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Physics 1C

August 31, 2007


QUIZ 4. Wave Optics and Optical Instruments
A. Apairofslits,separatedby0.150mm,isilluminatedbylighthavingawavelengthof=643nm.An
interferencepatternisobservedonascreen140cmfromtheslits.Considerapointonthescreenlocatedat
y=1.80cmfromthecentralmaximumofthispattern.
1.Whatisthepathdifferenceforthetwoslitsatthelocationy?
(a) 1.93 m
(b) 2.79 m
(c) 5.63 m
(d) 1.58 m
2.Expressthispathdifferenceintermsofthewavelength.
(a) 1.5
(b)
(c) 3
(d) 2
3.Willtheinterferencecorrespondtoamaximum,aminimum,oranintermediatecondition?
(a) maximum
(b) minimum
(c) intermediate
(d) none of the above

B.Anairwedgeisformedbetweentwoglassplatesseparatedatoneedgebya
veryfinewire,asinFigure.Whenthewedgeisilluminatedfromaboveby600
nmlight,30darkfringesareobserved.
4.Calculatetheradiusofthewire.
(a) 3.91 m
(b) 1,87 m
(c) 4.35 m
(d) 5.31 m
C. Monochromatic light from helium-neon laser (=632.8 nm) is incident normally on a diffraction grating containing
6.00 X 103 lines/cm.
5. Find the angle at which one would observe the first-order maximum
(b) 22.30
(c). 32.140
(d). 35.10
(a) 20.10
6. Find the angle at which one would observe the second-order maximum
(a) 41.80
(b) 49.30
(c). none of the above
(d). 51.140
7. Find the angle at which one would observe the third-order maximum,
(a) 610
(b) no solution
(c). 1.140
(d). none of the above
D.Thecriticalanglefortotalinternalreflectionforsapphiresurroundedbyairis34.4.
8.CalculatetheBrewsterangleforsapphireifthelightisincidentfromtheair.
(a) 52.70
(b) 60.50
(c) none of the above
(d) 41.10

E.Amicroscopehasanobjectivelenswithafocallengthof16.22mmandaneyepiecewithafocallength
of9.50mm.Withthelengthofthebarrelsetat29.0cm,thediameterofaredbloodcellsimagesubtends
anangleof1.43mradwiththeeye.Thefinalimagedistanceis29.0cmfromtheeyepiece:
9.Whatistheobjectdistanceandmagnificationfortheeyepiece?
(a) Me= -30, pe = 0.99 cm (b) Me= +30, pe = 0.83 cm (c) Me= +31.5, pe = 0.92 cm
(d) Me=3, pe = 1.92 cm
10.Whatistheobjectandimagedistancefortheobjectivelens?
(a) q1=30.1 cm, p1=28.1 cm (b) q1=1.19 cm, p1=1.92 cm (c) q1=2.31 cm, p1=4.82 cm (d) q1=28.1 cm, p1=1.72 cm
11.Whatistheactualdiameteroftheredbloodcell?
(a) 0.589 m
(b) 0.806 m
(c) 1.703 m
(d) 0.913 m
F.12.Calculatethelimitingangleofresolutionfortheeye,assumingapupildiameterof2.00mm,a
wavelengthof500nminair,andanindexofrefractionfortheeyeof1.33.
(b) 3.43 X 10-4 rad
(c) 2.29 X 10-4 rad
(d) 4.21 X 10-4 rad
(a) 1.09 X 10-4 rad
13.Whatisthemaximumdistancefromtheeyeatwhichtwopointsseparatedby1.00cmcouldbe
resolved?
(a) 43.6 m
(b) 91.6 m
(c) 51.7 m
(d) 65.4 m

A. The angular deviation from the line of the central maximum is given by

1.80 cm
y
= tan 1 = tan 1
= 0.737
140 cm
L
1. The path difference is then

= dsin = ( 0.150 m m ) sin ( 0.737 ) = 1.93 103 m m = 1.93 m

2. = ( 1.93 106 m )
= 3.00
9
643 10 m
3. Since the path difference for this position is a whole number of wavelengths, the waves interfere constructively
and produce a m axim um at this spot.

B. With a phase reversal upon reflection from the lower surface of the air layer and no phase change for reflection at
the upper surface of the layer, the condition for destructive interference is

2t= m n = m
= m , where m = 0,1,2,
nair
4. Counting the zeroth order along the edge of contact, the order number of the thirtieth dark fringe observed is
m = 29 . The thickness of the air layer at this point is t= 2r , where r is the radius of the wire. Thus,
9
t 29 29( 600 10 m )
r= =
=
= 4.35 m
2
4
4

1
= 1.67 104 cm = 1.67 103 nm , and dsin = m gives the angular position of
6.00 X 103
m
m
a second order spectral line as
sin =
or = sin 1

d
d

C. The grating spacing is d =

5. The first-order maximum m = 1,

2(632.8 nm)
3
= 49.3
1.67 10 nm

2 = sin 1

6. m=2

7. m=3

632.8 nm
3
= 22.3
1.67 10 nm

1 = sin 1

3(632.8 nm)
sin 3 =
3
= 1.14
1.67 10 nm

there is no solution for 3

D. The critical angle for total reflection is c = sin 1 ( n2 n1 ) . Thus, if c = 34.4 as light attempts to go from sapphire
into air, the index of refraction of sapphire is

nsapphire = n1 =

n2
1.00
=
= 1.77
sin c sin 34.4

n
1.77
8. Then, when light is incident on sapphire from air, the Brewster angle is p = tan 1 2 = tan 1
= 60.5
1.00
n1

E.

Note: Here, we need to determine the overall lateral magnification of the microscope, M = he h1 where he is
the size of the image formed by the eyepiece, and h1 is the size of the object for the objective lens. The lateral
magnification of the objective lens is M 1 = h1 h1 = q1 p1 and that of the eyepiece is M e = he he = qe pe .
Since the object of the eyepiece is the image formed by the objective lens, he = h1 , and the overall lateral
magnification is M = M 1M e .

9. Using the thin lens equation, the object distance for the eyepiece is found to be
( 29.0 cm )( 0.950 cm )
q f
pe = e e =
= 0.920 cm
qe f e
29.0 cm 0.950 cm
and the magnification produced by the eyepiece is
( 29.0 cm )
q
Me = e =
= + 31.5
0.920 cm
pe
10. The image distance for the objective lens is then
q1 = L pe = 29.0 cm 0.920 cm = 28.1 cm
and the object distance for this lens is
( 28.1 cm )(1.622 cm )
q f
p1 = 1 o =
= 1.72 cm
28.1 cm 1.622 cm
q1 f o
11. The magnification by the objective lens is given by
q
( 28.1 cm )
M 1= 1 =
= 16.3
1.72 cm
p1

and the overall lateral magnification is M = M 1M e = ( 16.3)( + 31.5) = 514

The lateral size of the final image is


he = qe = ( 29.0 cm ) ( 1.43 103 rad ) = 4.15 102 cm
and the size of the red blood cell serving as the original object is
h
4.15 104 m
h1 = e =
= 8.06 107 m = 0.806 m
M
514
12. The wavelength of the light within the eye is n = n . Thus, the limiting angle of resolution for light passing
through the pupil (a circular aperture with diameter D = 2.00 m m ), is

m in = 1.22

n
D

= 1.22

nD

( 500 10 m ) =
= 1.22
( 1.33) ( 2.00 10 m )
9

2.29 104 rad

13. From s= r , the distance from the eye that two points separated by a distance s= 1.00 cm will intercept this
minimum angle of resolution is

r=

m in

1.00 cm
= 4.36 103 cm = 43.6 m
-4
2.29 10 rad