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Singapore University of

Technology & Design

MATH 10.004

Elimination & Augmented Form

Cohort 2
Meyer, Sections 1.2-1.3

Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

After this cohort you will be able to ...

solve system of linear equations using elimination and back


substitution.

express systems in terms of matrices and perform basic


operations with matrices.

solve system of linear equations using augmented matrices.

Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

ELIMINATION

Purpose is to provide a systematic way to solve systems of linear


equations.

Commonly credited to Carl Friedrich Gauss, but first appearance


was in The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Arts, an early
Chinese mathematics book composed by several authors and
completed around the 1st century.

Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

ELIMINATION

Our aim is to simplify equations by performing the following types


of row operations:
(I) Exchange two equations.
(II) Multiply an equation by a non-zero constant.
(III) Add a multiple of one equation to another equation.

In particular, we want to eliminate variables to allow for easier


subsitution.

Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

EXAMPLE

Consider the following linear system


2x1 ` x2 ` x3
4x1 6x2

2x1 ` 7x2 ` 2x3

Well solve it via a series of elimination steps on the next slide.

Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Original system:

(3)+(1)(3):

2x1 ` x2 ` x3
4x1 6x2

Summary

5 (1)

2 (2)

2x1 ` 7x2 ` 2x3

9 (3)

2x1 ` x2 ` x3

8x2 2x3 12
8x2 ` 3x3

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We proceed by forward
elimination:
(3)+(2)(3):

(2)-2(1)(2):
2x1 ` x2 ` x3

8x2 2x3 12
2x1 ` 7x2 ` 2x3

2x1 ` x2 ` x3

8x2 2x3 12
1x3

Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

We now have the upper triangular system


2x1 ` x2 ` x3

8x2 2x3 12
1x3

which we may then solve via back substitution:

1. From the third equation we have x3 2.


2. Plugging x3 2 into the second equation, we then have
x2 41 x3 ` 32 12 ` 32 1.
3. Plugging both x3 2 and x2 1 into the first equation gives us
x1 12 px2 ` x3 q ` 25 1.
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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

GAUSS-JORDAN METHOD
The Gauss-Jordan method simplifies back substitution.
2x1 ` x2 ` x3

2x1 ` x2 `

8x2 2x3 12
1x3
2x1 ` x2

x2

8x2

8
x3

x1

x3 2

3
2

1
x2

1
x3 2

The leading coefficient in each equation is a 1.

Every coefficient of the same unknown above these leading


terms is zero.
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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

ACTIVITY 1: DOCKING A SPACE POD (15 MINUTES)


You find yourself in deep space piloting a small space pod that you
would like to dock to the mother ship.
You are currently stationary and your navigation tools define an
px , y , z q coordinate system relative to your current position. The
docking location is 4, 10, and 17 meters away (in x, y , and z).
You have 3 thrusters at your control. For each second you fire each
thruster the pod will move, in the x, y, and z directions:
Thruster A: 1, 2, and 3 meters,
Thruster B: 1, 3, and 6 meters,
Thruster C: 2, 6, and 10 meters.

Assuming a simple additive model of the interaction of the thrusters,


use elimination to find how many seconds each thruster needs to be
fired to move the pod to the dock.
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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

ACTIVITY 1: DOCKING A SPACE POD


Let s1 , s2 , and s3 be the time that each of the thrusters is fired. Using
matrix notation, the problem to solve may be written as:
s1 ` s2 ` 2s3 4
2s1 ` 3s2 ` 6s3 10
3s1 ` 6s2 ` 10s3 17
or after elimination:
1. p2q 2p1q p2q

s1 ` s2 ` 2s3

2. p3q 3p1q p3q

s2 ` 2s3

3. p3q 3p2q p3q

2s3 1

which through back substitution then gives us the solution s1 2,


s2 1, and s3 1{2.
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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

MATRICES

A matrix is a rectangular array of scalars.

If the matrix has m rows and n columns, we say that the size of
the matrix is m n.

The matrix is square if m n.

The scalar in the i th row and j th column is called the pi , j q-entry of


the matrix.

a11
..
.

A
ai1
mn
..
.
am1

...
...
...

a1j
..
.
aij
..
.
amj

...
...
...

fi

a1n
..
.

ain

..
. fl
amn

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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

SUM OF MATRICES

Matrices of the same dimensions can be added.

a11
..
If A .
am1
then

...
...

fi

a1n
b11
..
..
. fl and B .
amn
bm1

a11 ` b11

..
A`B
.
am1 ` bm1

...
...

...
...

fi

b1n
..
. fl ,
bmn

fi

a1n ` b1n

..
fl .
.
amn ` bmn

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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

PRODUCT OF A MATRIX BY A SCALAR

a11

.
Matrices can be multiplied by a scalar. If A ..
am1

...
...

fi

a1n
..
. fl
amn

and P R, then

a11

...

a1n

fi

..
A ...
. fl .
am1 . . . amn

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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

PROPERTIES OF MATRIX OPERATIONS

Matrices obey the following laws related to addition:

A ` B B ` A (the commutative law)

c pA ` B q cA ` cB (the distributive law)

A ` pB ` C q pA ` B q ` C A ` B ` C (the associative law)

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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

TRANSPOSE
Given a matrix A, its transpose AT is obtained by interchanging the
role of rows and columns. For instance:

2 4

1
3

2
2

pAT qT A

pA B qT AT B T

pAqT AT

7
1

0
6

2
AT
7
42
0

fi

3
2
.
1fl
6

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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

VECTORS AS MATRICES

A row vector of size n is a 1 n matrix.

A column vector of size m is an m 1 matrix.

If v is a column vector, then v T is a row vector.

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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

PRODUCT OF MATRICES
Matrices can be multiplied if the number of columns of the first matrix
is equal to the number of rows of the second. If

a11
..
A .
mn
am1

...
...

fi

a1n
b11
..
..
.
. fl and nB
k
amn
bn1

...
...

fi

b1k
..
. fl , then
bnk

C AB

mk

is such that its generic pi , j q-entry has the form


cij

aih bhj Ai Bj Api , :q B p:, j q.

h 1

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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

SIMPLE MATRIX MULTIPLICATION


For column vectors u, v, w and y:

v T w v1

fi
w1
v3 w2 fl v1 w1 ` v2 w2 ` v3 w3

v2

w3

u
u1
w
vT
v1

vT w

u2
v2

y v1

fi
w1

u3 fl
u1 w1 ` u2 w2 ` u3 w3
w2
v3
v1 w1 ` v2 w2 ` v3 w3
w3

v2

fi

w 1 y1
v3 w2 y2 fl
w

3
3

v1 w1 ` v2 w2 ` v3 w3 v1 y1 ` v2 y2 ` v3 y3
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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

SYSTEM OF LINEAR EQUATIONS


A linear system of m equations in n unknowns is written as
a11 x1 ` a12 x2 ` ` a1n xn b1
a21 x1 ` a22 x2 ` ` a2n xn b2
..
.
am1 x1 ` am2 x2 ` ` amn xn bm .
which is a mathematical way of expressing m linear equality
constraints that the n variables xi , i P t1, . . . , nu, need to satisfy.
In matrix notation, we can write this compactly as
Ax b ,
where A P Rmn , x P Rn , and b P Rm .
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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

MATRIX FORM
We can rewrite the system:
2x1 ` x2 ` x3
4x1 6x2

(4)

(5)

2x1 ` 7x2 ` 2x3

(6)

as
Ax b ,
where

4
A
2

1
6
7

fi

1
0fl ,
2

fi

x1

x x2 fl ,
x3

fi

b 2fl .
9

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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

ACTIVITY 2: MATRICES FOR DATA MANAGEMENT (20 MINUTES)

Create a matrix S that records the day-end sales for m stores


selling the same n items.

Price information will be stored in a n 1 matrix (vector) called p.

What does the i th row of S tell you? And the j th column?

What does the sij element in the matrix tell you?

Find matrix operations to calculate:

A vector containing number of item js sold at each store.

A vector containing the total revenue of each store.

The total revenue from all stores.

The total revenue of store i.


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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

ACTIVITY 2: MATRICES FOR DATA MANAGEMENT

fi

s11
..
S .
sm1

...
...

p1

fi

s1n
..
. fl
smn

and

p2

p.
.. fl
pn

The i th row gives the number of each item sold at store i.

The j th column gives the number of item js sold at each of the


stores.

The element sij gives the number of item js sold at store i.

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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

ACTIVITY 2: MATRICES FOR DATA MANAGEMENT

A vector containing number of item js sold at


fi store:
each
0
fi fi

s11 . . . s1j . . . s1n ...


s1j
.

..
.
.

..
.. fl 1 .. fl
Se j .
.
sm1 . . . smj . . . smn .. fl
smj
0

A vector containing the total revenue of each store:

s11
..
Sp .
sm1

...
...

fi fi

fi

s1n
p1
rev1
.. .. ..
. fl . fl . fl ,
pn
revm
smn

where revk is the revenue made from all items at store k.


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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

ACTIVITY 2: MATRICES FOR DATA MANAGEMENT

The total revenue from all stores:

1Tm Sp 1

...

s11
.
1 ..
sm1

...
...

fi fi

p1
s1n
m

.. ..

revk .
fl

fl
.
.
k 1
smn
pn

The total revenue of store i:

e Ti Sp 0

... 1 ...

s11
..

.
0
si1
..
.
sm1

...
...
...

fi

s1n
.. fi
p
.
.1

sin .. fl revi .
..
. fl pn
smn
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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

ACTIVITY 2B (5 MINUTES)

Enter these commands into SCILAB, MATLAB, etc and discuss their
meaning:

clear all;
sales=[500 520 128 58; 850 600 54 32]
prices=[1.55 2.35 1.5 3.5]
revshop=sales*prices
revtot=[1 1]*revshop
revshopfruit=sales(:,1:3)*prices(1:3)
revtotfruit=[1 1]*revshopfruit

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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

ACTIVITY 3(10 MINUTES)


Consider an electric circuit which takes input voltage Vin and current Iin
and produces output voltage Vout and current Iout .
For a series circuit:
V2 V1 I1 R1 and I2 I1 .
For a parallel circuit:
V3 V2 and I3 I2 V2 {R2 .

Define a (transfer) matrix A such that:

V
V2
A1 1 ,
I1
I2

V
V3
A2 2 ,
I2
I3

V
V3
A3 1
I1
I3

for the series circuit, parallel circuit, and combined circuit, respectively.
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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

ACTIVITY 3
According to Ohms law and Kirchhoffs circuit laws:

For the series circuit, V2 V1 I1 R1 , I2 I1 :

1
The transfer matrix of a series circuit is A1
0

R1
1

For the parallel circuit, V3 V2 , I3 I2 V2 {R2 :

1
The transfer matrix of a parallel circuit is A2
1{R2

0
.
1

We can use matrix multiplication to find the total transfer function:

V1
V
V3
,
A2 2 loAomo
2 Ao1n
I1
I2
I3

A3

1
1{R2

R1
1 ` R1 { R2

A3
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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

AUGMENTED FORM

Given the equation Ax b

2
4
2

we call A

1
6
7

fi fi

fi

x1
5
1
0fl x2 fl 2fl ,
2
x3
9

b the augmented matrix of the system.

b
4
2

1
6
7

1
0
2

fi

5
2fl
9

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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Original system:

(3)+(1)(3):

2x1 ` x2 ` x3
4x1 6x2

Summary

5 (1)

2 (2)

2x1 ` 7x2 ` 2x3

9 (3)

2x1 ` x2 ` x3

8x2 2x3 12
8x2 ` 3x3

14

We proceed by forward
elimination:
(3)+(2)(3):

(2)-2(1)(2):
2x1 ` x2 ` x3

8x2 2x3 12
2x1 ` 7x2 ` 2x3

2x1 ` x2 ` x3

8x2 2x3 12
1x3

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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Original system:

Summary

(3)+(1)(3):
1

fi

4 6 0 2fl
2 7 2 9

2
0
0

1
8
8

fi

1
2
3

5
12fl
14

1
2
1

5
12fl
2

We proceed by forward
elimination:
(3)+(2)(3):

(2)-2(1)(2):

fi

0 8 2 12fl
2 7
2
9

2
0
0

1
8
0

fi

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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

ELIMINATION WITH MATRICES


Using matrix notation, we started with the original system:

2
Ax 4
2

1
6
7

fi

fi

1
5
0fl x 2fl b ,
2
9

and through a series of elementary row operations transformed it to


the equivalent system:

2
Ux 0
0

fi

1
8
0

fi

1
5
2fl x 12fl c .
2
1

The Gauss-Jordan method on the augmented matrix works the same


way as before:

Rx 0
0

0
1
0

fi

fi

0
1
fl

0 x 1fl d .
1
2
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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

ACTIVITY 4: AUGMENTED MATRICES (15 MINUTES)

Solve Activity 1: Docking a Space Pod using augmented matrices.


Swap rows 2 3 and solve through elimination again.

Are the final triangular systems the same?

Are the solutions the same?

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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

ACTIVITY 4: AUGMENTED MATRICES


Let s1 , s2 , and s3 be the time that each of the thrusters is fired. Using
matrix notation, the problem to solve may be written as:

1
2
3

1
3
6

2
6
10

fi

4
10fl
17

1
0
0

1
1
0

2
2
2

fi

4
2 fl
1

or after switching rows 2 3:

1
3
2

1
6
3

2
10
6

fi

4
17fl
10

1
0
0

1
3
0

fi

2
4

4
5 fl

2
3

1
3

Elimination is not unique!


Either way substitution then gives us the same solution:
ps1 , s2 , s3 q p2, 1, 1{2q.
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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

ACTIVITY 5: PRACTICE (10 MINUTES)

Using elimination on augmented matrices solve the following system


of linear equations.
x1 `2x2 ` 8x3 7x4 2
3x1 `2x2 `12x3 5x4

x1 ` x2 `

x3 5x4 10

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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

ACTIVITY 5: PRACTICE

1
3
1

2
2
1

8
12
1

p2q 3p1q
p 3 q ` p1 q

0 4 12
0

3
3p2q
4p3q

fi
7 2
5
6 fl
5 10

1
0
0

2
12
12

8
36
36

p 3q ` p 2q

fi

16
12

12 fl
12

1
0
0

2
12
0

8
36
0

fi

48
48

36 fl
48

48
0

36 fl
12

fi

This system is inconsistent,


therefore it has no solution!

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Elimination

Matrices

Elimination with Matrices

Summary

SUMMARY

Elimination provides a systematic way to solve systems of linear


equations.

Systems of linear equations can be represented by a matrix


equation.

Basic definitions of matrices and their properties.

Augmented form is a compact way to solve linear systems with


elimination.

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