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English for Bussiness

Do and Other Auxiliaries for Emphasis

Presented by: Group 2


Jeanne Isbeanny L

(1113095000007)

Zikri Chairulisan

(1113095000011)

Amelia Rakhmaniar

(1113095000012)

BIOLOGY PROGRAM
FACULTY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH
JAKARTA
2014

Do and Other Auxiliaries for Emphasis

Introduction
Verbs can be either main verbs or heping (also called auxiliary) verbs. Main verbs
are kind of verb you hve alredy studied. Main verbs tell what action is being
performed in a sentence. For example,
I drive to work each day.
This restaurant serves Portuguese food.
Auxiliary are use in combination with main verb. They perform two major
functions:
1.

Auxiliary indicate shades of meaning that cannot be expressed by a main verb


alone. Consider the differences in meaning in the following sentences, in
which the helping verbs have been italicized.
I may marry you soon.
I do believe in the paranormal
Auxiliary also show tense-the time at which the action of the verb takes place.
Notice how changing the helping verb in the following sentences heps change
the tense of the main verb visit. (Both the auxiliary and the main verbs have
been italicized.)
He is visiting New York
She did experience something paranormal

Kinds of auxiliary
They are some kinds of auxiliary which are used in combination with main verb.
They are :
1. has, have, had (forms of the verb have)
example: He has my book. (main verb)
He has gone home. (auxiliary)
2. does, do, did, done (forms of the verb do)
example: She did a headstand. (main verb)
She did not arrive on time. (auxiliary)
3. am, is, are, was, were, been (forms of the verb be)
example: We are hungry. (main verb)
We are eating soon. (auxiliary)
4. can, could, may, might, must, shall, should, will, would (auxialiary modals)
example: I should open a saving account. (auxiliary)

The use of auxiliary do:


in present simple and past simple questions:
What does a parapsychologist do?
Did you see anything strange?

in present and past simple short answers:


Do you like it? Yes, I do.
Did you see him? No, I didnt.

in present and past simple negatives:


... something happens and you didnt have your camera on it.
... it doesnt give very good results.
Auxiliary do can also be used in positive statements:
I do believe in the paranormal.
Do is not grammatically necessary here. We often choose auxiliary do to
emphasise (show the importance of) the ordinary verb in a positive statement. We
may to:
Contrast one thing with another:
1. And, as other parapsychologists do report positive result, I must keep an open
mind. (Richard has not had positive result; hes never seen a ghost)
2. She doesnt play the guitar but she does play the piano.
3. He didnt walk to school this morning, She did walk. I saw her.
Correct something:
1. A: You didnt see a ghost its impossible.
B: I did see one! David was with me. Ask him!
2. A: Bill doesn't sing, then. B: No, he does sing.
Emphasise something:
1. You do look nervous!
2. I do like eggs for breakfast.
This use often occurs with impertives:
Do sit down. Do be quiet, will you?
Do take care! Do be careful!

In a positive statement, do / does / did comes before the main verb:


like Spielbergs
I / you / we / they
do
films.
She / he / it
does
look nice.
I / you / she / he / it / we / they
did
enjoy the day out.

Pronunciation
Do and all other auxiliary verbs can be stressed in spoken English to contrast
correct or emphasise:
She doesnt play the guitar but she does play the piano.
A: They havent done their homework yet. B: Yes, they have.
I did enjoy the concert