You are on page 1of 8

# SISTEMAS DE TELECOMUNICAES NA AERONUTICA

(STAER1132)
VERSO 0.4B, 2012.03.26

WORKING PRINCIPLES
1.
a.
b.

## Depict the block diagram of an elementary pulsed radar system.

Describe each block functionality.

2.

3.

4.

## Regarding a primary radar system,

a. What is a secondary return echo?
b. What is a double echo?
c. In what circumstances can they occur?
d. Is it possible to eliminate these effects? How?

5.

Calculate MUR (Maximum Usable Range) of a pulsed radar system. Express your result in
nautical miles (nm).

1.

Present a taxonomy for radar systems. Explain the criteria used in such classification.

2.

Compare the working principles of a primary radar system (e.g. pulsed radar) and a
secondary surveillance radar (ground station, or interrogator, and transponder).

PFA

1.

Calculate the maximum range of a radar based on the following assumptions: plane wave
and far-field.

2.

What is the effect of the receiver sensitivity in the radar maximum range?

3.

To increase the radar maximum range is it advisable to increase significantly the signal
power? And what about antenna directionality? Why?

4.

Is it possible for a secondary radar system to have a greater range than a primary system (for
the same ground station location)?

5.

6.

## What are the implications of the Friss formulation?

7.

The first stage of a two-stage amplifier has a voltage gain of 10, a 600 input resistor, a
1600 equivalent noise resistance and a 27 k output resistance. For the second stage,

## these values are 25 (voltage gain), 81 k, 10 k and 1 M, respectively. Calculate the

equivalent input noise resistance of this two-stage amplifier [2518,5 ]

8.

## The following equivalent schema represents the association of an antenna and a

LNA (Low Noise Amplifier). Calculate the noise figure of this setting (F).
b. The LNA is a two-stage amplifier with the following parameters. First stage:
voltage gain 10, amplifier thermal equivalent noise resistance 16 , input resistance
6 and output resistance 270 . Second stage: voltage gain 25, amplifier thermal
equivalent noise resistance 100 , input resistance 810 and output resistance 10
k. The antenna has a 50 resistance. Calculate the noise figure and noise
temperature. [5,7 and 1363 K]
a.

R'

Vi
V

9.

Based on the Friss formulation select from the following scenarios the most appropriate
when tacking into consideration the noise rejection factor.
a. Place a preamplifier (high voltage gain, g, and low generated noise) between the
b. Place a transmission line (introduce power loss, l) between the antenna and the
c. Introduce a chain of amplifier/transmission line (each set with g.l equal to one)
between the antenna and the receiver.

10. Calculate the minimum receivable signal in a radar receiver which has an IF bandwidth of
1.5 MHz and a 9 dB noise figure. [4.17 10 ]
11. Calculate the maximum range of a radar system which operates at 3 cm with a peak power
of 500 kW, if its minimum receivable power is 10 , the capture area of its antenna is
5  , and the radar cross-sectional area of the target is 20  . [360 ]
12. A low-power, short-range radar is solid-state throughout, including a low noise RF amplifier

which gives it an overall noise figure of 4.77 dB. If the antenna diameter is 1 m, the IF
bandwidth is 500 kHz, the operating frequency is 8 GHz and the radar set is supposed to be

PFA

## capable of detecting targets of 5  cross-sectional area at a maximum of 12 km, what must

be the peak transmitted pulse power? Use  

,

. [1.1 ]

13. Calculate the maximum range of a deep-space radar operating at 2.5 GHz and using a peak
pulse power of 25 MW. The antenna diameter is 64 m, the target cross section 1  and the

receiver noise figure is 1.1. Furthermore, because of the low PRF to allow pulses to return
from long distances (and thus the wide pulses used), the receiver bandwidth is only 5 kHz.

Use  

,

## . [132 700   ! " #!\$% &]

1.

Draw the block diagram of a basic radar set, and explain the essentials of its operation.

2.

A radar is to have a maximum usable range (MUR) of 60 km. What is the maximum
allowable pulse repetition frequency (PRF) for unambiguous reception? [800 (#]

3.

Why the superheterodyne receiver needs to reject the image frequency? How this
frequency relates with the intermediate frequency (IF) of the receiver?

4.

## Complete the following sentence: A high PRF will

increase the maximum range
make the returned echoes easier to distinguish from noise
improve the tracking accuracy
[A high PRF will make the returned echoes easier to distinguish from noise]
a.
b.
c.

5.

## If an echo is received at 1,5 ) *+, then

a. it will interfere with the radar transmitter
c. the target will be misplaced, it will be placed nearer than it actually is
d. the target will be misplaced, it will be placed farther than it actually is
Explain your answer [If an echo is received at 1,5 ) *+, then the target will be misplaced, it
will be placed nearer than it actually is]

6.

Explain the working principle of a moving target indicator (MTI) radar system.

7.

In the context of MTI systems why the Doppler effect occurs twice? Is the Doppler effect
noticeable if a target moves in a tangential (non-radial) motion

8.

With the aid of a block diagram, explain fully the operation of a moving target indicator

9.

## In a MTI radar the frequency coherent oscillator is equal to the

a. intermediate frequency
c. PRF
[intermediate frequency]

10. Explain what is meant by the term blind speed in MTI radar. Under what conditions could

this be an embarrassment?
11. What is a method of overcoming the problems of blind speeds in analog radars?
a. to change the Doppler frequency
b. to vary the PRF
c. to use monopulse
PFA

## [to vary the PRF]

12. A MTI radar operates at 5 GHz, with a PRF of 800 pps. Calculate the lowest three blind
speeds of this radar. [172,8 /., 345,6 /. 518,4 /.]
13. Complete the following sentence: A secondary radar does not
a. identify the target (equipped with an active transponder/beacon radar)
b. it not used for navigation purposes
c. increases the coverage area of the main radar system
d. improves the accuracy of the target location
[improves the accuracy of the target location]
14. In the context of a transponder/beacon radar, what are the functionalities of mode A and C?
15. Mode S supports two distinct ways to send the interrogations. Describe them. With this

## functionality is it possible to achieve greater performance in this mode when comparing

16. Calculate the maximum active tracking range of a deep space radar operating at (ground

station) 2.5 GHz and using a peak pulse power of 0.5 MW, with an antenna diameter of
64 , a noise figure of 1.1 and a 5 kHz bandwidth. The target (beacon) antenna diameter is
1 , its noise figure is 13 dB and it transmits a peak pulse power of 50 W. Use  
[73,4 10   ! " #!\$% &]

,

17. Check all the correct sentences. Compared with other types of radar, phase array radar has

a. very fast scanning
b. ability to track and scan simultaneously
c. ability to track and scan multiple targets simultaneously
[All]

PFA

1.

2.

## What is the meaning of linear polarization? Horizontal polarization? What is the

importance of the antenna polarization (use plane wave assumption)?

3.

What is the importance of antenna directivity? Discuss this concept in the context of radars
systems.

4.

In radar systems the relation between the antenna diameter and the wavelength of the EMW
/ 0& is high. In this context which of the following statements is false?
a. Such relation provides a high value for MUR.
b. Such relation provides greater tracking accuracy.
c. Such relation reduces the radar search ability.
d. Such relation increases the coverage area.
[Such relation increases the coverage area]

5.

What is the meaning of reflection, refraction and interference? Present use cases for
each of these phenomenon.

6.

Complete the following sentence: The target effective area does not depend on
a. the operating frequency.
b. the target building materials.
c. the target geometry.

## [the operating frequency]

7.

In what ways do the atmospheric conditions limit the propagation of EMW? Does this
condition impacts on radar systems performance? How?

8.
a.
b.

9.

## Describe the main propagation mode up to 30 MHz.

What is the meaning of "scattering"? How this phenomenon affects the EMW
reception?

What is the meaning of standing-waves? How can they occur in adapted antennas?

10. Comment on the following: In a half-wave antenna the Hertzian dipole behaves like a
resonant circuit
11. What are the parameters that shape the radiation pattern?
12. How is the directive gain of a half-wave antenna altered when:
a. its length is increased.
b. the antenna is matched with a proper load.
13. Comment on the following: In some settings the Marconi antenna behaves as a Hertzian
dipole
14. Describe the radiation pattern changes in a half-wave antenna under the following array
configurations.
a. Yagi-Uda with 3 elements: Reflector, Radiator and Director.
15. Identify which of the following antennas are adapted. Draw their radiation pattern.
a. Rhombic
b. Hertzian dipole
[Rhombic]
16. Describe the working principles of a parabolic reflector under the assumption of uniform
illumination
17. What is the purpose of secondary reflectors in the context of parabolic reflectors?
18. The use of secondary reflectors obstruct (partially) the main reflector. How can this be

overcome?
19. List the most common antenna scanning patterns used by radar systems to search objects.
20. After a target has been acquired which of the following methods is the most effective to

track it
a.
b.
c.
d.

Nodding

Spiral
Conical
Helical

[Conical]
21. If the target cross section is changing which of the following methods is the most effective

## to track the target

a. Single pulse
b. Spiral
c. Conical

PFA

d. Lobe switching
[Single pulse]

PFA

FORMULAS
*+,
1
23+ 
)

2
12,34
AB  *+C

* 4 5%675\$6

12,34

)0
2

* *7;# <5.&
*+,
*65%<\$ <\$

*65%<\$ @<\$
75: " %:%; 

RANGE EQUATION
DE 

DPBR 

*JKH
NJS
V

 T

*FEGHIJKFKLG&
4MN 


*E
O*F



4MN  4MN  & PQ 
*F

 

4MNJS
0 PQ 

*F
  

4M0 , XYC " 1& PQ 

DE 

NJS
V

O

 T

 , 4

4M
0

*F
  
4M0 *JH PQ 

+P^  + 4

,P^

O*F
4MN  

+
+
4_
4 
  ) 

,
,
4
4_
b b ) b

,H
b bH

*E 
*PBR 

O*F

4MN  PQ

*F
 
4MN 0 PQ 

##  1,38 10 Z\ , ,  290\

C 14

`
+G 4 +F &+P^

+G ) +F

C  C 4

a14

`
+P^
+G

C " 1 C " 1
4
4_
b
b ) b
CH " 1
4
b bH

d

e gEJI   (
h
f EJI 
i

1,257 ) 10
(
l  T
T
i
8,854 ) 10

 377

e

60MstHF u
sin p
0N

/ 
O  6{ | ,/ z 0
0

PFA

0

% 3 10j

Y
Y

23C 
stHF 

YBEKFKBG
cos p

3 x 10j
0,95
Y

k .)Y

a 6,62 10 ) Y
 F 4 E  4qrF 4 4qrE

y

700
,/ z 0
s/

PFA

UNIT

INCH (in)

0,0254

FEET (ft)

0,3048

MILE (mi)

1 609

1 852

1 828,8