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Mathematics formula

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pi ()=3.1415926535 ...

Perimeter formula

Square

4 * side

Rectangle

2 * (length + width)

Parallelogram

2 * (side1 + side2)

Triangle

Trapezoid

Trapezoid

Circle

2 * pi * radius

Ellipse

4 * radius1 * E(k,pi/2)

E(k,pi/2) is the Complete Elliptic Integral of the Second Kind

k = (1/radius1) * sqrt(radius12 - radius22)

Area formula

Square

side2

Rectangle

length * width

Parallelogram

base * height

Triangle

base * height / 2

Trapezoid

Circle

pi * radius2

Ellipse

pi * radius1 * radius2

Cube (surface)

6 * side2

Sphere (surface)

4 * pi * radius2

Cylinder (surface)

2 * pi * radius * height

Cone (surface)

pi * radius * side

Torus (surface)

Volume formula

Cube

side3

Sphere

(4/3) * pi * radius3

Ellipsoid

Cylinder

pi * radius2 * height

Cone

Pyramid

Torus

Schaum's Outline series in Mathematics. McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1968.

Geometric Formulas

Plane Geometry

Parallelogram

Rectangle

Area: A = b*h

Area: A = L*w

Perimeter: P = 2*L = 2*w

Solid Geometry

Square

Area: A=s2

Perimeter: P = 4*s

Triangle

Area = *b*h

Rectangular Solid

Volume: V - L*w*h

Surface Area: 2L*w+2w*h+2L*h

Cube

Volume: V = a3

A + B + C = 180

Right Triangle

Volume: V = *r2*h

Pythagorean Theorem: A2 + B2 = C2

Trapezoid

Volume: V = 1/3* *r2*h

Circle

Sphere

Area: A = *r2

Circumference: C = * d or C =2*

*r

Volume: V = 4/3 * * r3

Surface Area: S = 4* *r2

= equal to

right angle

not equal to

triangle

approximately equal to

perpendicular to

2 parallel to

~ similar to

congruent to

not congruent to

+ plus or minus

3.14

line segment AB

angle

line AB

Abbreviations for Units of Measurement

U.S. Standard

Distance

Volume

Weight/Mass

Temperature

Metric

in.

inch

meter

ft.

foot

km

kilometer

mi.

mile

cm

centimeter

mm

millimeter

gal.

gallon

liter

qt.

quart

mL

milliliter

cc

cubic centimeter

lb.

pound

gram

oz.

ounce

kg

kilogram

mg

milligram

degree Celsius

degree Fahrenheit

Time

Speed

sec.

second

min.

minute

hr.

hour

mph

Formulas

Quadratic formula: If ax2 + bx + c = 0, and a 0

Line:

Slope = m =

Point-slope form for the equation of a line: y - y 1 = m(x - x 1)

Distance =

Midpoint =

Here is a collection of commonly used mathematical formulas, grouped by topic, and

linked to the location in the text where they are introduced. Each includes a

description in English. Remember: To apply a formula to a given expression, you

should:

a. match up the variables on one side of the formula you wish to use with the

corresponding parts of the given expression to obtain values for each of the

variables in the formula,

b. substitute on both sides of the formula with the values from part a),

c. substitute the other side of the formula into the given expression.

Note: Any formula may be used "in either direction"; that is, you can match the leftside and substitute the right, or vice-versa.

Geometry

If a line y = a x + b, goes through the two points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2), then ,

and b = the y-value where the line crosses the y-axis (i.e., when x = 0): this is

often referred to as the "slope-intercept form" of a line.

The distance between two points a and b on the number line is given by |a - b|,

where |x| is the absolute value function: the distance formula for points on a

line.

If a right triangle has sides of length a, b, and c, as in the following diagram:

The distance d between two points (x1, y1) and (x2, y2) in the plane is given by

the equation : this is the distance formula in the plane.

Note: Using the distance formula on the horizontal and vertical number lines,

respectively:

(and the fact that |z|2 = z2), this equations follows from applying the square root to

both sides of the equation of the Pythagorean Theorem, with c = d, a = |y1 - y2|, and b

= |x1 - x2| .

The equation for an arbitrary point (x, y) circle of radius r centered at the point

(a, b) is given by the equation (x - a)2 + (y - b)2 = r2: since the distance from

the center to a point on the circle is equal to the radius, this equation comes

from squaring both sides of distance formula in the plane.

The area, A, of a circle of radius r is A = r2. That is because:

o all circles are the result of scaling the circle of radius 1 by a factor of r,

o the area of a circle of radius 1 is , and

o scaling by r changes the area of any plane figure by a factor of r2.

The circumference of (i.e., length around) a circle of radius r is 2 r. That is

because:

o all circles are the result of scaling the circle of radius 1 by a factor of r,

o the area, A, of a symmetric plane figure (such as a square, hexagon,

circle, etc.) is equal to its circumference, C, times half the distance, r,

from the center to a "side". Note: This follows from the area formula

for triangles A = 1/2hb. In other words, A = 1/2Cr, so that for circles,

r2 = 1/2Cr, and C = 2 r.

Note: As you might expect, this formula reflects the fact that scaling by r

changes the length of any plane figure by a factor of r.

Algebra

sums, you must add every possible product"; this is called the distributive law.

If ax2 + bx + c = 0, then : "The quadratic formula".

: "The absolute value function gives the magnitude of a number, i.e., as a

positive value."

Exponents

x5x3 = x8, x8/x3 = x5 "When multiplying/dividing, exponents add/subtract."

(3y5z)2 = 32(y5)2z2, etc.: "Powers distribute across multiplication."

(y5)2 = y10, etc.: "Successive powers multiply."

Note: While the first "rule" is actually a definition, the last three rules follow logically

from the first and basic rules of arithmetic.

x-2 = 1/x2, (x/y)-3/2 = (y/x)3/2: "A negative exponent stands for reciprocation."

: "A reciprocal in an exponent is like a root."

Note: These rules are also definitions, designed to ensure that the previous rules still

hold even when the exponents are no longer positive whole numbers.

Logarithms

logb = expb-1, where expb is the exponential function with base b, expb(x) = bx:

"Logarithms are the inverses of exponentials."

with base b".

logb(bx) = x and

Note: Because of the characteristic property of inverses, the previous rule is exactly

the same as the one before it; it simply looks different algebraically and in English.

log = log10: "If you don't see a base, you can assume it is base 10."

ln = loge: "The 'natural' logarithm uses base e."

Notice that the following rules are exactly the reverse of the corresponding rules of

exponents.

logb(s) + logb(t) = logb(st), logb(s) - logb(t) = logb(s/t): "When

adding/subtracting logarithms, multiply/divide the inputs."

logb(st) = logb(s) + logb(t), logb(s/t) = logb(s) - logb(t): "Logarithms turn

products/quotients into sums/differences."

Note: The previous rule is exactly the same as the one before it; it just sounds

different when you say it in English.

log1/b(x) = logb(1/x) = -logb(x) and : "Reciprocation of the input corresponds

to negation of the output or reciprocation of the base."

Complex Numbers

, , , and for complex numbers x = a + b i and y = c + d i (where a, b, c,

and d are all real numbers) "Complex conjugation preserves all arithmetic

operations on complex numbers."

, where x and y are both real numbers: "The distance formula using complex

arithmetic."

Trigonometry

1 = cos2(t) + sin2(t) : "The Pythagorean identity."

csc(t) = 1/sin(t), sec(t) = 1/cos(t), cot(t) = cos(t)/sin(t), tan(t) = sin(t)/cos(t):

"Basic definitions."

cos(t) = sin( /2 - t), csc(t) = sec( /2 - t), cot(t) = tan( /2 - t): "Co-functions

are functions of complementary angles."

cos(t s) = cos(t)cos(s)

formulas."

cos(2t) = cos2(t) - sin2(t) = 2cos2(t) - 1 = 1 - 2sin2(t), sin(2t) = 2sin(t)cos(t),

tan(2t) = 2tan(t)(1-tan2(t)): "The double-angle formulas."

, , : "The half-angle formulas."

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