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Extremely Secure Remote

Accessed
Irrigation System
A mini project report

Submitted by
M.Kiruba Sankar

(11BEE045)

III-EEE-C

R.Sivasubramanian

(11BEEL10)

III-EEE-C

C.Ruban Karthik

(11BEE058)

III-EEE-C

In partial fulfillment for the completion


Of
Practical Course on Embedded Systems
Conducted by

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering


MEPCO SCHLENK ENGINEERING COLLEGE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost, we express our wholehearted gratitude to the almighty


and our parents for being us throughout extending moral support and helping us
in completing this project work.

We wish to express our sincere thanks to Dr.S.Arivazhagan, M.E., PhD,


F.I.E.T.E, honorable principal of our institution for offering us to take up value
added courses and as a behalf of its completion to carry out the project in the
college and extending all the facilities in the completion of the same.

We express our regards and thanks to the Head of the Department of the
Electronics and Communication Engineering, Mepco Schlenk Engineering
College Dr. R.ShanthaSelvaKumari, M.S., Ph.D., for providing necessary
facilities to carry out this project.

We express our deepest gratitude to our guide Mrs.M.Meenalakshmi M.E.,


Assistant Professor, and Mr. Arun Assistant Professor, Department of Electronics
and Communication Engineering, for rendering excellent guidance and for being
extremely kind and approachable in nature, being a great source of support and
encouragement throughout the course of this project work.

We hereby acknowledge the tireless efforts of all the Staff members,


Reviewers and Technicians of Electronics and Communication Department, whose
help was instrumental in the completion of our project and the course.

ABSTRACT

This project aims to create a ease in classical irrigation


system through establishing a modernized embedded concept of
remote controlled monitoring. Extremely Secure Remote
Accessed Irrigation System is to access and manipulate the
existing irrigation systems through at a remote distance as for an
advanced and secured mode of undeniable operations , this could
enable the irrigation more simpler rather than to reach the field
and operated the commodities like motor manually ,this also
provides an authenticated access to the irrigation system as that a
simple personalized protocol for establishing the connection takes
place here, as that cant be easily plagiarized thus the reliability
on the security of the irrigations systems will be on a great hold in
this protocol.

Contents: Acknowledgement
Abstract
Basics of Embedded Systems
Introduction
Concept (Proposal)
Working
Hardware
Circuitry
Components
Microcontroller(P89v51RD2)
TSOP 1738(IR receiver)
LCD Module
Auxiliary Logic gates
Motor Drivers
DC Motor
Software
Coding
Simulation Model (Proteus Model)
Conclusion

EMBEDDED SYSTEMS
Definition
An embedded system is a single-purpose computer built into a larger system
for the purposes of controlling and monitoring the system. It is designed as a way that
performs only a few embedded functions and has real time computing constraints.
Embedded system consists of both hardware and software designed for particular
application.

History
In the earliest years of computers in the 193040s, computers were sometimes
dedicated to a single task, but were far too large and expensive for most kinds of tasks
performed by embedded computers of today. Over time however, the concept of
programmable controllers evolved from traditional electromechanical sequencers, via
solid state devices, to the use of computer technology.
One of the first recognizably modern embedded systems was the Apollo
Guidance Computer, developed by Charles Stark Draper at the MIT Instrumentation
Laboratory. At the project's inception, the Apollo guidance computer was considered
the riskiest item in the Apollo project as it employed the then newly developed
monolithic integrated circuits to reduce the size and weight. An early mass-produced
embedded system was the Automatics D-17 guidance computer for the Minuteman
missile, released in 1961. It was built from transistor logic and had a hard disk for
main memory. When the Minuteman II went into production in 1966, the D-17 was
replaced with a new computer that was the first high-volume use of integrated circuits.
This program alone reduced prices on quad NAND gate ICs from $1000/each to
$3/each, permitting their use in commercial products.

Since these early applications in the 1960s, embedded systems have come
down in price and there has been a dramatic rise in processing power and
functionality. The first microprocessor for example, the Intel 4004, was designed for
calculators and other small systems but still required many external memory and
support chips. In 1978 National Engineering Manufacturers Association released a
"standard" for programmable microcontrollers, including almost any computer-based
controllers, such as single board computers, numerical, and event-based controllers
As the cost of microprocessors and microcontrollers fell it became feasible to
replace expensive knob-based analog components such as potentiometers and variable
capacitors with up/down buttons or knobs read out by a microprocessor even in some
consumer products. By the mid-1980s, most of the common previously external
system components had been integrated into the same chip as the processor and this
modern form of the microcontroller allowed an even more widespread use, which by
the end of the decade were the norm rather than the exception for almost all electronic
devices.
The integration of microcontrollers has further increased the applications for
which embedded systems are used into areas where traditionally a computer would not
have been considered. A general purpose and comparatively low-cost microcontroller
may often be programmed to fulfill the same role as a large number of separate
components. Although in this context an embedded system is usually more complex
than a traditional solution, most of the complexity is contained within the
microcontroller itself. Very few additional components may be needed and most of
the design effort is in the software. The intangible nature of software makes it much
easier to prototype and test new revisions compared with the design and construction
of a new circuit not using an embedded processor.

Characteristics
Embedded systems are designed to do some specific task, rather than be a
general-purpose computer for multiple tasks. Some also have real-time performance
constraints that must be met, for reasons such as safety and usability; others may have
low or no performance requirements, allowing the system hardware to be simplified to
reduce costs.
Embedded systems are not always standalone devices. Many embedded
systems consist of small, computerized parts within a larger device that serves a more
general purpose. For example, the Gibson Robot Guitar features an embedded system
for tuning the strings, but the overall purpose of the Robot Guitar is, of course, to play
music. Similarly, an embedded system in an automobile provides a specific function
as a subsystem of the car itself.
The program instructions written for embedded systems are referred to
as firmware, and are stored in read-only memory or Flash memory chips. They run
with limited computer hardware resources: little memory, small or non-existent
keyboard or screen.

Processors in Embedded System


Embedded processors can be broken into two broad categories. Ordinary
microprocessors (P) use separate integrated circuits for memory and peripherals.
Microcontrollers (C) have on-chip peripherals, thus reducing power consumption,
size and cost. In contrast to the personal computer market, many different basic CPU
architectures are used, since software is custom-developed for an application and is
not a commodity product installed by the end user. Both Von Neumann as well as
various degrees of Harvard architectures is used. RISC as well as non-RISC
processors are found. Word lengths vary from 4-bit to 64-bits and beyond, although
the most typical remain 8/16-bit. Most architecture comes in a large number of
different variants and shapes, many of which are also manufactured by several
different companies.

Peripherals
Embedded Systems talk with the outside world via peripherals, such as:

Serial Communication Interfaces (SCI): RS-232, RS-422, RS-485 etc.

Synchronous Serial Communication Interface: I2C, SPI, SSC and ESSI (Enhanced
Synchronous Serial Interface)

Universal Serial Bus (USB)

Multi Media Cards (SD Cards, Compact Flash etc.)

Networks: Ethernet, Lon Works, etc.

Field buses: CAN-Bus, LIN-Bus, PROFIBUS, etc.

Timers: PLL(s), Capture/Compare and Time Processing Units

Discrete IO: aka General Purpose Input/output (GPIO)

Analog to Digital/Digital to Analog (ADC/DAC)

Advantages
They are designed to do a specific task and have real time performance
constraints which must be met.
They allow the system hardware to be simplified so costs are reduced.
They are usually in the form of small computerized parts in larger devices
which serve a general purpose.
The program instruction for embedded system run with limited computer
hardware resources, little memory and small or even non-existent keyboard or
screen.

Reliability
Embedded systems often reside in machines that are expected to run
continuously for years without errors and in some cases recover by themselves if an
error occurs. Therefore the software is usually developed and tested more carefully
than that for personal computers, and unreliable mechanical moving parts such as disk
drives, switches or buttons are avoided.

Specific reliability issues may include:

The system cannot safely be shut down for repair, or it is too inaccessible to repair.
Examples include space systems, undersea cables, navigational beacons, bore-hole
systems, and automobiles.

The system must be kept running for safety reasons. "Limp modes" are less
tolerable. Often backups are selected by an operator. Examples include aircraft
navigation, reactor control systems, safety-critical chemical factory controls, train
signals.

The system will lose large amounts of money when shut down: Telephone
switches, factory controls, bridge and elevator controls, funds transfer and market
making, automated sales and service.

A variety of techniques are used, sometimes in combination, to recover from errors


both software bugs such as memory leaks, and also soft errors in the hardware:

watchdog timer that resets the computer unless the software periodically notifies
the watchdog

subsystems with redundant spares that can be switched over to

software "limp modes" that provide partial function

Designing with a Trusted Computing Base (TCB) architecture ensures a highly


secure & reliable system environment

A Hypervisor designed for embedded systems, is able to provide secure


encapsulation for any subsystem component, so that a compromised software
component cannot interfere with other subsystems, or privileged-level system
software. This encapsulation keeps faults from propagating from one subsystem to
another, improving reliability. This may also allow a subsystem to be
automatically shut down and restarted on fault detection.

Immunity Aware Programming

Introduction:
Extremely Secure Remote Accessed Irrigation System is to
access and manipulate the existing irrigation systems through at a
remote distance as for an advanced and secured mode of undeniable
operations , this could enable the irrigation more simpler rather than
to reach the field and operated the commodities like motor manually
,this also provides an authenticated access to the irrigation system as
that a simple personalized protocol for establishing the connection
takes place here, as that cant be easily plagiarized thus the reliability
on the security of the irrigations systems will be on a great hold in
this protocol.

Concept:The concept of the above given protocol is to advance the


control of existing irrigation system control methods, this can be
adopted simply be accessing the motors of the irrigation field
through a remote distance just by using a simple RC 65 type remotes
which is widely used on all remote based apparatuses like TV , VCR ,
air-conditioning etc. The basic flow will be on this manner ,the
authentication protocol identifies the correct user who wishes to
operate the motors this can be done by selecting a proper remote
that sends only particular range of frequency (30-40)kHz and which
is to be received accordingly by a proper receiver TSOP1738, then
the flow will be taken to the next switching parameters with this the
right input pulse switch on the motor and the correct input also
switch off the motor on different basis ,The remote access is
indicated through 16X2 LCD display for monitoring purpose.

CONCEPT SKETCH:-

START

INITIATE THE INPUT SIGNALS

Authentication
failure

CHECK THE
RECEPTION
PROTOCOL

If authenticated

Get switching inputs

To ON

Check the
operation

To OFF

To OFF

Switch ON the motor

Switch OFF the motor

(Using OFF Switch)

(Using ON switch )

Operation continues till the


main supply turns OFF

Working:LCD DISPLAY

Remote input

MONITORING

TSOP1738
IR-Receiver
IC 7404

P89v51RD2

L293D
DC motor driver

MOTOR

The above block diagram shows the


typical connection of the system which uses a 8bit micro controller the NXP
semiconductors IC P89v51RD2 ,on which the TSOP 1738 module outputs are
interfaced to microcontrollers Port 0 (0th and 6th Pins) via a NOT gate (7404)
to on and off the motors respectively, and also to verify the authenticated user
identification ,the LCD (16x2) is interfaced to the microcontrollers on ports (3
and 1) to enter the control and data inputs,the dual motor driver IC L293D is
connected to PORT 2 of the micro controller through which the motors are
connected.As illustrated above the microcontroller operates as same as the
concept sketch flows.

Hardware:The main components of the system are microcontroller


P89v51RD2,TSOP1738,Inverter,LCD(16x2),L293d and DC motor.
Microcontroller(P89v51RD2):The P89V51RD2 is an 80C51 microcontroller with 64 kB Flash and
1024 bytes of data RAM. A key feature of the P89V51RD2 is its X2 mode
option. The design engineer can choose to run the application with the
conventional 80C51 clock rate (12 clocks per machine cycle) or select the X2
mode (6 clocks per machine cycle) to achieve twice the throughput at the same
clock frequency. Another way to benefit from this feature is to keep the same
performance by reducing the clock frequency by half, thus dramatically
reducing the EMI. The Flash program memory supports both parallel
programming and in serial In-System Programming (ISP). Parallel programming
mode offers gang-programming at high speed, reducing programming costs
and time to market. ISP allows a device to be reprogrammed in the end
product under software control. The capability to field/update the application
firmware makes a wide range of applications possible. The P89V51RD2 is also
In-Application Programmable (IAP), allowing the Flash program memory to be
reconfigured even while the application is running.

Features:
80C51 Central Processing Unit
5 V Operating voltage from 0 to 40 MHz
64 kB of on-chip Flash program memory with ISP (In-System Programming) and
IAP
(In-Application Programming)
Supports 12-clock (default) or 6-clock mode selection via software or ISP
SPI (Serial Peripheral Interface) and enhanced UART
PCA (Programmable Counter Array) with PWM and Capture/Compare functions
Four 8-bit I/O ports with three high-current Port 1 pins (16 mA each)
Three 16-bit timers/counters
Programmable Watchdog timer (WDT)
Eight interrupt sources with four priority levels

Second DPTR register


Low EMI mode (ALE inhibit)
TTL- and CMOS-out detection
Low power modes
Power-down mode with external interrupt wake-up
Idle mode

TSOP 1738:-

The TSOP 1738 is a member of IR remote control

receiver series. This IR sensor module consists of a PIN diode and a pre
amplifier which are embedded into a single package. The output of TSOP is
active low and it gives +5V in off state. When IR waves, from a source, with a
Centre frequency of 38 kHz incident on it, its output goes low.
Lights coming from sunlight, fluorescent lamps etc. may cause disturbance to it
and result in undesirable output even when the
source is not transmitting IR signals. A band
pass filter, an integrator stage and an automatic
gain control are used to suppress such
disturbances. TSOP module has an inbuilt
control circuit for amplifying the coded pulses

from the IR transmitter. A signal is generated when PIN photodiode receives the
signals. This input signal is received by an automatic gain control (AGC). For a
range of inputs, the output is fed back to AGC in order to adjust the gain to a
suitable level. The signal from AGC is passed to a band pass filter to filter
undesired frequencies. After this, the signal goes to a demodulator and this
demodulated output drives an NPN transistor. The collector output of the
transistor is obtained at pin 3 of TSOP module.
Members of TSOP17xx series are sensitive to different center frequencies
of the IR spectrum. For example TSOP1738 is sensitive to 38 kHz
whereas TSOP1740 to 40 kHz center frequency.

LCD (16X2):LCD (Liquid Crystal Display)


screen is an electronic display module and
find a wide range of applications. A 16x2
LCD display is very basic module and is
very commonly used in various devices
and circuits. These modules are preferred
over seven segments and other multi
segment LEDs. The reasons being: LCDs
are economical; easily programmable; have no limitation of displaying special
& even custom characters (unlike in seven segments), animations and so on.
A 16x2 LCD means it can display 16 characters per line and there are 2
such lines. In this LCD each character is displayed in 5x7 pixel matrix. This LCD
has two registers, namely, Command and Data .The command register stores
the command instructions given to the LCD. A command is an instruction given
to LCD to do a predefined task like initializing it, clearing its screen, setting the
cursor position, controlling display etc. The data register stores the data to be
displayed on the LCD. The data is the ASCII value of the character to be
displayed on the LCD

L293D (DUAL DC MOTOR DRIVER):L293D is a dual H-bridge motor


driver integrated circuit (IC). Motor drivers act as
current amplifiers since they take a low-current
control signal and provide a higher-current signal.
This higher current signal is used to drive the
motors.L293D contains two inbuilt H-bridge driver
circuits. In its common mode of operation, two DC
motors can be driven simultaneously, both in forward
and reverse direction. The motor operations of two
motors can be controlled by input logic at pins 2 & 7 and 10 & 15. Input logic
00 or 11 will stop the corresponding motor. Logic 01 and 10 will rotate it in
clockwise and anticlockwise directions; respectively .Enable pins 1 and 9
(corresponding to the two motors) must be high for motors to start operating.
When an enable input is high, the associated driver gets enabled. As a result, the
outputs become active and work in phase with their inputs. Similarly, when the
enable input is low, that driver is disabled, and their outputs are off and in the
high-impedance state.

Auxiliary Components:IC 7404 (NOT Gate-Inverter) to invert the output produced by TSOP 1738,
Jumper wires, Supply, DC motor (Prototype), Motor supply etc.

SOFTWARE:Coding:#include<REG51.h>
sbit E=P0^0;
sbit H=P0^6;
sbit RS=P3^0;
sbit RW=P3^1;
sbit S=P3^2;
unsigned char arr1[17]={ "
MOTOR ON " },arr2[18]={ "
},arr3[16]={ "INITIATE SIGNAL" },i;
unsigned char arr4[16]={ "SIGNAL CONFIRMED"};
void lcdcmd(unsigned char k);
void lcddat(unsigned char k);
void delay1 (unsigned int del);
void main(void)
{
P2=0x00;
P0 = 0x00;
P3=0x07;
lcdcmd(0x3C); //Initialize LCD
lcdcmd(0x01); // Clear LCD
lcdcmd(0x0E); // Display ON

MOTOR OFF

"

lcdcmd(0x03); // Entry mode - Auto increment


lcdcmd(0x80); // Address of the first line in the LCD
for(i=0;i<17;i++){
lcddat(arr3[i]);
delay1(50000); }
if(E==1&&H==1)
{
lcdcmd(0x80); // Address of the first line in the LCD
for(i=0;i<17;i++){
lcddat(arr4[i]);
delay1(50000); }
{
while(1){
if(E==1)
{
P2=0x1b;
{
lcdcmd(0x80); // Address of the first line in the LCD
for(i=0;i<17;i++){
lcddat(arr1[i]);
delay1(50000);
}

}}

if(H==1){

P2=0x00;
{
lcdcmd(0x80); // Address of the first line in the LCD
for(i=0;i<18;i++){
lcddat(arr2[i]);
delay1(50000);
} }} }} }}
void lcdcmd(unsigned char k){
P1=k; RS =0; //register control select
RW=0; //write enable
S=1; S=0; delay1(500); S=1;
return;}
void lcddat(unsigned char k){
P1 = k; RS = 1; //register control select
RW=0; //write enable
S=1; S=0; delay1(500); S=1;
return;}
void delay1 (unsigned int del) // delay function
{ while(--del);}

Proteus Simulation Model:-

Fig: Shows the typical Proteus model on standby state

Conclusion:Thus it is seen the easy application of a simple


embedded logic would bring out with a highly efficient and
secure irrigation system and control through which the
irrigation can be maintained and controlled without event
reaching the field or irrigation facility, this provides a better
way of controlling the traditional motors at a remote
distance that proves the ease of access through this
technique and its been implemented through simple
components the cost of this project might not be a great
deal in implementing on wide case. This would provide a
better irrigation and secured motor operation on all fields.

Future Work:
This project is been initially proposed to made as
control and monitor standardized instrument through the
concept of GSM with mobile communication, that might
cover a large area of monitoring and controlling as GSM is a
satellite based communication media, Hence extension of
this project with GSM and mobile communication along
with certain agricultural accessory robots like Ploughing
robots, Harvesting robot, Fertilizer spraying robot could
enable the mode of farming to a far better and easy place
away from the hurdles as its facing now.

Complete Model

Main Circuit ON

Signal Initiation

Authentication

Enter Authenticated Signal

Signal Confirmation

Pictures Showing the Working of Prototype

Motor OFF

Motor ON

Switching ON the Motor

Model during Main OFF

Video Demonstration:
A complete video demonstration of the prototype is available in the
following links
1)http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZvzRmOKBkmU

2)https://drive.google.com/file/d/0BzQ3khXLWoDyNjBKanJTdXlmZjA/edit?usp=sharing

COST SPLIT UP OF THIS PROJECT

SL No

Component

Cost

Microcontroller Board

Rs 450

(PV89V52 RD2)
2

USB Connector

Rs 50

LCD Display

Rs 150

TSOP IR SENSOR

Rs 60

(TSOP 1738,TSOP 1754)


5

Jumper Wires

Rs 200

IR Receiver Module

Rs 80

(IR 1738,1754 based Remote)


7

L293D-Dual motor Driver

Rs 80

Source ( Battery, Power Adapters)

Rs 150

Miscellaneous

Rs 500

(Logic Gates, Drivers, Soldering Iron, Bread Board,


Motors)
10

Total

Rs 1720

References:I.

www.hydrology.nl/images/docs/dutch/2006.06.07_Bandara.pdf

II.

www.iwmi.cgiar.org/Publications/IWMI_Research.../REPORT09.PDF

III.

www.ltinstitute.com/.../Electronics%5CProject%5CPDFProject%5Cprojec..

IV.

SMS based device switching and status monitoring BY ,Yash doshi ,Vaibhav doshi ,Aniket
khedekar,Kaushal joshi Under Guidance Of Mrs. Radha sivadas VIVEKANAND EDUCATION
SOCIETYS POLYTECHNIC, CHEMBUR, MUMBAI-71

V.

International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology- Volume4Issue4- 2013


ISSN: 2231-5381 http://www.internationaljournalssrg.org Page 533
GSM Based Telemetry System Tanvi G.BadhekaDepartment of Biomedical
Engineering,Gujarat Technological University,

VI.
VII.

Photo Modules for PCM Remote Control Systems(TSOP 17 User manual)


Practical Course on Embedded Systems_Lab Manual (Mepco Schlenk Engineering
College,sivakasi)
VEHICLE MONITORING, ACCIDENT DETECTION AND REPORTING SYSTEM USING
GPS AND GSM A PROJECT REPORT.Submitted by,K.LAKSHMIPRIYA ,R.VIJAYALAKSHMI
under the guidance of Mrs.Meena Lakshmi Assistant Professor Dept. Of ECE ,Mepco
Schlenk Engineering College.

VIII.

Websites:www.keil.com
www.engineersgarage.com
www.robokits.co.in
www.instructables.com
www.digibay.in
www.google.co.in

Declaration:
We hereby declare that the above given project report
and the project on Extremely Secured Remote accessed irrigation system
is completely done and reported by us and its not liable to any sort of
plagiarism. Information provided here is complete and rightful to our
concern and belief.

Signature
(M.Kiruba Sankar)

(R.Siva Subramaninan)

(C.Ruban Karthik)

Date: 30.4.14
Place: Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi