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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

A. BACKGROUND
Imagine a loop in the plane of the paper. You push the north pole into the loop (into the
page), thus increasing the flux into the page. The induced magnetic field will oppose
that increase and thus point out of the page. What direction of induced current would
create a magnetic field pointing out of the page? If you do the same thing with the
south pole of the magnet, the opposite will occur--since now you are increasing the flux
out of the page. Mengapa itu bias terjadi ? Which way must the induced magnetic field point
in order to oppose that change in flux per Lenz's law?

From this simple example being, we done this experiment to membuktikan lebih lanjut
lagi mengenai hubungan antara perubahan fluks magnet dengan arah arus dan ggl
induksi. So from this experiments , we will know the used of lenz law and understand the
concept of stored magnetic energy in an inductor.

B. SUMMARY OF EXPERIMENT
There are two parts of this experiment. First we only use galvanometer, magnet and
coil, then we creating position of bar magnet parallel to coil hold one of magnetic polar
into the coil. And second, we string up the circuit by using galvanometer, battery (as
source of electrical current) and double of coil. Then Creating position of bar magnet
parallel to coil using iron as conductor into the coil.
In this experiment we can found that the needle of galvanometer will deviate and the
direction of the induce current opposite from the magnetic flux.

C. PROBLEMS
According to above background can be taken by the following problem :

Bagaimana untuk mengetahui hubungan antara perubahan fluks magnet dengan


arah arus dan ggl induksi ?

D. PURPOSE
The purpose of this experiment is :
untuk mengetahui hubungan antara perubahan fluks magnet dengan arah arus
dan ggl induksi

CHAPTER II
SUPPORTING THEORIES

Lenz law states that There is an induced current in a closed conducting loop if and only if the
magnetic flux through the loop is changing. The direction of the induced current is such that
the induced magnetic field always opposes the change in the flux.

If the field of the bar magnet is already in the loop and the magnet is removed, the induced
current is in the direction that tries to keep the field constant

Reason for Opposing, Cause of Induced Current in Lenz's Law?


As stated above Lenz law obeys the law of conservation of energy and if the direction of the
magnetic field that creates the current and the magnetic field of the current in a conductor are in
same direction, then these two magnetic field would add up and produce the current of twice the

magnitude and this would in turn creates more magnetic field, which cause more current and this
process continues on and on and thus leads to violation of the law of conservation of energy.
If the induced current creates a magnetic field which is equal and opposite to the direction of
magnetic field that creates it, then only it can resist the change in the magnetic field in the area
which is in accordance to the Newton's third law of motion

Explanation of Lenz's Law


For understanding Lenz's law consider two cases :
CASE-I When a magnet is moving towards the coil.

When the north pole of the magnet is approaching towards the coil, the magnetic flux linking the
coil increases. According to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, when there is change in
flux, an emf and hence current is induced in the coil and this current will creates its own
magnetic field . Now according to Lenz law, this magnetic field created will oppose its own
cause or we can say opposes the increase in flux through the coil and this is possible only if
approaching coil side attains north polarity, as we know similar poles repel each other. Once we
know the magnetic polarity of the coil side, we can easily determine the direction of the induced
current by applying right hand rule. In this case the current flows in anticlockwise direction.
CASE-II When a magnet is moving away from the coil

When the north pole of the magnet is moving away from the coil, the magnetic flux linking the
coil decreases. According to Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction, an emf and hence
current is induced in the coil and this current will creates its own magnetic field . Now according
to Lenz's law, this magnetic field created will oppose its own cause or we can say opposes the
decrease in flux through the coil and this is possible only if approaching coil side attains south
polarity, as we know dissimilar poles attract each other. Once we know the magnetic polarity of
the coil side, we can easily determine the direction of the induced current by applying right hand
rule. In this case the current flows in clockwise direction.
NOTE : For finding the directions of magnetic field or electric current use Right hand thumb rule
i.e if the fingers of the right hand are placed around the wire so that the thumb points in the
direction of current flow, then the curling of fingers will show the direction of the magnetic field
produced by the wire.

Right hand thumb rule


The Lenz law can be summarized as under:
If the magnetic flux linking a coil increases, the direction of current in the coil will be such
that it oppose the increase in flux and hence the induced current will produce its flux in a
direction as shown below (using right hand thumb rule).

If magnetic flux linking a coil is decreasing, the flux produced by the current in the coil is
such that it aid the main flux and hence the direction of current is as shown below

Application of Lenz's Law


Lenz law can be used to understand the concept of stored magnetic energy in an inductor.
When a source of emf is connected across an inductor, a current starts flowing through it. The
back emf will oppose this increase in current through the inductor. In order to establish the flow
of current, the external source of emf has to do some work to overcome this opposition. This
work done by the emf is stored in the inductor and it can be recovered after removing the
external source of emf from the circuit
This law indicates that the induced emf and the change in flux have opposite signs which
provide a physical interpretation of the choice of sign in Faraday's law of induction.
Lenz's law is also applied to electric generators. When an electric current is induced in a
generator, the direction of this induced current is such that it opposes its cause i.e rotation of
generator (as in accordance to Lenz's law) and hence the generator requires more mechanical
energy. It also provides back emf in case of electric motors.
Lenzs law is also used in electromagnetic braking and induction cook tops.

CHAPTER III
EXPERIMENT METHOD

A. DESIGN FOR EXPERIMENT


From this experiment that we have done , we can drawing the design of experiment like
this , with the different of
B. TOOLS AND MATERIAL
C. VARIABLE
D. PROCEDURES