material by abrasive


blasting or water jet blasting, ensue
substrate is contaminant free, and
reapply coatings.

64

Coating Failures
Table 8.Application-related failures
(modified from SSPC, Good Painting Practice, volume 1, third edition, 1997)
Failure description

Cause

HOLIDAYS - Bare areas on the


substrate that were not coated by
the applicator (also referred to as
painters holiday).

Improper and inconsistent


application technique, reflecting a
lack of care. Most often occurs in
areas difficult to coat.

Apply coating in a careful and


professional manner, consistent
with industry standards.

LIFTING - Wrinkling, swelling, or


blistering appearance on the film
surface.

Solvents in a coating attack or


swell the underlying coating,
resulting in film distortion.

Remove all material by abrasive


blasting or water jet blasting and
reapply coatings.

ORANGE PEEL - Overall


appearance is bumpy. Film
surface is smooth but irregular.
Resembles skin of an orange.

Inherent with sprayed-on


materials; caused by improper
application techniques: gun too
far from surface, solvent
evaporation too rapid, spray
pressure too low for proper
atomization, paint particles falling
outside of spray pattern, or
material too viscous.

Brush out excess paint before


material cures. Correct spray
technique. After material has
cured, sandpaper surface before
applying another topcoat that
reacts more slowly.

OVERSPRAY - Very rough


coating surface. Surface may be
dry, pebbly, or sandy. Some
coated areas may have the
appearance of dryness or feel dry
(also referred to as dry spray).

Improper application techniques:


gun too far from surface, solvent
evaporation too rapid, spray
pressure too low, atomizing
pressure too high, paint particles
falling outside of spray pattern, or
material too viscous.

Before the material cures, remove


the overspray by dry brushing,
followed by solvent wiping. After
the material has cured, wire screen
and sandpaper the surface before
applying another topcoat that
reacts more slowly.

PINHOLES - Small, tiny, deep


holes (1/32 inch) in coating,
normally through to the substrate.
Generally, the distribution of
holes appears to be random.

Improper application techniques:


gun too far from surface, solvent
evaporation too rapid, spray
pressure too low, atomizing
pressure too high, paint particles
falling outside of spray pattern, or
pigment settlement.

Correct any improper application


techniques. If pinholes already
exist and the material has not
cured, apply additional coat by
brushing into holes. If material has
cured, but it is still within the recoat
window, apply an additional coat. If
outside the recoat window, abrade
surface and apply additional coat.

RUNS or SAGS - Downward


movement of coating material on
vertical or curved surfaces in the
form of droplets or streams.
Runs are the result of excess
material continuing to flow after
the surrounding surface has set.
Sags are the result of differences
between application and setting
times. Sags have the
appearance of a curtain.

Excessive application of coating


material, spray gun too close, too
much thinner, surface too hard or
glossy to hold material, or
temperature too cold for proper
drying.

Correct any improper application


techniques. Apply thinner coats. If
material has not cured, brush out
excess material. If material has
cured and is still within the recoat
window, apply an additional coat. If
outside the recoat window, abrade
surface and apply additional coat.

Note: Orange peeling is not a


coating failure, but the
appearance may be
objectionable.

Remedy

65

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


Table 8.Application-related failures
(modified from SSPC, Good Painting Practice, volume 1, third edition, 1997)
Failure description

Cause

Remedy

SPATTER COAT - Areas of thin


coating (less than specified
coating thickness), normally at
end of the spray pass or around
complex sections of structure.
Under good lighting conditions,
coating appears continuous;
under poor lighting, coating
appears discontinuous. May
develop into pinpoint corrosion at
a later date.

Improper application techniques,


causing a noncontinuous coating
over the surface: inconsistent
spray passes not overlapping by
50 percent, spray gun flipped at
end of spray pass, or spray gun
not held perpendicular to the
surface.

Correct any improper application


techniques. If material has not
cured, apply additional coat. If
material has cured but it is still
within the recoat window, apply an
additional coat. If outside the
recoat window, abrasive blast or
water jet blast all material off and
recoat.

Table 9.Design-related failures


(modified from SSPC, Good Painting Practice, volume 1, third edition, 1997)
Failure description
BACK-TO-BACK ANGLES and
PLATES - Corrosion between
back-to-back angles and plates is
resulting in undercutting of
coating.

Cause
Impossible to apply coating in
crevice between angles and
plates.

Remedy
Design: Use T bar or pipe in
construction.
Precoat: Coat angles and plates
before construction assembly.
Stopgap measure: Fill crevice with
resinous chalking and topcoat with
compatible material.

EDGES - Linear corrosion along


edge and undercutting coating
away from the edge.

Surface tension causing coating


to pull away from edges.

Brush or stripe coat surfaces


before full coating. Overlap full
coating on both sides of edges.
Spray directly at edge to build up
thickness and reduce surface
tension.

INTERIOR CORNERS - A void or


blister is developing under
coating.

Excessive coating thickness,


resulting in coating shrinkage
during or after curing.

Apply multiple thin coats and allow


coating to thoroughly dry between
coats, but within recoat window.

SKIP WELDS - Corrosion in weld


gaps and between overlapping
metal is causing undercutting of
coating.

Impossible to apply coating in


crevices in weld gaps and
between metal surfaces.

Provide continuous weld in gaps


and overlap areas before applying
coating in any corrosive
environment.

SMALL DISCONTINUOUS
AREAS - Corrosion is developing
on edges of bolt heads, bolt
threads, nuts, washers, rivets,
and other small edged or
cornered surfaces.

Small surfaces with high ratio of


edges and corners to plain, flat
area will increase coating surface
tension and cause coating to pull
away from edges and corner
points.

Brush or stripe coat surfaces prior


to full coating. Overlap brush or
stripe coat with each full coat
applied. Applying multiple thin
coats is more beneficial than one
thick coat.

66

Coating Failures
Table 9.Design-related failures
(modified from SSPC, Good Painting Practice, volume 1, third edition, 1997)
Failure description

Cause

Remedy

STORAGE TANK ROOFS


(Interior of umbrella type for
center post and rafters) Corrosion is developing between
roof and rafter and between
lapped roof plates.

Impossible to apply coating in


crevices between roof and rafter
and between lapped roof plates.

Butt weld or double weld roof


plates. Precoat rafters and
underside of roof.

WELDS - Corrosion along welds,


particularly hand welds, is
undercutting coating away from
weld. Corrosion along weld may
be continuous or discontinuous.

Welding flux in undercuts along


weld. Rough weld surfaces.
Soap remaining after pressure
testing of welds. Blue scale
(similar to mill scale) remaining on
weld surface.

Remove all soap solution and blue


scale. Grind rough welds smooth
or nearly smooth. For interior of
hydraulic structures, such as
pipelines, grind welds down to
1/8 inch, minimum. Abrasive blast
weld and apply brush or stripe coat
2 to 3 inches on each side of weld,
working coating into all rough
areas before applying full coating.

65. Exterior Forces. Th e en v ir on m e n t th e

w a t e r th a t co n t a in s a b r a s iv e m a t e r ia l s u c h a s
s a n d p a r t icle s . In t h i s s e ct io n , or d in a r y
a tm osp h er ic e xp osu r es a r e n ot con sid er ed .
Table 10 prov ides a d escription of failu res
related to exterior forces, the cau se of the
failures, and the rem ed y for the failures

c o a tin g i s su b ject to can b e a p rim ary cau s e of


failu r e. C or r os iv e e n v ir on m en ts n or m a lly
e n co u n t e re d o n R e cla m a t io n p r o je ct s a r e
fr e sh w a t e r en v iro n m en ts th at co n tain v arious
co n c en t r a t io n s o f d is so lv e d s a lt s a n d flo w in g

Table 10.Failures related to exterior forces


(modified from SSPC, Good Painting Practice, volume 1, third edition, 1997)
Failure Description

Cause

Remedy

ABRASION or EROSION Thinning or wearing away of


coating is resulting in a bare
substrate subject to corrosion.

Wear caused by wheeled traffic,


impact, wind, or liquid-borne
abrasives.

Select coating with strong


adhesive properties and specific
abrasion and erosion resistance.
Thoroughly prepare surface (nearwhite blast minimum) and apply
new coating.

CAVITATION - Loss of coating


and metal material. Appears as
tiny craters overlain by multiple
craters in metal surface,
accompanied by significant metal
loss.

Drop in water vapor pressure,


forming air bubbles that
repeatedly collapse at high
pressure.

Select coating with strong


adhesive properties and high
cavitation resistance.

CHEMICAL - Dissolution of
coating; undercutting or underfilm
corrosion.

Selection of unsuitable coating


material. Improper coating
application.

The prime requirement is to select


a coating for the specific chemical
service exposure.

67

Guide to Protective Coatings: Inspection and Maintenance


Table 10.Failures related to exterior forces
(modified from SSPC, Good Painting Practice, volume 1, third edition, 1997)
Failure Description

Cause

Remedy

FAYING SURFACES - Coating


failure and corrosion in joint area.

Concentration (or crevice)


corrosion caused by oxygen
differences between closely
spaced or joined coated surfaces,
subject to friction-producing
movement (e.g., steel plates and
high strength bolts).

Precoat metal surfaces before


assembly with inorganic zinc
coating or a suitable coating with a
high coefficient of friction.

GRAFFITI - Painted words or


graphics over coated surface.

Vandals painting coated surfaces,


especially with spray cans.

Select the manufacturer's graffiti


remover and antigraffiti coating

68

Bibliography

Bechtel Pow er Corp oration, Steel Stru ctures


P a in tin g C o u n cil, C oat in g an d
Lin in g In spect ion M an u al, P ittsb u r gh ,
P en n sy lv a n ia, 1991.
Bookcock, Simo n K., R.E.F. W eaver,
B. A p p lem a n , an d G .C . Soltz , Effect s on
S u rface Con tam in ant s on C oatin g Life.
Bechtel Pow er Corp oration, Steel
Stru ctu res P aintin g C ou n cil, Pittsbu rg h ,
P en n sy lv a n ia, 1991.
D ep a r tm en t o f th e N a v y , Paint Failures Cau ses an d R em edies, N a v y C iv il
Engineering Laboratory , Port H u enem e,
C a lifor n ia, 1982.
Ele ctr ica l P o w er Re se a r ch In st itu te , In c.,
Ste el P en st oc k C oa tin g an d Lin in g
Reh a b ilit a tio n : A H y dropower Techn ology
R oun du p R eport, v olu m e 3, TR -113584,
P lea sa n t H ill, Ca lifor n ia, 2000.
Fit z im o n s, Br en d a n , Protective Coatin g
In spect ion M an u al, Rob in so n Irw in
Te ch n ical Su p p or t Lt d ., En g lan d , 1997.
Fit z im o n s, Br en d a n , V isu al Com parison
M anu al: A pplication an d Coatin g D efects.
Ro b in so n Ir w in Te ch n ica l Su p p o r t L td .,
En g lan d , 1998.
Gen eric Coatin g T y pes: A n In trodu ct ion to
In du strial M aint enan ce Coatin g M aterials,
Sm it h , Llo y d M ., ed ., T ech n o lo g y
P u b lish in g C om p a n y, P ittsb u r gh ,
P en n sy lv a n ia, 1996.
M u n g er , C h a r les G ., Corrosion Prev en tion
by P rotectiv e Coatin g, N atio n al A s s o cia tion
of Cor rosion Eng ineer s, H ou ston , Texas,
1984.
N A C E In te r n a tio n a l, N A CE Corrosion
En gin eer' s R eferen ce Book, s eco n d ed ition,
R.S. Tr ese d er , R. Ba b o ia n , an d
C .G. M u n g er , ed s., H ou st on , Tex a s, 1991.

N a tion a l A ss ocia tion of C or r osio n En g in eer s,


Corrosion Basics: A n In trodu ct ion , H o u s to n ,
Te xa s, 1984.
The Society of Pro tective Co ating s, Good
Pain tin g Pract ices, v olu m e 1, th ir d ed itio n ,
John D . Ke a ne , D e a n Be rge r, H a rold
H o w er , Ber n an d R. A p p lem a n , Josep h
Bro n o, K itt i C on d iff, M a r k O 'D on n ell,
Ja n e t Re x , A i m e e Be g g s , V ilm a M a c u r a ,
Te r r y Sow er s, a n d M on ica M a d a u s, e d s.,
P itt sb u r g h , Pe n n sy lv a n ia, 1993.
The Society of Protective Coatings, Steel
Str u ctu r es P a in tin g C ou n cil, S y st em s an d
S pecificat ion s, volum e 2, s e ve nth e d ition ,
Ber n a r d R. A p p lem a n , Ja n et R ex, a n d
T er r y So w e r s, e d s . P it ts b u r g h ,
P en n sy lv a n ia, 1995.
Th e Socie ty of P r ote ctiv e C oa tin g s, T he
In spection of Coatin gs an d Lin in gs: A
H andbook of Basic Practice for In spectors,
O w n ers, an d S pecifiers, Be r n a r d R .
A p p lem an , Rich ard W . Drisko, Ju d ith K.
N eu gebau r, Simo n K. Bookcock, Russel
D a v i so n , L aw r e n ce J. G r a b ia k , C IH , C SP ,
Jan et R ex, a n d Te r r y Sow er s, e d s.,
P itt sb u r g h , Pe n n sy lv a n ia, 1997.
Th e Socie ty of P r ote ctiv e C oa tin g s, C-1:
Fun dament als of Protective Coatings
for In du st rial S tru ct u res, v er sio n 10,
P itt sb u r g h , Pe n n sy lv a n ia, 1999.
Th e Socie ty of P r ote ctiv e C oa tin g s, C-3:
S u perv ision /Com pet en t Person T rain in g for
D eleadin g of In du st rial S tru ct u res, tw o
v o lu m e s, v e r sio n V 7-T , P it ts b u r g h ,
P en n sy lv a n ia, 1999.
Th e Socie ty of P r ote ctiv e C oa tin g s, C-2:
S pecifyin g and M anagin g Prot ective Coatin g
Projects, tw o v olu m es, v er sio n 7,
P itt sb u r g h , Pe n n sy lv a n ia, 2000.

69

Guide to Protective Coatings


Th e Socie ty of P r o te ctiv e C o a tin g s,
S S PC -V IS 2: S tandard M ethod of Evalu atin g
D egree of R u st in g on Pain ted S teel S u rfaces,
P itt sb u r g h , Pe n n sy lv a n ia, 2000.

Prepared by W aterjettin g, P ittsb u r gh ,


P en n sy lv a n ia, 2001.

Th e Socie ty of P r o te ctiv e C o a tin g s, S u rface


Preparation S pecifications, P ittsb u r gh ,
P en n sy lv a n ia, 2000.

Th e Socie ty of P r ote ctiv e C oa tin g s,


S S PC-V IS 5/ N A CE V IS 9: Gu ide and
R eferen ce Photographs for S teel Su rfaces
Prepared by W et A brasive Blast C leanin g,
P itt sb u r g h , Pe n n sy lv a n ia, 2001.

The Society of Pro tective Co ating s,


S S PC-V IS 4/ N A CE V IS 7: Gu ide and
R eferen ce Phot ographs for S teel S u rfaces

Th e Socie ty of P r ote ctiv e C oa tin g s,


S S PC-S P 15: Com m ercial G rade Pow er T ool
Cleanin g, P itt sb u r g h , Pe n n sy lv a n ia, 2002.

70

Appendix A
Organizational Sources for Standards and References
A m erican Society of Testing an d M ater ials (A STM)
1916 Race Street
P h ilad elp h ia P A 19103
Te lep h on e: (610) 832-9500
Fa x: (610) 832-9555
W e b s it e A d d r e ss : w w w .a s tm .o r g
N A CE In ter n ation al (N A CE)
P O Box 218340
H ou st on TX 77218
Te lep h on e: (218) 228-6223
Fa x: (281) 228-6329
W e b s it e A d d r e ss : w w w .n a c e.o r g
Socie ty fo r P r o te ctiv e C o a tin g s (SSP C )
40 24 th Str eet, 6 th F lo o r
P itt sb u r g h P A 15222
Te lep h on e: (412) 281-2331 ext 16
Fa x: (412) 281-992
W e b s it e A d d r e ss : w w w .s sp c .o r g
Bu r e a u o f R eclam atio n
G u id e Sp e cifica tio n s
W eb site A d d re ss: h tt p :/ / in tr a.u sb r.g ov / g u id es p ecs

A-1

Appendix B
Reading Sources
Goo d Painting Pra ctice, Steel Stru ctur es Painting M an u al, Volum e 1, Third Ed ition , 1993. (The four th
ed itio n is d u e in 2003.)
Sys te m s a n d Sp ecifica tio n s, Ste el Str u ctu r es P a in tin g M a n u a l, Vo lu m e 2, Eig h th Ed itio n , 2000.
Coating an d Lining Insp ection M an u al, Bechtel Corp oration, 1983, exclusively d istributed by Steel
Str u ctu r es P a in tin g C ou n cil (SSPC ), A u g u st 1991, SSPC P u b licat ion N o. 91-12.
Th e In sp ectio n of C o a tin g s a n d Lin in g s, A H a n d b ook of Bas ic P r a ctice fo r In sp ector s, O w n er s, a n d
Sp ecifie r s, SSPC P u b licat ion N o. 91-12, Fir st Ed itio n , 1997.
Corr osion P reven tion b y Protective Co atings, by C ha rles G. Mu ng er, Pu blished by N AC E
In te r n a tio n a l, Firs t Ed itio n , 1984.
P a in tin g : N ew C on st r u ctio n an d M a in te n a n ce, U .S. Ar m y C or p s o f En g in ee r s, M a n u a l N o. E M 1110-23400, A p r il 30, 1995.
FH W A Field M an u al for Bridg e Paint Inspection, U.S. Dep artm ent of Transp ortation, Feder al
H ig h w a y A d m in ist r a tio n (FH W A ), FH W A Brid g e C oa tin g s Te ch n olo g y Te a m , O cto b er 1997.
Steel Penstock Co ating a nd Linin g Reh abilitation, A H yd rop ow er Techn ology Rou nd u p Rep ort,
Vo lu m e 3, Te ch n ical R ep or t TR -113584-V3, A u g u st 2000.
Av a i la b le fro m E lectric P o w er R es earch Ins titute (EPR I), 3412 H illvie w A v e nu e , Pa lo A lto C A
94304; t ele p h o n e: (650) 855-2000; C u stom er Se r v ice: (800) 313-3774; W eb sit e A d d r ess:
w w w .e p ri.co m
Vis u a l C om p a r iso n M a n u a l, A p p licat ion an d C oa tin g s D efe cts , Bren d a n Fitz im on s, Ro b in so n Irw in
Te ch n ical Su p p or t Lt d ., En g lan d 1997-1998, (SSP C P u b licat ion N o. 00-8)

B-1

Appendix C
Inspection Checklist
G D eliv er ed m a te r ials
G A p p r o v e d m a t er ia ls , r e co r d b a t ch n u m b e r s
G Sto r ed p r op er ly
G Con tainers secu red
G Shelf life not exceeded
G A b r a s i v e m a t e r ia l
G C om p lies w ith SSPC -A B1, Cla ss A , Ty p e I o r II
G Con tam inan ts
G C h eck for p r es en ce o f oil, A STM D 4940
G C h eck for ch lor id e io n , if su sp ect ed w ith C h lor *Rid A te st k it
G Re ta in sa m p le
G A ir co m p r e sso r e qu ip m e n t
G Com p ressed air lines
G C h eck for oil a n d w a te r con ta m in a n ts , A STM D 4285
G Bla s t n o z z le p r e s su r e
G C h e c k p r e s s u r e a t b la s t n o z z le w it h h y p o d e r m ic n e e d l e g a u g e
G Su r f a ce p r ep aratio n
G D o n o t p r o ce e d w it h s u r f a ce p r e p a r a t io n i f t h e s u b s t r a te s u r fa ce t em p e r a t u r e is le s s t h a n
5 d eg r ee s F a b ov e t h e d ew p oin t

G D e t er m in e t h e r u s t g r a d e b y o n e o f t h e fo llo w in g p r io r t o cle a n in g :
G SSPC -VIS 1, for ab r a siv e b las t cle a n in g
G SSPC -VIS 3, for h a n d an d p ow er to ol cle a n in g
G SSPC -VIS 4(I), for w a te r jet tin g
G Ch eck for chlorid e ion con tam inant in w ash w ater or w ater u sed in w ater jetting , if su sp ected
G U se C h lor *Rid W te st k it
G P r ep a r a tio n co m p lie s w ith sp ecifica tion m eth od (i.e., N A C E N o. 2/ SSP C -SP 10, N A C E
N o . 3/ SSP C -SP 6, etc.)

G C h eck for ch lor id e io n con ta m in a n t a fte r clea n in g w ith C h lor *Rid te st k it


G D e t er m in e d e g r e e o f s u r fa ce cle a n lin e s s b y o n e o f t h e fo llo w in g a ft e r cle a n in g :
G SSPC -VIS 1, for ab r a siv e b las t cle a n in g
G SSPC -VIS 3, for h a n d an d p ow er to ol cle a n in g
G N A C E N o . 7/ SSP C -VIS 4(I), fo r w a t er je ttin g

C-1

G Su r face p r ofile
G D et er m in e s u r face p r ofile b y N A C E RP 0287
G E n v i r on m en tal co n d itio n s
G A m b ie n t (a ir ) t em p e r a t u r e
G Su b s t r a te su r f a ce te m p e r a t u r e
G Relative h u m idity
G D ew p o in t
G W in d v elo city , if ap p licab le
G C o a t i n g ap p licatio n
G C o atin g m aterial co mp lies w ith s p e cific a tions
G M ixed in acco rd an ce w ith m an u fa c tu re rs ins tru c tions
G Typ e of ap p lication m ethod u sed
G Ensu re strip e coats are ap p lied before overall ap p lication p roceeds
G T e m p eratu re an d h u m id ity res tric tions
G A ir and su bstrate tem p eratu res are 50 d egrees F or g reater or com p lies w ith the
m a n u f actu r er s in str u ctio n s

G Su r face s a r e a m in im u m of 5 d eg r ee s F a b ov e d ew p oin t
G R elativ e h u m id ity w ith in m anu fa c tu re rs ins tru c tions
G Su rfa ces fre e o f m ois tu re , fro st, a n d ice
G C u r in g
G C o a t ed it e m s a r e n o t m o v e d o r a llo w e d f o ot tr a ffic b e fo r e d r y
G C o m p lies w ith m an u factu rers ins tru c tions for te m p e ra ture a n d hu m id ity d u ring c uring p er iod
G Po st a pp licatio n in s p ectio n
G D r y film t h ick n e s s b y SSP C -P A 2
G H olid a y te st in g b y N A C E RP 0188

C-2

Appendix D
Reference Standards Cited in Guide
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
ASTM A 123

Zinc (Hot-Dip Galvanized) Coatings on Iron and Steel Productions

ASTM A 153

Zinc (Hot-Dip) Coatings on Iron and Steel Hardware

ASTM A 591

Steel Sheet, Electrolytic Zinc-Cated, Light Coating Weight [Mass] Applications

ASTM A 653

Steel Sheet Zinc-Coated (Galvanized or Zinc-Iron Alloy-Coated (Galvanized) by the HotDip Method

ASTM B 633

Electrodeposited Coatings of Zinc on Iron and Steel

ASTM B 695

Coatings of Zinc Mechanically Deposited on Iron and Steel

ASTM D 3359

Measuring Adhesion by Tape Test

ASTM D 4138

Field Measurement of Dry Film Thickness of Protective Coating Systems by Destructive


Means

ASTM D 4285

Indicating Oil and Water in Compressed Air

ASTM D 4414

Measurement of Wet Film Thickness by Notch Gages

ASTM D 4417

Field Measurement of Surface Profile of Blast Cleaned Steel

ASTM D 4541

Pull-Off Strength of Coatings Using Portable Adhesion Testers

ASTM D 4940

Conductimetric Analysis of Water Soluble Ionic Contamination of Blasting Abrasives

ASTM D 5064

Conducting a Patch Test to Assess Coating Compatibility

ASTM D 5162

Discontinuity (Holidays) Testing of Nonconductive Protective Coating on Metallic


Substrates

ASTM E 337

Measuring Humidity with a Psychrometer (the Measurement of Wet- and Dry-Bulb


Temperatures)

ASTM E 832

Laboratory Filter Papers

American Welding Society (AWS)


AWS C2.2

Recommended Practices for Metallizing with Aluminum and Zinc for Protection of Iron
and Steel

D-1

NACE International (NACE)/Society of Protective Coatings (SSPC)


NACE RP 0188

Discontinuity (Holiday) Testing of New Protective Coatings on Conductive Substrates

NACE RP 0287

Field Measurement of Surface Profile of Abrasive Blast Cleaned Steel Surfaces Using
a Replica Tape

SSPC-AB1

Mineral and Slag Abrasives

SSPC-PA2

Measurement of Dry Paint Thickness with Magnetic Gages

SSPC-SP1

Solvent Cleaning

SSPC-SP2

Hand Tool Cleaning

SSPC-SP3

Power Tool Cleaning

SSPC-SP8

Pickling

SSPC-SP15

Commercial Grade Power Tool Cleaning

SSPC-SP11

Power Tool Cleaning to Bare Metal

NACE No. 1/
SSPC-SP5

White Metal Blast Cleaning

NACE No. 2/
SSPC-SP10

Near-White Metal Blast Cleaning

NACE No. 3/
SSPC- SP6

Commercial Blast Cleaning

NACE No. 4/
SSPC-SP7

Brush-Off Blast Cleaning

NACE No.5/
SSPC-SP-12

Surface Preparation and Cleaning by High- and Ultrahigh-Pressure Water Jetting Prior
to Coating

NACE No. 8/
SSPC-SP-14

Industrial Blast Cleaning

SSPC-VIS 1

Abrasive Blast Cleaned Steel (Standard Reference Photographs)

SSPC-VIS 2

Evaluating Degree of Rusting on Painted Steel Surfaces

SSPC-VIS 3

Power- and Hand-Tool Cleaned Steel (Standard Reference Photographs)

NACE No. 7/
SSPC-VIS 4

Guide and Visual Reference Photographs for Steel Cleaned by Water Jetting

NACE-VIS 9/
SSPC-VIS 5

Guide and Reference Photographs for Steel Surfaces Prepared by Wet Abrasive Blast
Cleaning

D-2

Appendix E
Inspection Equipment
In s p e ctio n G au g e s , Ins tru m e n ts, an d Ki ts:

A d h es ion te st er (Elco m et er ), d es tr u ctiv e t es tin g (op tio n a l)

Blast n oz z le a n a ly z er g a u g e (o p tio n a l)

C a lib r a te d sh im s

Con d u ctivity m eter

D r y film t h ick n e s s g a u g e

P u ll-off

Fix ed o r co n s t an t p r e s su r e p r o b e

En v ir on m en ta l m et er for am b ien t a n d su r face te m p er a tu r e, h u m id ity , an d d ew p oin t

H olid a y d et ect or (op tio n a l):

L ow v o lt a g e

H ig h v o l ta g e

M icr o m e t er a n d r e p l ica t a p e

N oz z le o r ifice g a u g e (o p tio n a l)

P it g a u g e (o p tio n a l)

P r es su r e n ee d le g a u g e (o p tio n a l)

Sling p sychrom eter

Sw ab che cks for lead an d chrom ate

Te st k its , ch lor id e io n sp ecific (C h lor *Rid In te r n a tio n a l)

Th er m om et er w ith m a g n et ic b a ck in g

To ok e g a u g e, d es tr u ctiv e d r y film th ick n es s in st r u m en t (o p tio n a l)

W e t film t h ick n e s s g a u g e

In s p e c ti o n T o o l s :

Fla s h lig h t

1 t o 1-1/ 2 in c h w id e st iff p u t ty k n i fe w it h s h a r p e n e d e d g e

Kn ife

Latex gloves

Plastic booties

M agn et

E-1

Appendix F
Example of Inspection Daily Check Sheet
1 of 2

COATING DAILY INSPECTION REPORT


Project:

Date:

Feature:

Report By:

Contract No:

Paint Contractor:

SPECIFICATIONS

Tabulation No: ______

Coating Category: ________


Coat No.

Item to be Coated: _____________________________

Total DFT (min.): ______ mils

Material Manufacturer

Tab Surface Prep. Method: _________

Product Name

DFT Range

Primer:
Intermediate:
Topcoat:
Reading Time:

WEATHER

1. Substrate Temperature (degrees F):


2. Ambient (Dry Bulb) Temp. (degrees
F):
3. Wet Bulb Temperature (degrees F):
4. Relative Humidity (percentage):
5. Dew Point Temperature (degrees F):
6. Item (1) minus (2) (in degrees F):
7. Wind (mph) and Direction:
Comments:
Surface Preparation Method
Used:

SURFACE PREPARATION

Abrasives:

Manufacturer: ______________

Contaminants (ASTM D 4940):


Chloride Specific Ion:
Compressor Air:

Product Name: _____________

Class A, Type _____

Fines __ yes / __ no; Oil __ yes / __ no; pH ____; Conductivity_______

Test Method Used __________________________; Results _____________


Type: _____________

Surface Profile (NACE RP 0287):

Cleanliness:

SSPC-SP _____ / NACE No. ______

Passes ASTM D 4285: ___ yes / ___ no

No. Measurements Taken ______; Averaged Measured ______


mils

Chloride Specific Ion:

Visual Standards (SSPC/NACE):

______ CFM

Test Method Used _____________ _; Results _____________

VIS 1 __ yes / __ no; VIS 2 __ yes / __ no; VIS 4 (I) __ yes / __ no


F-1

2 of 2

COATING DAILY INSPECTION REPORT


APPLICATION AND MATERIALS
Manufacturer

Product Name

Batch Number

Gal

Color

Thinner
Product

Gal/Oz %

Environmental Control: Heaters ___ yes / ___ no; Dehumidification ___ yes / ___ no, Unit Size _________
Material Mixing: Power Mixing Time _____ minutes; Induction Time ___ yes / ___ no, _____ minutes
Stripe Coats Applied: ___ yes / ___ no;

Method: ___ Bush/Roller ___ Spray

Application Method: ___ Brush; ___ Roller; ___ Airless; ___ Conventional; ___ Plural; ___ Electrostatic
Applied Within Recoat Window: Primer __ yes /__ no; Intermediate __ yes /__ no; Topcoat __ yes /__ no
Wet Film Thickness (WFT): Primer ______ mils; Intermediate ______ mils; Topcoat ______ mils
Comments:
TESTING OF HARDENED COATING
Dry Film Thickness (DFT) by SSPC-SP PA2:
Area Inspected: ___ less than 300 ft2; ___ less than 1,000 ft2; ___ equal to or greater than 1,000 ft2
Number of 5 Spot Measurement Groups Taken Within Above Inspected Area: _____ at _____ 100 ft2 areas
Average of 5 Spot Measurement Groups _______ mils; Conform to Specifications ___yes /___no
Discontinuity (Holiday) Testing by NACE RP 0188
Tester Used:

_____ Low Voltage (Sponge)

Set at _______ volts;


Comments:

F-2

_____ High Voltage

Number of Defects Found _______; Defects Repaired ___ yes / ___ no

Appendix G
Procedure for Detecting Moisture and Oil in Compressed Air
(ASTM D 4285)
A . Pu rp o s e
Th is t es t d et ect s t h e p r es en ce o f m ois tu r e a n d oil co n ta m in a n ts in com p r es se d air for ab r a siv e
blasting , air blast cleaning, and coating ap p lication o p erations. The contam inants are d etected
v is u a lly .
B . Eq u i p m e n t
W h ite ab so r b en t m a te r ial, filte r p a p er , blo tt er p ap er , or clot h w ith a r ig id b a ck in g .
C . Pro ce d u re
1. A llow th e air com p ressor to rea ch op era ting cond ition s.
2. Sh u t o ff th e ab ras iv e flo w .
3. P la ce t h e a b so r b e n t m a t e r ia l w it h in 2 4 in c h e s o f t h e d is ch a r g e - p o in t -ce n t e r e d a i r st r e a m a n d
d ow n strea m from th e in-lin e oil and m oistu re sep ara tors.
4. Allow air to flow for 1 m inu te.
5. Vis u a lly ch eck ab so r b en t m a te r ial fo r th e p r es en ce o f m ois tu r e o r oil.
A ny observ ed contam inan ts on th e cloth or in th e air flow w ill requ ire corre ctive action. Tests
sh o u ld b e p er fo r m ed at t h e b eg in n in g of th e sh ift or after th e air co m p r ess or h a s b een sh u t o ff.
Te st in g is r eco m m en d ev er y 4 h ou r s d u r in g b las tin g op er a tio n s o r m or e fr eq u en tly if h u m id ity is
h ig h .

G-1

Appendix H
Procedure for Detecting Chlorides and Soluble Salts in
Abrasives by Conductivity Method
A . P u rp o s e
T o d e t ect an d d eterm in e th e lev el o f s olu ble s a lts in a br a s ive s to pre v e nt s ub s tra te d e te riora tion
an d sub sequ ent coating failu re.
B.

C o n d u cti v i ty M e t h o d
1. Eq u ip m e n t
a . Electron ic cond u ctivity m eter
2. P r o ce d u r e
a . Ca libr ate th e cond u ctivity m eter a ccord ing to th e m an u factur ers instru ction s.
b . P la ce e q u a l v o lu m e s of a b r a s iv e m a t e r ia l a n d d is t ille d o r d e -io n i z ed w a t e r in a g l a ss a n d
st ir for 1 m in u te . Let st a n d for 8 m in u te s a n d st ir ag a in for 1 m in u te . A llow th e a b r a siv e
m aterial to settle.
c. In se r t t h e co n d u ctiv ity m et er p r ob e in th e w a te r w ith ou t co n ta ctin g ab r a siv e m a te r ial.
d . A llo w th e co n d u ctiv ity m eter to sta b iliz e in accor d a n ce w ith th e m a n u fa ctu r er s
instru ction s.
e. Re a d an d r eco r d th e d ir ect r ea d in g in m icr osie m en s.

C . C h l o ri d e -S p e c if i c Io n M e th o d
1. Pu rp ose
To d eterm ine th e concentr ation of chlorides in a bra sive m aterials and p rev en t su bstrate
contam ination a nd sub sequ ent coating failu re.
2. Eq u ip m e n t
C H LO R*TEST A , Ch lor id e Io n Te st Fo r A b r a siv es tit r a tio n k it

H-1

3. P r o ce d u r e
a . O v e r fill t h e s m a l l co n t a in e r w it h a b r a s iv e b la s t m a t e r ia l a n d le v e l-o ff w it h t h e m e t a l
snap p er inclu d ed w ith th e kit or w ith a straigh t ed ge.
b . Re m ov e t h e lid fro m th e C H LO R*EXTRA C T so lu tio n con ta in er an d p ou r th e le v ele d -off
b last ab ras iv e m aterial in to the s olution.
c. R ep lace th e lid o f th e CH L O R*EXTRA C T solu tion c onta ine r a nd vigorous ly s ha ke for 2
m in u t e s. A l lo w t h e a b r a s iv e m a t e r ia l t o se t tle fo r a b o u t 5 m i n u t e s b e fo r e p r o c e ed in g . C le a r
solu tion sh ou ld be v isible abou t a inch from the top sur face.
d . H o ld th e titratio n tu b e alo n g t h e m id d le . D o n ot ha n d le or touc h the n a rrow e nd s be for e or
after snap p ing th em off. H an d ling of the titration tu be n arr ow end s can conta m inate th e
solution w ith bod ily p ersp iration , i.e., salts, an d affect the resu lts. Sna p off both end s of the
titr a tio n tu b e an d h o ld th e tu b e in th e so lu tion w ith th e b lu e ar r ow h ea d p oin tin g u p . D o
not insert the titration tu be into the ab rasive m aterial because th is m ay p lug th e tub e.
e. A llow th e t itr a tio n tu b e t o r em a in in th e e xt r a cte d so lu tio n u n til t h e s olu tio n h a s w ick ed -u p
to th e t op of t h e co tt on w ick et . Satu r a tio n of t h e w ick et is co m p let e w h en th e co tt on tip
ch a n g e s t o a n a m b e r co lo r .
f.

H-2

Im m ed iately after th e cotton tip ha s chan ged to an am ber color, rem ove the titration tu be
fro m th e tes t s leev e an d read the c hloride le ve l a t the inte rfa ce of the p ink-w hite color
ch a n g e. W h ite in d icat es th e p r es en ce o f ch lor id e. If n o co lor ch a n g e o ccu r s (r em a in s a ll
p ink ), th e chlor id e leve l is be low th e th resh old d etection lim it of the titration kit. The
chlorid e concentration level is read d irectly from the titration tu be in m icrogra m s per
s q u a r e ce n t im e t er o r p p m .

Appendix I
Procedures for Detecting Chloride Ion in Water
A . P u rp o s e
T o d e t erm in e th e co n cen tratio n o f chlorid e ions in w a te r us e d w ith w a te r je tting b la s t cle a ning or
for w ater evalu ation to p reven t sub strate contam ination a nd sub sequ ent coating failu re.
B.

Eq u i p m e n t
C H LO R*TEST W , Ch lor id e Io n Te st Fo r W a te r / Liq u id s t itr a tio n k it

C. Pro ce d u re
1. Rem ove d rop p er assem bly cap from bottle.
2. U se the d rop p er assem bly in th e bottle to tr an sfer th e w at er to b e t es te d . A d d ab ou t a in ch
of wa ter to the bottle.
3. H o ld th e titratio n tu b e alo n g th e m id d le . D o n ot ha n d le or touc h the n a rrow e nd s be fore or
after snap p ing th em off. H an d ling of the titration tu be n arr ow end s can conta m inate th e
solution w ith bod ily p ersp iration (i.e.), salts, an d affect the resu lts. Sna p off both end s of the
t it r a tio n t u b e a n d h o ld t h e tu b e i n t h e so lu t i on w it h t h e b lu e a r r o w h e a d p o i n t in g u p .
4. A llow the titration tu be to rem ain in th e extracted solution u ntil the solution ha s w icked -up to
t h e t o p o f co t to n w ick e t . Sa t u r a t io n o f th e w ick e t is co m p le t e w h e n t h e c o t to n t ip ch a n g e s to a n
a m b e r co lo r .
5. Im m ed iately after th e co tto n tip ha s c ha ng e d to a n a m be r c olor, re m ove the titra tion tu be from
th e te st sle ev e an d r ea d th e ch lo r id e lev el a t t h e in te r fa ce of th e p in k -w h ite co lo r ch a n g e.
W hite ind icates the p resen ce of chloride. If no color cha ng e occu rs (rem ains all p ink), the
ch lor id e le v el is b elo w th e t h r es h old d et ect ion lim it o f th e t itr a tio n k it. Th e ch lor id e
concentration level is read d irectly from the titration tu be in m icrogra m s per squ are centimeter
or p pm .

I-1

Appendix J
Procedures for Determining Blast Cleaning Air Pressure
A . P u rp o s e
T o m e a su r e t h e b la s t h o s e air p r e s su r e f or a ss es sin g a b r a s iv e b la s t cle a n in g e fficie n cy .
B.

Eq u i p m e n t
H yp od erm ic need le p ressur e gau ge, 0 to 120 p ou nd s per squ are inch (psi) or m ore.

C. Pro ce d u re
1. Blast clean ing e qu ipm en t is to be op era tiona l at the tim e of testing. If m ore th an on e blast h ose
is to be u sed , ope rate all blast h oses.
2. In se r t h y p od er m ic n ee d le p r es su r e g a u g e in to th e in te r ior of t h e b las t h os e im m ed iat ely in
front of the b last nozzle an d slan t the n eed le at a 45 deg ree an gle so that it is p ointed in the
d irection th e abrasives are flow ing to m inim ize need le clogging and d am age.
3. Re a d th e b las t cle a n in g air p r es su r e d ir ect ly fro m th e d ial g a u g e. N or m a l b las t p r es su r e is
b et w ee n 90 an d 100 p si.
4. Pr essu re r ead ings sh ou ld be ta ken p eriod ically or w h en blast clean ing e fficiency d ecreases.
N O TE:
1. U se th is t es t m et h od on ly for ab r a siv e b las t h os es . D o n ot u se th is m et h od on coa tin g
ap p lication h oses.
2. T h e r e is n o cu r r e n t s ta n d a r d r e fe r e n ce t o d e t e r m i n e b la s t p r e s su r e ; A S TM D 4 264 w a s
w ith d r a w n .

J-1

Appendix K
Determination of Environmental Factors
E n v i r o n m en tal facto rs are d eterm in ed b y va r iou s ins tru m e nts , a nd s om e ins tru m e nts ca n p e rform
m u ltiple fu nctions. Electron ic and d igital instrum ents are becom ing increasing ly m ore accu rate,
fas te r , m or e a ffor d a b le, a n d acc ep ta b le. Th e in st r u m en ts ar e n ot d et a iled b elo w b eca u se of w id e
va riation am on g instru m en t typ es an d becau se of the va riation in the w ay instru m en ts are u sed . Bu t,
a s w it h a n y in s tru m en t, alw ay s fo llo w the m a nu fa c tu re rs ins tru c tions . The follow ing s e c tions
d e scr ib e th e in s t r u m e n t a n d t h e p r o ce d u r e s t o b e u s e d t o d e t er m in e e a ch e n v i r o n m e n t a l fa ct o r :
A . A m b i e n t Te m p e ratu re b y T h e rm o m e te r
1. D e s cr ip t i on o f t h e P r oce d u r e
a . D e t er m in i n g t h e am b ie n t te m p e r a t u r e b y a s in g l e d ir e ct r ea d in g w it h a t h e rm o m e t er .
2. Eq u ip m e n t
a . A t h e r m o m e t er o r th e d r y b u l b th e r m o m e t er o f a p s y ch r o m e t er .
3. P r o ce d u r e
a . A m b ien t t em p er a tu r e s h ou ld b e t a k en n ea r th e s u r face to b e co a te d . Loca te all
th er m om et er s a n d in st r u m en ts w h er e t h ey ar e n ot su b ject to d ir ect su n lig h t, w in d ,
constru ction lighting, heating or ven tilation d u cts, and w her e they ar e not su bject to other
cond ition s th at w ou ld affect tru e tem p era tu re r ead ings.
b . L et te m p e r a t u r e e q u i p m e n t st a b iliz e fo r 1 t o 2 m in u t e s if it w a s b r o u g h t fr o m a p l a ce w h e r e
th e t em p er a tu r e w a s d iffer en t fr om th e a r ea w h er e t h e e q u ip m en t w ill be u se d (e.g ., an air
co n d itio n ed or h ea te d r oo m or n ex t t o s om eo n e's b od y ).
c. A ll instru m en ts are d irect read . For electron ic instru m en ts, follow instru ction s an d en su re
th at th e co rrect m o d e is b ein g u s e d a n d the re a d ing is on the d e s ire d s ca le, d e gre e s F or
Celsiu s.
B.

S u b s trate S u rf ace Te m p e ratu re


1. De s crip tio n
a . Determ ining the su rface tem p eratu re of the sub strate to be coated
2. Eq u ip m e n t
a . Dial th erm om eter w ith a m ag n etic base

K-1

3. P r o ce d u r e
a . P lace th e d ial th erm o m eter o n the s te e l s ubs tra te a nd a llow the te m p e ra ture to s ta biliz e for
ab ou t 2 to 3 m inu tes.
C. Re lati v e H u m id ity an d D e w Po in t (A S TM E 337)
1. De s crip tio n
a . D eter m inin g r elative h u m id ity an d d ew p oin t to a scerta in if eva p or ation w ill occu r. The
su bstrate su rface is to be at least 5 d egrees F abo ve th e d ew p oint.
2. Eq u ip m e n t
a . Psy chr om eter, either slin g or batt ery , and p sych rom etric table an d char ts.
b . Ele ctr on ic or d ig ita l m et er (p r ov id es d ir ect r ea d in g s).
3. Proced u re for Psychrom eter
a . Th e w ick o f a w et b u lb p sy ch ro m et er (cott on so ck ) sh ou ld b e r ela tiv ely clea n . Dir ty w icks
need to be cleaned or rep laced .
b . Sa t u r a t e t h e w i ck o n t h e w e t b u l b , b u t k e e p t h e d r y b u lb t h e r m o m e t er d r y .
c. W hirl (sling typ e) or op erate fan (battery typ e) un til the th erm om eters stabilize, abou t 20 to
30 second s, and note th e tem p eratu re.
d . R ep e a t s te p s 2 a n d 3 w it h o u t r e -w e t tin g t h e w ick u n t il t w o o r m o r e w e t b u l b r ea d in g s a r e
equ al to the low est temp eratu re obtained .
e. Record th e d ry (air) an d w et bu lb tem p era tu res.
f.

Th e relativ e h u m id ity is d eter m ine d from the inte rse ct of the d ry a n d w e t bulb re a d ings on
p sychro m etric tables or char ts. Psychr om etric tables and charts n orm ally ar e inclu d ed w ith
the in stru m en t.

4. D ew P oin t
a . U sing th e p sych rom etric tables:
(1) D eterm in e th e atm o s p h eric (ba rom e tric ) p re s s ure for your ge ogr a p hica l loc a tion from
U .S. De p a r tm en t o f C om m er ce o r U .S. W ea th er Bu r ea u ta b les . Th e a v er a g e b a r om et r ic
p r es su r e a t s ea lev el is ab ou t 30 in ch es of m er cu r y , an d it w ill av er a g e le ss th a n 30
inche s at h ighe r eleva tions.

K-2

(2) D et er m in e t h e d iffer en ce b et w ee n th e d r y an d w et b u lb te m p er a tu r es . Th e w et b u lb
tem p eratu re is alw ays less than the d ry b u lb. The d ifference is com m on ly called the
d ep r ess io n of th e w et b u lb .
(3) Fr om th e t a b les , loca te y ou r g eo g r a p h ic at m os p h er ic p r es su r e (lo ca te d in ta b le h ea d er ),
d r y b u lb t e m p e r a t u r e (r o w h e a d e r ), a n d d e p r e s s io n o f w e t b u lb (co lu m n h e a d e r ) a n d
d eterm ine the corresp ond ing d ew p oint value. Dew p oint is given in d egrees
Fah ren h eit or Ce lsiu s.
D . Wind
1. De s crip tio n
a . Deter m ining w he n th e w ind velocity can cau se in d ry sp ray , over sp ray , or d am age to
n e a r b y e q u ip m e n t , m e t alw o r k , o r p r o p e r ty .
2. Eq u ip m e n t
a . Ro ta tin g v a n e a n em om et er s, d ir ect d ial, o r ele ctr on ic (d ig ita l)
3. P r o ce d u r e
a . P la ce or h o ld th e in st r u m en t in th e d ir ectio n of th e w in d an d r ea d th e w in d (a ir ) v elo cit y .
D ig ital an em o m eters m ay req u ire holding d ow n a s w itch or bu tton for a fixe d p e riod of
tim e to d eterm ine th e av era ge a ir velocity. Follow th e m an u factur ers instru ction s.

K-3

Appendix L
Procedures for Detecting Chloride Salts on Prepared or Existing Surfaces
A . P u rp o s e
T o d e t ect ch lo rid e io n s an d th eir co n c e ntra tion le ve l on p re p a re d s urfa ce s or e xis ting s u rfa ce s for
p recoating evalu ation to p reven t sub strate contam ination a nd sub sequ ent coating failu re.
B.

Eq u i p m e n t
C H LO R*TEST t itr a tio n k it

C. Pro ce d u re
1.

T e st a sp o t w h e r e t h e s u r f a ce is r e la t iv e ly s m o o t h . D o n o t p ick ir r e g u l a r s u r fa ce s su ch a s
corrosion p its and w eld sp atter, and d o no t p ick areas betw een d ep ressed and raised su rfaces
becau se these su rfaces m ay allow the solu tion to leak ou t.

2.

Pou r the en tire contents from the solution bottle into th e test sleeve.

3.

P e a l o ff t h e b lu e b a ck in g f r o m t h e a d h e s iv e s t r ip o n t h e o p e n e n d o f t h e t es t s le e v e a n d
d is ca r d t h e b a ck in g . Re m o v e a ir fr o m t h e t es t s le e v e b y s q u e e z in g b e t w e e n fin g e r s a n d
thu m b. Do n ot sp ill any o f the solution. If solution is lost, d iscard the test sleeve an d the
rem aining solution a nd bega n w ith a n ew kit.

4.

A p p ly th e a d h es iv e s tr ip of t h e t es t s lee v e t o t h e t es t s u r face an d firm ly p r es s t h e a d h es iv e


strip to en su re a p rop er seal. For ap p lying the a d he sive strip to h orizon tal surfaces, allow the
solution to fill the closed end of the test sleeve a nd squ eeze th e test sleeve in th e m idd le w ith
ind ex an d m id d le finge rs to p rev en t solu tion loss.

5.

M a ss a g e t h e s olu tio n ag a in st th e t es t s u r face for 2 m in u te s. A ll th e s olu tio n sh ou ld b e


ex p os ed to th e t es t s u r face d u r in g m a ss a g in g to ex tr a ct a n y ch lor id e s a lts . Th e fo llow in g
p r oc ed u r es ar e r eco m m en d ed for th e v a r iou s t es t s u r face p os itio n s, so th a t t h e s olu tio n w ill
flow tow ard s th e test su rface w ithou t solu tion loss.
a.

H orizon tal and ver tical - Lift the closed end of the test sleeve u p , allow ing th e solution to
flow tow ard s the test surface.

b.

O v e r h e a d - L ift t h e clo s e d e n d o f t h e t es t s le e v e u p , a llo w in g t h e s o lu t io n t o flo w t o w a r d s


the m idd le of the test sleeve. The n sq u eeze th e em p ty p ortion o f the test sleeve w ith the
in d ex an d m id d le fin g ers an d s lid e the finge rs a long the te s t sle e ve , forc ing th e s olu tion
to the test surface.

L-1

If th e s olu tio n is le a k in g ou t fr om th e t es t s lee v e, d isca r d th e t es t s lee v e a n d th e r em a in in g


solution an d begin w ith a n ew kit.
6.

A fter m assag ing th e solu tion for 2 m inu tes, rem ov e th e test sleeve a n d solu tion from th e test
su r face . To r em ov e t h e t es t s lee v e a n d r et a in th e s olu tio n fro m th e t es t s u r face , th e fo llow in g
p roced u res ar e recom m en d ed for th e va riou s test su rface p osition s:
a.

Vertical and over he ad - Low er th e test sleeve, allow ing th e solution to flow tow ard the
closed end of the test sleeve.

b.

H orizontal - W ith th e test sleeve laying flat, squ eeze the solution tow ard s the closed end
of t h e t es t s lee v e. Th en , p in ch off a n d lift u p th e t es t s lee v e n ea r th e t es t s u r face , allo w in g
the solution to flow tow ard s the closed end of the test sleeve.

7.

P u n ch ou t t h e p er for a te d h ole on th e lid of t h e o r ig in a l b ox con ta in er lid , clos e t h e b ox lid ,


an d insert the test sleeve w ith th e solu tion into th e hole.

8.

H o ld th e titratio n tu b e alo n g th e m id d le . D o n ot ha n d le or touc h the n a rrow e nd s be fore or


after snap p ing th em off. H an d ling the titration tu be n arr ow end s can conta m inate th e
solution w ith bod ily p ersp iration (i.e.), salts, an d affect the resu lts. Sna p off both end s of the
t it r a tio n t u b e a n d h o ld t h e tu b e i n t h e so lu t i on w it h t h e b lu e a r r o w h e a d p o i n t in g u p .

9.

A llow th e t itr a tio n tu b e t o r em a in in th e e xt r a cte d so lu tio n u n til t h e s olu tio n h a s w ick ed -u p


to the top of cotton w icket. Satu ration of the w icket is com p lete w hen the cotton tip chan ges
t o an a m b e r co lo r .

10. Im m ed iately after th e cotton tip ha s chan ged to an am ber color, rem ove the titration tu be
fr o m th e te st sle ev e an d r ea d th e ch lo r id e lev el a t t h e in te r fa ce of th e p in k -w h ite co lo r ch a n g e.
W hite ind icates the p resen ce of chloride. If no color cha ng e occu rs (rem ains all p ink), the
ch lor id e le v el is b elo w th e t h r es h old d et ect ion lim it o f th e t itr a tio n k it. Th e ch lor id e
co n c en t r a t io n le v e l is r ea d d ir e ct ly fr o m t h e tit r a tio n t u b e in m icr o g r a m s p e r sq u a r e
ce n t im e t er o r p p m .
11. Af ter co m p letin g th e test, clean the te s t su rfa ce (s ub s tra te) w ith a c e tone or a lcohol to re mov e
all ad hesive strip resid u e.
N OT E : T h e p r es en ce o f s o m e s alt io ns a n d c erta in p H ra ng e s ca n a d ve rs e ly a ffe ct the a bove
chlorid e test resu lts in th e follow ing w ay s:

L-2

The p resence of brom ide, iod ide, or cyan ide ions can yield a high er concentration level
than the actua l chloride ions extracted from the test surface.

The p resen ce of sulp h id e ions can tu rn th e cotton w ick in th e titration tu be a br ow n ish


co lor r a th er th a n w h ite an d can y ield a h ig h er con cen tr a tio n lev el t h a n th e a ctu a l ch lor id e
ions extracted from the test surface.

p H v a l u e s o f le s s t h a n 3 .5 a n d h i g h e r t h a n 1 1 ca n y i e ld a h i g h e r co n c e n t r a tio n l ev e l t h a n
the actua l chloride ions extracted from the test surface.

Appendix M
Determining Surface Profile of Blast-Cleaned Steel Using Replica Tape
(NACE RP0287 or ASTM D 4417, Method C)
A . D e s cri p ti o n
To d eterm ine the an chor p attern d ep th of abrasive blasted sur faces by u se of a sp ring m icrom eter
an d rep lica im p ression tap e.
B.

Eq u i p m e n t
1.

Sp ring m icrom eter

2.

Rep lica im p ression tap e, coar se or e xtra coar se

C. Pro ce d u re
1.

M easu rem en ts are to be ta ken on a sm ooth , flat or cu rv ed p late that is free of su rface dirt,
d u s t, an d ab ras iv e p articles th at w ill d is tort res ults . A n a c cu ra te profile ca nn ot be m a d e on
p itted or p artially coated are as.

2.

Select the corr ect rep lica tap e ran ge for th e sp ecified p rofile dep th
a.

0 to 2 m ils, u se coarse

b.

1.5 to 4.5 m ils, u se extra coarse

T h e r ep l ica t ap e h a s a t h ick n e s s o f 2 m ils b u t w ill v a r y s lig h t ly .


3.

P r ep a r e th e sp r in g m icr o m ete r b y cle a n in g th e an v ils, se tt in g th e g a u g e to zer o, an d


ca lib r a tin g w ith a sh im b etw een 1 a n d 4 m ils. Th e sp r in g m icr om ete r sh ou ld b e p r ecis e to 0.3
m il.

4.

Re m ov e a sin g le p iece of r ep lica im p r es sio n ta p e fr om con ta in er an d p u ll off t h e a d h es iv e


ba cking . The r elease p ap er (n on ad h esive p iece) w ith th e circle can be d iscard ed . The
m ea su r in g p a p er st r ip h a s a 0.4 in ch sq u a r e w h ite p las tic film at th e ce n te r of t h e a d h es iv e
b a ck .

5.

Before ap p lying the film to th e blasted sur face, the th ickn ess of the film m u st be sub tracted
from the final read ing. Su btra ction of the film thickness can be accom p lished by o ne of the
follow ing m eth od s:

M-1

a.

M eas u re th e rep lica tap e w ith the s p ring m ic rome te r a t the rou nd c utou t portion
o p p o s it e t h e 0.4 in c h s q u a r e w h it e p l a st ic film a n d s u b t r a ct th e r e p l ica film t h ick n e s s b y
on e th e follow ing m eth od s:
(1) Su b t r a ct th e t h ick n e s s fr o m t h e fin a l r e a d i n g .
(2) T u r n t h e d ia l in d ica t o r a r m o n t h e sp r i n g m icr o m e t er co u n t e r clo ck w is e fr o m z e r o
the m easu red rep lica film thickn ess (e.g., for a m easu red 2.2 mils film thickn ess, set
th e d ial in d icat or ar m at 7.8). Th is m et h od com p en sa te s fo r th e r ep lica film
t h ick n e s s a n d p r o v i d e s a d i r ect r ea d in g .

b.

N om in a l th ick n es s o f th e r ep lica t a p e is 2 m ils. In st ea d of m ea su r in g th e r ep lica t a p e, it is


a ccep ta b le p r a ctice to u se th e 2 m il n om in a l th ick n es s a n d su b tr a ct t h e r ep lica film
t h ick n e s s b y o n e t h e fo llo w in g :
(1) Su b t r a ct th e t h ick n e s s fr o m t h e fin a l r e a d i n g .
(2) Set the d ial ind icator a rm at 8.0 (tu rn ing it cou nter clockw ise from zero) on the
s p r in g m icr o m e t er t o p r o v i d e a d ir e ct r ea d in g .

6.

Ap p ly the film to the blasted su rface. The ad hesive backing w ill hold th e film in p lace.

7.

W ith a rou nd ed tool (a bar p lastic sw izzle stick has b een foun d to w ork w ell), ru b ov er th e
rou nd cutou t p ortion o f the rep lica tap e w ith m od erate p ressu re. The circu lar area of the
r ep lica ta p e w ill b eco m e d a r k er or g r a y ish , in d ica tin g th e b la st ed p r ofile h a s b een r ep lica te d .
Ensu re the en tire circular area h as u niform ly da rken ed .

8.

Rem ove the r ep lica tap e an d p lace it betw een the a nv ils of the sp ring m icrom eter (w ith
cir cu la r a r e a ce n t e r e d b e t w e e n t h e a n v i ls ). G e n t ly r e le a s e t h e t r ig g e r o f t h e m icr o m e t er a n d
t a k e r ea d in g . D e p e n d in g o n t h e g a u g e s e t tin g , eit h e r z e r o o r th e m e a s u r e d r e p l ica t a p e
t h ick n e s s, e n s u r e o r ig in a l r e p l ica t ap e t h i ck n e s s is su b t r a ct e d fr o m r e a d i n g .

9.

T h r e e r ea d in g s s h o u ld t a k e n in o n e lo ca t io n w it h in a b o u t 3 in c h e s o f e a ch o t h e r a n d
a v e r a g ed . L oca t io n r e a d i n g s (t h r e e a v e r a g ed r e a d i n g s) s h o u l d b e t a k en o n e v e r y 100 s q u a r e
feet of sur face, or p ortion thereof, to establish consistency of the p rofile.

10. Retain r ep licated tap e sam p les for futu re reference.

M-2

Appendix N
Procedures for Measuring Wet Film Thickness (ASTM D 4414)
A . P u rp o s e
To d eterm ine th e w et coating th ickn ess bein g ap p lied an d to estim ate th e d ry film th ickn ess.
B.

Eq u i p m e n t
A n o t ch g au g e is a rectan g u lar o r s qu a re -s ha p e d p la te . Ea ch e d ge ha s tw o ou te r proje ctions of
eq u al h eig h t. Betw ee n th e o u te r p ro ject ion s is a se rie s o f gr ad u at ed n ot ch es m ar k ed in m ils. Each
e d g e o f t h e n o t ch g a u g e is ca lib r a t e d f o r a sp e cific m il t h ick n e s s r a n g e . T y p i ca l n o t ch g a u g e
m a te r ials ar e a lu m in u m , p las tic, p olis h ed st ee l, an d st a in les s s te el.
N O TE: Th e p lastic gau ge s ar e d isp osa ble an d ar e int en d ed for a lim ited n u m be r o f read ing s. The
alum inu m and p lastic gaug es w ill wear d ow n an d becom e ina ccu rate w ith extend ed u se.

C. Pro ce d u re
1.

If p ossible, test a flat area . For cur ved su rfaces, test along th e longitu d inal axis, no t the
c urv ed ax is . T est s mo o th areas tha t a re fre e from s urfa ce irre gu la ritie s su c h a s se a m s or
w eld s.

2.

Select the m il th ickn ess ran ge a long th e ed ge o f the g au ge for th e an ticipa ted film th ickn ess.

3.

Test imm ed iately after the coating is ap p lied .

4.

Firm ly p ress the g au ge into th e w et coating , ho ldin g th e gau ge p erp en d icu lar to the su bstrate
w it h t h e tw o e q u a l o u t e r p r o je ct io n s r es tin g o n t h e s u b s t r at e . D o n o t tilt o r s cr a p e t h e g a u g e
t h r o u g h t h e w e t co a t in g .

5.

Rem ove the g au ge from the w et coating an d no te the sh ortest coated step betw een the
notches. The w et film thickn ess lies betw een th is valve an d the ad jacent u ncoated step.

6.

Clean the g au ge before tak ing th e next m easu rem en t.

N-1

Appendix O
Wet Film Thickness Formulas and Example Calculations
A . D e s cri p ti o n
D eter m inin g th e w et film th ickne ss (W FT) to a chiev e a d esired d ry film th ickne ss (DFT)
B.

Fo rm u las

W it hou t T hin n in g t he C oatin g M aterial

N ote:

P e r ce n t o f s o lid s b y v o lu m e is ex p r e s se d i n d e cim a l fo r m .

Exam p le: The d esired DFT is 8 m ils. The coa ting m ater ial conta ins 83 per cent solid s by
vo lu m e. Dete rm ine t h e W FT to ach ieve a n 8-m il DFT.

W it h T hin n in g t he C oatin g M aterial

N ote:

T h e p e r ce n t o f s o lid s a n d t h i n n e r s ad d e d b y v o l u m e is ex p r e s se d i n d e cim a l fo r m .

Exam p le: Th e sp ecifie d D FT is 6 m ils. Th e su r fa ce ar ea s r eq u ir es 5 g a llo n s o f th in n ed p a in t.


Th e co a tin g m a te r ial co n ta in s 86 p er cen t s olid s, b y v olu m e. Th e m a n u fact u r er 's
in s t r u c t io n s s ta t e 1 p i n t s o f t h in n e r is a d d e d t o e ach g a l lo n o f co a t in g m a t e r ia l
(16 p ints = 1 gallon ). De ter m ine t h e W FT to ach ieve a 6-m il DFT.

O-1

Appendix P
Procedures for Dry Film Thickness Gauges (SSPC-PA2) and Example
I.

P u rp o s e
D e t er m in i n g t h e th i ck n e s s o f a h a r d e n e d c o a tin g .

II. Eq u i p m e n t
The n on d estru ctive gau ges d escribed in SSPS-PA 2 are gr ou p ed into tw o ge n era l categ ories:
Typ e I, m agn etic pu ll off gau ge.
Typ e II, fixed p rob e or con stan t p ressu re p rob e ga u ges.
III. T y p e I, M a g n e ti c P u l lo f f G au g e
A. De scr i p tio n
Typ e I, m agn etic p u ll off gau ges, com m on ly referred to as ba na na gau ges, m easu re th e
co a t in g t h i ck n e s s o f a n o n - m a g n e t ic co a t in g o v e r a f er r o u s m e t a l s u b s t r a t e. T h e g a u g e h a s a n
exp osed m agn et attached to a sp ring . The am ou nt o f tension ap p lied on the sp ring to lift the
m agn et from the coated su rface is d irectly pr op ortiona l to the d istan ce of the m agn et from the
ferrou s surface.
B. C a l ib r a t io n
1.

U se n on m ag n etic, stan d ard calibr ated shim s, com m on ly chro m e. Plastic and m ylar sh im s are
n o t a cce p t a b l e fo r ca lib r a t in g p u ll o ff g a u g e s b e ca u s e p l as t ic o r m y la r is n o n a d h e r e n t a n d
m a y ca u s e t h e m a g n e t w it h in t h e g a u g e t o lift p r e m a t u r e ly .

2.

Select a shim that w ill be in th e ran ge of the expected d ry film th ickn ess to be m easu red .

3.

Place the shim on the p rep ared su bstrate o r an y clean bar e steel an d p lace the g au ge on the
sh im .

4.

Ro ta te th e d ial fo r w a r d u n til t h e m a g n et con ta cts th e s h im .

5.

Ro ta te th e d ia l b a ck w a r d slo w ly an d ev en ly u n til th e m a g n et b r ea k s con ta ct an d lift s u p . A


click in g s o u n d m a y b e h e a rd .

6.

If th e rea d ing d oes n ot ag ree w ith th e sh im th ickn ess, ch eck th e m ag n et for clean lin ess.

7.

If th e read in g is still n o t in ag re e m e nt w ith the s him thickne s s , the ga u ge is out of ca libra ti on


a n d sh o u ld b e r e-ca lib r a ted b y th e m a n u fa ctu r er or r ep la ced . F ollow th e m a n u fa ctu r er s
in st r u ctio n s fo r ad ju st m en t o r r etu r n th e g a u g e to th e m a n u fa ctu r er fo r fa ctor y ad ju st m en t.
D o n ot ad ju st th e g a u g e y ou r se lf.
P-1

8.

The gau ge is to calibr ated before u se, du ring u se, and after u se to v erify accur acy of rea d ings.

C . P r o ce d u r e
1.

E n s u r e t h e m a g n e t is cle a n .

2.

H old th e ca lib r a te d g au g e fir m ly to th e co a te d st ee l su r face an d r ot a te th e d ial fo r w a r d u n til


the m agn et contacts the coated su rface.

3.

Ro ta te th e d ia l b a ck w a r d slo w ly an d ev en ly u n til th e m a g n et b r ea k s con ta ct an d lift s u p . A


clicking sou n d m ay be h ear d . The follow ing m ay influ en ce read ings:

4.

a.

Vibrations m ay p rem atu rely brea k th e m agn etic contact.

b.

Soft or tacky coatings m ay inh ibit the lifting of the m agn et.

R ea d t h e co a t in g t h i ck n e s s o n t h e d i a l t h a t a lig n s w it h t h e m a r k e d lin e o n t h e g a u g e a n d
r e co r d t h e r e a d i n g .

IV . Ty p e II, Fixe d Prob e o r Co n s tan t Pres s u re Prob e G au g e s


A . De sc r ip tio n
The ty p e II, fixed or con stan t p ressu re p rob e gau ge, m easu res th e m agn etic flu x associated w ith
n on -m ag n etic coating s ap p lied to ferro u s su bstr ates. For reliable read ings, th e ga u ges m u st
r e m a in i n d ir e ct co n t a ct w it h t h e co a t e d s u r f a ce u n t il a r e a d i n g i s o b t a in e d . T h e se g a u g e s a r e
n orm ally faster an d m ore accur ate th an th e m ag n etic p u ll off gau ges.
B.

C.

P-2

C a l ib r a tio n
1.

U se n on m ag n etic or p lastic calibr ated shim stan d ard s.

2.

Select a shim that w ill be in th e expected ran ge of the d ry film th ickn ess to be m easu red .

3.

Place the shim on the p rep ared su bstrate o r an y clean bar e steel an d p lace the g au ge on the
sh im .

4.

P la ce th e g a u g e fir m ly a g a in s t th e s h im a n d o b t ain a r e a d i n g .

5.

If the r ead ing d oes n ot agr ee w ith the sh im thickness, ad ju st the g au ge in accord an ce w ith the
m an u factur ers instru ction s. A d ju stm en t is nor m ally cond u cted by p ressing key s to ad ju st
u p w ard or d ow nw ard u ntil the gau ge rea d ing an d the sh im thickness ar e in agr eem en t.

P r o ce d u r e
1.

E n s u r e t h e p r o b e i s cle a n .

2.

Set gau ge to rea d in d esired scale, either m ils or m icrom eters.

3.

H old th e calibrated gau ge firm ly to the coated steel sur face.

4.

R e ad th e co atin g th ick n es s o n th e d igita l d is pla y. Som e ga u ge s w ill s tore se ve ra l re a dings for


d ow n load ing in to p rinte r an d m ay be cap ab le of avera ging rea d ings.

Exam p l e :
Sp ecifica tio n s r eq u ir e t h e u p st r ea m face of a r a d ial g a te b e co a te d . Th e g a te h a s t h e d im en sio n s o f 26
feet in h eigh t alon g th e ra d ius cu rv atu re a n d is 10 feet in w id th . The coating tabu lation sp ecifies 2
c o a ts o f e p ox y at 8 m ils p er co at an d 1 topc oa t of p olyu re tha n e a t 3 m ils for 19-m il D FT, m inim u m , for
the total system .
Step 1: Det erm ine th e n u m ber of sp ot m easu rem en ts req u ired on an are a ba sis.
Su rface area of stru cture: 26 feet x 10 feet = 260 squ are feet
Su rfa ce a re a is less th an 300 sq u ar e fe et ; th er efo re , 5 sp ot m ea su re m en ts a re re q u ire d in ea ch
of t w o 100 s q u ar e fe et ar ea s (t ot a l of 30 in d iv id u a l g a u g e r ea d in g s).
Ste p 2: Th e D FT in st r u m en t is calib r a te d w ith a 20-m il sh im .
Ste p 3: An im a g in a r y lin e is d r a w n h or izo n ta lly acr os s t h e g a te at th e m id ele v a tio n , effect iv ely
d ivid ing the g ate into equ al low er an d u p p er areas. Five spot m easu rem ents are ran d om ly taken
in each area, consisting of thr ee ind ivid u al gau ge read ings w ithin a 1.5-inch-diam eter circle p er
sp ot m easu rem en t. Th e follow ing a re th e resu lts:

Lower Gate Area


Gauge
reading

Spot measurement (DFT in mils)


A

18.2

20.6

21.0

16.7

26.4

18.6

19.1

21.8

17.1

29.8

17.8

20.4

20.8

16.8

29.0

Average

18.2

20.0

21.2

16.9

28.4

Upper Gate Area


Gauge
reading

Spot measurement (DFT in mils)


A

22.6

20.4

18.6

19.5

29.3

22.1

21.7

18.3

19.9

31.0

21.9

21.3

19.4

19.2

30.4

Average

22.2

21.1

18.8

19.5

30.2

P-3

Ste p 4: D ete r m in e m in im u m an d m a xim u m acce p ta n ce th ick n ess cr iter ia .


a. The sp ecified coating thickn ess is 19 mils. The allow able criteria are:
M in im u m - 90 p er cen t o f sp ecifie d th ick n es s (0.9 x 19 m ils) = 17.1 m ils
M a xim u m - 150 p er cen t o f sp ecifie d th ick n es s (1.5 x 19 m ils) = 28.5 m ils
b. The follow ing evalu ates the resu lts for thickness accep tance:
(1 ) A v erag e s p o t m eas u rem e nts tha t a re be tw e e n the m inim u m s pe c ifie d thickne s s of
17.1 m ils a n d th e m a xim u m sp ecifie d th ick n es s o f 28.5 m ils
(a a ) Sp o t m ea su r em en ts A , B, C, a n d E o n th e lo w er g a te ar ea (18.2, 20.0, 21.2, a n d
28.4, resp ectively) are accep table.
(b b ) Sp o t m ea su r em en ts A , B, C, a n d D on th e u p p er g a te ar ea (22.2, 21.1, 18.8, a n d
19.5, resp ectively) are accep table.
(2) Aver age sp ot m easu rem en ts that a re less than the 90 per cent m inim u m of the
sp ecifie d th ick n es s o f 17.1 m ils a t s p ot m ea su r em en t D on th e lo w er g a te ar ea (16.9) ar e
not acceptable.
(3) Av erage sp ot m easu rem ents tha t are greater th an the 150 percent m axim u m specified
th ick n es s o f 28 .5 m ils at sp o t m e a s ure m e nt E on the u p p e r ga te a re a (30.2) a re not
accep table.
Step 5: From the abo ve eva luation, the follow ing can be conclud ed :
On e averag e sing le sp ot m easu rem ent (D) on the low er gate area w as less than th e 90 p ercent
m inim u m , and one av erage single spot m easu rem ent (E) on th e u p p er gate area w as greater
tha n th e 150 per cent m axim u m . Therefore, the coating th ickn ess d oes n ot conform to the
m inim u m and m axim u m thickn ess requ irem ents an d is not acceptable.
H o w ev er , ad d itio n a l g a u g e r ea d in g s a r e allo w ed to b e ta k en to v er ify p r ev io u s r esu lts.
Sev eral facto rs co u ld h av e affecte d th e ga u ge re a d ings . Poss ible fa c tors inc lu d e ca libra tio n,
d irty su rface, soft or tacky coating su rface, p roxim ity to ed ges o r oth er steel m asses,
cur va tu re of steel, tilting of p rob e, p ossible oth er n earb y m agn etic sou rces, tem p eratu re
ext r em es, a n d v ib r a tio n s.

P-4

Appendix Q
Procedures for Discontinuity (Holiday) Testing (NACE RP 0188)
I.

P u rp o s e
To locate p inh oles an d oth er d efects in h ard en ed coating u sing low or h igh v oltage in stru m en ts.

II. U s i n g a Lo w V o l t ag e In s t ru m e n t f o r C o ati n g T h i ck n e s s e s o f 2 0 M i l s a n d Le s s
A . De sc r ip tio n
A l o w v o ltag e, n o rm ally b etw een 5 and 90 volts D C , ba ttery p ow e re d d e vice w ith a w e t s pong e
electric p rob e is d rag ged across the coated su rface to locate d iscon tinu ities (p inh oles) in the
coating film . Shou ld d iscontinu ities be encou ntered , an electric curren t w ill flow to the steel
su b st r a te . Th is p r oc es s w ill clos e a n ele ctr ical cir cu it w ith in th e in st r u m en t a n d se t o ff an au d ib le
o r v is u a l a la r m .
B.

Eq u ip m e n t
1.

C.

T h e fo llo w in g ar e tw o g en eral type s of low volta ge holid a y te s te rs . Ea ch u s e s a w e t s pong e


p rob e, bu t th ey a re b ased on d ifferen t electrical pr inciples.
a.

Electrom agn etic-sensitive or a solid state electronic relay circu it tha t, w he n d iscon tinu ity
is d et ect ed , clos es th e cir cu it a n d p r od u ces an au d ib le o r v isu a l ala r m . Ge n er a lly , th is
instrum ent can b e field ad ju sted .

b.

A n ele ctr on ic re lax at ion os cillato r cir cu it m ea su re s th e d ro p in ele ctr ical r es ista n ce
betw een th e coating and the steel sub strate and p rod u ces an a u d ible alarm w hen
d iscontinu ity is detected. Genera lly, this instru m ent typ e canno t be field ad ju sted .

P r o ce d u r e
1.

En su r e th e co a tin g is s u fficie n tly d r y (se e ch a p te r VIII, su b se ctio n 36, D r y in g , Re co a tin g , an d


C u r in g ) b e fo r e te st in g .

2.

Tes t th e in str u m en t's p ow er su p p ly b at te rie s for su fficien t p ow er w ith th e b at te ry ch eck


sw itch . If th e ba tteries ar e low , rep lace or rech arg e th e ba tteries.

3.

Test th e in str u m en t fo r op er a tion a l u se an d ca lib r a te it in accor d a n ce w ith th e m a n u fa ctu r er s


instructions or N AC E RP0188, sections 3.3 and 3.4, before its initial use.

4.

Attach th e electrical grou nd (neg ative) w ire from the instru m ent to the steel su bstrate.

5.

W et the sp ong e p robe w ith p otable w ater

Q-1

N ote:
a.

A l ow -s u d s in g w e t tin g a g e n t s u ch a s th a t u s e d i n p h o t og r a p h ic d e v e lo p m e n t ca n b e
ad d ed to th e p otab le w ater at a r atio of fluid ou n ce to 1 gallon of w ater to increa se
s en s it iv it y .

b.

The u se of d etergen t w etting solu tions is not p erm itted because a bu bble m ay form over
a d efect, rend ering it un d etectable.

6.

T u rn th e in s tru m en t s w itch to the on p os ition.

7.

Th e s p on g e is to b e m ov ed ov er th e co a tin g su r face at ab ou t 1 fo ot p er se co n d , u sin g a d ou b le


p ass over each ar ea an d ap p lying su fficient p ressu re to kee p the su rface w et.

8.

T h e sp o n g e sh o u ld b e k e p t sa t u r a t ed , b u t n o t d r ip p in g w e t , w h i le m o v i n g o v e r th e co a t in g .

9.

W h en a d isco n tin u ity is d et ect ed , th e s p on g e is t o b e t u rn ed on ed g e t o d et er m in e t h e e xa ct


s p o t o f t h e d e fe ct , a n d t h e s p o t is to b e m a r k e d fo r r e p a i r . U s e a g r e a se le s s m a r k e r t h a t ca n b e
ea sily clea n ed off.

10. If w etting solu tions are u sed , the solu tions m u st be com p letely rinsed off before ap p lying the
r e p a ir co a t in g .
III. Usi n g Hig h V o ltag e I n s tru m en t fo r C oating T hic kne s s of G re ate r T han 20 M ils
A . De sc r ip tio n
A h ig h -v olt a g e d ev ice, n or m a lly in ex ces s o f 800 v olt s D C , w ith w et sp on g e e lect r ic p r ob e is
p a ss ed ov er th e co a te d su r face to loca te d isco n tin u itie s (p in h ole s) in th e co a tin g film . Sho u ld
d iscon tinu ities be en cou nter ed , the electric dev ice w ill sp ark thr ou gh the a ir gap at the
d isco n tin u ity an d p r od u ce a n au d ib le o r v isu a l ala r m . A g en er a l ru le-o f-th u m b for d et er m in in g
the r equ ired voltage is 100 to 125 volts p er m il; ho w ever , it is best to consu lt the m an u factu rer to
p r e v e n t d a m a g in g t h e co a t in g .
B.

Eq u ip m e n t
1.

2.

Q-2

The follow ing a re tw o ge n era l typ es of high vo ltage h olid ay testers:


a.

Pu lse typ ed isch arg es a cyclin g, high -voltage p u lse

b.

D i re ct cu r r e n t d is ch a r g e s co n t in u o u s v o lt a g e

The follow ing a re g en era l typ es of electrod es an d p rob es:


a.

H alf- or full-circle sp ring electrod es used for p ipes

b.

Ph osp hor bron ze bru sh p robes

c.

Con d u ctive ru bber strip p robes

C.

P r o ce d u r e
1.

En su r e t h e co a tin g is su fficien tly d r y b efo r e t es tin g . (See ch a p te r VIII, su b se ctio n 36, D r y in g ,


Re co a tin g , an d C u r in g .)

2.

If m oisture is p resen t on the coated su rface, d ry th e su rface before testing b ecau se m oisture
w ill in d icate inv alid d iscon tinu ities.

3.

Test th e in str u m en t fo r op er a tion a l u se an d ca lib r a te it in accor d a n ce w ith th e m a n u fa ctu r er s


instructions or N AC E RP 0188, sections 4.5 and 4.6, before its initial use.

4.

A d ju st th e instru m en t to th e p rop er v oltage sett ing for th e coating th ickn ess.

5.

Attach th e electrical grou nd (neg ative) w ire from instrum ent to the steel su bstrate.

6.

T u rn th e in s tru m en t s w itch to the on p os ition.

7.

To u ch th e p r o b e to a b a r e co n d u ctiv e (st eel) su b st r a te to v er ify th a t it is p r op er ly g r ou n d ed .


Electric spa rks shou ld be seen , or an alarm sign al shou ld be activated .

8.

Using a sing le p ass, m ove th e p robe ov er the coated sur face at a rate of abou t 1 foot p er
se co n d .

9.

W he n a d iscon tinu ity is d etected, m ark the sp ot for rep air. Use a grea seless m ark er th at be
ea sily clea n ed off.

Q-3

Appendix R
Procedure for Mechanical (Pulloff) Adhesion Testing
(ASTM D 4541; Annex A2)
A . P u rp o s e
To d eterm ine the ad hesive strength betw een a fu lly cur ed coating and the su bstrate.
B.

D e s cri p ti o n
Th e a d h es ion te st er m ech a n ically m ea su r es th e r ela tiv e s tr en g th of a d h es ion b et w ee n a co a tin g
a n d th e s u b st r a te or b et w ee n coa tin g lay er s. A n alu m in u m p u ll off s tu b (d olly ) is a d h es iv ely
b on d ed to th e co a tin g an d allo w ed to cu r e. A p u llin g for ce o n th e b on d ed d olly is co n tin u ou sly
in cr ea se d u n til th e d o lly d eta ch es o r a sp ecific fo r ce is a ch iev ed .

C. Eq u i p m e n t
Th ere ar e sev era l d ifferen t typ es of p u lloff ad h esion tester s. The ty p e II tester , cited in A STM D
4541, ann ex A.2, is the Elcom eter M od el 106. This mod el is the m ost com m only u sed . Elcom eter
M od el 106 is available in six scale ran ges. The scale m ost com m only u sed is 0 to 1,000 pou nd s per
sq u a r e in ch (p si), a n d it is d iscu ss ed b elo w . A st a n d a r d 3/ 4-in ch -d iam et er alu m in u m d olly is
u se d w ith th e E lcom et er M od el 106.
D . Pro ce d u re
1.

Se le ct t h e sp o t w h e r e t h e d o lly w ill b e b o n d e d t o th e c o a tin g . Th e s e le ct e d a r e a m u s t b e la r g e


enou gh to accom m od ate the feet of the instru m ent. Dollies shou ld be located at least 2 inches
from an y su rface obstru ction s an d ha ve at least 1 foot of vertical clearan ce to accom m od ate
in s e r tin g t h e in s t r u m e n t in t h e d o lly .

2.

U se a s u ita b le s olv en t w ip e t o r em ov e s u r face con ta m in a n ts su ch as d ir t, d u st , gr ea se , an d oil


from the test spot. Wip e all m oistu re from sur face and then solven t w ipe.

3.

Th e m a n u fact u r er r eco m m en d s t es tin g on ly on flat su r face s; h ow ev er , cu r v ed su r face s o f 24in c h r a d iu s a n d g r e a t er ca n b e t e st e d . Fo r cu r v e d s u r f a ce s w i t h a r a d i u s o f le s s t h a n


24 inch es, the d olly n eed s to b e gr ou n d d ow n to m atch th e existing m etalw or k r ad iu s. The
follow ing m atches the d olly typ e w ith th e sur face:

Flat sur faces - Use stand ard d ollies

C u r v ed su r fa ce s - U se d o llie s w ith a r a d iu s t h a t m a tch es t h e su r fa ce r a d iu s t o b e te st ed .


Th e m a n u fact u r er w ill fab r icat e d ollie s fo r a s p ecifie d r a d iu s a n d th e fo llow in g
cu rv atu res:

R-1

"
"
4.

C o n c a v e - o u t e r r a d i u s (e xa m p l e : p i p e e xt e rio r )
C o n v e x - in n e r r a d iu s (e xa m p l e : p i p e in t e r io r )

To p r om ot e a d h es ion of t h e d olly to th e fo llow in g su r face s, r ou g h en th e t es t s p ot ar ea u sin g :

Ligh t sand p ap er on glossy su rfaces


Co arse r san d p ap er on u n ev en su rfaces

5.

W ipe clean an y gr it and rep eated ly solven t w ipe on the test sp ot.

6.

So lv e n t c le a n a n d r o u g h e n t h e d o lly s u r f a ce u s i n g 40-60 g r it sa n d p a p e r o n t h e d o lly s fla t


su r face (ta p er ed en d ).

7.

M ix th e a d h es iv e a cco r d in g to th e in st r u ctio n s. Th e a d h es iv e is n or m a lly an ep ox y . A p p ly a


thin, smo oth layer of ad hesive to the p rep ared test dolly su rface.

8.

P la ce th e d o lly on th e p r ep a r ed te st sp ot a n d p r ess fir m ly to sq u eez e ou t e xcess ep oxy . D o


n o t t w i st th e d o lly .

9.

R em o v e a n y e xce ss ep o x y a r o u n d t h e p e r ip h e r y o f t h e d o l ly w it h o u t d is tu r b i n g t h e d o l ly .

10. A llow th e e p ox y to fu lly cu r e. D ep en d in g on th e t em p er a tu r e, cu r in g tim e m a y ta k e u p to 24


h ou rs. Follow th e ad h esive m an u factur ers instru ction s.
11. Fo r v er tica l, ov er h ea d , or ot h er su r face s, se cu r e t h e d olly b y ta p in g or u sin g th e m a g n et ic
clam p th a t is su p p lied w ith th e t es te r k it. En su r e t h a t t h e m a g n et ic clam p d isc k ee p er is
rem oved before use.
N o te: D o llies ap p lied w ith in s uffic ie nt a d he s ive or not pe rp e nd ic ula rly p os itione d a re no t
accep tab le and w ill pr ov id e err on eou s resu lts.
A fter the ep oxy h as cur ed , m ake a circu lar cut th rou gh the coating to the su bstrate a rou nd the
d olly w ith the cu tting tool tha t is p rov ided w ith the tester kit. The cu tting tool fits over the
d o lly . K its are p ro v id ed w ith a s m a ll d ia m e te r ba r to a ss is t in th is ope ra tion.
12. If testing a flexible coating or su bstrate, p lace the su p p ort ring over the test d olly. Set the
d rag in d icato r (s teel p in p ro jecting th rou gh a s lit on the s ha ft a t the s ca le ra ng e ) to z e ro.
13. Slip th e te st er su p p o r t r in g (cla w at t h e b ott om ce n te r of th e te st er ) in th e g r oov e of th e d olly .
Ensu re th at th e tester is perp en d icu lar an d tha t the 3 feet of the tester b ear eq u ally on the
coated su rface.
N ote: Sho u ld th e tester be tilted , on e of the feet not be secu re, or the b earing of the
in s t r u m e n t b e u n e q u a l , a s h e a r in g f o r ce m a y b e im p a r t e d t o t h e co a t in g , r es u l tin g i n a n
e r r o n e ou s r e a d i n g .
14. Slow ly an d con tin u ou sly r ot a te th e t es te r h a n d w h ee l in a clo ck w ise d ir ect ion u n til t h e d olly is
p u lled free or a sp ecified m axim u m tension is achieved .

R-2

15. R e ad th e h ig h es t v alu e attain ed a t the bottom of the d ra g ind ic a tor in ps i. If the d olly d id not
p u ll fre e, r ep or t t h e r es u lt a s g r ea te r th a n th e m a xim u m cap a city of t h e in st r u m en t (i.e., 1,000
p si fo r th e E lcom et er M od el 106).
16. Alw ays reset the d rag ind icator to zero after testing. Failu re to reset w ill resu lt in a d istorted
o r p e r m a n e n t ly d a m a g e d h e l ica l s p r in g .
17. Repor t one or a com bination of the follow ing typ es of failu re:

A d h e siv e

"
"

C o h es iv e

"

F a ilu r e b e tw e e n t h e s u b s t r a te a n d t h e fir s t (p r im e ) co a t
Failur e betw een an y tw o coats

Failure or a b reak w ithin an y on e coating layer

G lu e

"

A d h es iv e fa ilu r e o f th e a d h es iv e g lu e b et w ee n th e d olly an d th e co a tin g (coa tin g


r e m a i n s in t a ct a n d g l u e r e m a i n s on e it h e r th e co a t in g o r d o lly )

"

C o h e s iv e fa ilu r e o f t h e a d h e s iv e g lu e ( g lu e r e m a in s o n t h e co a t in g a n d d o lly )

R-3

Appendix S
Procedure for Hydraulic Adhesion Testing (ASTM D 4541; Annex A3)
A . P u rp o s e
To d eterm ine the ad hesive strength betw een a fu lly cur ed coating and the su bstrate.
B.

D e s cri p ti o n
The ad hesion tester u ses a hyd rau lic system to m easu re the relative streng th of ad hesion betw een
a co a t in g a n d t h e su b s t r a te o r b et w e e n c o at in g l ay e r s. A u n i fo r m t en s ile lo a d i s a p p lie d t h r o u g h a
ho le in th e center of a p u ll stu b u sing a h yd rau lic piston a nd p in. An alum inu m p u ll off stu b
(dolly) is ad hesively bond ed to the coating and allow ed to cure. A p u lling force on th e bon d ed
d o lly is co n tin u o u sly in cr ea se d u n til th e d olly d eta ch es o r a sp ecific fo r ce is a ch iev ed .
Rep rod u cible resu lts are ach ieved becau se the ap p lied tensile load is consistent.

C. Eq u i p m e n t
The self-align ing ty p e III tester cited in A STM D 4541, ann ex A 3, is the H ate M ark VII. Testers ar e
a v a ila b le in th e fo llo w in g th r ee r a n g es: (1) 0 t o 1,500 p si, (2) 0 to 2,250 p si, a n d (3) 0 t o 3,000 p si.
D . Pro ce d u re
1.

Se le ct t h e sp o t w h e r e t h e d o lly w ill b e b o n d e d t o th e c o a tin g . Th e s e le ct e d a r e a m u s t b e la r g e


enou gh to accom m od ate the feet of the instru m ent. Dollies shou ld be located at least 2 inches
from an y su rface obstru ction s an d p rov ided at least 1 foot of ver tical clearan ce to
a cco m m o d a t e in s e r tin g t h e in s t r u m e n t in t h e d o lly .

2.

U sin g a s u ita b le s olv en t w ip e, r em ov e s u r face con ta m in a n ts su ch as d ir t, d u st , gr ea se , an d oil


from the test spot. Wipe all mo istu re from sur face and then solven t w ipe.

3.

T h e m an u factu rer reco m m en d s te sting on ly on fla t s urfa ce s ; how e ve r, c urve d s urfa ce s of


24-in c h r a d iu s a n d g r e a t er ca n b e t e st e d . Fo r cu r v e d s u r f a ce s w i t h a r a d i u s o f le s s t h a n
24 inch es, the d olly n eed s to b e gr ou n d d ow n to m atch th e existing m etalw or k r ad iu s. The
follow ing m atches the d olly typ e w ith th e sur face:

Flat sur faces - Use stand ard d ollies

C u r v ed su r fa ce s - U se d o llie s w ith a r a d iu s t h a t m a tch es t h e su r fa ce r a d iu s t o b e te st ed .


Th e m a n u fact u r er w ill fab r icat e d ollie s fo r a s p ecifie d r a d iu s a n d th e fo llow in g
cu rv atu res:

"
"

C o n c a v e - o u t e r r a d i u s (e xa m p l e : p i p e e xt e rio r )
C o n v e x - in n e r r a d iu s (e xa m p l e : p i p e in t e r io r )

S-1

4.

C l ean th e b o n d in g s u rface o f the loa d fixture , the Te flon p lu g, a nd the c oa ting a r e a to be


tested w ith solven t.

5.

Ligh tly sand the test ar ea to achieve a n ev en , sm ooth su rface and w ipe clean. Rep eat th e
solven t w ipe.

6.

Insert the teflon p lug into th e load ing fixtur e u ntil the p lug tip p rotru d es from the su rface.

7.

A p p ly a thin coat of ad he sive ep oxy to th e bon d ing su rface of the fixtu re, taking care n ot to
g e t e p o x y o n t h e p lu g .

8.

Pr es s th e lo ad in g fix tu re o n to th e coa ting a n d w ip e the e xce s s a d he s ive e poxy from a rou nd


the p eriph ery of the fixtur e.

9.

Rem ove the teflon p lug an d allow the a d he sive ep oxy to cu re in accord an ce w ith the
m an u factur ers instru ction s.

10. Con nect the tester to the load fixtur e.


11. E n s u r e th e g au g e is s et at zero .
12. In c reas e th e p res s u re s lo w ly b y tu rning th e ha n d le cloc kw is e un til the fixture p u lls fre e or
u ntil a sp ecified p ressur e is achieved .
13. D i r ect ly r e a d t h e g a u g e v a l u e a t t a in e d in p s i. If t h e d o lly d id n o t p u ll fr e e , r e p o r t t h e r e s u lt a s
grea ter th an the m axim u m capa city of the instru m en t.
14.

Repor t one or a com bination of the follow ing typ es of failu re:

A d h e siv e

"
"

C o h es iv e

"

S-2

F a ilu r e b e tw e e n t h e s u b s t r a te a n d t h e fir s t (p r im e ) co a t
Failur e betw een an y tw o coats

Failure or a b reak w ithin an y on e coating layer

G lu e

"

A d h es iv e fa ilu r e o f th e a d h es iv e g lu e b et w ee n th e d olly an d th e co a tin g (coa tin g


r e m a i n s in t a ct a n d g l u e r e m a i n s on e it h e r th e co a t in g o r d o lly )

"

C o h e s iv e fa ilu r e o f t h e a d h e s iv e g lu e ( g lu e r e m a in s o n t h e co a t in g a n d d o lly )

Appendix T
Procedure for Measuring Dry Film Thickness by Destructive Means
With Tooke Gauge (ASTM D 4138)
A . P u rp o s e
To d eterm ine the d ry film th ickn ess and the n u m ber of ind ivid u al coats of a coating system
B.

D e s cri p ti o n
Th e To ok e g au g e is u se d to cu t th ro u g h th e h ar d en ed coa tin g to th e s u b str at e. O n e s id e o f th e cu t
is m ad e at a specific ang le thro u gh the coating . A m icroscope w ith a g rad u ated (reticle) scale,
at ta ch ed to th e g au g e, is u se d to m ea su re th e e xp os ed coa tin g p er p en d icu lar to th e s p ecific cu t
a n g l e to d e t er m in e t h e d r y film t h ick n e s s . T h e n u m b e r o f a p p lie d co a t s a n d t h e in d iv i d u a l
t h i ck n es s es can als o b e d eterm in ed , p rovid e d tha t c oa ting la ye rs ca n be id e ntifie d by c olor
d iffer en ce o r b y a d ist in ctiv e lin e. Th is m et h od is co n sid er ed d es tr u ctiv e b eca u se th e cu t m a d e in
th e co a tin g is a n in te n tio n al d efe ct, u n les s r ep a ir ed . Th e T oo k e g a u g e is m os t o fte n u se d in
ev alu ation of coatin g failu res.

C. Eq u i p m e n t
A To ok e g a u g e, e ith er alu m in u m or p las tic b od y , w ith an illu m in a te d 50X m icr os co p e a n d r et icle
(calibrated ) scale. It includ es three cutting tips an d a m arker p en.
D . Pro ce d u re
1.

Select an ar ea of th e co a tin g to te st an d d r a w ab ou t a 1-in ch st r a ig h t lin e w ith th e m a r k er p en .


Th e m a r k se r v es a s a r efer en ce lin e.

2.

Sele ct t h e p r op er cu tt in g tip for th e e xist in g coa tin g th ick n es s t o b e m ea su r ed . Th e fo llow in g


are th e th ree ty p es of cuttin g tip s an d th eir associated th ickn ess ran ges:

3.

10X tip: 0 to 3 m ils coating th ickn ess


2X tip: 3 to 20 m ils coating th ickn ess
1X tip: 20 to 50 m ils coating th ickn ess

A fter selecting the p rop er cu tting tip, p lace the cu tting tip a nd tw o gu ide stu d s against th e
coa tin g su rfa ce, w ith th e cu tt in g tip ju st a b ov e t h e m ar k ed lin e. A lign th e fo re ar m to cu t
across (p erp end icu lar to) the m arked line. Draw the forearm straigh t back w ith su fficient
p r es su r e t o cu t co n tin u ou sly th r ou g h th e co a tin g in to th e s u b st r a te . M a in ta in th e t h r ee p oin t
surface co n tact (cu tter an d 2 g u id e s tud s ) to e ns ur e a s tra ight a n d ve rtic a l c ut. The le ngth of
cut into the su bstrate need s to extend slightly beyon d the m arked line.

T-1

4.

View th e cu t th ro u g h th e lig h ted 50X m ic rosc ope a nd foc us on the c oa ting on e ithe r s id e o f
th e e xp os ed su b st r a te . Focu s a n d alig n th e r et icle s ca le p er p en d icu lar to th e cu t. Th e co a tin g
on on e s id e o f th e cu t w ill be sm oo th er th a n on th e o p p os ite sid e o f th e cu t. If th e cu tt in g tip
w as correctly p osition ed , the sm ooth er sid e w ill be on th e left. Alw ays m easu re on the
sm oother sid e.

5.

L in e u p th e reticle s cale acro ss the cu t on the s m oothe r s id e a nd c ount the n u m be r of


d iv is io n s fo r e ach c o at in g l ay e r in t h e t o ta l s y st e m . Be g in a t t h e ex p o s ed s u b s t ra t e a n d w o r k
tow ard s the m arker line.

6.

Th e co a tin g th ick n ess is d ete r m in ed b y th e n u m b er of co u n te d d iv ision s o n th e r eticle sca le.


Th e fo llow in g p r ov id es th e t h ick n es s fo r ea ch d iv isio n for ea ch cu tt in g tip :

7.

T-2

Cutting tip

1 - Division represented on reticle scale

10X

0.1 mil

2X

0.5 mil

1X

1.0 mil

H elp ful h ints:

W he re th e p rim er is an inor gan ic zinc or galva nized zinc, it is d ifficult to d istingu ish the
zinc from the su bstrate. To d ifferen tiate betw een steel su bstrate and zinc, u se a 5 p ercent
solu tion o f copp er su lfate and d istilled w ater. The steel sub strate w ill tu rn a copp er
co lo r , a n d t h e z in c w i ll t u r n b l a ck .

Fo r d a r k - co lo r e d c oa t in g s , u s e a liq u i d e r a s e r w h i te -o u t in s t ea d o f t h e fe lt tip m a r k e r .

The th ickn ess of coating chips can be m easu red by v iew ing th e cross section of the
co a tin g ch ip th r o u g h th e To ok e g a u g e. (Ea ch d iv ision is e q u a l to 1 m il.)

Appendix U
Procedures for SSPC-VIS 2 (2000 Revision)
A . P u rp o s e
To ev alu ate th e am ou n t an d d istribu tion o f ru st on coated su rfaces.
B.

D e s cri p ti o n
T h i s a p p en d ix p ro v id e a s tan d ard m e thod of e va lua ting a nd qu a lifying the d e gre e of ru s t on
p ainted ferrou s (steel or iron ) su rfaces u sing p ictorial im ages (color an d black and w hite
p h otog rap h s) w ith a g iven ru st p ercen tag e an d d istribu tion. The r esu lts are rep orte d in a r u st
g r a d e s ca le fr om 10 (lea st r u st ed ) to 0 (m os t r u st ed ), an d r u st d ist r ib u tio n is n ot ed b y S (sp ot r u st ),
G (g en er a l ru st ), an d P (p in p oin t r u st ).

C. Pro ce d u re
1.

Select an ar ea or ar ea s fo r ev a lu a tion . A r ea siz e m a y r a n g e fr om v er y sm a ll to v er y la r g e, b u t


sh ou ld b e r ep re se n ta tiv e o f th e s tr u ctu re ty p e b ein g ev alu at ed . For com p lex s tr u ctu re s, su ch
as I-beam s or chan nels, the en tire stru cture can be ev aluated , or the ev aluation can b e limited
to certain p ortion s of the str u ctu re su ch as flang e top s, I-bea m w eb, or ed ges.

2.

D e t er m in e t h e r u s t d is tr ib u t i on a n d t h e p e r ce n t a g e o f r u s t b y th e fo llo w in g .
a.

Ch oose th e ru st d istribu tion (sp ot, gen era l, or p inp oint) for th e selected are a th at m ost
clo s e ly m a t ch e s t h e co r r e s p o n d in g c o lo r o r b la ck a n d w h i te p h o t o g r a p h .

b.

Select the p ercentag e of ru st for th e eva luated area th at m ost closely m atches th e
co r r e sp o n d in g p h o t o g r a p h . R u s t s ta in i n g o r d i r t w it h t h e a p p e a r a n ce o f r u s t is n o t t o b e
in c lu d e d . Ru s t u n d e r th e co a t in g a n d b r o k e n b lis te r s w it h a p p a r e n t r u s t a r e to b e
inclu d ed . N on bro ken blisters are to b e d efine d by th e follow ing an d inclu d ed in the
p ercentag e of ru st:
(1) Ru st filled b lister (de term ined by o p en ing b lister) is to be incorp orated in the
p ercentag e of ru st.
(2) Flu id filled b lister (de term ined by o p en ing b lister) is not to b e incorp orated in the
p e r c en t a g e of r u s t , b u t it is to b e r eco r d e d s ep a r a t e ly .

c.

3.

Select o n e co rresp o n d in g c olor p hotogra p h th a t be s t re p re s e nts both the ru s t dis tribut i on


a n d t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f r u s t fo r t h e e v a lu a t e d a r e a .

De term ine th e ru st gr ad e accord ing to table 1 of the stan d ard . For exam p le, th e ru st
d is t r ib u t io n a r e a w a s d e t e r m in e d t o b e s p o t , a n d t h e p e r c e n t a g e o f r u s t w a s g r e a te r t h a n
0.3 p er ce n t t o 1 p er ce n t; th er efo r e, th e r u st g r a d e is 6-S.

U-1

Appendix V
Procedure to Determine the Presence of Soluble Lead and Insoluble
Lead Chromate in Coatings
A . P u rp o s e
T o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e co a t in g c o n t a in s le a d .
B.

D e s cri p ti o n
T h e p r e s en ce o f lead an d lead ch ro m a te pigm e nte d c oa tings c a n be d e te rm ine d by a c olor
ind icator u sing rea gen ts to sw ab ov er exp osed coating layers. The sw ab test w ill verify on ly the
p resen ce of lead an d chro m ate an d w ill not p rov id e qu an titative resu lts. The sw ab test m ay also
d etect the p resence of lead chrom ate.

C. Eq u i p m e n t
Le a d C h eck Sw a b s m a n u fact u r ed b y H y b r iv et Sys te m s, In c., PO Box 1210 Fr a m in g h a m ,
M a ss a ch u se tt s 01701; tele p h on e: 800-262-5323.
D . Proce d u re fo r D e tecti n g W ater S o lu b le Lead Pi g m e n ts (Le ad O xid e o r Lead Carbo n ate)
1.

C l ea n a n d r e m o v e a ll d u s t a n d d ir t fr o m t h e t es t a r e a .

2.

Cu t abou t a 1/ 4 inch n otch throu gh all coating layers and expose th e sub strate.

3.

Activate the sw ab by crush ing the g lass am p u les m arked A an d B on the sw ab tu be.

4.

W ith th e p o ro u s fib er facin g d ow n, sha k e a nd ge ntly s que e z e the s w a b tu be u ntil a ye llow


liq u id is v isib le o n th e s w a b tip .

5.

Ru b th e yellow ish sw ab tip in th e exp osed coating n otch for 30 second s.

6.

Results
a.

If the sw ab tip or th e test sur face tu rn s p ink or red , lead is p resen t.

b.

If th e s w ab tip o r th e tes t s urfa ce d oe s not turn p ink or re d , le a d is not p re s e nt or is below


the d etection ran ge of the ind icator r eagen t.

c.

Lea d ch ro m at e is n ea rly in so lu b le in w at er an d w ill no t im m ed iat ely tu rn colo r. P lace


th e s w ab in a p las tic b a g an d r e-e xa m in e t h e s w a b an d th e t es t a r ea in ab ou t 18 h ou r s. If
the sw ab tip or th e test area tu rn ed p ink or red , chrom ate is pre sent.

V-1

7.

N eg a tiv e t es t r es u lts sh ou ld b e co n firm ed b y u sin g th e Te st C on firm a tio n C a r d th a t is


includ ed w ith th e kit. Th e card h as ind ivid u al circles on o n e face, an d each circle con tains a
s m a ll a m o u n t o f le a d .
a.

W ith th e u sed sw ab, squeeze a d rop onto r eagen t w ithin th e test circle.

b.

If p in k or r ed ap p ea r s o n th e cir cle, t h e n eg a tiv e t es t r es u lt is v a lid .

c.

If p ink o r re d d oes n ot ap p ear on th e circle, th e n ega tive test re su lt is inv alid, an d a rete st
is r e q u i r ed u s in g a n e w s w a b a n d t e st a r e a .

8.

Th e s w ab s r ea g en ts h a v e a 2-m in u te life fr om th e t im e t h e g las s a m p u les ar e b r ok en , an d all


testing shou ld be com p leted w ithin th e tim e limit. The sw ab is to be u sed for on e test area
o n ly .

9.

R ed b le e d i n g v e r s u s p in k - o r r ed -co lo r e d s w a b

V-2

A re d b lee d in g m ay occu r fo r co at in g s w ith re d p igm en ts (t h e co lor re d ), w h ich


includ es red lead p rim ers, w h en testing . This red bleed ing can m ask th e p ink o r re d test
resu lts an d can be m isinter p reted . The m an u factu rer r ecom m en d s that o ne of the
follow ing m etho d s be u sed to d eterm ine if red p igm en ts, no t lead , are b leedin g from the
co a t in g :

"

Cru sh th e colorless solu tion in glass am p u le B on ly and squ eeze a d rop on to the
s w a b t ip . Sw a b t h e t e st a r e a . If r e d a p p e a r s , it in d ica t e s b le e d i n g i s o ccu r r in g a n d
the p resence of lead canno t be confirm ed .

"

Ta k e a cot to n tip d ip p ed in v in eg a r an d sw a b th e t es t a r ea . If re d ap p ea r s, it
in d ica t es b le e d i n g is o ccu r r i n g .

If the coating is bleed ing red an d lead is su sp ected bu t cann ot be con firm ed , the
m a n u fa ct u r e r r e co m m e n d s o n e o f t h e fo llo w in g m e t h o d s to co n f ir m t h e p r e s e n c e o f le a d :

"

U s e th e s o lu tio n s fro m a m p u le s A a nd B a nd s que e z e a c oup le of d rop s onto a


ne w test area. Do n ot sw ab. The friction of sw abb ing m ay ind u ce bleed ing. If the
solution tu rn s p ink or red , lead is p resen t.

"

U se a sod ium su lfid e solu tion su p p lied sep ara tely by th e m an u factur er a t a n ew test
area. If the test ar ea tu rn s black, lead is p resen t.

Appendix W
Procedure to Determine the Presence of Chromate in Coatings
A . P u rp o s e
To d eterm ine w heth er the coating contains chr om ate.
B.

D e s cri p ti o n
Th e p r es en ce o f ch r om a te p ig m en te d coa tin g s ca n b e d et er m in ed b y a co lor in d icat or u sin g
r e a g e n ts to s w ab o v er ex p o s ed co ating la ye rs . The s w a b te s t w ill ve rify only the p re s e nc e of
ch r o m a te an d w ill n o t p r o v id e q u a n tita tiv e r esu lts.

C. Eq u i p m e n t
C h r om a te C h eck Sw a b s m a n u fact u r ed b y H y b r iv et Sys te m s, In c., PO Box 1210 Fr a m in g h a m ,
M a ss a ch u se tt s 01701; te lep h on e: 800-262-5323.
D . Proce d u re fo r D e tecti n g W ater S o lu b le Lead Prim e n ts (l ead o r le ad carb o n ate)
1.

C l ea n a n d r e m o v e a ll d u s t a n d d ir t fr o m t e st a r e a .

2.

Cu t abou t a 1/ 4 inch n otch throu gh all coating layers and expose th e sub strate.

3.

Activate the sw ab by crush ing the g lass am p u les m arked A an d B on the sw ab tu be.

4.

W it h t h e p o r o u s fib e r fa cin g d o w n , sh a k e a n d g e n t ly s q u e e z e t h e sw a b t u b e u n t il a cle a r


liq u id is v isib le o n th e s w a b tip .

5.

Ru b th e clear solu tion o n th e tip in th e exp osed coating n otch for 30 second s.

6.

Results

7.

a.

If the sw ab tip or th e test sur face tu rn s p ink or p u rp le, chrom ate is pre sent.

b.

If th e s w ab tip o r th e d etection te s t su rfa ce d oe s not turn p ink or p u rp le , c hrom a te is not


p resen t or is below the r an ge of the ind icator r eagen t.

N eg a tiv e t es t r es u lts sh ou ld b e co n firm ed b y u sin g th e Te st C on firm a tio n C a r d th a t is


includ ed w ith th e kit. Th e card h as ind ivid u al circles on o n e face, an d each circle con tains a
sm all am ou nt of chr om ate.
a.

W ith th e u sed sw ab, rub reagen t w ithin th e test circle.

b.

If p in k or p u r p le a p p ea r s o n th e cir cle, t h e n eg a tiv e t es t r es u lt is v a lid .

W -1

c.

8.

W -2

If p in k o r p u r p le d o e s n o t a p p e a r o n t h e cir cle , t h e n e g a t iv e t e st r e su lt is in v a l id a n d a
r e t es t is r e q u i r ed u s in g a n e w s w a b a n d t e st a r e a .

Th e s w ab s r ea g en ts h a v e a 1-m in u te life fr om th e t im e t h e g las s a m p u les ar e b r ok en , an d all


testing shou ld be com p leted w ithin th e tim e limit. The sw ab is to be u sed for on e test area
o n ly .

Appendix X
Determination of Toxic Metals in Hardened Paint
A . O b j e cti v e s
1.

Id en tify ty p e of toxic m etals tha t m ay be in th e p aint o n existin g infra stru ctu res.

2.

Deter m ine concen tration o f toxic m etal in th e p aint.

3.

The resu lts of the an alysis of the existing p aint are requ ired b efore the p aint can be rem oved
fo r :

B.

P r ed es ig n sp ecifica tio n d a ta g a th er in g
P r e m a i n t en a n c e w o r k
W o rk er p ro tectio n
Protection o f the en vironm ent
P ro p er d isp o sa l o f th e old p a in t

S am p l i n g
1.
2.
3.
4.

T a k e p a i n t sa m p l e in a b o u t a 2- t o 3-in c h s q u a r e
M ak e su re th e sam p le in clu d es th e p rim er (p rim er con tains m ost toxic m etals)
Sam p le in a t least thr ee locations to v erify resu lts
Place th e s am p les in s ep arate b a gs a nd la be l e a ch ba g for ide ntific a tion

5.

A su itable tool for sam p ling is a shar p ened

- to 1-inch w ood

chisel

C. Labo rato ry Te s tin g


1.

T h e p r im a r y m e t als to t es t fo r :

2.

C o b a lt , a s so cia t ed w it h b lu e i sh a n d g r e en i sh c o lo r s
C a d m iu m , a s so cia t ed w it h s a fe t y co lo r s
C h r o m iu m , a s so cia t e d w it h le a d c h r o m a t e , z in c ch r o m a t e , a n d s a fe t y co lo r s le a d
L e ad
Z i n c (d e fin e d a s a to x ic m e t a l o n l y in t h e St a t e o f C a lifo r n i a )

T h e se co n d a r y m e t als to t es t fo r :

A r se n ic
Ba r iu m
Ber y lliu m
Sele n iu m
Silver
Va n a d iu m

X-1

3.

Requ est resu lts in p ercen t, by w eigh t of m etal, an d to at least th ree sign ifican t d igits.

4.

T y p ical tes t m eth o d s are EP A 6010B, EPA 7420 (le a d s pe c ific ), O SH A 125G m e ta l s ca n, IC P , or
p or ta b le XRF in st r u m en t fo r lea d on ly (re q u ir es cer tifie d op er a to r ).

D . Co s ts
A bou t $20 to $25 for ea ch m etal tested re d u ced cost for sev era l m etals.
E.

T e s t Lab o rato ri e s

Bu r ea u of R ecla m a tio n , Eco log ical R es ea r ch an d In v es tig a tio n (D -8220); con ta ct: C h r is
H old r en ; tele p h on e: (303) 445-2178

Accred ited Laboratories


1.
2.

A ss oc iat ion : Am er ican In d u st r ial H y g ien e A ss oc iat ion (A IH A )


A ccred itation P rog ram s:

3.

X-2

E n v ir o n m e n t a l L ea d L ab o r a to r y A ccr e d i ta t io n P r o g r a m ( EL LA P )
N a t io n a l L ea d L ab o r a to r y A ccr e d i ta t io n P r o g r a m ( N L LA P )

W ebsite A d d ress: w w w .aiha .org (accr ed ite d lab or a to r ies ar e lis te d b y city an d Sta te in
table form at)

Mission Statements
The mission of the Department of the Interior is to protect and provide
access to our Nations natural and cultural heritage and honor our
trust responsibilities to tribes.

The mission of the Bureau of Reclamation is to manage, develop, and


protect water and related resources in an environmentally sound
manner in the interest of the American Public.