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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.0. Overview

1.1 Background of industry

Energy is essential to the quality of lives of any living organism. The importance and
indispensability of energy can not be overemphasized. From microchips to cars, air
conditioning to water heating and pharmaceuticals to plastics, energy is part of people's
daily lives. Existing in many forms, energy is used in virtually every sector of every
economy; these include agriculture, manufacturing, military, construction, education,
and computing and health sectors. Therefore energy is considered one of the major
driving forces for economic growth and development. As technology advancements
occur, energy becomes increasingly accessible to more and more people and global
consumptions increases.

In 2008, the world consumed approximately 85 million barrels of oil per day (Smith,
2009). The Asia-Pacific region has the most rapidly growing energy demand in the
world and will continue to have an increasing impact on world energy demand
(Intarapravich et al., 1999). The use of conventional energy like oil, coal and electricity
has increased enormously in the last 25 years in ASEAN economies. In fact, during the
1980s consumption more than doubled, with an average annual growth rate of 7%
(Luukkanen & Kaivo-oja, 2002). For Malaysia, from 2004 to 2030 total primary energy
consumption and carbon emissions are projected to triple (Gana & Lib, 2008).

Another popular energy issue is the pollution concern. Energy consumption, especially
fossil fuel, is mostly associated with carbon emission and environmental degradation.
Gana and Lib (2008) estimate that Malaysias 2004 CO2 emission figure will triple by
2030 largely due to primary energy consumption.

These drastic scenarios have led many economists and analysts to believe that global
energy demand is not sustainable in the long run. It has also prompted many countries to
begin to actively search for effective ways to accurately predict and manage energy
consumption.
Energy issues of paramount importance in almost every country. Most countries are
beginning to address the issue of energy wastage by drafting and implementing
roadmaps toward energy efficiency. For Instance, in 2002, Singapore launched its
Green Plan. One of the 6 core aims of this plan is to reduce carbon emission by
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reducing energy intensity (energy consumed per dollar GDP) to 25% from 1990 to 2012.
Singapores is a success story because by 2011, Singapore had exceeded its target. Now,
in its Sustainable Development Blueprint Singapore has set another set of targets to
further reduce its energy intensity by 20% from 2005 levels by 2020 and by 35% from
2005 levels by 2030.In the same manner, the Malaysian government is seeking to
intensify the adoption of renewable energy, particularly biomass, through it Fuel
Diversification Policy (FDP). FDP was set out in 2001. One of its objectives is to
increase the share of renewable energy in the aggregate energy produced. That is,
renewable energy will provide 5% of electricity generated by 2005; this was equal to
between 500 and 600 megawatt (MW) of installed capacity as at 2001. (Business
Monitor International , 2008). This policy has been reinforced through fiscal incentives,
such as investment tax allowances and other programme; e.g. the Small Renewable
Energy Programme (SREP) and Energy Efficiency Award (EE) (Manan, et al., 2010).

1.2 Background of study

Income and credit are the two main sources of finance for firms and households for
financing their expenses. Loosely put, when firms or individuals experience increase in
real income their purchasing power increases too. This is the underlying principle behind
the purchasing power theory. Extending this principle, it is also logical that as the
amount of credit made available to firms and households increases, their purchasing
power increases too (at least in the borrowing period).
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A countrys financial system improvement (financial development) may cause both


income and credit to increase. Financial development refers to a countrys willingness to
allow and promote activities like FDI increase, banking activities and stock market
activities (Sadorsky, 2010). An alternative definition is that financial developments are
factors, policies, and institutions that lead to effective financial intermediation and
markets, and deep and broad access to capital and financial services (World Economic
Forum, 2008). In other words, financial development entails activities that enhance
effective and efficient financial systems. Therefore, increase in stock market and bank
activities are considered to be indications of a good economic health (Mankiw and
Scarth, 2008). Financial development includes development of the banking sector
(Creane et al., 2007; Tamazian et al., 2009) and development of the stock markets
(Sadorsky, 2010; Zhang et al., 2010).

There are at least two ways finance influence energy consumption in a country. First is
through income. Many empirical works support that financial developments cause
economic growth (see, for example, Beck et al., 2004; Fung, 2009; Levine, 1997 and Liu
& Hsu, 2006). Theory also supports that economic growth increase disposable incomes
and, as a result, implies higher demand for goods and services. This demand may
include demand for energy consuming gadgets such as automobiles and household
appliances. Similarly, due to higher demand for goods and services, businesses might
gradually increase production by building new plants and acquiring more machinery,
thereby consuming higher amount of energy.

In fact, rapid economic growth in


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Northeast Asia has vastly increased regional needs for energy services (Hippel et al.,
2009). A quick glance at data (see figure 1.1) shows that income and energy
consumption appear to have similar growth trends in Malaysia.

Figure 1.1: Energy consumption per capita and Income per capita for Malaysia from
1960 to 2008.
6,000

5,000

4,000

3,000

2,000

1,000

0
1975

1980

1985

1990

ENERGY

1995

2000

2005

INCOME

Source: World Development Indicators online database.

The second medium, through which finance can influence energy demand, is through
credit creation. As banks and other credit issuing financial institutions grow, the amount
money available for loan (e.g. deposit money bank assets) increases. Therefore, financial
development, through bank sector growth, affects energy consumption by making it
easier for firms and households to borrow money to buy energy consuming goods like
automobile, machineries and electrical appliances which consume plenty of energy
(Sadorsky, 2011). Table 1 presents a summary of the growth rate of energy price, bank
deposit and energy consumption for Malaysia.

Table 1.1: Average annual growth rate of key variables in percentages 1971-2008.
Energy
consumption per
capita

Real GDP per


capita

Weighted oil
price/CPI

Deposit money bank


assets/GDP

4.38

3.92

6.00

2.28

Note: Average annual growth rate is estimated using the formula (last year / first year) exp ((1/number of
years) 1) x 100. Real GDP per capital base year is expressed as a constant of 2000.

Energy consumption per capital expresses the average amount of energy each person
consumes in Malaysia, Real GDP per capital represent average income per person in
Malaysia, weighted oil price/CPI proxies energy price while deposit money bank
asset/GDP measures the amount of deposit commercial bank is able to accrue for every
domestic product in Malaysia.

1.3 Problem statement

Recently, World Bank (2012) ranked Malaysia regulatory environment as one of the
most conducive for getting credit. However, till date, energy demand modelling has been
done in view of very few economic variables of which the most weight is given to
income (see, for example, Al-Iriani, 2006; Kraft and Kraft, 1978; Lee and Chang; 2006a;
Masih and Masih, 1996; Tsani, 2010 and Ozturk et al., 2010.) Other factors such as
energy price (especially crude oil price), and industrial output growth have been
considered as well. Despite its popularity, existing models have not been able to fully
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explain energy consumption. In view of this, more reflections and directions are needed
in this research area (Karanfil, 2009). Should credit, as well as income, be considered
while modelling energy demand for Malaysia? To answer this question, this study looks
into the effects of income and access to credit on energy consumption in Malaysia.

Logically, firms consume more energy when they expand their operations such as
building new production plants and buying more machines. Similarly, households or
individuals would consume higher amount of energy when they purchase energyconsuming appliances and machines such as automobiles, air conditioners and lawnmowers. Therefore, one could intuitively state that easy access to funding may increase
the amount of aggregate energy consumed in an economy. Despite the simplicity and
rationality in the aforementioned connections (hypotheses), less is known on the
relationship between income and energy consumption, and even less is known on that
between credit and energy consumption in Malaysia. Published work on this subject is
relatively minuscule.

1.4 Objectives of the study

The general objective of this study is to test whether credit and income should be
considered when modelling energy demand for Malaysia.

The specific objectives are:


i.

to explore relationship between credit and energy consumption,

ii.

to verify relationship between income and energy consumption, and

iii.

to determine the relative importance of credit and income in determining energy


demand consumption for Malaysia.

1.5 Significance of the study

The relationship between income and energy demand has received a relatively more
substantial attention in the literature. Perhaps, an equal amount of work has been
dedicated to the study of income and green house gas emission. However, very little is
known about the nature of the interaction between credit and energy consumption in
Malaysia.

A model that accurately forecasts demand for energy will be very useful for policy
markers and the private stakeholders. Identifying the economic variables that influence
energy demand will help policy makers to appropriately tackle the energy issues and
enhance sustainable energy consumption in Malaysia. Thus, this study verifies whether
income and credit are valid variables to be considered when modelling energy demand
for Malaysia.

1.6 Organization of study

The body this study begins in chapter 1- Introduction. Chapter 2 Literature review- is
where theoretical framework is explained, past researches are reviewed and the gap in
the literature is identified. Chapter 3 Methodology- describes the econometric methods
of analysis used. Chapter 4 Data analysis and findings- explains the results are
presented and explained, and Chapter 5-conclusion and policy recommendationscontains the conclusions drawn from the entire research, and recommendations for
policy makers consideration.

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction

Reviewing existing literatures helps us get a good grasp of how much work has been
done on the determinant of energy consumption and identify the gaps that exist. It also
helps in the variable selection process. This chapter contains theoretical framework and
empirical literatures in 2.1 and 2.2, respectively.

2.1 Theoretical concept

Regarding the possible impact of credit and income on energy demand, there are at least
two related economic theories the life-cycle hypothesis and the Keynesian
consumption theory. These two economic concepts form the bases for this study.

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2.1.1 The life-cycle hypothesis (LCH) and the Keynesian consumption theory

The life-cycle hypothesis (LCH) can be used to explain theoretically, the impact of
income and credit on spending. This theory was propounded Modigliani (1966).
Modigliani (1966) observes that people make consumption decisions based on the
resources available to them over their lifetime. LCH argues that consumers should
intertemporally relocate their income over their life time to maximize lifetime utility. In
other words, consumers intend to even out their consumption in the best possible manner
over their entire lifetimes. There are two form intertemporal allocations: saving and
borrowing. Savings involve the use of past income in the future. Conversely, borrowing
involves the spending of future income now. The spending of future income can only be
done if consumers have access to temporary pool of money that they can draw from and
replenish in the future a function performed by consumer credit (Soman & Cheema,
2002).

Let consider a case of a single consumer. Assume that a consumer expects to leave
another T years, has wealth of W and earns income Y until he retires R years from now.
His lifetime income will be RY. We assume interest rate and tax to be zero. If interest
rate is positive, we will have account for interest earn on savings and interest paid on
borrowing. Assuming he earns, save and borrow at the beginning of the year

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Therefore the consumers consumption function is

(1)

W* = W + S and Y* = Y - S
Where W* is the wealth balance in a given year while W is the previous years balance.
Y* is current year income plus savings and C is annual consumption. In a given year, if
saving is negative, the consumer spends from his wealth. But if wealth is zero and
savings is negative, it implies that the consumer borrows. Therefore S can be savings,
dissaving or credit; depending on the sign on S and whether W is less than or equal to 0
or otherwise. S has an off setting implication on both wealth balance and disposable
income.

Equation 1 can be further rewritten as


C = W* + Y*

(2)

Where = 1/T (marginal propensity to consume from wealth) and = R/T (marginal
propensity to consume from income). For the purpose of this study, to effectively
account for credit, we restrict W equal zero and S to be negative.

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Thus, W* = - S = D

where D is debt (credit)

Therefore Equation 2 is rewritten as


C = D + Y*

(3)

Thus, a consumer consumption function is a function of income and debt (credit).

Equation 3 indirectly depicts the Keynesian consumption function. Where D = a


(autonomous consumption) in the Keynesian consumption function that is as follows

C = a + cYd

(4)

where C is consumption, c is marginal propensity to consume (mpc) and Yd is


disposable income. Since we assume tax is zero. Yd = Y*. In essence, equations 3 and 4
are the same, except that equation 3 allows for the coefficient of D (negative savings or
in this case- credit) to be estimated.

Consistent with these theories is that a consumer will consume more energy when his
income or access to credit increases or both occurs.

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2.2 Empirical literature


2.2.1 Credit and energy consumption

Despite the simplicity and rationality, the subject on the relationship between credit and
energy consumption seem to receive very little attention in the literature.

Credit serves to augment household current purchasing power at the expense of future
income. Hirschman (1979) compares the volume of consumprion made by consumer
who paid by credit and those who used cash and found that those hwo used credit
consume more than those who paid cash. In the same vein, Feinberg (1986) investigate
the role of credit card in stimulating holders to spend more. He finds that the credit card
indeed facilitates more spending.

Soman & Cheema (2002) studies the effect of credit on spending decisions. Their focus
was more on the moderating role of credit limit and credibility. They argue that
consumers who are granted lower amount of credit are likely to infer that their future
income will be low and consequently their spending will be low. This implies that an
average consumer believes the lending institution accurately predicts their future
income. However, as the consumer gains experience over time, they begin to question
the credibility of these institutions, thus the effect of limit and credibility, on
consumption, falls.
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Cosistent with these findings is that the availabilty of credit will encourage inviduals and
firns to perform transactions that may lead to more energy demand.

Also, in an economy with financial development, Individuals and firm are able to access
credit from lending institutions at very competitive cost of borrowing rate.

Financial development (a measure of credit availability) can affect the demand for
energy by making it easier for consumers to borrow money to buy big ticket items like
automobiles, houses, refrigerators, air conditioners, and washing machine (Sadorsky,
2010). Also, businesses also benefit from improved credit availability because it
provides additional funds which can be used to expand existing businesses. These
expansions, such as building new plants and buying new machineries, may lead to to
higher demand for energy.

The amount of published works on the relationship between financial development and
energy demand is minuscule. Tamazian and Bhaskara (2009) study the impact of
financial and institutional development on environmental degradation in twenty-four
transition economies. They use the standard reduced-form modelling approach to control
for country-specific unobserved heterogeneity and Generalized Method of Moment
(GMM) estimation to control for endogineity. Their result reveals that an financial
developments, particularly financial liberalization and foreign direct investment, do play

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a positive role in environmental issues of the panel of countries studied. Similarly,


Tamazian et al (2009) study the relationship between financial development and
environment degradation in BRIC countries. They find that higher degree of financial
development decreases the in the carbon emission BRIC countries. Zhang (2011) test the
link between financial development and carbon emission in China. Using cointegration
test, Granger causality test, variance decomposition, he finds that financial development
is an important determinant of carbon emissions in China. Since energy use is the
principal cause of air pollutant (Cole, 2006), it is possible that bank developments
reduce energy consumption.

Sadorsky (2010) collects data for twenty-two emerging economies, including Malaysia
for the period 1990 through 2006. Using Panel GMM estimation technique, he finds that
stock market development affect energy consumption but bank development does not
have the same effect in emerging economies. Similarly, Sadorsky (2011) studies the
relationship between financial development and energy consumption in nine European
frontier economies. One of the variables used to proxy bank development is the ratio of
money bank asset to GDP. His results reveal that development in the banking sector has
a positive and statistically significant relationship with energy consumption when
financial development is measured using the ratio of money bank asset to GDP. Zhang et
al. (2010) also examines the influence of China's stock market development on energy
consumption using the Grey Relational Analysis and Granger causality test approach.
They find that China's stock market scale enlargement is a factor of energy consumption.
Also, Shahbaz and Lean (2012) find a long-run bidirectional relationship between
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financial development and energy consumption in Tunisia. Following this research


trend, this paper investigates a case for Malaysia using time-series data to specifically
measure the effect of bank development on energy consumption.

2.2.2 Income and energy consumption

The study of the interactions between income and energy demand is pioneered by Kraft
and Kraft (1978). Kraft and Kraft (1978) study the relationship between economic
growth and energy demand during the post world war II era. At the time, it was
popularly held that energy consumption is one of the chief drivers of economic growth
and the campaign for energy conservation began. However, Kraft and Kraft (1978)
debunked this thought. They find no evidence to supports the claim that energy
consumption causes economic growth. However, economic growth does cause energy
consumption. Recent studies have bolstered this finding. For example, using
cointegration and error correction model (ECM) to study cases for Singapore, Malaysia
and Philippines, Masih and Masih (1996) find that the causality flow from economic
growth to energy consumption in all three countries. Also, Al-Iriani (2006) presents a
case for six Gulf cooperation council (GCC) countries. He finds that a unidirectional
causality running from economic growth to energy consumption exists in this region.
For Greece, Tsani (2010) finds that, at disaggregate level, real GDP does cause
industrial and residential energy consumption. Similarly, Ozturk et al. (2010) use an
augmented panel co-integration method to study a panel of 52 countries, comprising low
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income, lower middle income and upper middle income economies. Their results reveal
that economic growth causes energy consumption in low-income and middle income
countries. Other researches that bolster the finding of Kraft and Kraft (1978) include, but
are not limited to, (Huang et al. 2008), (Lee and Chang, 2007), (Mehrara, 2007), and
(Wolde-Rufael, 2005). However, more reflections and directions are needed in this
research area (Karanfil, 2009).

Establishing that economic growth can cause energy demand and that financial
development can cause economic growth; see, for example, Ang and McKibbin (2007),
Hao (2006), Hasan et al. (2009), Liu and Hsu (2006), McKinnon (1973), Oura (2008)
and Yang and Yi (2008). Consistent with these views is the likelihood that bank
development influences energy consumption.

2.2.3 Price and energy consumption

In most economies, the price of energy seldom follows the theoretical demand and
supply interactions, because it is heavily controlled by the governments. This reflects
that policymakers understand the possible dire effect volatility in global energy price can
cause on important macro variables.

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The relationship between energy price and energy consumption has been studied by
many researchers. For example, Gouda (1988) attempts to obtain the price and income
elasticities of energy demand in Egypt, and observed that between 1971 through 1981
energy consumption rose by about 50% while energy price fell staedily.

While their focus was on energy price and inocme, Nesbakken (1999) tests the stability
of the results of a model which focus on the relationship between the choice of heating
equipment and the residential energy consumption in Noway. His result shows that the
energy price sensitivity in residential energy consumption is found to be higher for highincome households than for low-income households. In the same vein, Brons et al.
(2008), use seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) approach to determine the price
alasticity of gasoline demand. Their model allows for the price elasticitties of total fuel
demand and that of fuel effeciency to be linearly related. Brons et al. (2008) empirical
result suggest that gasoline price and the demand for it are negatively related with price
elasticities of -0.34 and -0.84 in the short-run and long-run respectively. Sadorsky
(2009) investgates the whether price of oil affects and CO2 emissions affects the demand
for renewable energy in the G7 countries. Using a panel cointegration approach, he finds
that Oil price increases have a small and negative impact on renewable energy
consumption. Yuan et al. (2010) study the relationship between energy price and energy
demand in China, using ointegration equations, impulse response functions, granger
causality and variance decomposition. their result shows that increase in energy price
will decrease energy demand in both the industrial and household sectors of China. They
conclude that reasonable increase in energy price will save energy.
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CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction

The purpose of this chapter is to describe the data and the methods of analysis used in
this study. It is important to note, at this juncture, that this study is empirical in nature.

3.1 Data and variables

This study uses annual data on energy consumption, financial development, energy
price, and income for Malaysia from 1971 through 2008 (38 observations). Time period
selection is based on data availability.

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3.1.1

Dependent variable

3.1.1.1 Energy consumption


In the literature, energy consumption is measure in a different forms and units. However
two of these forms are often used. These are: energy intensity (i.e. energy consumed
expressed in terms of one gross domestic product or amount of energy in every gross
domestic product produced) and energy use in kg of oil equivalent per capita (i.e. energy
consumed per person) (see, for example, Masih and Masih, 1997, Sadorsky, 2010 and
Sadorsky, 2011). As at the time of this study, the amount of energy intensity data series
available is insufficient for empirical analysis. Therefore, this study uses Malaysia
energy use in kg of oil equivalent per capita to measure energy consumption. This series
is labelled as E henceforth. This series dating from 1971 through 2008 is available from
World Bank World Development Indicators online database.

3.1.2

Independent variables

3.1.2.1 Income

The relationship between income and energy demand is perhaps the must investigated
aspect of this subject matter. Increase in a consumers real income is expected to
increase his energy demand by incraeasing the consumers purchasing power. Income

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per capita (hencforeth y) is included in the energy demand model. The proxy for income
is real GDP per capita, measured in constant 2005 international dollars. Income data is
available from World Bank World Development Indicators online database.

H0: Income does not affect energy demand


H1: Income affects energy demand

3.1.2.2 Credit

Studies have shown that consumers willingness-to-pay increases when they are require
to pay using a credit card rather than cash (see for example Prelec & Simester, 2001 and
Soman & Cheema, 2002). When credit becomes more available, consumers purchasing
power increases. Even the most prudent consumer who might use credit cards only
for purchasing long-lived products or just for convenience may occasionally get
tempted and spend out of their credit limits (Soman & Cheema, 2002). The pruchase of
machineries, car, houses etc, could increase an individuals or

firms enrgy

consumption.

All over the literature, the varibles used to measure credit are very similar to those used
to measure bank sector development (for example, Beck, et al., 1999; Beck & Levine,

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2004; Ang & McKibbin, 2007 and Sardosky, 2010). This is so because banks are an
inportant source of credit for firms and households . Thus measuring development in the
banking sector implies measuring the availablity and accesibilty of credit.

Two measure of credit are used. They are Private Credit By Deposit Money Banks And
Other Financial Institutions / GDP (henceforth, PC) and Domestic credit to private
sector % of GDP (henceforth, DC). DC is the financial resource provided to the private
sector, such as through loans, purchases of non-equity securities, and trade credits and
other accounts receivable. The data series are available at World Bank World
Development Indicators online database. PC is very similar to DC however it is the
claim on the private sector by deposit money banks and other institutions. PC often
argued to be a more superior measure of efficient credit allocation. Since the private
sector is able to utilize funds in a more efficient and productive manner as compared to
the public sector, the exclusion of credit to the public sector better reflects the extent of
efficient resource allocation (Ang & McKibbin, 2007). The PC series is obtainable
from Beck and Demirg-Kunt (2009).

H0: Credit does not affect energy demand


H1: Crdeit affects energy demand

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3.1.2.3 Energy price

Just like any other essentiasl comodity, the price elasticity of energy is expected to be
near zero. Following several studies such as Masih and Masih (1996) Aknlo (2008) and
Sadorsky (2010), this study includes energy price in the model to minimize simulteneity
biases in estimations. As at the time of this report, domestic energy price for Malaysia
are not accessible. To amake sure that the effect of energy price is accounted for, most
researchers use the consumer price index (CPI) as a proxy for domestic energy price.
Other use international oil prices (for example Sardosky, 2010). However recent work
by Sardosky (2011) shows that discounting international oil price by domestice CPI
might reflect similar trend with the domestic energy price. Therefore, borowing a laef
from Sardosky (2011), this proxy for energy price (henceforth, P) is generated by
dividing world oil by Malaysian cpi. The intertional oil price is used is the average
wieghted oil prices. Weighted oil prices are measured using crude petroleum, average of
UK Brent (light),Dubai (medium), and Texas (heavy), equally weighted ($/barrel). This
is then divided by consumer price index (cpi, 2005=100). Data for consumer price index
is available from World Bank World Development Indicators online database while
weighted oil price is obtained from UNCTADstat.

H0: Price does not affect energy demand


H1: Price affects energy demand

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3.2 Empirical Method

3.2.1

Model Specification

Based on the aforementioned variables, the general model used in this study is as
follows

le= f(ly,lc,lp)

(5)

where le is energy use per capita, ly is real income per capita, lc is credit variable and
lp is energy price. All series are expressed in natural logarithm.

Cognizant to the fact that two variables are used to measure credit, equation one is
decomposed into

let = 1 + 1tly + 2t ldc + 3tlp +t

(6)

let = 2+ 1tly + 2t lpc + 3tlp +t

(7)

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where lpc and ldc are

private credit by deposit money banks and other financial

institutions /GDP and domestic credit to private sector % of GDP respectively equation
6 and 7 are model 1 and model 2 repestively.

Increase in income and credit is theoritically expected to positively affect energy


demand. However, since energy is more of neccasary good than it is a normal one, it
espected that the price elasticty of energy is 0 (not significant). In other words, 1, 2, 1
and 2 are espected to have positive signs while 3 and 3 are expected to be
statistically 0.

This study employs a number of econometric procedures. Each of these prodeduresl is


aimed at measuring different aspect of the intarratcions between the dependent variable
and the independent variables. The following tests are employed.

3.2.2

Unit root test

Before analysing the interalatuionship bwteen variables, it is important to verify the


order of intgration of each data series used. This verification is called the test for unit
root. In order not to obtain spurious results, it is important to know the nature of
stationarity of the series involved, so that appropriate estimation method can be selected

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A series is said to be stationery if it reverts back to it mean. However many economic


and nancial time series exhibit trending behavior or nonstationarity in the mean. Thus,
most economic variables are non-stationary. If a non-stationary series is differenced d
times before it becomes stationary, then the series is said to be integrated of order d .
The variable is I(d). In other words, unit root tests can be used to determine if trending
data should be rst dierenced or regressed on deterministic functions of time to render
the data stationary.

This study uses two unit root test to ensure the robustness of the outcomes. The unit test
used are those proposed by

Ng-Perron (2001) and KwiatkowskiPhillipsSchmidt

Shin (1992) due to their improved finite smaple performance.

3.2.2.1 Ng Perron test

The Ng-Perron test construct four test statistics that are based upon the GLS detrended
series

. These t-statistics are modified versions of Phillips and Perron Z and Zt

statistics, the ERS Point Optimal statistic and the Bhargava (1986) R1 statistic.

(8)

Thus the GLS-detrended modified statistics may then be written as

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(9)
(

)
(

(10)

Where

(11)

Ng-Perron test requires that a specific xt and a choice for estimating f0 . The nul
hypothesis for Ng-Perron testis that the series has unit root (i.e. non-stationary). If
stattistics is less than critical value, we reject null. Otherwise, we fail to reject null.

3.2.2.2 Kwiatkowski, Phillips, Schmidt, and Shin (KPSS) test

KPSS uses a null hypothesis that the series is trend stationary. Just like Ng-Peron test It
also requires an estimator of the residual spectrum at frequency zero, and a set of
exogenous regressors. The KPSS statistic is based on the residuals from the OLS
regression of yt on the exogenous variables xt :

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yt = xt+t

(12)

therefore the LM statistic is defined as

(13)

Where f0 is an estimator of the residual spectrum at frequency zero and where S(t) is a
cumulative residual function:

(14)

Now, based on this residuals t = yt xt(0). It is obvious that the estimator used in
this calculation differs from the estimator used by GLS detrending since it is based on a
regression involving the original data, and not on the differenced series. KPSS null
hypithesis is that the series is stationery. When the LM test statistic is greater than
critical value, we reject null hypothesis. Otherwise, we fail to reject null. The reported
critical values for the LM test statistic are based upon the asymptotic results presented in
KPSS (Table 1, p. 166).

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3.2.3

Optimum lag length selection

After the test for stationarity, if all variable are integrated of order 1, then we may
proceed to investigate whether there is cointegrating vectors among the variables using
J-J test for cointegration. Howewever, it is important that we select the optimal lag
length for the equations. Although many studies use either the Akaike Information
criterion or the scwartz informatjion criterion, this studies uses a different and more
profficient approach. Fisrt, we run the equation in a VECM framwork, starting with lag
1. They residual of this regression is tested for autocorrelation. If serial correlation
foiund, we re-run the regression but this time we increase lag to 2. This continues
iteratively until we find the lag level at which the error term of the equation are devoid
of serial correlation. This lag level thus becomes the selected lag length

3.2.4

Cointegration test

Once the optimum lag length is determined, we proceed to test for the presence of
cointegrating vectors in our model using the cointegration test propoosed by Johansen
and Juselious (1990) (J-J test). Suppose a set of 3 variables, are verified to be I(1)
variables. let Zt be the vector for all 3 variables. Therefore a Vector Autoregressive
with k lags could be generrated VAR(k).

31

Zt = 1Zt-1 + 2Zt-2+ + kZt-k + t

(15)

In order to use J-J test the VAR (k) must be transformed into a VECM as follows

Zt = Zt-1 + 1Zt-1+ 2Zt-2 + k-1Zt-k-1) + t

Where

(16)

is a 3x3 matix and it contains information regarding long-run relationship. We can


decompose = where is the speed of adjustment and is the coefficient of longrun matrix. Therefore Zt-1 term is equivallent to the erroro correction term in a single
equation case and it contains n-1 vectors in a multivariate framework. we test the rank of
matrrix using both

(17)

And
(18)

32

Where r is the number coimtigrating vectors and i is the estimate value for the ith
ordered eigenvalue from the matrix. A significant non-zero eigen value indicates a
sugnificant cointegration vectior.

is a joint test of p eigenvalues.

when

, wher I = 1n.

all the

In this case, there are 4 hypotheses for both

and

test this hypotheses are

H0 : r = 0 (no cointigrating vector)


H1 : r

1 (there is atmost 1 cointigration vector).

H2: r

2 (there are atmost 2 cointigration vectors).

H3: r

3 (there are atmost 3 cointigration vectors).

These hypothesis are tested sequencially. In other word, one fail to reject H0 , one stops
there and draw conclusion that there are no cointegrating vectors. However, if H0 is
rejected, then H1 is tested. This continues until one fail to reject one hypothesis.
Rejecting all 4 hypothesis will imply a full rank of . This result is invalid becuase the
number of cointegrating vectors (r) must be less than the number of variables in the
system.

33

3.2.5

Causalities

The test for co-integration reveals whether a systematic co-movement exists among the
variabes in the long run. According to Engle and Granger (1987), if X and Y are both
non-stationary, a linear combination of X and Y would be a random walk. However, the
two variables may have the property that a particular combination of them Z=XbY is
stationary. If such a property holds true, we say that X and Y are co-integrated. If X and
Y each are non-stationary and co-integrated, then any standard Granger-causal
inferences will be invalid and a more comprehensive test of causality based on an errorcorrection model (ECM), should be adopted (Engle and Granger, 1987). One major
drawback of standard Granger causality is that it requires a differencing filter to be
included to variables that have non-stationarity propensity. Meanwhile, differencing
essentially removes any of the long-run information that can be of crucial importance to
policy designers (Masih & Masih, 1997).Therefore, ECM based granger will be used for
short-run causality inferences.

For testing long-run causilty, this study uses a new and more robust causality test
proposed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995) (hereafter, T-Y Granger). Toda and Yamamoto
(1995) identifies that, for d=1, the lag selection method is always applicable since k >
1=d. If d=2, then the method is valid unless k=1. The result of this method is valid
regardless whether a series is I(0) or I(1), co-integrated

not co-integrated of any

arbitrary order. The T-Y Granger test for a VAR(3), follows


34

(19)

Where le is energy demand, ly represnts income, lp represents energy price and lc


represents th credit variables (i.e ldc and lpc). The above system of equations is
estimated by Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR) method. For instance, to test the
whether ly does not Granger cause le in the long run, the null hypothesis will be: H0:
C(lyt-1) = C(lyt-2) = 0, Where C(lyt-1) and C(lyt-2) are the coefficients of ly lag by 1 and
2 periods consecutively, in the first equation of the system. The existence of the
causality from ly to le can be established by rejecting the above null hypothesis, which
requires finding the significance of the modified WALD statistics for lyt-1 and lyt-2. Note
that lyt-3 is left unrestricted as a long run correction mechanism. These restrictions imply
a long run causal inference since, unlike ordinary first difference VAR, this formulation
involves only variables appearing in their levels (Lau et al, 2008). The other null
hypotheses are in the same way defined.

3.2.6

Dynamic Ordinary Least Square (DOLS)

For estimiting long-run elasticties, this study uses the procedure proposed by StockWatson (1993) known as Dynamic Ordinary Least Square (DOLS). The DOLS
procedure allows for co-integrated variables as well as tackling the problem of

35

simultaneity amongst the regressors. DOLS performs well in handling small sample size
analysis. Provided all series are I(1) and are cointegrated. The potential of simultaneity
bias and small sample bias amongst the regressors is dealt with by the inclusion of
lagged and led values of the change in the regressor. The DOLS procedure follows

Where yt is the dependent variable, X is the matrix of all the independent variables. k is
the optimum lag and lead. is the coffeicient of the vector of lag and lead differenced
dependent variables. This lag and lead term included in DOLS regression have the
purpose of making its stochastic error term independent of all past innovations in
stochastic regressors. Lag and lead are selected based on Swartzt information criteria
(SIC).

3.2.7

Variance deconposition (VDC) and Impulse response Function (IRF)

According to Masih & Masih, (1997), unless the analytical tools used account for the
"dynamics" of the relationship within a temporal "causal" framework, the complexity of
the interrelationships involved may not be fully captured. The

co-intergration and

Granger causality tests used in this study only indicate the exogeneity or endogeneity of
36

the variables and suggest the direction of causality within the sample period. However,
they do not provide us with the dynamic properties of the system in post-sample period.
Therefore, the analysis of the dynamic interactions among the variables in the postsample period is conducted using variance decompositions and impulse response
functions. Impulse response functions effectively map out the dynamic response path of
a variable (i.e. income)over a selected period of time, due to a one Cholesky standard
deviation innovation of another variable (say, credit).

37

Chapter 4

Empirical Result and Discussion

4.0 Introduction

This chapter is the crux of this research. It presents the empirical analyses, results and
discusion of results. First, we performed some basic tests, i.e. descriptive statistic and
pair -wise correlation analysis before proceding with other test. Overall, about seven
analytical tools were applied. These inludes; two unit root tests, a test for cointegration,
short-run Granger causality test in VECM framework, DOLS for obtaining long-run
equation and two methods to catch a glimpse of

the post sample period.

The

interpretations of each test result are also detailed out under each subtopic.

4.1 Descriptive Statistics

Some important features of each of the data series are presented in table 4.1. This gives
a general overview of each series used in this study.

38

Table 4.1: Descriptive Statistics of Variables


le

ly

lp

ldc

lpc

Mean

7.118811

7.868220

-1.174513

4.314371

-0.332154

Median

7.067863

7.831390

-1.204641

4.532079

-0.121323

Maximum

7.898389

8.531688

-0.139142

5.068904

0.439888

Minimum

6.231607

7.069023

-2.351607

3.044522

-1.504334

Std. Dev.

0.515755

0.430829

0.542367

0.592640

0.576030

Skewness

-0.217015

-0.139995

-0.172754

-0.745159

-0.734648

Kurtosis

1.819764

1.787883

2.840479

2.300916

2.212541

Jarque-Bera

2.503785

2.450401

0.229303

4.290467

4.399958

Probability

0.285963

0.293699

0.891677

0.117041

0.110806

Sum

270.5148

298.9924

-44.63150

163.9461

-12.62184

Sum Sq. Dev. 9.842103

6.867710

10.88401

12.99521

12.27697

Observations

38

38

38

38

38

Skewness is a measure of the symmetry of a series distribution. By knowing which way


a series is skewed, one can better calculate approximately whether a given data point
will be more or less than the mean. Negative skewness implies there is a substantial
probability of a big decrease in the near future, while a positive skewness implies that
there is a greater-than-normal likelihood of a big positive increase in the future. All
series are negatively skewed. This implies that they all may decrease in the next period.

39

The median of a series will be higher than it mean if the series is negatively sloped and
vice versa. All series, except lpc and ldc have mean higher than their medians.
Kurtosis measures how outlier-prone a distribution is, that is the possibility of that one
of the observations deviate markedly from other members of the sample in which it
occurs. The kurtosis of the normal distribution is 3. Distributions that are more outlierprone (probability of deviating markedly) than the normal distribution have kurtosis
greater than 3; distributions that are less outlier-prone have kurtosis less than 3. None of
the variables have Kurtosis more than three. This implies that during our observation
period, there was no significant and sudden drop or rise in any variable. It also implies
that all variable rise and fall slowly over time.

Also, JarqueBera (J-B ) test is used to measure the series departure from normality.
Hence it is a goodness-of-fit test based on the sample kurtosis and skewness. The null
hypotheis for J-B test that a series is normally distributede. The J-B probability values
fail to reject null hypothses for each data series. Therefore all series are normally
distributed.

4.2 Pair-wise correlation betwwen variables

This preliminary correlation test weakly estimates how interelated the variables are.
Table 4.2 present the pair-wise correlation result.
40

Table 4.2: Pair-wise correlation between variables


le

ly

lp

lpc

ldc

le

ly

0.994

lp

0.283

0.285

lpc

0.907

0.898

0.157

ldc

0.909

0.810

0.168

0.996

Each series was tested for short run correlations in relations to the other series. Pair-wise
correlation shows the strength and directions of linear relationship between a pair of
series. However, correlation test does not rule out lurking variables (spurious
relationships1) The correlation result showed that in the energy and income move very
closely in the same direction. The two credit variables shows equally high correletion, in
the same direction, whith energy consumption. energy price has the lowest correlation
with energy consumption. lastly the correlation between the two credit variables (i.e.
lpc and ldc) is near pefect.

Spurious relationship is one in which two occurrences have no causal connection but appears to have
due to the presence of a third factor not included in the model thus, he spurious relationship gives an
impression of a worthy link between two groups that is invalid when objectively examined.

41

4.3 Unit root test

Most time series analysis begins with the test for staionarity. It is important to know the
order of intergration of variables in a study so that appropraite methods could be used
for futher anaylsis. Test for stationarity reveals the trend characteritics of each variable
in a model. According to DeJong, et al. (1992), the traditional ADF and PP tests are
known to have severe size distortion (in the direction of over-rejecting the null) when
the series has a large negative moving average root. To avoid this bias, we use two
relatively novel and more stringent stationarity tests to verify the order of integration of
the variables. These tests are the Ng-Perron and KPSS test proposed by Ng and Perron
(2001) and Kwiatkowski et al. (1992) respectively.

4.3.1

Ng-Perron test

Table 4.3 presents the result of the Ng-Perron unit root test. The Ng-Perron test for
stationarity includes trend and constant for both level and first difference. The null
hypothesis is rejected when the t-ststistics is greater than the assymtotic critical value..
This critical values are provided in Ng-Perron (2001, Table 1). All the variables are nonstationary (i.e the contain unit root) at level. However, they are all stationery at first
diffrence.

42

Table 4.3: Ng-Perron unit root test


Level

First difference

MZa

MZt

MSB

MPT

MZa

MZt

MSB

MPT

ly

-5.833

-1.653

0.283

15.527

-17.656**

-2.971**

0.168*

5.163**

lp

-4.719

-1.466

0.311

18.847

-17.947**

-2.982**

0.166**

5.158**

le

-11.010

-2.316

0.210

8.425

-17.104**

-2.923**

0.171*

5.337**

lpc

-4.732

-1.295

0.274

17.761

-17.085**

-2.921**

0.171*

5.342**

ldc

-1.270

-0.410

0.394

36.787

-17.979**

-2.997**

0.167**

5.073**

Note: * and ** represent significance at 5% and 1% level respectively. Null hypothesis is that there is unit
root (i.e. non-stationary).

That is they are all I(1) variables. To verify that the results of Ng-perron are valid,
KPSS test for unit root is used.

4.3.2

Kwiatkowski, Phillips, Schmidt, and Shin (KPSS) test

The null hypothesis for KPSS test is different from other unit root tests. Its null
hyptothesis is that a series is staionary. Each variable is tested twice in both level and
first differnce. First test includes only constant while the second inlcudes both constant
and trend. Table 4.4 presents the KPSS unit root test result.

43

Table 4.4: KPSS unit root test


LM-Stat
level

First difference

Constant

Constant and
trend

Constant

Constant
and trend

ly

0.745***

0.083

0.151

0.060

lp

0.141

0.113*

0.162

0.161**

le

0.738**

0.119*

0.106

0.097

lpc

0.636**

0.196**

0.451*

0.070

ldc

0.635**

0.1782**

0.453*

0.059

Note: *, **, *** represents stationarity at 10%, 5% and 1% significance level. The
null hypothesis is that a series is stationary.

The KPSS result confirm that all variables are I(1). Howerver, the order of intergration
for both income (ly) and energy price (lp) are indistinct. Therefore, it is difficut to
confidently state their order of integrations. Before we proceed, a decision has to be
made regarding the order of integration of both income and price. To avoid making a
bad judgement, Augmented Dickey Fuller (ADF) and Phillip- Perron (PP) tests are
adopted. Acording to the both PP and ADF tests in tables 4.5, all variables are I(1)s.
These correspond with the Ng-Perrons result. Therefore this study assume all variables
are I(1.)

44

Table 4.5. ADF and PP tests for unit root


Level

1st Difference

ADF

PP

ADF

PP

le

-2.692[0]

-2.655(5)

-7.374[0]***

-8.329(7)***

ly

-2.184 [0]

-2.396(3)

-5.077[0]***

-5.037(2)***

lp

-1.995[0]

-1.995(2)

-6.060[0]***

-6.060(1)***

lpc

-0.291(0)

-0.486(1)

-4.658[0]***

-4.658(0)***

ldc

-0.638[1]

-0.594[3]

-5.828(0)***

-5.840(2)***

Note:*, **, *** represents 10%, 5% and 1% significant level respectively. The figure in bracket ()
represents the Bandwidth used in the PP test selected based on Newey-West Bandwidth criterion. The
figure in parenthesis [] represents optimum lag length selected based On Schwarz information criteria
(SIC)

4.3.3

Optimum lag length selection

Following the proceedure described in chapter 3, section 3.3.3, we obtain the optimum
lag for both model. Using lag 1 for both model, the correlogram result show that there
is no autocorealtion in the resduals of the system up until lag 16. Using 5% significance
level as the benchmark. This implies that lag one is the optimal lag length for both
model and model 2. Schwarz Information Criterion (SIC) is used to corroborate this
report. Figures for both model up to lag 3. The SIC value for lag 1 is minimum. Table
4.6 contains the SICs of both model from lag 1 to lag 3.

45

Table 4.6: Optimal lag selection based on SIC


Lag

Model 1

-2.376

-2.227

-2.135

Model 2

-2.392

-2.279

-1.993

4.3.4

Cointigration test

After obtaining the optimum lag base on level corellelogram and SIC, the test for longrun cointigration is performed. Test for cointegrating vectors reveal whether a set of
variables share similar long-run features.

Table 4.7: Johansen-Juselious cointegration test (Model 1 and 2)


Hypothesized Trace Statistic
No. of CE(s)

Max-Eigen
Statistic

Critical Values
(5%)
Trace
MaxEigen

Model 1

Model 2 Model 1

Model 2

r=0

48.554*

49.104*

29.036*

29.466*

47.856

27.584

r1

19.518

19.639

14.199

13.960

29.797

21.132

r2

5.319

5.679

5.096

5.643

15.495

14.265

r3

0.223

0.036

0.223

0.036

3.842

3.842

Note: * indicates significance at 5% level. Maximum lag length selection is based Schwarz
Information Criterion.

46

The amount of cointigrating vectors (r) must be less than the amount of variables in the
system for the cointigration result to be valid. In other words, r < n . Table 4.7 presnent
the J-J cointigration result.

For both model, using but trace and max-Eigen statistics, suffecient evidences are found
to reject the first hypothesis (r = 0) at 5% significance level. But other hypothesis cannot
be rejected at 5% significance level. The rejection of this first null hypothesis indicates
that there exist cointigrating vectors btween the variables in model 1 and model 2.

4.3.5

Short-run Granger casusality and error correction term

Before running a one-equation model for the energy consumption dynamics, it is


important that we test whether estimating the one-equation ECM is valid. A oneequation modeling for the energy consumption per capita is valid if the other variables,
in the model, are weakly exogenous. This weak exogeinity test is performed by testing
the coefficients of the ECTs in Vector Error Correction (VEC). For example to test
whether income (ly) is weakly exogeinous, we test the ECT of its VEC equation; By
restrictng the ECTs coeffiecient to be equal to zero (2 test of restrictions). Table 4.8
presents the weak exogeineity test results. This result shows that 2 of the variables used
are weakly exogenious (i.e. lpc and ldc) however, the restrictions are rejected for both ly
and le. This implies that both ly and le may be endogenous. Therefore we should run
two equations for both models. However, since testing income equation is not in the
47

scope of this study, the subsequent tests ignore the income equation and proceed to run
only the energy equation using both model 1 and model 2. The importance of this test,
in essence, is to justify the endogneity of energy consumption in the equation.

Table 4.8: Weak exogeneity test


2 test of restrictions

Model 1

Model 2

ECT le =0

4.840**

4.240**

(0.028)

(0.040)

7.793***

8.893***

(0.005)

(0.003)

0.948

0.991

(0.330)

(0.320)

0.068

ECT ly =0

ECTlp =0

ECT lpc =0

(0.794)
ECT ldc =0

0.324
(0.570)

Note: ***, ** and * represent significance at 1%, 5% and 10%


level respectively. represents first differences term. Figures in
the parenthesis (...) are p-values

According to Engle and Granger (1987), if X and Y each are non-stationary and cointegrated, then any standard Granger-causal inferences will be invalid and a more
comprehensive test of causality based on an error-correction model (ECM), should be
adopted.Therefore, since all variables are I(1) and evidences of cointigration are, the

48

Granger test is done in and VECM frame work. Table 4.9 and table 4.10 contain the
results of short-run Grnager casuality tests. In mdel 1, short run causality results, reveal
that energy consumption Granger causes income in malaysia; this significant at 5%
level. Since Granger causality test is simply a test of precedence, ths result implies that
change in energy consumtpion preceed change in income the short run.

Table 4.9: Short-run Granger Causality test and ECT (Model 1)


Independent Variables
Dependent

2 -statistics of lagged 1st differenced term

ECT

Variable

le

ly

lp

ldc

(t-ratio)

1.614

0.016

0.009

-0.511**

[0.204]

[0.901]

[0.926]

(-2.180)

4.898**

0.500

0.019

0.377**

[ 0.027]

[0.479]

[0.891]

(3.009)

le

ly

lp

ldc

0.331

0.966

0.055

1.326

[0.565]

[0.326]

[0.814]

(1.102)

0.009

2.234

0.005

0.253

[0.926]

[0.135]

[0.946]

(0.564)

Note: *** and ** denotes significant at 1% and 5% significance level, respectively. The figure
in the parenthesis () denote as t-statistic and the figure in the squared brackets [] represent
as p-value.

49

Figure 4.1: Short-run Granger Causality Schematic diagram (Model1)

le

ly

There appears to be no causal relationship between credit and energy consumption in the
short run.

Table 4.10: Short-run Granger Causality test and ECT (Model 2)


Independent Variables
Dependent

2 -statistics of lagged 1st differenced term

ECT

Variable

le

ly

lp

lpc

(t-ratio)

1.308

0.095

0.478

-0.567**

[0.253]

[0.758]

[0.489]

(-2.383)

4.750**

0.582

0.613

0.374**

[0.029]

[0.446]

[0.434]

(2.861)

le

ly

lp

lpc

0.292

0.429

1.776

1.358

[0.589]

[0.513]

[0.183]

(1.116)

0.349

5.850**

0.401

-0.086

[0.555]

[0.016]

[0.527]

(-0.249)

Note: *** and ** denotes significant at 1% and 5% significance level, respectively. The figure in the
parenthesis () denote as t-statistic and the figure in the squared brackets [] represent as p-value.

50

Figure 4.2: Short-run Granger Causality Schematic diagram (Model 2)

le

ly
lpc

In model 2, similar unidiredctional Granger causality is observed between energy and


income, however, this time, it is significant at 1% level. Also, for model 2, interestingly,
income Granger causes credit (where credit is proxied using Private Credit By Deposit
Money Banks And Other Financial Institutions / GDP (lpc). Credit measure in form of
domestic credit to private sector % of GDP (ldc) does not show similar pattern of
causilty (in Model 1).

The

Error Correction Term (ECT) is the residual of the difference cointigration

equations. The ECT shows the speed and direction of adjustment to the long-run
equialibrium in the event of shock.

Therefore if the ECT of a cointigrating equation is significant, it shows that the


dependent variable of that equation changes, at the speed of the ECT, to return the
system back to long-run equilibruim. In model 1 and model 2, the ECT of both income
and energy are significant at 5% level. This implies that when the energy consumption

51

equation deviates from it long-run equilibrium, energy consumtion will change at a


speed between 51% to 58% annually and income will change at a speed between 37%
to 38% annualy to bring back the energy consumption to it steady state.

4.3.6

Long-run equation

As earlier stated, for estimating the long-run elasticity coefficients, DOLS is used due to
it effeciency at handling small sample size.

4.3.6.1 Dynamic Ordinary Least Square (DOLS)

DOLS it is applicable with the presence of endogenous regressors and error


autocorrelation. Although Stock and Watson (1993) show that DOLS is more favorable,
particularly for small size samples, compared to Vector Error Correction Model
(VECM), the VEC proceedure is carried out for corroboration purpose. Appendix B4
presents the VECM long-run results. Table 4.11 presents the

DOLS long-run

elasticities. This equations were estimated including SIC based Maximum lag and lead
method. Lag three is selected as the maximum leads and lags without altering results to
any significant degree. Trend specification is in constat level. Both models produced
very similar results. In general, result shows that a 1 unit in income is associated with
about 1.11 units increase energy consumption. Also, 1 percent increase in credit is
52

related to about 7.2% to 7.4 % percent increase in energy consumption per capita. The
price coefficient is not statisticall different from zero. This implies, as expected, that
energy price does not affect energy consumption in malaysia.

Table 4.11: DOLS long-run elasticities result


Model 1

Model 2

Constant

-1.890** (0.000)

-1.553** (0.002)

ly

1.110** (0.000)

1.110** (0.000)

lp

0.026

0.027 (0.165)

ldc

0.072* (0.087)

(0.177)

lpc

0.074* (0.084)
Summary and Diagnostic Statistics

Sum Squared residual

0.084

0.084

Adj. R2

0.99

0.99

D-W Stat

1.718

1.718

Jarque-Bera Stat.

0.003 (0.999)

0.029 (0.986)

Serial correlation test-lag


16 Q-stat

12.472 (0.711)

12.564 (0.704)

Residual unit root test

-5.450 (0.000)

-5.402 (0.001)

Note: *, **, and *** denote significant at 10%, 5%, and 1% significance level, respectively.
Figures in the parenthesis (...) are p-values and the Figures in bracket [...] are standard errors.

53

Adjusted R2 shows the goodness of fit of each model.In both models, the independent
variables jointly explain about 99% of the changed in energy consumption. The DOLS
autocorrelation test is performed by obtaining the correlogram of the equations
residuals. The null hypothesis is: no autocorrelation up to lag 16. Appendix B1 and
appendix B2 present the correlograms of DOLS resilduals and the Q-statistics of up to
lag 16. According to Choi et. al. (2008), if residual of the regression are stationary, then
the regression is not spurious. A regression is technically called a spurious regression
when its stochastic error is unit-root nonstationary. Therefore the residual unit root test
is performed using ADF t-stats with trend and intercept. Result shows that the
residuals are stationary in level.

4.3.7

T-Y non-causialty test

Estimating equation 19, T-Y

Granger non-causality tests for enrgy consumption,

income, price and credit in Malaysia was consucted. The schematic diagrams below (i.e.
Figure 4.3 and figure 4.4) sumarize the T-Y Granger non-causilty results . The full result
(in tabular form) are presented in Appendix A1 and Appendix A2

54

Figure 4.3: Summary of T-Y Granger non-causality test (Model 1)

le

ly

lp

lpc

Note:
respectively.

and

signifies significance at 10%, 5% and 1% level

Figure 4.4: Summary of T-Y Granger non-causality test (Model 2)

le

ly

lp

ldc

Note:
respectively.

and

signifies significance at 10%, 5% and 1% level

For both model, T-Y Granger result shows that income per capita Granger causes
energy in the long-run at 1% significance level. A reverse but relatively weaker long-run
Granger causality is observable from energy to income. Domestic credit to private sector
55

Grnager causes energy in the long-run at 5% level. However, bank credit to the private
sector does not Granger cause energy in the long run. Interestingly, credit seem to
Granger cause energy price at 1% significant level.

4.3.8

Post sample period Dynamics

Prior tests are essentially restricted to the sample period used. Therefore, they are unable
to verify the degree of exogeneity of the variables beyond the sample period. Since cointegration test shows that r 0, Variance Decomposition (VDC) and Impulse Response
Functions (IRFs) approaches based on a vector autoregressive (VAR) are used to
explore relative importnace of income and credit to energy consumption in Malaysia.

4.3.9

Decomposition (Factorization) Method selection

Before proceeding with VDC and IRF it is important select the appropriate
decomposition method. This is done by observing the residual correlation matrix (in
VAR framework). Table 4.12 and Table 4.13 present the residual corelation matrix for
both models.

56

Table 4.12: Residual correlation Coefficients (Model 1)


le

ly

lp

ldc

le

1.000000

ly

0.553955

1.000000

lp

0.252037

0.323853

1.000000

ldc

0.156752

-0.131863

-0.321240

1.000000

Table 4.13: Residual correlation Coefficients (Model 2)


le

ly

lp

lpc

le

1.000000

ly

0.550240

1.000000

lp

0.236533

0.307924

1.000000

ldc

0.020649

-0.363924

-0.265146

1.000000

If at least one residual correlation matrix is higher than 0.5 2, we use Cholesky
decomposition method to order the variables from the most endogenous to the least
endogenous. Cholesky decomposition method restricts the off diagonal values of the
coefficient matrix to zero. If none of the coefficients is higher than 0.5. In this case
Cholesky decomposition method is employed because the correlation between energy
and income is high.

The 0.5 yardstick is a selected based on a simple rule of thump above average correlation coefficient is
assumed to be high correlation.

57

4.3.10 Variance Decomposition Composition (VDC)

Sims (1980) notes that if a variable is truly exogenous with respect to the other variables
in the system, own innovations will explain all of the variables forecast error variance
Appendix C1 and Appendix C2 contain the Variance decomposition outcomes. Both
models show very similar VDC results. Over all, le,lp, lpc and ldc are the most
exogenous variable - a high proportion of their shocks are explained largely by their own
innovations compared to the contributions of the innovations from other variables. In
both models income (ly) was exogenous in the first three post sample period. However,
energy (le) the contribution of innovation in energy consumption to income becomes
larger than the innovation in income itself, for other 7 periods. the At the end of the 10
years period, the forecast error variances for le, ly, lp, lpc and ldc explained by their own
innovation are 86%, 33%, 47% and 74%, respectively, in model 1.

For model 2 the forecast error variances for le, ly, lp and lpc are 80%, 36%, 79% and
68%. Reagarding the level of importnace of income and credit in explaining future
movement of energy consumption in Malaysia, income is more important because it
explains about 19 to 26 percent of the energy forecast error variance, while credit
explain only 0.2 to 7 percent of energy forecast error variance, at the end of the post
sample period.

58

4.3.11 Impulse Responce Functions (IRFs)

An alternative method of obtaining information about the post-sample period


relationships amongst the variables is the impulse response functions.An impulse
response function is when the independent variable goes up one unit in one period and
then back down to zero in the next period. Appendix C3 presents the impulse response
graphs for energy and income. Again, both mmodel;s show very similar results. The
results show that energy only responds to shock in income and itself. A positive shock
in income will increase energy consumption consitently for about 2 periods after which
the effect will remain constant for a few more periods. Shocks in credit do not seem to
trigger any significant response in energy consumption. The same scenario holds for
income income also responds only to positive shocks from itself and energy
consumption. A

sudden increase in

energy consumption will trigger an upward

movement in income per capita for about 3 periods. This increase levels up but does not
revert back to it pre-shock level. None of the shocks from credit variables trigers any
response in income per capita.

4.4

Concluding Remarks

Although the above empirics sure that both income and bank credit are important factors
of energy demand in Malaysia, income repeatedly comes forth as more important than

59

credit for malaysia energy consumption modelling. Price consistently proved to be


statistically insignificant.

60

Chapter 5

Policy recommendations and Conclusion

5.0 Introduction

First, the objectives this research are also revisited. Furthermore, this chapter presents
viable policy recommendations based on the findings of the research and suggestions for
future research are made. Lastly, this chapter presents a short conslusion for the
research.

5.1 Objectives Revisited

In the first chapter of this thesis, the general and specific objectives of this research are
clearly stated. These objectives form the scope of this research. Thus, after performing
the necceassary econometric anylisis, it important that we verify whether the objectives
of the research have been met.

61

5.1.1

First objective

The first objective was to investigate the relationship between bank credit and energy
consumption. This objective was achieved in a number of ways. This include using the
DOLS method for estimating the long-run elasticities, short-run Granger causality in
VEC frame work and T-Y Ganger non-causality test for long-run causality inferences.
Overall, this research was able to establish that, for Malaysia, bank credit (especially
when measured by domestic credit to private sector) is an important factor for energy
consumption in the long run. Post sample period analysis (specifically, VDC) reveal that
bank credit is more important than energy price in determining future movements in
energy consumption. The relationship between credit and energy is positive in the longrun. Neither short run relationship nor causality is observable between credit and energy
consumption.

5.1.2

Second objective

The second specific objective is to investigate

the relationship between income

and energy consumption. This was done in the same manner as the first objective.
Overall, income plays the most important role in determining energy consumption for
Malaysia. DOLS reports that the association between energy and income is positive and
significant. Granger casualty tests also reveal that in that energy causes income in the
short run but income causes energy in the long-run. These flows of causalities are found
62

to be highly significant. Post sample period analysis also shows that income is the most
important determinant of future movement in energy consumption. A sudden positive
shock in income will stimulate a positive and long-lasting response in energy
consumption. Although this is out of the scope of this research, weak erogeneity test and
VDC result show that a large part of income is also determined by energy consumption.

5.1.3

Third objective

Lastly, the third objective of this research is to determine the relative importance of bank
credit and income in determining energy demand consumption for Malaysia. This can
easily be determined by observing the DOLS, VDC and impulse response functions. In
all three tests, income consistently showed up as the more important determinant of
energy consumption in Malaysia.

5.2 Policy recommendations

Malaysia is an emerging economy for which previous research suggests that its bank
activities are negligible when modelling her energy demand. However, this study finds
that this is not applicable in Malaysia. Therefore, modelling energy demand without
including credit as a factor could lead to underestimation and inaccurate energy demand
forecast for Malaysia.
63

Unlike what Kraft and Kraft (1978) find for the United States, we find that income
contributes to energy demand in Malaysia. Given that income and bank development
have high and positive relationships with energy consumption and that energy price does
not produce response in energy demand, the laymans thought will be that policymakers
are now to choose between opposing choices. Meaning that policymakers could either
implement policies that stimulate the economy by increasing income and creating credit
while facing the risk of sharp increasing energy consumption, or they could choose to
introduce more contractionary policies to reduce energy consumption.

However, there are other alternatives. Policymakers do not have to sacrifice economic
growth to control energy consumption. Instead, they could sensitize and encourage firms
and households to adopt energy saving practices such as using energy efficient machines
that provide same or better goods and services with less energy use and turning off lightbubs and appliances which are unused at any moment. Also, firms can be encouraged to
adopt power saving techniques. One way to encourage firms to be energy efficient is
through by improving the quality rating methodology. Quality rating organisations and
awards organisations should include energy efficiency in the list of criteria for rating
firms and their products. Studies have shown that awards and ratings do have effects on
firms performances [see, for example, Hegan (2000); Barrat and Hatton (2004) and
Azedegan and Dinesh (2008)]. In the attempt for better energy efficiency, public
sensitization is indispensable.

64

In addition, Policymakers should consider implementing selective credit allocation


based on energy efficiency in production. This implies that, more credit will not only be
allocated to productive sectors but also to energy efficient sectors. This can promote an
energy-saving culture. However, further research on the possible repercussion of this
policy on economic growth and development should be explored.
Overall, price of energy is not statistically significant. This implies that Malaysians are
indifferent to changes in energy price. Malaysia has one of the biggest fuel-subsidy
accounts in the world (The Economist, 2008). Therefore, the effects of international oil
price fluctuations are well cushioned by the heavy fuel subsidy. Another possible
explanation to why price elasticity is insignificant could be that the proxy used for
energy price is not adequate.

5.3 Suggestions for future study

This study establishes that credit and income are very important determinants of energy
consumption in malaysia. Therefore, a good way to extend this study will be to
decompose credit and income into different economic sectors (for example,
manufacturing , service, finance and agricultural secotrs). Measuring credit allocated to
different sectors of the economy differently and estimiting which of the sectors credit
affect energy consumption the most will be very useful for policymaker.

65

Also, price is found to be insignificant in most of the results. The only instance were
price seem to have an interaction with any other variable (i.e credit) is in the long-run TY Granger non-causality. One possible reason for this unusual result is that the proxy
used does not fully capture the price effect. Future research could also focus on finding
a better proxy for domestic energy price.

5.4 Conclusion

Until recently, studies on energy demand have focused on the income-energy nexus.
Therefore, number of published works focusing on the probable effects of other
macroeconomic variables is very little. This study contributes to the energy literature by
presenting a bank-energy-nexus case for Malaysia.

Previous research done on a panel of emerging countries suggests that bank


development does not influence energy consumption. However, this study, using robust
econometric tools such as DOLS, T-Y Granger non-causality and other post sample
methods on time-series data, finds that credit and income do influence energy
consumption in positive and statistically significant ways.

Therefore, forecasting energy demand without including bank development and energy
consumption variables might produce inaccurate results for Malaysia. In trying to curb
66

energy misuse, improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse emission, Malaysian
policymakers may find it harder to achieve these goals if development in the banking
sector is not factored into their policy model.

67

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72

APPENDIX A1

T-Y Granger Non-causality results (Model 1)


null Hypothesis

Wald
Statistics

PValue

Decision

10.48637

0.0053

Reject

0.629803

0.7299

fail to Reject

6.365568

0.0415

Reject

8.420636

0.0148

Reject

4.554392

0.1026

fail to Reject

6.158856

0.0460

Reject

1.633244

0.4419

fail to Reject

4.556312

0.1025

fail to Reject

12.99452

0.0015

Reject

0.172555

0.9173

fail to Reject

2.070926

0.3551

fail to Reject

0.268228

0.8745

fail to Reject

Note: ***, **,* indicates 1%, 5% and 10% significance level, respectively.
does not granger cause.

represents

Effects Of Other Variables On Energy


Consumption
H01: LY

LE

H02: LP

LE

H03: LDC
LE
Effects Of Other Variables On Income
H05: LE

LY

H06: LP

LY

H07: LDC
LY
Effect Of Other Variables On Energy Price
H09: LE

LP

H10: LY

LP

H11: LDC

LP

Effect Of Other Variables On Credit


H13: LE

LDC

H14: LY

LDC

H15: LP

LDC

73

APPENDIX A2

T-Y Granger Non-causality results (Model 2)


null Hypothesis
Effects Of Other Variables On Energy
Consumption
H01: LY

LE

H02: LP

LE

H03: LPC
LE
Effects Of Other Variables On Income
H05: LE

LY

H06: LP

LY

H07: LPC
LY
Effect Of Other Variables On Energy
Price
H09: LE

LP

H10: LY

LP

H11: LPC

LP

Wald Statistics

P-Value

Decision

6.992938

0.0082

Reject

0.071456

0.7892

fail to Reject

1.151120

0.2833

fail to Reject

1.323625

0.2499

fail to Reject

3.144967

0.0762

Reject

3.817958

0.0507

Reject

0.078480

0.7794

fail to Reject

0.066984

0.7958

fail to Reject

6.891180

0.0087

0.007698

0.9301

fail to Reject

5.044944

0.0247

Reject

0.595190

0.4404

fail to Reject

Reject

Effect Of Other Variables On Credit


H13: LE

LPC

H14: LY

LPC

H15: LP

LPC

Note: ***, **,* indicates 1%, 5% and 10% significance level, respectively.
not Granger cause.

represents does

74

APPENDIX B1

DOLS Residuals Correlograms

Model 1
Date: 05/20/12 Time: 16:40
Sample: 1971 2008
Included observations: 37
Autocorrelation

Partial Correlation

AC

PAC

Q-Stat

Prob

0.104

. |*.

. |*.

0.104

0.4325

0.511

.*| .

.*| .

-0.106 -0.118 0.8932

0.640

.*| .

.*| .

-0.159 -0.138 1.9646

0.580

.*| .

.*| .

-0.110 -0.095 2.4974

0.645

.*| .

.*| .

-0.150 -0.171 3.5142

0.621

.*| .

**| .

-0.175 -0.210 4.9360

0.552

. |*.

. |*.

0.128

0.091

5.7296

0.572

. |*.

.|.

0.133

0.014

6.6039

0.580

.*| .

.*| .

-0.101 -0.200 7.1331

0.623

.*| .

.*| .

10 -0.159 -0.178 8.4867

0.581

.*| .

11 -0.051 -0.101 8.6293

0.656

12 0.127

9.5621

0.654

.|.

. |*.
.|.

|
|

. |*.
.|.
.*| .

|
|
|

.|.

|
|
|

0.056

.*| .

13 -0.030 -0.102 9.6174

0.725

. |*.

14 0.171

0.132

11.443

0.651

.*| .

15 0.017

-0.142 11.463

0.719

.*| .

16 -0.121 -0.190 12.472

0.711

75

APPENDIX B2

DOLS Residuals Correlograms

Model 2

Date: 05/20/12 Time: 17:04


Sample: 1972 2008
Included observations: 37
Autocorrelation

Partial Correlation

AC

PAC

Q-Stat

Prob

0.107

. |*.

. |*.

0.107

0.4590

0.498

.*| .

.*| .

-0.137 -0.150 1.2351

0.539

.*| .

.*| .

-0.186 -0.159 2.7073

0.439

.*| .

.*| .

-0.132 -0.121 3.4682

0.483

.*| .

.*| .

-0.131 -0.167 4.2401

0.515

.*| .

.*| .

-0.131 -0.194 5.0402

0.539

. |*.

.|.

0.112

0.042

5.6456

0.582

. |*.

.|.

0.152

0.025

6.7986

0.559

.*| .

.*| .

-0.078 -0.180 7.1094

0.626

.*| .

.*| .

10 -0.152 -0.171 8.3463

0.595

.*| .

11 -0.059 -0.101 8.5389

0.664

12 0.119

0.042

9.3498

0.673

.|.

. |*.
.|.

|
|

. |*.
.|.
.*| .

|
|
|

.|.

.*| .

13 0.019

-0.070 9.3722

0.744

. |*.

14 0.176

0.153

11.317

0.661

.*| .

15 -0.028 -0.150 11.370

0.726

.*| .

16 -0.132 -0.155 12.564

0.704

76

Appendix C1

Variance Decomposition results

Model 1
Variance Decomposition of LENERGY:
Period

S.E.

le

0.062782

ly

lp

ldc

100.0000 0.000000

0.000000

0.000000

0.078038

86.10940 13.80158

0.041931

0.047091

0.089822

77.79528 21.74567

0.072223

0.386829

0.101264

75.48184 23.16581

0.099157

1.253195

0.111949

73.79412 23.83162

0.099216

2.275042

0.121587

71.83567 24.78427

0.099015

3.281042

0.130517

70.02089 25.59676

0.107006

4.275339

0.138936

68.48189 26.15264

0.124398

5.241070

0.146892

67.15652 26.54997

0.151235

6.142270

10

0.154412

66.00074 26.85477

0.188256

6.956236

77

Variance Decomposition of LINCOME:


Period

S.E.

le

ly

lp

ldc

0.035268

29.90837

70.09163

0.000000

0.000000

0.051663

35.35960

60.48270

1.961817

2.195877

0.065211

46.14394

47.42444

2.014097

4.417531

0.076624

51.68063

40.72328

1.884407

5.711687

0.086117

53.56495

38.14913

1.783342

6.502577

0.094538

54.43087

36.71716

1.734010

7.117958

0.102286

55.06878

35.57023

1.708019

7.652968

0.109477

55.52343

34.66588

1.693757

8.116936

0.116177

55.81670

33.97833

1.689706

8.515269

10

0.122460

56.01146

33.43601

1.694875

8.857652

78

Appendix C1

Variance Decomposition results

MODEL 2

Variance Decomposition of LENERGY:


Period S.E.

le

ly

lp

lpc

0.061841

100.0000

0.000000

0.000000

0.000000

0.079878

87.22429

12.59619

0.179372

0.000146

0.091587

82.68886

17.08825

0.152273

0.070620

0.102568

82.47396

17.23755

0.136831

0.151665

0.112714

82.09237

17.59609

0.113790

0.197755

0.121747

81.44767

18.22601

0.097802

0.228527

0.130074

81.00643

18.65524

0.086438

0.251884

0.137934

80.71080

18.94252

0.077482

0.269195

0.145381

80.46355

19.18373

0.070212

0.282503

10

0.152460

80.25502

19.38729

0.064290

0.293401

79

Variance Decomposition of LINCOME:


Period S.E.

le

ly

lp

lpc

0.033884

30.09883

69.90117

0.000000

0.000000

0.050262

34.15538

61.35829

2.299829

2.186502

0.063245

43.44376

48.17312

3.437528

4.945587

0.074047

47.70345

41.96338

3.510185

6.822984

0.082868

48.64788

39.78180

3.482437

8.087877

0.090511

48.94402

38.60371

3.489063

8.963211

0.097489

49.21361

37.72592

3.493119

9.567346

0.104004

49.42316

37.08410

3.491523

10.00123

0.110141

49.58144

36.59317

3.491590

10.33380

10

0.115959

49.71709

36.18961

3.493036

10.60027

80

Appendix C3
Model 1

Model 2
Response of LE to LY

Response of LE to LY
.08

.08

.06

.06

.04

.04
.02

.02

.00

.00

-.02

-.02

-.04

-.04
-.06

-.06
-.08
1

-.08
1

10

10

Response of LE to LP

Response of LE to LP
.08

.08

.06

.06

.04

.04

.02

.02
.00

.00

-.02

-.02

-.04

-.04

-.06

-.06

-.08

-.08
1

10

Response of LE to LDC

10

Response of LE to LPC

.08

.08

.06

.06

.04

.04

.02

.02

.00

.00

-.02

-.02

-.04

-.04

-.06

-.06

-.08

-.08
1

10

10

81

Response of LY to LE

Response of LY to LE

.08

.06

.06

.04
.04
.02

.02

.00

.00

-.02
-.04

-.02
-.06
-.08

-.04
1

10

10

Response of LY to LP

Response of LY to LP
.08

.06

.06

.04
.04
.02

.02

.00

.00

-.02
-.04

-.02
-.06
-.08

-.04
1

10

Response of LY to LDC

10

Response of LY to LPC

.08

.06

.06
.04
.04
.02

.02

.00
.00

-.02
-.04

-.02
-.06
-.08

-.04
1

10

10

82

BIODATA OF THE STUDENT


Although, my family and friends call me Ola, my full name is Samson Olayiwola
Akinfenwa. I am a Nigerian by birth.
I obtained my first degree in International Economics from Multimedia University
Malaysia (MMU). This was in December, 2010. During my undergraduate studies I had
the privilege to do a four months internship with the universitys office of strategic
management.
Immediately after my first degree, I enroll for a masters programmme at Universiti
Putra Malaysia in January, 2011.

This thesis is part of the requirements for this

programme.
My career objective is to secure a promising position of leadership in an intensive
research and knowledge based organization or institute.

83