You are on page 1of 10

The demand for water is always on the increase because of

population growth, rising living standards, increasing agricultural


production and expansive industrial growth. In addition, rainfall is
often unevenly distributed, both in space and time, resulting in
droughts or floods, and causing considerable strain to a nation's
economy.
A growing demand, in combination with deterioration of water
Optimising water allocation

quality and over-exploitation of water resources, requires a clear


vision and strategy for further development. A strong hydrological
knowledge base, both in terms of sufficient data and knowledge
of the hydrological system, represents the back-bone of strategy
development and political decision making.

DHV advocates optimisation of water resources utilisation through


a knowledge-based modelling approach of the hydrological
system, including the interaction between surface water,
groundwater and its users. In the past, hydrological studies were
usually aimed at optimising water allocation to the various users in
quantitative terms. Environmental issues have since become
Hydrological fieldwork

important and hydrological studies now require a more integrated


approach, with expertise from a variety of disciplines, applying
systems analysis to describe the hydrology, water quality, and use
of water.

To support the development of national and regional water


policies and strategies, DHV develops Decision Support Systems
(DSS) for water resources and environmental management in
close co-operation with national authorities. Such systems may
For further information:
DHV Water BV
Business Unit Consultants
P.O. Box 484
3800 AL Amersfoort
The Netherlands
Tel +31 33 4682620
Fax +31 33 4683945
Internet: www.dhv.com
E-mail: info-Consultants@dhv.nl

2004

include a variety of hydrological software tools, but also


acknowledges the importance of treating water as an economic
good.
DHV has ample expertise in monitoring design, hydrological field
work and data processing in combination with Geographical
Information Systems, essential components of the required of the
required knowledge base.

Country / Year

Project Title

Funding
Agency

Eastern Europe/ NIS


Uzbekistan
Moldava

2000-2004
1998-00

Water Supply and Sanitation Project

World Bank

Prut River Basin Integrated Water Resources Management Project

EC

Strengthening of the Water Quality Unit - WQMU Project

RNE

Africa
Egypt

2003-2004

Ethiopia

1999-2004

Ethiopia

2000

Environmnetal Support Project (ESP)

Gov. of Netherlands

Water Hammer Calculations Akaki Well field

InterBeton

Kenya

1992-00

Water Resources Assessment and Planning Project Phase IV & V

DGIS

Ethiopia

1994-98

Tekeze River Basin Integrated Development Masterplan Project

Gov. of Ethiopia

Mauritius

1994-98

Northern Plain Irrigation Project

EC

Ethiopia

1997-98

Mereb River Basin Integrated Development Masterplan Project

Gov. of Ethiopia

Integrated Water Resources Management Policy Guidelines for African

AfDB

Ivory Coast

1998

Development Bank

Middle East
Palestine & Jordan 2004-2006

The Faraa and Jerash Integrated Watershed Management Project

Gov. of Netherlands

Syria

Coastal Water Resources Management Project

Gov. of Netherlands

Village Water Supply Programme - Westbank

EuropAid

Palestina

2002-2004
2001

Syria

2001-2003

Damascus Water Supply from the Coastal Area

World Bank

Yemen

1990-1994

Northern Region Agricultural Development Project (NORADEP)

WB/UNDP

National Hydrology Project

World Bank

Asia
India

1996-2003

India

1998-99

Tamil Nadu Water Resources Consolidation Project

IBRD

Bangladesh

1995-97

BWDB Systems Rehabilitation Project

AdB

Philippines

Water Resources Development Project

EC

Indonesia

1996-99

1994

Java Irrigation Improvement and Water Resources Management Project

IBRD

Indonesia

1991-93

Water Resources Management Study of the Jabotabek River Basin

DGIS + IBRD

Latin America
Chile

1993-98

Integrated Development Program Chile Norte

EC

Ecuador

1992-95

Upper Caar Integrated Rural Development Project

IFAD

Trinidad and Tobago 1997-98

National Water Resources Management Strategy

IBRD

Brazil

River Basin Master Plans for the Pardo and Jequitinhonha River Basins

IBRD

2004

1993-95

Uncontrolled pollution from domestic, industrial and agricultural


sources can result in severe water quality problems, hampering
the multi-functional use and the ecological integrity of the water
resource. Typical problems are the organic waste load (resulting
in low oxygen content), nutrients (causing abundant growth of
algae and water plants), suspended solids, organic micro
pollutants, heavy metals and bacteria, including the occurrence of
vectors and agents inducing waterborne and water-related
diseases. Furthermore, water quality may deteriorate due to the
intrusion of brackish water resulting in salination. The pollution
affects the availability of clean water, resulting in larger demands
for groundwater, allochtonous water or purified water, with
consequent incremental costs.
The polluter pays principle is the basic
approach for controlling water pollution

Prevention is better than cure and the polluter pays principles are
the basic principles for controlling water pollution. Regarding
domestic pollution, these principles require the construction and
operation of appropriate on- or off-site sanitation facilities, notably
sewers and municipal wastewater treatment plants. For the
industrial sector, cleaner production and treatment, end-of-pipe of
residual pollution are required, either jointly or by the industry
itself. For the agricultural sector, limited use of manure, fertiliser
and agro-chemicals to avoid runoff to surface and groundwater is
required.

Pollution fees or levies have proven to be effective instruments for


reducing pollution from industry and domestic sources. However,
pollution fees have proven to be effective only by being higher
Pollution affects the availability of clean
water and thus the water security
For further information:
DHV Water BV
Business Unit Consultants
P.O. Box 484
3800 AL Amersfoort
The Netherlands
Tel +31 33 4682620
Fax +31 33 4683945
Internet: www.dhv.com
E-mail: info-Consultants@dhv.nl

2004

than the cost of treatment. Sometimes industry cannot comply


with new requirements. In this case, other restructuring measures
may be needed, such as relocation, clustering and enlargement of
the economy of scale or eventually closing. For diffusive sources
of pollution such as detergents, lead in gasoline, fertilisers and
pesticides, other measures may be needed, such as introduction
of phosphate-free detergents, lead-free gasoline and biological
production methods.

Country / Year

Project Title

Funding
Agency

Eastern Europe/ NIS /


Former Soviet Union
Slovak Republic

2000-02

Implementation of the (EU) Water Framework Directive in the Slovak Republic

Senter

- towards integrated water management in the Bodrog and Hornad River Basin
Croatia

1998-99

Waste Water Management Demonstration Project

Senter

Lithuania, Latvia, Poland,

Identification of Monitoring Networks and Environm. Data Management

EC

Romania, Slovak Rep.,

Potential (Water) in CEECs

Slovenia, Albania

1996
Preparation of an Investor's Handbook for Environment, Helath and Safety

EBRD

Romania

Tukmenistan

1994-96
1995

Transboundary Pollution Project Romania/Bulgaria

Phare, TACIS

Romania

1996

Regional Water and Environmental Project

EBRD

Tacis 1996 and 1997 Funds for the Black Sea Environmental Programme

TACIS, EC

Russ. Federation

1998-00

Project
Bosnia-Herzegovina

1996

Croatia

1997

Poland

1992-93

Water and Sanitation Emergency Reconstruction and Development Plan

IBRD, Senter

Environmental Management Programme

EBRD

Water Quality Management in the Miastko and Koszalin Regions

DGIS-NL

Coastal Basin Water Management Project

Neth. Governm

Strengthening of Water Quality Unit

Worldbank

Integrated Water Management - Kafue Flats - Phase I

WWF

Middle East
Syria

2002- 04

Africa
Egypt

2004-2006

Zambia

2002

Ethiopia

1999-2004

Environmental Support Project

Neth. Governm

Kenya

1995-99

EIA West Pokot District Water Development Plan

DGIS-NL

Kenya

1992-00

Water Resources Assessment and Planning Project

DGIS-NL

Morocco

1989-91

Waste Water Study for the City of Grand Agadir

IBRD

Philippines

2004-06

Laguna de Bay Project

Worldbank

Indonesia

2002-06

Good Governance in Water Resource Management

EC

Thailand

1992-94

Rangsit/ Suksawat Industrial Wastewater Treatment

IBRD

Bangladesh

1996-97

Netrakona Integrated Agricultural Production and Water Man. Project

IFAD

India

1989-91

Automatic Water Quality Monitoring Stations, New Delhi

DGIS-NL

India

1995-02

National Hydrology Project

DGIS-NL

1993-94

Expansion UASB Plant and Research on Alternative Post Treatment of

DGIS-NL

Asia

Latin America
Columbia

Effluent
Middle America

1994

Case Studies in Waste Water Collection and Treatment

IBRD

Aruba

1988

Water and Energy Planning

DGIS-NL

Brazil

1995-98

PROSAM Belo Horizonte

IBRD

2004

Lakes and reservoirs contain most of the earth's surface stores of


liquid fresh water. Lakes and reservoirs provide water for drinking,
irrigation, industrial processes and power generation. Furthermore,
they provide habitats for numerous species of fish, crustaceans,
turtles, amphibians, birds, mammals, and water plants. Lakes and
reservoirs are important in terms of flood control, sediment
retention and groundwater recharge. They are a source of
recreation, boating and fishing; lakes are also important media for
transportation in some regions. Finally, lakes and reservoirs
provide, all too often, a major disposal site for domestic sewage,
industrial waste water, and cooling water from power stations.

Major man-made threats to lakes and reservoirs include:


water pollution
water withdrawals and lake reclamation
disturbance in watersheds
overfishing
introduction of exotic species, and
loss of species.

Because of their vulnerability to degradation, lakes require more


careful and complex management than most rivers and streams.
Managing lakes and reservoirs so that they can provide their wide
range of benefits in the future requires a comprehensive approach
involving all stakeholders and covering the major activities
affecting water resources throughout the watershed. The goal is to
ensure the sustainability of lakes and reservoirs for multiple uses.
DHV offers consultancy services for:
development of lake and reservoir management strategies
environmental action and lake restoration programmes, and
For further information:
DHV Water BV
Business Unit Consultants
P.O. Box 484
3800 AL Amersfoort
The Netherlands
Tel +31 33 4682620
Fax +31 33 4683945
Internet: www.dhv.com
E-mail: water.cons@dhv.nl

institutional strengthening programs.

"

"

Country / Year

Project Title

Funding
Agency
ADB

Eastern Europe/ NIS


Uzbekistan

2003

Amu Zhang Water Resources Management Project

Armenia

1997

Lake Sevan Environmental Action Plan

EC

Hungary

1992-93

Gabcikovo Barrage and Hydropower Project

EC

Uzbekistan

1994-95

Uzbekistan

1998-2000

Aral Sea Programme: Review of the Amu Darya Right Bank Collector Drain

IBRD

Aral Sea Programme: WARMAP 2 Water Resources Management and

EC

Agricultural Production in the Central Asian Republics

Africa
Egypt

2000-2004

Fayoum Water Management Project - Final Phase

Gov.

of

the

Netherlands
Kenya

Water Resources Survey of Nyanza Province

GoN

Nigeria

1993-95

1988

Northern Akwa Ibu Swamp Resources Development Study

AfDB

Mauritius

1994-97

Northern Plain Irrigation Project

EC

Laguna Bay

WB

Asia
Philippines
India

2004-2006
2002

Assessment Mission Five Lakes Program Green Hyderabad

Gov.

of

the

Netherlands
Bangladesh

BWDB Systems Rehabilitation Project

EC

China

1991-95
1999

South Yunnan Lakes Integrated Environmental Management Plan

IBRD

China

1996

Water and Environment Taihu Lake Basin

GoN

The river basin is a fundamental unit in water resources


management. Resolving conflict situations in water resources
management is possible only if solutions are well-grounded in all
important respects, from the understanding of the physical and
chemical aspects to the implementation of proper institutional
arrangements.
A comprehensive consideration of the problem requires an
The river basin is a fundamental unit in
water resources management.

integrated approach, with expertise from a variety of disciplines,


applying systems analysis to describe the hydrology, water quality,
and water use of a river basin system. A knowledge-based
modelling approach of the interaction between surface water,
groundwater and its users is a prerequisite for developing Decision
Support

Systems

for

water

resources

and

environmental

management on a river basin scale.

Strategy development and risk assessment of water resources and


land management in river basins are basic issues in water
resources projects, taking into account the interrelations between
upstream land and water resources uses, and downstream
hydrological and ecological river behaviour. The assessments are
based on simulation methods for the hydrological regime on one
hand and economic and demographic development scenarios on
the other.
Assessment of a problem requires an
integrated approach with expertise from
a variety of disciplines, such as
hydrology, water quality, and water use
of a river basin system.

DHV supports a knowledge-based approach in water resources


strategy development having the following characteristics:
Development and application of a predictive methodology using
accumulated knowledge that becomes part of the local capacity and
that can be used elsewhere for similar issues;
A predictive approach through a transparent process involving the
Client,

so

that

the

Client

understands

and approves

the

methodology.
Uncertainty in the outcome of any predictive technique is
acknowledged from the outset, and recognition that policy decisions
are

'
*
/0

driven

simulations,

!
"
# $
% &%&
# $
%
( )
+, , , " - .
+

not

but

by

"exact

by

insight

solutions"
into

performance of the aquatic ecosystem.


1 " -

the

through

mathematical

overall

environmental

Country / Year

Project Title

Funding
Agency

Support to Partners for Water project: Pechora River Integrated System

Gov. of Netherlands

Eastern Europe/ NIS


Russian Federation

2003-2004

Management (PRISM)
Hungary

2001-2002

Inplementation of the Water Framework Directive

Gov. of Netherlands

Moldova

2000

Prut River Basin Integrated Management Project

EC

Bulgaria

1993-94

Pre-investment Study Vit and Osen River Basins

EC

Africa
Zambia

Integrated Water Management - Kafue Flats - Phase I

WWF

Kenya

1996-00

2002

Water Resources Assessment and Planning Project Phase V (WRAP V)

DGIS

Kenya

1992-96

Water Resources Assessment and Planning Project Phase IV (WRAP IV)

DGIS

Ethiopia

1997-98

Mereb River Basin Integrated Development Masterplan Project

Gov. of Ethiopia

Ethiopia

1994-98

Tekeze River Basin Integrated Development Masterplan Project

Gov. of Ethiopia

2001-2003

Coastal Water Resources Management Project

Gov. of Netherlands

Indonesia

2002-2006

Good Governance in Water Resource Management

EC

Indonesia

2004

Flood Management in Selected River Basins

ADB

Middle-east
Syria

Asia

Vietnam

2000-2002

Day River Flood Diversion and WRM project

Gov. of Netherlands

China

1998-2000

Huaihe River Basin Pollution Control

Gov. of Netherlands

Tamil Nadu Water Resources Consolidation Project

ADB

India

1999

Indonesia

1996-1999

Java Irrigation Improvement and Water Resources Management Project

IBRD

Indonesia

1992-1995

Water Resources Management Study of the Jabotabek River Basin

IBRD

Vietnam

2000-2002

Day River Diversion Coastal Water Resources Management Project

DGIS

Trinidad and Tobago 1997-1998

National Water Resources Management Strategy

IBRD

Brazil

River Basin Master Plans for the Pardo and Jequitinhonha River Basins

IBRD

Latin America
1993-1995

Pollution sources are endangering our water resources all over the
world. The focus in water management has traditionally been on
water supply for drinking water and irrigation, with the sanitation side
coming in second place. Today's water management requires not
only management in terms of quantity, but also securing sufficient
water quality for the envisaged use of the water.

A worldwide-accepted strategy is to assign different water quality


standards for different functions of the water body. Different
functions are water supply, irrigation, hydropower, recreation,
habitat for flora and fauna. Depending on the requirements of its
use, water quality goals must be set for the water body as part of
regional water management and environmental action plans.

Proper water quality management requires both technical and


institutional efforts on a regional scale. In order to assess the water
quality problems in river basins, lakes and reservoirs, inventories of
pollutions sources and pollution loads are essential. Given the
pollutions loads, effects on surface water and groundwater are
assessed in terms of various water quality parameters. The water
quality assessment is usually a combination of interpretation of field
analysis and computer modelling efforts. The assessments will lead
to a deeper insight into the cause-effect relationships, and form the
basis for water quality restoration strategies and environmental
action programs

!
"
# $
% &%&
'
# $
%
( )
*
+, , , " - .
/0
+
0
1 " -

2004

Country / Year

Project Title

Funding Agency

Implementation of the (EU) Water Framework Directive in the Slovak Republic -

Senter

Eastern Europe/ NIS


Slovak Republic

2000-02

towards integrated water management in the Bodrog and Hornad River Basin
Lithuania
Bulgaria

1994
1993-94

Technical assistance for Institutional Building in Lithuania

Phare (EC)

Pre-investment Study Vit and Osen River Basins

Phare (EC)
Phare (EC)

Lithuania (Vilnius)

1994

Technical assistance for Institutional Building in Vilnius

Bulgaria

1996

Water Companies Institutional Strengthening

Phare (EC) Phare (EC)

Bulgaria

1996

Transboundary Pollution Project Romania/Bulgaria

Tacis

Kyrgyz Republic

1998

Short-term Institutional Support for Strengthening of the Regional Environmental


Policy Development Capacity in Central Asia

Poland

1993-94

Tacis-Phare

Training Programme for Regional Water Resources - Planning and Management

Middle East
Palestine & Jordan

2004-2006

The Faraa and Jerash Integrated Watershed Management Project

Gov. of Netherlands

Syria

2001-2003

Damascus Water Supply from the Coastal Area

Worldbank

Asia
Philippines

2004-06

Laguna de Bay Project

Worldbank

Indonesia

2002-06

Good Governance in Water Resource Management

EC

Indonesia

2003-2005

West Java Province Environmental Strategy

IBRD

India

1996-2003

Indonesia

1988

Indonesia

1988-89

Bangladesh1988-93

National Hydrology Project

WB

Water Users Associations Strengthening Project

DGIS-NL

Institutional Strengthening Study Operation and Maintenance

DGIS

Well Monitoring and Regeneration Project - Phases I, II and III

IBRD

Indonesia

1995-96

Strengthening of PMDUs

DGIS-NL DGIS-NL

Indonesia

1993-94

Metropolitan Bandung Urban Development Project

DGIS-NL

Sri Lanka

1997-98

Institutional Strengthening for Comprehensive Water Resources Management

IBRD

(CWRM) Project
Rep. of Yemen

1997-98

Institutional Strengthening Five NWSA Branches

UNDP

Africa
Egypt
Angola
Kenya
Ethiopia, Ghana

2004

2003-2004
1998
1992-00
1990

Strengthening of the Water Quality Unit - WQMU Project

RNE

Institutional Strengthening of Local Civil Organisations

NOVIB, ILO

Water Resources Assessment and Planning Project (WRAP) - Phase V

DGIS-NL

Analysis of Institutional Development Needs

ILO