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CYME 5.

02
CYMDIST Basic Analyses
Users Guide

January 2011

Copyright CYME International T&D Inc.


All Rights Reserved

No part of this publication may be reproduced, or transmitted in any form


or by any means without the written permission of CYME International T&D.
Possession or use of the CYME software described in this publication is
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mentioned in this document are the trademarks or trade names of the respective owners.

CYME 5.02 CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide

Table of Contents
Chapter 1
1.1
1.2

Load Flow Analysis ....................................................................................1


Introduction ...................................................................................................1
Parameters Tab ............................................................................................2
1.2.1 Calculation Methods.........................................................................3
1.2.2 Convergence Parameters ................................................................3
1.2.3 Calculation Options ..........................................................................3
1.2.4 Load and Generation Scaling Factors..............................................4
1.2.5 Voltage and Frequency Sensitivity Load Model...............................8
1.3 Calculation Methods ...................................................................................13
1.3.1 Voltage Drop Calculation Technique..............................................13
1.3.2 Gauss-Seidel..................................................................................14
1.3.3 Newton-Raphson............................................................................15
1.3.4 Fast-Decoupled ..............................................................................16
1.4 Networks Tab..............................................................................................17
1.5 Controls Tab ...............................................................................................18
1.6 Loading / Voltage Limits Tab ......................................................................19
1.7 Output Tab ..................................................................................................21
1.8 Solving the Load Flow ................................................................................23
1.9 Results ........................................................................................................25
1.9.1 Reports ...........................................................................................25
1.9.2 Report by Individual Section...........................................................27
1.9.3 Charts .............................................................................................29
1.9.4 One-Line Diagram Tags .................................................................30
1.9.5 One-Line Diagram Coloring ...........................................................31
1.10 Convergence Issues ...................................................................................32
1.10.1 Voltage Drop Method .....................................................................32
1.10.2 Gauss-Seidel, Fast Decoupled and Newton-Raphson Methods ...33
1.10.3 Networks with Abnormal Voltages .................................................34
1.10.4 Parallel Operation of Generators ...................................................35

Chapter 2
2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

Chapter 3
TABLE OF CONTENTS

Short-Circuit Analysis..............................................................................37
Conventional Short-Circuit Analysis ...........................................................38
2.1.1 Fault Parameters Tab.....................................................................39
2.1.2 Networks Tab .................................................................................44
2.1.3 Output tab.......................................................................................45
ANSI Short-Circuit Analysis........................................................................46
2.2.1 ANSI Parameters Tab ....................................................................47
2.2.2 Networks Tab .................................................................................50
2.2.3 Output Tab......................................................................................51
IEC Short-Circuit Analysis ..........................................................................52
2.3.1 IEC Parameters Tab.......................................................................53
2.3.2 Networks Tab .................................................................................58
2.3.3 Output Tab......................................................................................59
Results ........................................................................................................60
2.4.1 Reports ...........................................................................................60
2.4.2 Report by Individual Section...........................................................61
2.4.3 Charts .............................................................................................63
2.4.4 Report Tags....................................................................................64
2.4.5 One-Line Diagram Coloring ...........................................................64
Fault Analysis ...........................................................................................65
1

CYME 5.02 CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide

3.1

3.2
3.3
3.4

Chapter 4
4.1

4.2

Shunt Fault Analysis ...................................................................................65


3.1.1 Parameters Tab..............................................................................66
3.1.2 Output Tab......................................................................................68
3.1.3 Shunt Fault Results ........................................................................69
Network Fault Analysis ...............................................................................70
3.2.1 Parameters Tab..............................................................................70
3.2.2 Results............................................................................................71
Voltage Sag Analysis..................................................................................73
3.3.1 Parameters Tab..............................................................................73
3.3.2 Results............................................................................................74
Fault Locator Analysis ................................................................................75
3.4.1 Parameters Tab..............................................................................76
3.4.2 Results............................................................................................77
Motor Starting Analysis ...........................................................................79
Locked Rotor Motor Start Analysis .............................................................79
4.1.1 List of Motors and Parameters .......................................................79
4.1.2 Flicker Table ...................................................................................80
4.1.3 Locked Rotor Starting Assistance Methods ...................................82
4.1.4 Running and Viewing the Results of a Locked Rotor Analysis ......82
4.1.5 Locked Rotor Analysis Sample Output ..........................................83
4.1.6 Display: Color by Voltage Dip ........................................................84
Maximum Start Size Analysis .....................................................................85
4.2.1 Running the Analysis and Viewing the Results..............................85

Chapter 5

Load Allocation.........................................................................................87
5.1.1 Summary of the Connected kVA Method.......................................92
5.1.2 Summary of the kWH Method ........................................................93
5.1.3 Summary of Actual kVA Method ....................................................93
5.1.4 Summary of the REA Method.........................................................93

Chapter 6

Load Balancing Calculation ....................................................................97


6.1.1 Location Tab...................................................................................98
6.1.2 Display Tab...................................................................................100
6.1.3 Result Tab ....................................................................................101
6.1.4 Load Balancing Report.................................................................102

Chapter 7
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6

Capacitor Placement Calculation .........................................................105


Objectives Tab..........................................................................................105
Restrictions Tab........................................................................................106
Capacitor Banks Tab ................................................................................107
Load Levels Tab .......................................................................................109
Results Tab...............................................................................................110
Iterative Search.........................................................................................112
7.6.1 Iterative Search Results ...............................................................112
7.6.2 Iterative Search Color Coding ......................................................114

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CYME 5.02 CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide

Chapter 1

1.1

Load Flow Analysis

Introduction

The objective of a load flow is to analyze the steady-state performance of the power
system under various operating conditions. It is the basic analysis tool for the planning, design
and operation of any electrical power systems. These could be distribution, industrial or
transmission networks.
The basic load flow question for a known power system configuration is a follows:
Given:

Find:

the load power consumption at all buses


the power production at each generator
the voltage magnitude and phase angle at each bus
the power flow through each line and transformer

The CYME Load Flow module provides the user with solution algorithms for both
balanced and unbalanced networks.
For Unbalanced networks, the Voltage Drop calculation method based on current
iterations is used as the solution algorithm. The Unbalanced module requires CYMDIST.
For Balanced networks, the user has the choice of the following calculation methods:

Voltage Drop (Requires CYMDIST)

Fast Decoupled (Requires CYMFLOW)

Full Newton-Raphson (Requires CYMFLOW)

Gauss-Seidel (Requires CYMFLOW)

CHAPTER 1 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

CYME 5.02 CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide

1.2

Parameters Tab
Using the Simulation toolbar, select Load Flow from the list of available analyses and

then click on the Run Simulation icon

You may also run the Load Flow simulation from the menu Analysis > Load Flow. This
will display the Load Flow Analysis dialog with the Parameters Tab selected.

CHAPTER 1 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

CYME 5.02 CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide

1.2.1

Calculation Methods
Method

Select the load flow calculation method from the list of available
methods:
Voltage Drop - Unbalanced & Balanced
Fast Decoupled - Balanced
Gauss-Seidel - Balanced
Newton-Raphson Balanced
Refer to 1.3 Calculation Methods for a detailed description of the load
flow methods.

1.2.2

Convergence Parameters
Tolerance

If the mismatch between two successive iterations is within the


specified tolerance then the load flow will declare convergence of the
network. The % voltage deviation (dV) is the convergence criteria for
the Voltage drop methods. All the other methods use the power
mismatch as the convergence criteria.

Iterations

Limits the total number of iterations to a pre-defined number. The


number of iterations can be increased if the program does not
converge.
As an example the Fast-Decoupled method will normally converge
within 10-20 iterations. Gauss-Seidel may require much more
iterations.

1.2.3

Calculation Options
Flat Start
(At Nominal
Conditions)

Check this option to initialize all Voltages to the system nominal


voltages (usually 1.0 p.u.) prior to the first load flow iteration. All
Capacitors, Tap Changers, Regulators and Generators will also be
initialized to their initial states as defined in the network settings.
If you do not check this option, the states and voltages of the
previous load flow will be re-submitted as initial conditions for the
load flow calculation.

Assume Line
Transposition

When performing an Unbalanced Load Flow, you have the option to


assume or not line transposition in the calculation of the overhead
line impedance matrix. This option has an effect on the calculation
only when the overhead lines are modeled By-Phase with a valid
phase position.

Include
Source
Impedance

Include source impedance in the load flow calculation. This option


will be automatically active in the locked rotor analysis where voltage
dips may prevent voltage regulation at substation terminals.

Remove All
Constraints

If this option is checked then the load flow will be solved by relaxing
all the constraints on Generators (Qmax and Qmin), Load Tap
Changing Transformers and Regulators.
Note: This is useful for networks that have difficulty converging since
the results of the load flow, with relaxed constraints, can
provide useful tips as to where the problem may be.

CHAPTER 1 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

CYME 5.02 CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide

Evaluate State
of Network
Protectors

1.2.4

This option concerns networks with Network Protectors, which are


usually installed inside Secondary Networks.
Should this option be selected, then the analysis would take into
consideration the fact that Network Protectors would open if
backward flow is detected. Users can set a number of Maximum
attempts within which the analysis will try to find a solution for the
final state of the network protectors for the configuration of the
network under study.

Load and Generation Scaling Factors

Scaling factors can be globally applied to Loads, Motors and Generators without the
need to edit the network settings. Four different methods are offered to apply the scaling factors:

As Defined

Global

By Zone

By Equipment Type (Load, Generator or Motor)

By default the factors will be set to As Defined and implies that no scaling factors will
be applied to any of the equipment.

Global factors apply to all Loads, Motors or Generators in the network. The factor for
each data entry field implies that the actual value of (P, Q ) as entered in the network settings or
database will be multiplied by the Factor/100%. For the power factor, the values defined in the
network settings will be replaced by the global power factor for the purpose of the simulation.

By Zone implies that the factors will apply on specified zones of the network.

CHAPTER 1 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

CYME 5.02 CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide

By default, all factors are set to 100 %. To Edit the default values or to Create a new set
of factors click on the
icon. For loads, for example, the Load Scaling Factors (by Zone)
dialog box with a listing of all zones defined in the network and the default P and Q values will be
displayed on screen.

icon to create a new set of user defined scaling factors to be applied on


Click on the
the respective zones. A dialog will prompt you for a name. Enter the desired name (ex: Light
Load).

When creating a new set of factors, you have the option to initialize the values using
default values (Use default values) or to copy existing values from another template (Use
values from).

CHAPTER 1 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

CYME 5.02 CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide

To delete a user defined set of factors click on the


Generators (P, Qmin, Qmax) and Motors (P, PF).

icon. The same applies to

By Load/Motor/Generator Type implies that the factors will apply on the specified
equipments only.

icon to edit the factors. For Loads for example, this option multiplies all
Click on the
Active (P) and Reactive (Q) loads separately based on their customer type assignments. Type in
the factors in the spaces provided. For example: Setting the active load factor (P) = 110 %
implies that the load entered in the Load Properties dialog box will be multiplied by 1.1 (10%
increase). Check the option P=Q if you wish to enter the same values for the active and reactive
power

You can create any number of templates (set of factors). For example, a set of factors
could represent a specific period (time of day, season, peak etc) or a specific study mode
(Planning, Design, etc). To select a template, click on the
symbol and select the desired
name.
For Motors, scaling factors can be applied to Induction and Synchronous Motors
separately.

CHAPTER 1 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

CYME 5.02 CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide

For Generators, scaling factors can be applied to synchronous generators, induction


generators, electronically coupled generators, wind energy conversion systems, solid oxide fuel
cells, photovoltaic and micro-turbines. The reactive power generation factors (Qmin and Qmax)
will multiply the values specified in the network settings.

CHAPTER 1 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

CYME 5.02 CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide

1.2.5

Voltage and Frequency Sensitivity Load Model

The Voltage and Frequency Sensitivity Load Model defines how the load will vary with
voltage and at which voltage threshold should they be switched to constant impedance loads to
avoid mathematical convergence problems of the load flow. The following table provides an
example of the variation of the current drawn by a load based on the applied voltage.
Voltage

Constant kVA

Constant Current

Constant Impedance

110%

91%

100%

110%

100%

100%

100%

100%

90%

110%

100%

90%

60%

167%

100%

60%

Example: Current drawn by a load at different voltages.


The relation between the load power and applied voltage can be expressed as:
nP
V
P = Po

Vbase

V nQ
Q = Qo

Vbase

Where:
Po = Nominal Active Power
Qo = Nominal Reactive Power
When the network is heavily loaded and the voltages are lower than nominal as a result,
it is mathematically easier to solve the network if the load is mostly of the constant impedance
type. In that case, as the calculated voltage decreases from iteration to the next, the load power
decreases faster. This means less current flowing to the load and therefore less voltage drop in
the subsequent iteration.
Conversely, if the load is constant power, then the power does not change when the
voltage tends to drop. The current drawn by the load then has to increase, and thus aggravating
the voltage drop in the circuit.
The Voltage Threshold parameter is mainly used as a mathematical parameter helping
the convergence of heavily loaded systems by converting all loads where the voltage falls below
the specified limit to constant impedance. To avoid unexpected conversions of load models
during the simulation, it is recommended to set (Vz) to a low value (<=80%).
Four options are offered to define the voltage sensitivity load models: As Defined,
Global, By Zone or By Load Type.
As Defined is the mode selected by default. In this mode, the sensitivity factors and
voltage thresholds are automatically selected from the default Customer Type Library.

CHAPTER 1 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

CYME 5.02 CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide

Click on the
icon to view or modify the default values of the customer type library.
The Customer Type Library is part of the network settings. For more information on creating
new Customer Types and/or editing the default library values, refer to chapters on Network Types
and Customer Types (Network menu) in the CYME Reference Manual.
Global allows you to apply the same exponent sensitivity factors (nP, nQ) and voltage
threshold (Vz) to all loads in the network. The exponent sensitivity factors must be specified in
p.u. and the voltage threshold in %.

By Zone implies that the exponent factors and voltage threshold will apply to all the loads
of the selected zones.

To Edit the default values or Create a new set of factors click on the

Note:

icon.

If you have the optional Transient Stability Analysis module, additional


entries will be available in this group box to specify the Frequency Sensitivity
factors. Refer to the Transient Analysis User Guide for further information.

CHAPTER 1 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

CYME 5.02 CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide

Note:

The above dialog box implies the following:


All loads in Zone L1 will be constant power loads.
All loads in Zone L2 will be constant impedance loads.
The voltage threshold in Zones L1 and L2 is set to 80 %.

By Load Type implies that the sensitivity exponent factors and voltage threshold will
apply by categories of customer types. This mode allows you to create user defined templates of
load models without modifying the default values found in the Customer Type Library.

When defining voltage sensitivity load model By Load Type (or Customer Type), users
can select from three load model types:

1.2.5.1

ZIP Model

Where:
Vz:
Z:
I:
P:

Voltage Threshold in %
Constant Impedance %
Constant Current %
Constant Power %

The values entered for the constant impedance (Z), constant current (I), and
constant power (P) must add up to 100 %.
Note:

For the Fast Decoupled, the Gauss-Seidel and the Newton-Raphson


calculation methods, the ZIP model will be converted to an equivalent
Exponent Model during the simulation using an average value of the
weighted sum given by the following

Q i( nQ i )

P i( nP i )
nP =

Pi
i

nQ =

Qi
i

Where:

10

Pi and Qi are the % of active and reactive power component of the load.

nPi and nQi are the nP and nQ exponents assigned to each component
of the load.

Pi and Qi are both equal to 100 %. (The sum of all load types can not
exceed 100 %.)

CHAPTER 1 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

CYME 5.02 CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide

As an example, the following composite load model was created:

Then the average nP or nQ value are computed as follows:


nP or nQ = (50 % x 0.0) + (30 % x 1) + (20 % x 2) = 0 + 0.3 + 0.4 = 0.70
100%
Those values will be used in the Load Flow Analysis for the calculation
methods mentioned above. If you connect a non-rotating load and an
induction motor on the same bus, then the load will have nP = nQ = 0,
regardless of the values you specify.

1.2.5.2

Exponent Model

Where:

Note:

1.2.5.3

Vz:

Voltage Threshold in %

nP:

Active Power Exponent factor in p.u.

nQ:

Reactive Power Exponent factor in p.u.

nP or nQ = 0.0 means constant-power load

nP or nQ = 1.0 means constant-current load

nP or nQ = 2.0 means constant-impedance load

Mixed: ZIP and Exponent Model

By default, the values will be initialized to the values found in the study file
parameters (if working with an older study) or the default values from the Customer
Type Library otherwise.

CHAPTER 1 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

11

CYME 5.02 CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide

icon to create
To create a new Voltage Sensitivity Load Model click on the
a new set of user defined voltage sensitivity and threshold factors. The following dialog
will be displayed:

12

Name

Enter the name for the particular Voltage Sensitivity Load


Model.

Type

Select the Voltage Sensitivity Load Model Type: Zip,


Exponent or Mixed.

Blank

Initialize all data entry fields as blank.

From

Copy the values from another voltage sensitivity load model

From Default
Values

Copy the values from the default Customer Type Library

CHAPTER 1 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

CYME 5.02 CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide

1.3

Calculation Methods

1.3.1

Voltage Drop Calculation Technique

The Load Flow analysis of a radial distribution feeder requires an iterative technique that
is specifically designed and optimized for radial or weakly meshed systems. The Voltage Drop
Analysis method includes a full three phase unbalanced algorithm that computes phase voltages
(VA, VB and VC), power flows and currents including the neutral current.
The iterative Voltage Drop calculation technique will compute the voltages and power
flows at every section within 10 or less iterations. The calculation returns the results when no
calculated voltage on any section of the selected networks changes from one iteration to the next
by more than the Calculation tolerance. Example: |34465.2 34464.8|/34464.8 < 0.1%.
However, in some cases, the calculation may not converge to a solution which could
either be due to bad data such as a very high impedance line or could be due to peculiar network
configuration.
If during the calculation process the voltage on a section falls below the specified
Voltage Threshold, then for the next iteration, all loads on that section will be converted to
constant impedances.
Converting the load in this way does not affect the load data permanently. It is only a
way to assist the calculation to converge to a solution, instead of not giving any result at all.
You can use this (artificial) solution to identify problem areas or sections with bad input
data, by looking for section(s) with very low voltage. To avoid using this function, set the voltage
threshold to a low value, such as <=80%. Setting the level higher than 90% is not recommended,
for fear of distorting an otherwise valid solution.
When you select to run a Balanced Voltage Drop the calculation will be performed with
the load on every section assumed to be distributed equally among all the available phases. This
will not change the load data that you have entered through the Section Properties dialog box.

CHAPTER 1 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

13

CYME 5.02 CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide

1.3.2

Gauss-Seidel

Transmission network power flow analysis techniques are specifically designed for
balanced three phase systems and may exhibit poor convergence characteristics when applied to
radial distribution type feeders.
The set of system equations are typically non-linear, and solving them does require the
use of iterative algorithms.
In order to illustrate the remaining three solution algorithms, we will use the following
simple 3-Bus DC System

3-Bus DC System

The impedance matrix equation for the three bus system can be expressed as:

The bus voltage equations for Bus V2 and V3 can be expressed as a function of the active
power, admittance and system voltages as follows:

Since these are non-linear equations then an iterative technique must be adopted with an
initial guess for the voltages (Flat Start) of 1.0 p.u as illustrated in the following flow chart for the
Gauss-Seidel algorithm:

14

CHAPTER 1 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

CYME 5.02 CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide

Hint:

1.3.3

The Gauss-Seidel method may offer better chances for convergence in


networks with significant resistance in them. (Branches with X/R < 1.0). Note
that this method normally requires a greater number of iterations to converge
to the solution than the other solution methods.

Newton-Raphson

The Newton-Raphson method of solving the power-flow problem is an iterative algorithm


for solving a set of simultaneous non-linear equations and an equal number of unknowns based
on the Taylors series expansion for a function of two or more variables.
The power equations at each bus will be as follows:

The derivative term is a follows:

CHAPTER 1 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

15

CYME 5.02 CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide

The power derivative terms work out to be as follows:

Since these are non-linear


equations then an iterative technique
must be adopted with an initial guess for
the voltages (Flat Start) of 1.0 p.u as
illustrated in this flow chart for the
Newton-Raphson algorithm:

1.3.4

Fast-Decoupled
The Full Newton-Raphson method is formulated as:

Where:
P is the Real Active Power
Q is the Imaginary Reactive Power
V is the Line Voltage
is the Voltage Angle
The Decoupled Power-Flow method is a variation of the full Newton-Raphson method
and is based on the fact that a change in the voltage angle at a bus will mainly affect the real
power flow in the overhead line or cable and does not affect the reactive power flow.

16

CHAPTER 1 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

CYME 5.02 CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide

Similarly, a change in the voltage magnitude will have a direct impact on the reactive
power flow and does affect the active power flow.
With this in mind the following derivative terms can be approximately set to zero.

The active and reactive power derivative terms can be approximated by the following
simplified equations:

The iterative technique of the Fast-Decoupled method is the same as the NewtonRaphson method.

1.4

Networks Tab

Select in the list the networks you wish to analyze. Click on the check box next to a
network name to select or de-select it individually. Click on the
symbol to expand the list and
to collapse it again. All selects every feeder loaded in the study. None de-selects all
on
feeders.

CHAPTER 1 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

17

CYME 5.02 CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide

Note:

1.5

The Load Flow module can simultaneously solve multiple networks and
networks with multiple swing buses.

Controls Tab

The modifications made in this dialog do not permanently change the status of
capacitors, regulators, transformers, generators and motors as defined in then network settings.
Rather, it simply allows you take them in and out of service for a particular analysis.
If the check box next to the item is unchecked then they are ignored (Off) for the analysis
as they are considered temporarily disconnected, even if their individual status indicates that they
are in service.

Take for example a capacitor that is controlled by the voltage at its terminals. Whether it
is initially On or Off, it will be considered as disconnected and will never turn on if Capacitors:
Voltage Control option is unchecked in this dialog box.

18

Note:

This is the only way to turn on/off time-controlled capacitors without changing
their status individually.

Hint:

Fixed capacitor will behave as manual control.

CHAPTER 1 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

CYME 5.02 CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide

For Regulator and Transformer Tap Operation, the following analysis options are
available:
Normal Tap
Operation

The Normal Tap Operation setting uses the taps as defined in the
Network Settings.

Infinite Taps

The Infinite Tap option does not consider any step; the regulated
voltage will then be exactly the desired voltage.
Hint: During the planning stage, you can select Infinite Taps to
ensure you get the exact desired voltage.

1.6

Lock Taps at
their Specified
Positions

If this option is checked then the load flow is solved by fixing the tap
position of all Regulators and Load Tap Changing Transformers to
the initial tap position as defined in the network settings.

Disable Tap
Changer

This option has the same effect as setting the tap changer to its
neutral position (no voltage adjustment).

Loading / Voltage Limits Tab

In this dialog box you can specify the thresholds for abnormal (alarm) conditions
(overload, low- and high-voltage) by choosing the equipment loading limits as specified in the
equipment database, and/or by applying a limit category factor.

CHAPTER 1 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

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CYME 5.02 CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide

Equipment
Ratings

Choose to use one of the five


Equipment Ratings. Nominal is
set in the Equipment database.

You can change the text that


describes the Equipment Rating
values in the dialog box found at
File > Preferences, under the
Text tab.
Protective
Device
Rating

Select the protective device rating


criteria to use to calculate the
protective
device
loadings.
Choose from Use Equipment
Ratings, Nominal Pickup or
Individual Settings.

Limit
Categories

In addition to the Equipment Ratings selected, you may also choose to


apply a loading limit factor. Define a separate capacity level as a
percentage to the selected Equipment Rating. Five operating conditions
can be defined, such as Nominal, Emergency, and Planning.
Choose one of the limit categories and check the option Apply Loading
Limits Factors. If this optional loading limit factors are to be applied, the
selected one would be displayed in blue.

If you do not want to use the terms Nominal, Planning and


Emergency, you may change the terms in the menu File >
Preferences under the Text tab. Enter the label texts to describe the
equipment Capacity Flag Levels in the various dialog boxes where they
are used.

20

CHAPTER 1 LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS

CYME 5.02 CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide

Voltage
Limits

For each operating condition, you can specify the High and Low Voltage
limits to be used to report any network component that violates these
limits. These values are only criteria for evaluating whether a component
is experiencing high - or low-voltage. They do not affect the calculation.
When the option Apply Loading Limits Factors is selected, the
operating level chosen in the Limit Categories is enabled, and its
associated voltage limit is also selected.

Regulator
Bonus
Rating

1.7

For the purpose of overload


detection, the regulator rated kVA
can be adjusted as a function of
the actual regulation range. Click
the Edit button to modify these
default values. Uncheck the option
Enable to deactivate this mode.

Output Tab

Different output options are available upon the completion of the load flow analysis.
These options would allow the automatic generation of the reports selected and the display of
results on the one-line diagram.
Display the
Iterations
Report

Display the
Summary
Status Dialog
Box

To display the load flow iteration report. Refer to section 1.8 Solving
the Load Flow for further details.
This is a useful option if no solution is found, since you will be able to
inspect the Iteration Report to try to identify the portion of the
network that may be causing the problem.
To display the status box
showing
the
parameter
settings used and indicating
whether
any
abnormal
conditions were encountered
(overload, low-voltage, and
high-voltage).

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Check the Select checkbox next to each reporting options you wish to enable. Use the
Add button to create the list of reports to be displayed, and use the drop-down menu to select the
appropriate result tags, color coding and/or tool tips configuration to be displayed.

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1.8

Solving the Load Flow

Once the parameters for the load flow analysis have been set, you may click on the Save
button if you wish to permanently save the parameters to your disk. This is only useful if you wish
to re-use the same parameters as default parameters for future studies.
Click on the Run button to start the analysis. Depending on the calculation method
selected, the following iteration reports will be displayed (if the option Display Iteration Report is
checked).
For the Voltage Drop calculation methods, the following report will be displayed.

At each iteration, the load flow computes the voltage at every section in the network. It
compares the new values with the values it calculated from the previous iteration and reports the
section where the voltage has changed the most (Max dV in %). The process continues until the
solution is found or until the maximum number of iterations is reached.
For the Fast Decoupled, the Newton-Raphson and the Gauss-Seidel calculation
methods, the following iteration report will be displayed.

The convergence criteria for these methods is power dP (Active Power) and dQ
(Reactive Power) in respect to the calculation tolerance specified in the calculation parameters.

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Mismatches

Are the differences between specified and calculated power at a bus.


At every iteration the software returns the largest mismatch and the
affected bus. dP and dQ are respectively the largest active power
and reactive power mismatches. Both are expressed in per-unit of
the MVA base (not in MW and MVAR directly).
(Example: dP = .7743E-01 means 0.07743 x 100 MVA = 7.743 MW.)
Bus

Adjustments

Hints:

24

is the bus where the corresponding mismatch (dP or dQ)


occurs. Examine that part of the network if the calculation
does not converge.

Lists two numbers in each of seven columns, in the form N / M. This


means that N devices of that type have been set to their limits in the
present iteration, and that M devices might otherwise have exceeded
their limits:
Area

Means the specified active power (MW) flow from one area to
another cannot be satisfied and that the flow has been set to
the maximum possible.

Gen

Means the reactive power limit of a generator(s) has been


reached.

TCV

Means the tap of a Voltage Regulating transformer has


reached one of its limits.

TCQ

Means the tap of a Reactive Power Regulating transformer


has reached one of its limits.

TCP

Means that the tap of a Phase-shifting transformer has


reached one of its limits.

DCL

Means that one of the converter angles has reached its limit
in a HVDC Line.

SwG

Means that the maximum VAR adjustment of a switchable


shunt has been reached.

You might inspect this report to see whether devices are continually being
adjusted.

If so, try changing the settings of one or more of them before solving
again.

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1.9

Results

1.9.1

Reports

To select and display the load flow reports click on the


toolbar or select Report > On Calculation from the menu.

icon of the Simulation

.
Here are a few samples of reports that can be selected.

Sample Load Flow Summary Report

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Notes on the Load Flow Summary report:


1. Differences between Load Read (non-adjusted) and Load Used:
a. Load Read: Total load connected to the network, i.e., the sum of
each individual load point.
b. Load Used: Total load used for the Load Flow analysis. This value
may be different from the load as it is influenced by the load scaling
factors, the voltage sensitivity load model and the constant
impedance voltage threshold.
2. Annual Cost of System Losses: CYME first annualizes the kW losses
calculated through the Load Flow analysis considering the load factor
defined for each network (Edit > Add Network > Demand tab, Annual
Losses group box). Then, the Cost of energy defined under the reports
Properties is used to calculate the total annual cost.

Sample Load Flow Feeder Loading Report

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Sample Load Flow Detailed Report

See the Report Menu chapter in the CYME Reference Manual to learn about the various
commands available to use the predefined report forms and/or to generate sophisticated user
defined reports particularly through the use of XSL template.
1.9.2

Report by Individual Section

To see the report by individual section, first enable the Voltage Drop Box via View >
Result Box > Load Flow Result Box. Then click on a section on the one-line display.

Hint:

Use the keyboard shortcut <Ctrl> + <V> to hide or show the Load Flow Result
Box.

The description of the default data reported in the Load Flow Result Box is detailed
below. Note that the contents of the Load Flow Result Box can be customized. Refer to the
Customize (Result boxes) chapter in the CYME Reference Manual.
V base

Voltage referred to the base voltage defined in File > System


Parameters dialog box.

v=
kVLL

Actual V
Base
Nominal V

Line-to-line voltage at the secondary side, expressed in kV.

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KVLN

Line-to-neutral voltage at the secondary side, expressed in kV.

i (A)

Phase current in Amperes into the sub-section.

kVA

Apparent power flowing into the sub-section.

kW

Real power flowing into the sub-section.

kVAR

Reactive power flowing into the sub-section.


Choice of measurement location. See diagram below, and recall from
Section Structure that there may be three sub-sections in a section.
One or two of the circles will not be active if no equipment is
connected, which would divide the section into sub-sections.

The three locations for measuring the current, power and voltage

Hint:

Colors in the Load Flow Results Box.


Colors in the result box identify overloads and under/over-voltage conditions
according to the Loading Limits thresholds given via Analysis > Load Flow,
Voltage/Loading Limits tab.
The alarm colors (as defined in the Abnormal conditions color coding) appear
in the result box even if the one-line color-coding feature has been turned
(View > Display Options; click on the Modify button in the Symbols group
box to display the Symbols Default symbols dialog box, and go to the
Abnormal Conditions tree item in the list.)

Hint:

28

Negative values will appear if the power is flowing from the load end toward
the source end, since flow (current and power) is defined as positive the other
way.

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Click on the
button to display the Chart Selection dialog box. Refer to section 1.9.3
Charts, for further details.
) will help monitor multiple
The last four buttons of the Result box (
locations. See the Customize Menu chapter of the CYME Reference Manual, under Result
Boxes.
1.9.3

Charts

inside the Load Flow Box and in the Simulation Toolbar allows you to
The icon
display the Chart Selection dialog box where you can select the charts to plot (Voltage profile,
kVA profile, kVAR profile, etc.) along the network, from the substation to the node of the active
section.

Apply on allows the user to plot simulation results of feeders or of a selected node,
section or group of sections.
The Filter option allows to narrow down the results tracing based on user-defined filters.
See the Customize > Filters chapter in the CYME Reference Manual for more information.
Select the desired charts from the list and click on Plot to view the charts.

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Plot of Voltage Profile

You may print the selected chart once plotted via the File > Print menu command.
Note that the Load Flow Results Box (if displayed) will be superimposed on the plot.
You may hide it temporarily by closing its window. (Press <Ctrl> + <V> to get it back again.)
Hint:

If you make any changes to the network, such as adding a load, the program
will discard all of the analysis results, and the results box will disappear.

The customization of the charts may be done through the menu Customize > Charts (or
by clicking on the Customize button in the Chart Selection dialog box). Refer to the Customize
(Charts) chapter in the CYME Reference Manual.
1.9.4

One-Line Diagram Tags

Load flow results may be displayed on the One Line Diagram (See the example below).
You may select and configure the tag layers using the Tag Layer toolbar. You can create and
completely customize your own layer of result tags; to do so, use the Customize > Tags and
Text menu command. Consult the CYME Reference Manual for more information.

One-Line Diagram Report Tags

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Hint:

1.9.5

The Tool Tip can also be used to display the Tag contents. Hovering your
mouse over a section will display the tool tip. The contents of the tool tip can
be modified. To do so, go to the Tool tips group box of the View > Display
Options dialog box.

One-Line Diagram Coloring

The one-line diagram can be color-coded based on the load flow results. You can select
from a list of predefined coloring layers or you can create your own color coding layer. You may
select the active color coding layer using the Color Coding Layer toolbar. You can create and
completely customize your own color coding; to do so, use the Customize > Color coding menu
command. Consult the CYME Reference Manual for more information.

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Refer to the Display Options chapter in the CYME Reference Manual to learn how to
customize and create new one-line diagram color coding layer.
You may also display the abnormal conditions on the one-line diagram by clicking on the
icon of the analysis toolbar.
.

1.10 Convergence Issues


Some networks may exhibit difficulty in converging or do not converge at all. This chapter
provides you some hints as to what you need to look for.
1.10.1 Voltage Drop Method
When the Voltage Drop calculation method fails to converge, the following
recommended steps should help you find the potential causes of the non-convergence.
1.

Enable the option Display the Iterations Report in the Load flow parameters tab.

2.

Try relaxing the constraints on the devices by enabling the option Remove All
Constraints in the Load flow parameters tab. If the Load flow converges, investigate
the setting adjustments of regulators, LTCs and generators.

3.

Try reducing the load factor until the load flow converges. For example, try a load
factor of 70% (global load factor =70%) and continue to reduce the load factor until
the Load flow does converge. Once you have a solution, identify the areas with low
voltages and investigate those areas for potentially large loads or large impedances.

4.

If you see that the Max dV is increasing steadily in the iteration report, check the
input data for components connected to the indicated section. Look for very high
impedance.
Hints:

32

Check that transformer voltages are entered in kV, not Volts.


For example, 480 V is 0.48 kV, not 480 kV.

Make sure line and cable lengths are consistent with the unit of
length specified

For example 15000 ft. is 2.84 mi, not 15000 mi.

5.

If you see that the Max dV steadily decreases in the iteration report but remains
higher than the specified solution tolerance when the permitted number of iterations
is exhausted, try increasing the number of iterations before solving again. See
Analysis > Load Flow, Parameters Tab.

6.

If you see that the Max dV becomes large and repeatedly increases and then
decreases in the iteration report look for a very high load downstream supplied
through a large impedance.

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7.

Verify the settings of switched capacitors, regulators, LTC transformers, and


generators. Make sure that the control settings are adequate.
Hint:

A Cancel button allows you to cancel the calculation before all of the
permitted iterations are performed, in case the calculation is not
converging. Use it to save you some time.

1.10.2 Gauss-Seidel, Fast Decoupled and Newton-Raphson Methods


For these methods, the Iteration Report will display the names of buses where there
may be problems (heavy reactive load, high reactance branches, and input data errors, for
example).

Failure to converge due to an excessive load at bus EMERG35

1. If the mismatches increase steadily, check the input data for equipment connected
to the buses indicated. Check the data of all branches connected to the bus and in
particular the impedance of the branch. A very high or very low branch impedance
may be the cause of the problem.
Hint:

Ensure that transformer impedances are entered in p.u. (0.075), not


in percent (7.5).
Make sure that line and cable lengths are consistent with the length
unit used for defining the impedance. (e.g., 200 m is 0.200 km).

2. If the mismatches increase and decrease and devices are being adjusted at every
iteration, try and solve without constraints. If calculation converges, you may be
able to identify from the results where the problem comes from. (Example: excessive
VAR requirements).
Hint:

Perhaps two devices have been set to control the voltage at the
same bus.

3. If the Fast-Decoupled or Newton-Raphson method does not converge even when


you de-activate the constraints, try the Gauss-Seidel method. Allow more iterations
for this method.

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4. If the mismatches steadily decrease but remain higher than the specified solution
tolerance when the permitted number of iterations is exhausted, try increasing the
number of iterations before solving again, or de-activate the "flat start" option in the
Calculation Options group box of the Parameters Tab dialog box and solve again
immediately.
5. If the mismatches repeatedly decrease and then increase suddenly, the solution
(if it exists) may be near an unstable point. Try to approach the case under study by
successively modifying a similar case, which has a solution.
1.10.3 Networks with Abnormal Voltages
This section provides some basic hints in trying to solve power flows in which very high
or low bus voltages are expected.
Some Power Flow solutions (whether realistic or not) require that bus voltages attain very
high ( > 1.10 p.u.) or very low (< 0.80 p.u.) values in order for the calculation to converge.
Examples:

Small islanded generators, such as emergency generators, with


heavy loads.

Industrial systems operation without connection to a utility grid.

Small utilities serving light loads connected to long transmission


lines.

Here is a helpful technique, which you can apply to each of these cases:
1. If there is only one generator in a heavily loaded network, and you are trying to
simulate operation at low voltages, set the desired voltage of the generator bus to a
value near what you expect it to be (e.g., 0.85 p.u.). A lone generator must operate
as a swing machine (hence it has unlimited power capability), but if the solution
shows that its MW and MVAR production are within the limits of the real machine,
then the solution is a valid one. There are, however, many valid solutions.
Use trial and error with the Operating kV to try to get the generator to produce its
maximum reactive power, Qmax. That should result in the highest possible voltages.
2. If you are trying to estimate how much load an islanded generator can carry,
you can use the same technique, and run successive power flows, each time
gradually adding more load, until the generator output reaches the limits of the real
machine.
3. If there is more than one generator, you can apply the same technique. One
generator operates as a swing machine, of course. If necessary, adjust the settings
of the other generator(s) to make the Qmin and Qmax artificially very large (make Qmin
= Qmax). If the solution shows the MVAR output to be within the realistic limits of
the generator, then the solution is a valid one. [The idea is to give the calculation
freedom to iterate toward the unusual solution.]
4. If long unloaded transmission lines are contributing many MVAR into the
network, such that the voltages are expected to attain very high values, apply the
same technique, and set the Operating kV of the generators bus to a value near
what you expect (e.g., 1.20 p.u.). (There are, however, many valid solutions.)
Use trial and error with the Operating kV to try to get the generator to produce (or
absorb) its minimum reactive power, Qmin. That should result in the lowest possible
voltages.

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1.10.4 Parallel Operation of Generators


This applies to more than one generator connected to a bus. The generators do not
have to be the same type. This note describes the power sharing among generators connected
to the same bus.

Fixed generators are treated as constant (negative) MW and MVAR load. Fixed
generation does not affect what follows.

Swing generators share the required active and reactive generation equally,
regardless of their nominal MVA rating.

Voltage-controlled generators each produce their specified active generation


(Pgen). Their share of the reactive power required in the solution (Qgen) is computed
as follows:

q = qmin +

Qgen - Qmin
(qmax - qmin)
Qmax - Qmin

Where:
-

qmin and qmax are the reactive limits of the particular generator.

Qmin and Qmax are the sums of the qmin's and qmax's of the voltage controlled
generators connected to the bus.

Qgen is the required reactive generation at the bus.

If Swing and Voltage-controlled generators are connected to the same bus, then each
V-C generator produces its specified active generation, and the swing generators share the
excess.
In that case, the reactive power allocated to each voltage controlled generator is
calculated differently.
If Qgen exceeds Qmax, each voltage controlled generator generates its qmax, or If
Qgen is less than Qmin, each voltage controlled generator generates its qmin. In either case,
the swing generators share the excess.

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Chapter 2

Short-Circuit Analysis

The Short Circuit analysis (Menu command Analysis > Short Circuit) can calculate
fault currents for every type of fault at every section, and can also compute the fault contributions
in the network due to a single fault.
The objective of a Short-circuit program can be categorized into the following:

The design and the selection of interrupting equipments (circuit-breakers,


switchgears, etc)

The determination of the system protective device settings (fuses, relays, etc)

The determination of the effects of the fault currents on various system components
such as cables, lines, busways, transformers, etc.

The assessment of the effects of different kinds of short-circuits of varying severity


on the overall system voltage profile.

The short-circuit analysis calculates maximum and minimum fault currents according to
either one of the following three methods:
1 - Conventional Short-circuit Analysis

A conventional study does not follow any standards and do not adjust motor
reactance, but does allow the use of the transient impedances of generators to
calculate the current a few cycles after fault inception.

2 ANSI Short-circuit Analysis

Adheres to the American National Standards Institute standards for circuit breaker
application C37.010 (symmetrical current basis), C37.5 (total current basis) and
C37.13 (low voltage circuit breakers).

Calculates four specific duty types, according to the standards, and applies
multipliers to the calculated currents to account for asymmetry (DC component). The
reactance of motors are adjusted according to their size and speed to account for the
fact that their contribution to the faults decay rapidly with time.

3 IEC Short-circuit Analysis

Adheres to the European IEC 60909 guidelines for short-circuit analysis applicable to
three-phase AC systems at both 50 Hz and 60 Hz.

Calculates the initial, peak and breaking fault currents in networks of any
configuration (radial or meshed). The steady state fault current is also computed
taking into account the saturated direct axis reactance and excitation characteristics
of the contributing synchronous machines.

The initial, peak and breaking current motor contributions according to the
procedures tabulated in IEC for faults at motor terminals. The necessary multipliers
are also calculated and reported depending on the type of duty under consideration.
Both ac and dc offset currents are computed and reported. The maximum and
minimum fault currents are computed as per IEC 60909.

CHAPTER 2 SHORT-CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

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2.1

Conventional Short-Circuit Analysis

The Short-circuit calculation does not follow any particular standard and is based on the
following assumptions:

Positive- and negative-sequence impedances are identical.

Lines are perfectly symmetrical (transposed), so that there is no mutual coupling


between sequences.

The pre-fault voltage to be considered is defined by the user between the choices of
using the base voltage, the operating voltage, or the voltage obtained from a load
flow solution.

For each section, the equivalent positive-sequence and zero-sequence impedances


as seen from the fault location are computed. Generators are automatically included,
and the inclusion of the contribution from motors is optional.

It does not adjust motor reactance, but does allow you to use transient impedances
of generators to calculate the current a few cycles after fault inception.

To access the analysis, select Analysis > Short-circuit > Conventional from the menu,
or select Short-Circuit Conventional from the list of available analyses in the Simulation
toolbar.

Click on the Run Simulation icon


Conventional Short-circuit Analysis dialog box.

38

in the Simulation toolbar to open the

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2.1.1

Fault Parameters Tab

This tab is used to make the fault selection and set appropriate general parameters for
short-circuit calculations.
The program computes the fault current at every bus. A summary report is generated for
all shunt fault types namely LLL, LG, LL and LL-G.

2.1.1.1

Fault Types

The fault types available to be analyzed are: LLL, LL, LLG, and LG. For each section, the
software computes the equivalent positive-sequence and zero-sequence impedances as seen
from the fault location. Generators are automatically included.
Three-phase Fault
The current at the end of a line /cable or at a node/bus is calculated as follows:

I LLL =

V
Z1 + Zf

Where:

V = pre-fault line-to-neutral voltage. Define this variable via the Pre-fault


voltage block in the Fault Parameters tab.

Z1 = cumulative positive-sequence impedance between the fault location


and the substation, including the impedance of the substation.

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CYME 5.02 CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide

Zf = impedance of the fault itself. Define this variable via Analysis > Short
Circuit, Conventional Parameters tab.

The safety (security) factors Kmax and Kmin can be applied to the calculated
faults currents. Define this variable via Analysis > Short Circuit,
Conventional Parameters tab.

Double-Line-to-Ground Fault
The calculation of the LLG fault is done by computing the fault currents on phase
B and phase C using:

I a1 =

(Z 2 + Zf ) * (Z 0 + Zf + 3Zg )
Z1 + Zf +

Z 0 + Z 2 + 2Zf + 3Zg

Z 2 + Zf

I a 0 = I a1 *
Z 2 + Z 0 + 2 Zf + 3Zg

Z 0 + Zf + 3Zg

I a 2 = I a1 *
Z 2 + Z 0 + 2 Zf + 3Zg

I LLG _ b = I a 0 + a 2 I a1 + aI a 2
I LLG _ c = I a 0 + aI a1 + a 2 I a 2
I LLG _ T = I LLG _ b + I LLG _ c
Where:

40

V = pre-fault line-to-neutral voltage. Define this variable via the Pre-fault


voltage block in the Fault Parameters tab.

Z0 = cumulative zero-sequence impedance between the fault location and


the substation, including the impedance of the substation.

Z2 = Z1 since it is assumed that the positive and negative sequence


impedances are identical.

Zf = impedance of the fault itself. Define this variable via Analysis > Short
Circuit, Conventional Parameters tab.

Zg = impedance to ground of the fault itself. Define this variable via Analysis
> Short Circuit, Conventional Parameters tab.

The safety (security) factors Kmax and Kmin can be applied to the calculated
faults currents. Define this variable via Analysis > Short Circuit,
Conventional Parameters tab.

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Line-to-Line Fault

I LL =

3 *V
2 Z1 + Zf

Where:

V = pre-fault line-to-neutral voltage. Define this variable via the Pre-fault


voltage block in the Fault Parameters tab.

Z1 = cumulative positive-sequence impedance between the fault location


and the substation, including the impedance of the substation.

Zf = impedance of the fault itself. Define this variable via Analysis >
Short Circuit, Conventional Parameters tab.

The safety (security) factors Kmax and Kmin can be applied to the
calculated faults currents. Define this variable via Analysis > Short
Circuit, Conventional Parameters tab.

Single-Line-to-Ground Fault

I LG =

3 *V
2Z1 + Z 0 + 3Zg

Where:

V = pre-fault line-to-neutral voltage. Define this variable via the Pre-fault


voltage block in the Fault Parameters tab.

Z1 = cumulative positive-sequence impedance between the fault location


and the substation, including the impedance of the substation.

Zg = impedance of the fault itself. Define this variable via Analysis >
Short Circuit, Conventional Parameters tab.

Z0 = cumulative zero-sequence impedance between the fault location


and the substation, including the impedance of the substation.

The safety (security) factors Kmax and Kmin can be applied to the
calculated faults currents. Define this variable via Analysis > Short
Circuit, Conventional Parameters tab.

Hint:

The Double-Line-to-Ground fault current is the same as the Line-toLine fault current on a Delta configuration line.

Asymmetry Factor
The (first half-cycle) asymmetry factor is calculated as:

R = cumulative positive-sequence resistance.

X = cumulative positive-sequence reactance.

CHAPTER 2 SHORT-CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

K = 1 + 2e - 2 R/X .

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CYME 5.02 CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide

Peak Factor
The (first half-cycle) peak factor is calculated as: K =

2.1.1.2

R = cumulative positive-sequence resistance.

X = cumulative positive-sequence reactance.

2 1 + e - R/X .

Calculation Parameters
The Fault Parameters tab contains more options one can select from to specify
other factors to be considered in the short-circuit calculation.
Pre-Fault
Voltage

Computes the fault current considering either Base or Operating


Voltage.

If you solve using the Base Voltage option, the phase angle of the
current is reported relative to 0. Hence the current angle tells you the
impedance angle at the fault, and the X/R ratio = tan (-angle).
If you solve using Operating Voltage, the short-circuit current
calculation will be based on the operating voltage. The operating voltage
is specified at the Equivalent tab of the Network Properties dialog box or
by any voltage controlled device (LTC transformer for example).
Transformers
at Nominal
Tap

Enable the option Transformers at Nominal Tap to force the ShortCircuit calculation to apply nominal tap positions (100%) of transformers.
In other words disregard any individual transformer primary tap settings
as specified in the Transformer Dialog Boxes.

Security
Factors

Option allowing you to apply security factors, Kmax and Kmin, to the
fault currents.

Fault
Impedance:

You may define different fault impedances. Assign an impedance to the


fault itself (e.g., to represent an arcing ground fault). Expressed in Ohms
or p.u..
Refer to the diagrams below for explanations of the fault impedance
values.

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Machine
Impedance

Select the Generator Impedance (Steady State, Transient, or


Subtransient) to be used. By default, generator impedance is set to
Steady State.
Use the sub-transient impedances of generators to calculate faults within
a few cycles of fault inception.
Use transient impedances for
calculations beyond that time.

Include
Contributions
From

Synchronous Machine Contributions in the Sub-Transient, Transient


and Steady State regions.
Induction Machine Contributions in the Sub-Transient Region only.
All Electronically Coupled Generators Including Wind Turbines,
Photovoltaic, Micro Turbines and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells,
Zero Sequence Line Susceptance for ground fault types LG and LLG.

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2.1.2

Networks Tab

Select in the list the networks you wish to analyze. Click on the check box next to a
network name to select or de-select it individually. Click on the
symbol to expand the list and
to collapse it again. All selects every feeder loaded in the study. None de-selects all
on
feeders.

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2.1.3

Output tab

Use this dialog box to set the options to display Conventional Short-Circuit results in
reports, tags and tooltips, and color code the One Line Diagram according to the simulation
results.

Reports Group
box

Select: Check ( ) this option to enable the command buttons and


reports list.
Add: Click on this button to access the Reports dialog box where
you can select the tabular reports you wish to generate. See the
Report Menu chapter in the CYME Reference Manual to learn about
the various commands available to use the predefined report forms
and/or to generate sophisticated user defined reports particularly
through the use of XSL template.
Remove: Allows you to delete the selected report from the list. Select
the report to delete and click on the button Remove. You can select
more than one report for deletion.

One-LineDiagram
Result Tags
Group box

Allows you to display Short-Circuit results within tags on the One Line
Diagram. Check ( ) the Select button to enable the list then select
the tag layer. Consult the CYME Reference Manual for more
information on using and creating tag layer.

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2.2

One-LineDiagram Color
Coding Group
box

Allows you to color-code the One Line Diagram based on the ShortCircuit results. Check ( ) the Select button to enable list then select
the coloring layer. Consult to the CYME Reference Manual for more
information on using and creating coloring layer.

One-LineDiagram
Tooltips Group
box

Allows you to display Short-Circuit results within tooltips by hovering


the mouse over a section on the One Line Diagram. Check ( ) the
Select button to enable the list then select simulation whose results
you want to see. Note that if you have activated the option Always
run both simulation simultaneously in the tab Simulation of the
Preferences dialog box, Load flow results will be available. Consult
the CYME Reference Manual for more information on using and
creating tooltips.

ANSI Short-Circuit Analysis

The ANSI Version follows the American National Standards Institute recommendations
for circuit breaker application C37.010 (symmetrical current basis), C37.5 (total current basis)
and C37.13 (low voltage circuit breakers):

It calculates four specific duty types, according to the standards, and applies
multipliers to the calculated currents to account for asymmetry in the short circuit
current (DC component).

It adjusts the reactance of motors according to their size and speed to account for
the fact that their contribution to faults decays with time.

It does not permit the inclusion of pre-fault load current.

It does not permit a fault impedance (Zf) since only bolted faults are allowed, as
stipulated in the standard.

It does not permit a grounding fault impedance (Zg).


permitted.

Only bolted faults are

As stipulated in the ANSI standards, the ANSI short-circuit calculation performs the I =
E/Z computation (using complex impedances in the network matrices) and computes X/R ratios
by reducing separate X and R networks.
Three-phase fault:

X / R = X1 / R 1

Line-to-ground fault:

X / R = (2 X1 + X0 ) / (2 R1 + R0)

Depending on the fault duty selected and the X/R ratio at the fault location, the ANSI
short-circuit calculation identifies the multipliers to be applied to the symmetrical current to
account for AC and DC decrements. Different multipliers apply to current contributions from local
and remote sources. Note that if the X/R is less than 15, no multipliers are needed.
Select Short-circuit ANSI from the list of available analyses in the Simulation toolbar.
You may also select Analysis > Short-circuit > ANSI from the menu.

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Click on the Run Simulation icon


circuit Analysis dialog box.

2.2.1

in the Simulation toolbar to open the ANSI Short-

ANSI Parameters Tab


This tab is used to set the ANSI short-circuit duty type calculations.

The program computes the fault current at every bus. A summary report is generated for
all shunt fault types namely LLL, LG, LL and LL-G.

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2.2.1.1

DUTY Type
There are four available DUTY types as defined in the standards:
Closing
/Latching

The symmetrical RMS current is calculated at one-half cycle after fault


inception. According to the standard ANSI C37.010, the symmetrical
current is multiplied by 1.6 to account for asymmetry due to the DC
component. The resulting current is the so-called momentary rating
used to evaluate the circuit breakers capability to close into a faulted
circuit and remain closed (latched) until tripped. The peak current
(symmetrical RMS x 2.6) are also reported to facilitate comparison of the
current against preferred breaker ratings (standard C37.06).
More realistic multipliers are also computeed, using the actual X/R ratio.
It reports both the multiplier and the current adjusted by that multiplier.

IRMS, asym = ( IAC, RMS, sym)2 + ( IDC)2 = IAC, RMS, sym 1 + 2 e4t / ( X R)

IPEAK = IAC, RMS, sym 2 1 + e2t / ( X R)

Where t = 1/2 cycle.


To account for the decay of the motor contributions within the first halfcycle, the standards multiply the reactance of each motor by a factor
determined from the motor power and speed:
Positive sequence reactance
for momentary duty

Motor type
All synchronous motors

1.0 Xd

Induction motors
above 1000 HP at 1800 rpm or less

Low
Voltage
CB

1.0 Xd

above 250 HP at 3600 rpm

1.0 Xd

all others 50 HP and above

1.2 Xd

all smaller than 50 HP

1.67 Xd

The symmetrical RMS current is calculated at one-half cycle after fault


inception. If the fault X/R ratio exceeds the X/R on which the breaker
rating is based, then according to ANSI standard C37.13, the
symmetrical current is multiplied by a factor which depends on the fault
X/R ratio.

MF =

MF =

2 1 + e /( X / R)
2.29

1 + 2e 2 /( X / R)
1.25

for infused circuit breakers (if X/R > 6.6)

for fused circuit breakers (if X/R > 4.9)

Motor reactance(s) are adjusted as Closing/Latching.


Note: Results for Low Voltage circuit Breaker duty will be reported only
at buses whose base voltage is less than 1.0 kV.

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Contact
Parting

The symmetrical RMS current is calculated at a point in time (within a


few cycles after fault inception) when medium- and high-voltage circuit
breakers try to interrupt it. Standard C37.010 provides graphs of
multipliers to be applied to the symmetrical current which account for
decay with time of the DC component and the AC current magnitude.
These multipliers depend on the X/R ratio and the delay before the
breaker begins to interrupt the current. (Standard C37.5 presents similar
figures.)
See standard C37.010 for figures 8, 9 and 10 which each consist of four
graphs (for 2-cycle, 3-cycle, 5-cycle and 8-cycle breaker speeds). Each
graph shows the multiplier as a function of the X/R ratio for several
values of contact parting time. The contact parting time is the sum of
the tripping delay and about one half the time taken by the breaker to
interrupt the current (breaker speed).
Figure 8 of the Standard gives the multiplier for three-phase fault current
which is affected by both DC and AC decay (i.e., contributions from local
sources). Figure 9 does the same for line-to-ground fault current. Figure
10 applies to current contributions to both fault types from remote
(electrically distant) sources and assumes no AC decay.
A contribution from a generator is classified as local if the impedance
between the generator and the fault is less than 1.5 times the generators
own sub-transient impedance. (See ANSI/IEEE C37.010). Otherwise
the contribution is remote. Note that contributions from swing generators
are always considered remote, because the swing is assumed to
represent electrically distant generation.
Despite the fact that motor-contributions AC-decay is accounted
according to the following table, you have the possibility to take into
account motor contribution either as local or remote.
The application identifies the portions of the fault current which come
from local and remote sources. For each contribution it finds the
multiplier from its digitized version of the curves. It then finds the
weighted sum:

I = (local multiplier)(local current) + (remote


multiplier)(remote current)
To account for the rapid decay of contributions from motors, the
standards multiply the reactance of each motor by a factor determined
from the motor power and speed:
Motor type
All synchronous motors

Positive sequence
reactance
for interrupting duty
1.5 Xd

Induction motors
above 1000 HP at 1800 rpm
or less

1.5 Xd

above 250 HP at 3600 rpm

1.5 Xd

all others 50 HP and above

3.0 Xd

all smaller than 50 HP

CHAPTER 2 SHORT-CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

Neglect (i.e., open circuit)

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Time
Delayed

2.2.1.2

The symmetrical RMS current is calculated at a point in time (say 30 cycles


after fault inception) when the contributions from motors have decayed to
zero and the generators are represented by their transient reactance.
There is no asymmetry in the current waveform and no multipliers are
needed. No motor contribution is included for this duty type.

Include Contributions From


It is possible to select to
include the contributions from induction
machines, synchronous motors, other
generation sources such as WECS
and SOFC, and/or sequence line
susceptance.

2.2.2

Networks Tab

Select in the list the networks you wish to analyze. Click on the check box next to a
network name to select or de-select it individually. Click on the
symbol to expand the list and
on
to collapse it again. All selects every feeder loaded in the study. None de-selects all
feeders.

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2.2.3

Output Tab

Use this dialog box to set the options to display ANSI Short-Circuit results in reports, tags
and tooltips, and color code the One Line Diagram according to the simulation results.

Reports
Group box

Select: Check ( ) this option to enable the command buttons and


reports list.
Add: Click on this button to access the Reports dialog box where you
can select the tabular reports you wish to generate. See the Report
Menu chapter in the CYME Reference Manual to learn about the
various commands available to use the predefined report forms and/or
to generate sophisticated user defined reports particularly through the
use of XSL template.
Remove: Allows you to delete the selected report from the list. Select
the report to delete and click on the button Remove. You can select
more than one report for deletion.

One-LineDiagram
Result Tags
Group box

Allows you to display Short-Circuit results within tags on the One Line
Diagram. Check ( ) the Select button to enable the list then select
the tag layer. Consult the CYME Reference Manual for more
information on using and creating tag layer.

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2.3

One-LineDiagram
Color Coding
Group box

Allows you to color-code the One Line Diagram based on the ShortCircuit results. Check ( ) the Select button to enable list then select
the coloring layer. Consult to the CYME Reference Manual for more
information on using and creating coloring layer.

One-LineDiagram
Tooltips
Group box

Allows you to display Short-Circuit results within tooltips by hovering


the mouse over a section on the One Line Diagram. Check ( ) the
Select button to enable the list then select simulation whose results
you want to see. Note that if you have activated the option Always
run both simulation simultaneously in the tab Simulation of the
Preferences dialog box, Load flow results will be available. Consult
the CYME Reference Manual for more information on using and
creating tooltips.

IEC Short-Circuit Analysis

The IEC analysis follows the European IEC 60909 guidelines for short circuit analysis
applicable to three-phase AC systems at both 50 Hz and 60 Hz. It allows calculating:

The initial, peak and breaking fault currents in networks of any configuration (radial
or meshed).
The steady state fault currents taking into account the saturated direct axis reactance
and excitation characteristics of the contributing synchronous machines.
The initial, peak and breaking current motor contributions according to the
procedures tabulated in IEC for faults at motor terminals. The necessary multipliers
are also calculated and reported depending on the type of duty under consideration.
Both ac and dc offset currents are computed and reported.
The maximum and minimum fault currents as stipulated in IEC 60909.

However, it does not allow:

52

The inclusion of pre-fault load current. At the fault point, the pre-fault voltage is
taken to be Cf times the system rated voltage.
The factor Cf is defined in
compliance with IEC 909 and may pertain to either maximum or minimum fault
current calculations.
The use of load flow solution voltages.
A fault impedance since only bolted faults are allowed, as stipulated in the
standard.
Switching from sub-transient to transient impedances because only sub-transient
generator impedances can be considered for all types of duty.

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Select Short-Circuit IEC from the list of available analyses in the Simulation toolbar.
You may also select Analysis > Short-circuit > IEC from the menu.

Click on the Run Simulation icon


circuit Analysis dialog box.

2.3.1

in the Simulation toolbar to open the IEC Short-

IEC Parameters Tab


This tab is used to set the IEC short-circuit duty type calculations.

The program computes the fault current at every bus. A summary report is generated for
all shunt fault types namely LLL, LG, LL and LL-G.

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2.3.1.1

Fault Current Type


The method used for calculation is based on the introduction of an equivalent
voltage source at the short-circuit location. The equivalent voltage source is the only
active voltage of the system. All network feeders, synchronous and asynchronous
machines are replaced by their internal impedances.
In all cases, it is possible to determine the short-circuit current at the short-circuit
location with the help of an equivalent voltage source. Operational data and the load of
consumers, tap changer position of transformers, excitation of generators, and so on, are
dispensable; additional calculations about all the different possible load flows of short
circuit are superfluous.
In general, two short-circuit currents, which differ in their magnitude, are to be
calculated:

The maximum short-circuit current which determines the capacity or rating of


electrical equipment: its calculation assumes that the pre-fault voltage of the
aforesaid equivalent voltage source is Cf = Cmax times the system rated voltage at
the fault location.

The minimum short-circuit current which can be a basis, for example, for the
selection of fuses, for the setting of protective devices, and for checking the run-up of
motors: its calculation assumes that the pre-fault voltage of the aforesaid equivalent
voltage source is Cf = Cmin times the system rated voltage at the fault location.

These voltage factors Cf can be set by clicking on the Voltage Factors button of
the IEC tab; this will open the following dialog box:

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2.3.1.2

IEC Default R/X Ratios and Impedance Correction Factors


Note:

The default options described below are intended by IEC for use when you do
not have resistance data for equipment.

This option allows you to apply default values suggested by the IEC 60909 in
place of the data entered in the equipment database. If you activate the options in the
dialog, the following defaults will be applied:

Network feeders
(refer to IEC 60909-0 paragraph 3.2)
R/X = 0.10 and X = 0.995 Z, where Z = c(kV)2 / MVA
Voltage factor c = 1.0 unless you also apply the default option Apply
impedance correction factors to Network feeders. If you do that, then the values
for c are given in the Voltage Factor C dialog above.

Synchronous Generators (not PSU)


(refer to IEC 60909-0 paragraphs 3.6 and 3.7)
R/Xd = 0.05 if generator voltage > 1 kV and rating 100 MVA
R/Xd = 0.07 if generator voltage > 1 kV and rating < 100 MVA
R/Xd = 0.15 if generator voltage 1 kV
If you also apply the option impedance factor for generators, then the
impedance of the generator will be multiplied by the factor KG, KS or KSO depending on
the following generators operations.
Synchronous generator without a unit transformer

KG =

CHAPTER 2 SHORT-CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

Un
C max
U rG 1 + x d sin rG

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CYME 5.02 CYMDIST Basic Analyses Users Guide

Power station unit with on-load tap changer: KS


2

KS =

U n U rTLV
C max
2
2
U rG U rTHV 1 + xd xT sin rG

Power station unit without on-load tap changer: KSO

KSO =

U nQ U rTLV
C max
U rG U rTHV 1 + x d sin rG

where

C max is the voltage factor according to the

U n , U nQ

Voltage Factor C dialog box above.

is the nominal voltage of the system respectively at the generator bus and

at the feeder connection point Q of the power station unit.

U rG

is the rated voltage of the generator.

rG

is the phase angle between

x d

is

the

rated impedance:

xT

relative

I rG

subtransient

x d = X d / Z rG

where

and

U rG / 3

reactance

of

the

generator

related

to

the

Z rG = U rG / S rG
2

is the relative reactance of the unit transformer at the main position of the on-load

tap changer of the power station unit:

U rTLV ,U rTHV

xT = X T / Z rT

where

Z rT = U rT / S rT
2

respectively rated voltage at the low-voltage side and at the high-

voltage side of the unit transformer of the power station unit.

Power Station Units


(refer to IEC 60909-0 paragraph 3.8)
Rm/Xm = 0.10 and Xm = 0.995 Xd if voltage > 1kV and rated MW / pole-pair 1 MW
Rm/Xm = 0.15 and Xm = 0.989 Xd if voltage > 1kV and rated MW / pole-pair < 1 MW
Rm/Xm = 0.42 and Xm = 0.922 Xd if voltage < 1kV
The resistance of the low voltage connection cables is accounted for in the last
category.

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Two- and three-winding transformers


(refer to IEC 60909-0 paragraph 3.3.3)
For two-winding transformers with and without on-load tap changer, an
impedance correction factor KT is to be multiplied with the transformer impedance.

K T = 0.95

C max
1 + 0 .6 x T

C max is the voltage factor related to the nominal voltage of the low-voltage side bus of the transformer
according to the Voltage Factor C table above.

xT

is the relative reactance of the transformer:

xT = X T / Z rT where Z rT = U rT / S rT
2

For three-winding transformers, three impedance correction factors can be found


using the relative values of the reactance of the transformers.

xTPS , xTPT and xTST

K TPS = 0.95

C max
1 + 0.6 xTPS

K TPT = 0.95

C max
1 + 0.6 xTPT

K TST = 0.95

C max
1 + 0.6 xTST

are respectively the imaginary parts of the relative transformer impedances

measured between primary-secondary, primary-tertiary and secondary-tertiary asked in the transformer


database dialog.

2.3.1.3

Machine Status

To take into account motor, co-generation fault contributions and zero sequence line
susceptance activate these options.

CHAPTER 2 SHORT-CIRCUIT ANALYSIS

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2.3.1.4

Duty Types
According to IEC, four types of fault currents are of interest to industrial fault studies.
The (50 Hz or 60 Hz) RMS fault current flowing immediately
Initial Short-circuit
after the occurrence of the short-circuit.
Current

(I"k)
Peak Asymmetrical
Fault Current

(Ip)
Breaking Fault
Current

(Ib)
Steady State Fault
Current (Ik)

2.3.2

The highest instantaneous value of the fault current after the


fault occurrence. The software calculates the worst case peak
current according to the standard.
The RMS value of the symmetrical fault current flowing through
the first phase to open when contact separation occurs in the
circuit breaker. This quantity depends on the breaker opening
time.
The RMS value of the symmetrical fault current which remains
after all transients have died away. This quantity depends,
among other things, on the excitation characteristics of the
generators feeding the fault. The software supports all
excitation system modes stipulated in the IEC 60909 standard.

Networks Tab

Select in the list the networks you wish to analyze. Click on the check box next to a
network name to select or de-select it individually. Click on the
symbol to expand the list and
to collapse it again. All selects every feeder loaded in the study. None de-selects all
on
feeders.

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2.3.3

Output Tab

Use this dialog box to set the options to display the results in reports, tags and tooltips
and color code the One Line Diagram according to the simulation results.

Reports Group
box

Select: Check ( ) this option to enable the command buttons and


reports list.
Add: Click on this button to access the Reports dialog box. where
you can select the tabular reports you wish to generate. See the
Report Menu chapter in the CYME Reference Manual to learn about
the various commands available to use the predefined report forms
and/or to generate sophisticated user defined reports particularly
through the use of XSL template.
Remove: Allows you to delete the selected report from the list. Select
the report to delete and click on the button remove. You can select
more than one report for deletion.

One-LineDiagram
Result Tags
Group box

Allows you to display the results within tags on the One Line
Diagram. Check ( ) the Select button to enable the list then select
the tag layer. Consult the CYME Reference Manual for more
information on using and creating tag layer.

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One-LineDiagram Color
Coding Group
box

Allows you to color-code the One Line Diagram based on the


simulation results. Check ( ) the Select button to enable list then
select the coloring layer. Consult to the CYME Reference Manual for
more information on using and creating coloring layer.

One-LineDiagram
Tooltips Group
box

Allows you to display simulation results within tooltips by hovering the


mouse over a section on the One Line Diagram. Check ( ) the
Select button to enable the list then select simulation whose results
you want to see. Note that if you have activated the option Always
run both simulation simultaneously in the tab Simulation of the
Preferences dialog box, Short-circuit results will be available.
Consult the CYME Reference Manual for more information on using
and creating tooltips.

2.4

Results

2.4.1

Reports

You may select the items to be reported via the command Report > On Calculation,
or through the Output tab prior to running the analysis.
Click on the Properties hyperlink to customize the report with any of the keywords
available.

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Click on the
circuit detailed report.

button twice to generate the report. Here is a sample of a short-

Sample Short-circuit detailed report, available for the Short-Circuit


on all buses and nodes calculation option

See the Report Menu chapter in the CYME Reference Manual to learn about the various
commands available to profit from predefined reports and/or to generate sophisticated user
defined reports particularly through the use of XSL template.
2.4.2

Report by Individual Section

To see the report by individual section, first display the Short-Circuit Box via View >
Result Box > Short-Circuit Box, and then click on a section on the one-line display.
Hint:

You can use the keyboard shortcut <Ctrl> + <S> to hide or show the ShortCircuit Box (Ref: Customize > Shortcuts).

The description of the default data reported in the Short-Circuit Results Box are detailed
below. (Note: the contents of the Short Circuit Results Box can be customized.)
LLL

three-phase fault current, in Amperes.

LLG

double-line-to-ground fault current, in Amperes.

LL

line-to-line fault current, in Amperes.

LG

line-to-ground fault current, in Amperes.

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Choice of measurement location. See diagram below, and recall from


Section Structure that there may be 3 sub-sections in a section.
One or two of the circles will not be active if no equipment is
connected, which would divide the section into sub-sections.

The three locations for measuring fault currents.

Sample customizable result box to show the results of a Single Fault Calculation
resulting voltages and currents in phase and in sequence.

The last four buttons of the Result box (


) will help monitor multiple
locations. See the Customize Menu chapter of the CYME Reference Manual, under Result
Boxes.

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2.4.3

Charts

button inside the Short Circuit Box (Results) to display the Chart
Click on the
Selection dialog box where you can select to plot the fault current profile along the feeder, from
the substation to the active section. See below.

Note on the profile: The customization of the Profiles may be done through the menu
Customize > Charts (or by clicking on the Customize button in the Chart Selection dialog box).
See the CYME Reference Manual for further information.
Note that the Short Circuit Box is superimposed on the plot.
temporarily by closing its window. (Press <Ctrl> + <S> to get it back again.)
Hint:

You may hide it

If you make any changes to the feeder, such as adding a load, the program
will discard all of the analysis results, and the results box will disappear.

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2.4.4

Report Tags

Short-circuit results may be displayed on the One Line Diagram, next to the sections,
inside Report Tags and/or in the Tool Tip. See the example below.

2.4.5

One-Line Diagram Coloring

The one-line diagram can be color-coded based on the short-circuit results. You can
select from a list of predefined coloring layers or you can create your own color coding layer. You
may select the active color coding layer using the Color Coding Layer toolbar. You can create
and completely customize your own color coding; to do so, use the Customize > Color coding
menu command. Consult to the CYME Reference Manual for more information.
Hint:

Use the color-coding by fault level to predict fault location using the short
circuit current magnitude.
Suppose that you would like to determine the possible locations of a Fault with
a magnitude of 600A.
You could enable thresholds with colors:

BLUE for 1 to 595A

RED for 596 to 605A

GREEN for 606 to 10000A.

Then the possible sections will be displayed in RED.

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Chapter 3

Fault Analysis

Electrical distribution networks are susceptible to faults due to various causes such as
weather conditions, equipment failures, animals, etc. These faults result in power interruptions
that affect the customers power quality.
Since reliability is a major concern, it is very important to locate and identify faults
effectively, to know the highest possible short circuit level at a given location on the network.
Tools available are:

3.1

Shunt Fault Analysis to compute all possible fault currents at a selected location.

Network Fault Analysis to compute all possible fault currents at multiple locations
and to evaluate generator contributions

Voltage Sag to study the impact of a sudden reduction of voltage magnitude


caused by network faults, or other disturbances such as motor starting or overloads.

Fault Locator to evaluate possible locations of a fault on the network

Shunt Fault Analysis

The Fault Analysis: Shunt Fault Option Computes the fault current at a selected
bus/node/line/cable and reports the voltages and currents on the entire network including any
machine contributions.
System wide voltages, branch currents and machine contributions are all reported on the
network one line diagram and in the selected reports.
Calculation Assumptions:

The Pre-fault Voltage is taken into account during the calculation.

Motors will be considered as current injecting sources in series with the internal subtransient impedance of the specific motor

Generators, during the fault, will be represented by their sub-transient impedance.

Power lines coming from the outside of the single line diagram will be considered as
infinite sources limited only by their impedance connected in series (Specifically,
Positive and zero sequence impedances are considered)

Protective devices (fuses, reclosers, etc.) cannot react quickly enough so that they will
be considered frozen. This is also true for any automated equipment (LTC, AGC, etc.)

Calculation Limitations:

Loads and shunt capacitors loads will be considered as constant impedance loads.

The neutral wire is to be considered at zero voltage.

If the network configuration is not providing a stable solution (i.e. convergent


solution), the fault flow calculation will not converge either.

The command will block cases that could not be attempted in real life (for example,
attempting to apply a LL fault to WYE-Delta transformer 2 wires to 1 wire).

Only one fault can be presented at any given time.

The section selected must be connected to a source (i.e. substation or an equivalent)

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Select Analysis > Fault Analysis > Shunt Fault to calculates the load flow of a network
system (looped or radial) when a fault is applied to a specific section.
3.1.1

Parameters Tab

Shunt Fault
Method Group
box

Select the Short-circuit Method as either Conventional, ANSI or IEC.

The user can also access and modify the short-circuit parameters
with the

tab.

In addition, the phase or sequence domain can be specified for the


analysis.

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Shunt Fault
Location
Group box

Computes the fault current at a selected bus/node/line/cable and


reports the voltages and currents on the entire network including any
machine contributions.

If a single fault at a line or a cable is selected then At field will


become active to allow specifying the location of the fault along the
line or cable.

This will eliminate the need to subdivide the line or cable with
intermediate nodes or buses to simulate this type of fault.
Fault Type
Group Box

You can select the fault type as LLL, LL, LL-G, L-G or ALL faults.
Selecting this option will compute all shunt fault at the desired
location.

In addition, if the Phase Domain is selected, then the user can select
which of the phase(s) are to be faulted. A LG fault example is shown
for reference.

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3.1.2

Output Tab

Use this dialog box to set the options to display the results in reports, tags and tooltips
and color code the One Line Diagram according to the simulation results.

Reports Group
box

Select: Check ( ) this option to enable the command buttons and


reports list.
Add: Click on this button to access the Reports dialog box. where
you can select the tabular reports you wish to generate. See the
Report Menu chapter in the CYME Reference Manual to learn about
the various commands available to use the predefined report forms
and/or to generate sophisticated user defined reports particularly
through the use of XSL template.
Remove: Allows you to delete the selected report from the list. Select
the report to delete and click on the button remove. You can select
more than one report for deletion.

One-LineDiagram
Result Tags
Group box

68

Allows you to display the simulation results within tags on the One
Line Diagram. Check ( ) the Select button to enable the list then
select the tag layer. Consult the CYME Reference Manual for more
information on using and creating tag layer.

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3.1.3

One-LineDiagram Color
Coding Group
box

Allows you to color-code the One Line Diagram based on the


simulation results. Check ( ) the Select button to enable list then
select the coloring layer. Consult to the CYME Reference Manual for
more information on using and creating coloring layer.

One-LineDiagram
Tooltips Group
box

Allows you to display the simulation results within tooltips by hovering


the mouse over a section on the One Line Diagram. Check ( ) the
Select button to enable the list then select simulation whose results
you want to see. Note that if you have activated the option Always
run both simulation simultaneously in the tab Simulation of the
Preferences dialog box, Short-circuit results will be available.
Consult the CYME Reference Manual for more information on using
and creating tooltips.

Shunt Fault Results

Reports, if selected from the Output tab of the Shunt Fault Analysis dialog box, should
be displayed automatically upon completion of the analysis. Or, the user can choose to display
reports by accessing Reports > On Calculation.

Sample Shunt Fault-Branch current report

To see the report by individual section, first display the Load Flow Box via View >
Result Box > Load Flow Box, and then click on a section on the one-line display.
Hint:

You can use the keyboard shortcut <Ctrl> + <V> to hide or show the Load
Flow Box (Ref: Customize > Shortcuts).

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3.2

Network Fault Analysis

The Network Fault Module is a feature that will automatically calculate the highest and
lowest short circuit currents at the desired nodes.
With this new powerful tool, it is possible to:
Calculate the highest and lowest currents at a given network location
Calculate the highest and lowest voltages at the points of interest
Rate protective equipment and settings based on maximum currents
Determine highest/lowest generator contributions
The Network Fault module will significantly help power engineers to make fast decisions
by providing them with accurate detailed information about the maximum and minimum faults
occurring at the points of interest and allow protecting the network accordingly.
To run the analysis, access Analysis > Fault Analysis > Network Fault. You may also
select it from the Simulation toolbar.

3.2.1

70

Parameters Tab

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Shunt Fault
Location

The fault location is where the shunt fault will be applied. Shunt faults
can only be applied to buses or nodes. It is possible to select as many
buses/nodes as desired.

Monitoring
items

The monitoring items are equipment where the results are to be


displayed. If buses or nodes are selected, voltage reports will be
displayed. If branches are selected (transformers, cables, etc), current
reports will be displayed.

Shunt Fault
Method

There are 3 short-circuit methods available: Conventional short circuit,


ANSI short circuit and IEC short circuit. The Parameters button can be
used to configure the short circuit parameters to be used for the
simulation. It is important to note that the parameters as set here are
only applicable to the Network Fault analysis and are not global
parameters applicable to Shunt Fault analysis.

Fault Type

3.2.2

The calculation can be performed in the Phase domain or in the


Sequence domain.
There are four types of fault that can be calculated: 3 phase LLL fault,
single phase LG fault, LL and LLG faults.

Reports

There are two types of reports available: a min/max report that displays
only the maximum and minimum results for every monitored bus/node
or a Detailed summary report that displays currents at the monitored
buses/nodes for all faulted bus/nodes.

Units

The tabular results can be either displayed in amps/volts or in per-unit..

Results

The results displayed in the report can be in Phase domain or in


Sequence domain.

Results

The results of this analysis are given in a tabular format. Only the selected reports will be
generated. The summary report gives detailed information about the monitored nodes.
The min/max report gives only the minimum and maximum current values at every
monitored node and displays what node produced that current.

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3.3

Voltage Sag Analysis

The Voltage Sag Analysis module is a new analysis that will help power engineers
evaluate alternate network designs by studying the impact of a sudden reduction of voltage
magnitude caused by network faults, motor starting or overloads on the network.
With this new powerful tool, it is possible to:

determine the voltage dip cause by a fault


determine the sag frequency in function of the voltage sag
determine the clearing time of a fault

To run the analysis, select Analysis > Fault Analysis > Voltage Sag. You can also
select the analysis from the Simulation toolbar.
3.3.1

Parameters Tab

Point of
interest
Sequence
Fault
Method:
Method

This is the node at which the voltage sag is to be determined.

Voltage Sag
Options

The analysis can be run to determine the sag frequency for different
devices and/or the sag duration to assert the validity of the clearing of
different protective devices.

The analysis will be performed in the sequence domain and there are
three calculation methods available: Conventional short circuit, ANSI
short circuit and IEC short circuit. The Parameters button can be used
to configure the short circuit parameters to be used for the simulation.

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3.3.2

Fault Type

There are four types of fault that can be calculated: 3 phase LLL fault,
single phase LG fault, LL and LLG faults.

Fault
Sensitivity

The fault search sensitivity allows determining the exact location of the
faults to be performed. Faults can either be applied exclusively at the
nodes or at nodes and at specific distances along the lines and cables.

Ignore
sections

It is possible to choose to ignore sections which are single-phase, twophase, three phases and/or cables.

Ignore
sections ID

It is also possible to choose to ignore selected sections. Click on the


Edit button to select the different sections to be ignored.

Results

When the analysis is completed, the one line diagram is color-coded to represent the
magnitude of the voltage sag. Click on the Show Layer Settings button of the Layer toolbar
(View > Toolbars > Layer) to see the color-coding legend.

A Voltage Sag tabular report is available in which is displayed the sag magnitude,
frequency and duration of the fault types selected at each node.

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Charts are also plotted to show a more graphical representation of the results. Sag
Frequency VS Magnitude, Cumulative Sag Frequency VS Sag Magnitude, as well as Voltage
Sag in function of clearing are plotted.

3.4

Fault Locator Analysis

The Fault Locator module is a new analysis that will help power engineers locating the
faults on electrical network.
With this new powerful tool, it is possible to:

determine the type of the occurring fault (LG, LL or LLL)


determine the distance from the point of measure
rank the possible locations in the network

The Fault Locator analysis is a post-mortem type of analysis. Based on a given short
circuit level recorded at a known location, the objective is to find all possible locations in the
network where a short circuit could have occurred producing the recorded magnitude.
The fault location module will significantly help power engineers to make fast decisions
by providing them with accurate detailed information about the fault occurring in the network.
Here are some advantages that this module offers:

less inspection time to identify problems


faster dispatch of operators to repair the fault, transfer loads, etc
in cases where multiple locations are possible, the ranking of the location will make
the inspection more efficient

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To run the analysis, select Analysis > Fault Analysis > Fault Locator. You can also
select the analysis from the Simulation toolbar.
3.4.1

Parameters Tab

Location

This is the section at which the fault current is recorded. The location
can be either a protective device such a fuse, switch, recloser,
sectionalizer or a branch such as a line or cable

Fault Recorded

This field specifies the magnitude of the fault current that was
recorded, in phase domain or in the sequence domain.

Fault Type

The type of the fault current recorded can be specified. Fault types
available are LLL, LLG, LL and LG. The analysis will only find
locations with the fault current of matching fault type(s). If the fault
type is unknown, select all four types.
There are 3 short-circuit methods available: Conventional short
circuit, ANSI short circuit and IEC short circuit. The Parameters
button can be used to configure the short circuit parameters to be
used for the simulation.

Method

76

Fault search
sensitivity

The Fault search sensitivity allows determining the locations at


which the fault is to be simulated. Faults can either be applied at all
the nodes or at nodes and at specific distances along the lines and
cables.

Search criteria:
Tolerance

It is possible to set a tolerance on the fault current value sought.


Possible fault locations retained are those with a fault current within
the tolerance of the recorded value.

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Search criteria:
Location color
3.4.2

The analysis will display all the nodes and locations in the specified
color.

Results

The results are displayed directly on the OLD and in a graphical fashion. On the OLD, all
the locations where the fault could have happened are displayed in the specified color as specified
in the parameters. In the image below, all the fault locations are shown in dark pink.

The analysis also produces a summary report with the possible locations and the
associated short circuit levels and types displayed.

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Chapter 4

4.1

Motor Starting Analysis

Locked Rotor Motor Start Analysis

The Motor Starting Analysis module simulates the effects of induction or synchronous
motors starting in distribution electric power systems (networks).
The Locked Rotor Analysis (LRA) calculates the voltage dip starting motors will cause
on a network. This calculation assists in determining the proper motor size for installation.

Hint:

4.1.1

Run a Locked rotor analysis with different starting modes to see the decrease
of the voltage dip in the network.

List of Motors and Parameters

To specify the Status (Off, Running, Locked Rotor) of the motors and the starting mode
of each Starting motor. At least one motor in the network should be at Starting status to perform
a Locked rotor analysis. To change and/or to view the current settings of a motor, click the
Modify hyperlink.

In the During Motor Start group box, you can define if the equivalent source, regulators,
generators and capacitors are locked or un-locked. For each class of device, click to place a
check mark in the selection box to lock.

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Enable these options to calculate the voltage drop at the moment of motor start before
regulators, generators or switched capacitors have time to react.
Hint:

Run a voltage drop analysis to see the decrease in the voltage at neighboring
sections at the instant the motor is energized. The acceleration of the motor
over time is not simulated.

In the Output Options group box, you can choose whether to display outputs
automatically: summary report, detailed report. Check-mark Color by Voltage Dip to colorcode the One Line diagram by voltage dip levels, based on the limits as defined in the Voltage
Dip color (%) dialog box. You can edit the colors of the layers via Color Coding group box of
the Display Layers Selection tab in the View > Display Options dialog box.

4.1.2

Flicker Table

This table defines the allowed voltage dip depending on the number of starts per day.
These are used to compare with the real values obtained from the simulation. This comparison is
included in the summary report.
Voltage dip values greater than the maximum allowed setting will be displayed in red.

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The table shown above is the default table provided with the program. You can change
the default values simply by clicking in the appropriate cell and directly edit.
Click Add or Delete to add or delete rows respectively. E.g. To insert a row between row
2 and 3, select row 3 and click Add.
Starts/day (minimum), Starts/day (maximum): to define the range of starts per day of
the motors. Motors with a starts/day value falling within a specific range will be subjected to that
ranges allowed voltage dips.
At Substation, At Upstream Section, At Motor Terminal, At Maximum Voltage dip
on Circuit: to define the maximum allowed voltage dip for the corresponding starts/day range at
the specified location.

Section Properties dialog box with Starts /day field circled.


Each motor installed has a Starts/day value. This value has been introduced to help
the users find out if the actual voltage dip after a Locked Rotor Analysis is under the maximum
allowed voltage dip limits.

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4.1.3

Locked Rotor Starting Assistance Methods

Starting methods can be included in the Motor Locked Rotor Analysis. These methods
are set for the motor in the Settings group box of the Properties dialog box. The types proposed
include: Direct on Line, Resistor and / or Inductor, Capacitor, Auto Transformer, Star / Delta and
Variable Frequency starters. (Please refer to the Equipment Reference Manual).

Note
:
4.1.4

In the illustration above, (LRA) stands for (Locked Rotor Analysis) and (MSA)
stands for dynamic (Motor Start Analysis).

Running and Viewing the Results of a Locked Rotor Analysis

After setting the motors status, parameters, flicker table, click Run to perform the
analysis. The reports will be displayed automatically based on the Output options set at the
Motors tab.
If these options were not enabled, you can generate the relevant reports via the
command Report > On Calculation and selecting the desired report(s).

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4.1.5

Locked Rotor Analysis Sample Output

The detailed report is very similar to the voltage drop complete report.

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You can customize the report output. To do this, select the Report > On calculation
menu option to display the Reports dialog box; locate your report in the list and click on the
Properties hyperlink. This will display the corresponding Report Properties dialog box, where
you can edit the parameters of your report. More about this can be found in the Report Menu
chapter in the CYME Reference Manual.
4.1.6

Display: Color by Voltage Dip

One Line diagram color-coding

To define the color-coding used by the One Line diagram after a Locked Rotor Analysis,
go to the Color Coding group box of the Display Layers Selection tab in the View > Display
Options dialog box. Select the layer Voltage Dip Color (%) and click on the Modify button.
These commands are also found at the Display tab of the Explorer Bar.

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4.2

Maximum Start Size Analysis

This type of analysis is used to estimate the maximum motor size that can be started on
a given section of the Network.

4.2.1

Select
Network(s)

To select the feeder(s) or network to be considered by the analysis.

Parameters

To define the value for the Maximum voltage dip allowed and the
Motor kva/hp Ratio.

Options

Place a check mark next to the output you want to be displayed


automatically once the analysis is completed: Display the report
automatically and / or Display the result box.

Running the Analysis and Viewing the Results

Click on Run to start the analysis. Depending on the options selected, either or both the
Maximum Motor Size Result Box and/or the Maximum Start Size Analysis detail report(s) will
be displayed automatically once the analysis is complete.
The Motor Size Result Box displays the same information as the detail report but
displays the information one section at a time. If there are more than one device on the section
then you can select S, C, or L to move to that device.
Hint:

If you did not check the Display the result box option, generate it by running
the analysis again. Un-check the detail report so you will not get double
reports.

Hint:

Select a section from the detailed report and both the result box and the oneline diagram will highlight the same section and vice versa.

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The Maximum Start Size Analysis Detailed Report displays a detailed (and
configurable) report on all the sections of the network.

To generate the report manually (if it was not generated automatically), or to modify the
columns, use the menu command Report > On Calculation and select the desired configuration.

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Chapter 5

Load Allocation

The Load Allocation function will adjust the connected load to match the metered
demand. You have two ways to define the metered demand:

Using the Load Allocation Demand box, you may give the metered feeder demand
at (or near) the substation.

Alternatively, you may include meters to protection devices at various locations on


the feeder and define the demand measured by each meter. (Refer to the
Equipment Reference Manual for details concerning the Settings).

The program will assign a portion of the metered demand to each phase of each section
according to the KVA (connected or actual), KWH consumed, or number of consumers
connected there. (Refer to Load Settings in the Properties and Settings Chapter in the
Equipment Reference Manual).
Note that the analysis takes into account motors, generators, capacitors, line
susceptance and losses during the calculation. Checking the appropriate option can ignore
motors and shunt capacitors.
Hint:

The program can also take into account the utilization factor and the power
factor you define for each load category (residential, commercial, industrial
and other).

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The following are the Steps to perform a Load Allocation analysis:


Step 1

Select the appropriate network(s) in the Network and Meters group box. (If
giving the Demand of the Feeder, select a downstream substation, source
node or meter between the substation and the first section with a load
connected to it.)
The ID of a network will appear in bold whenever demand values are
associated to it and connected. Likewise, whenever a meter with non-zero
values is present on a network, it will be available as a child item to the ID of
the network where the meter is installed. Meters are not automatically
selected to be taken into account in the calculations. Highlight the ID of a
meter and enable the Connected option to include it.
Note:

Step 2

If there are two or more meters thus connected, then the demand
measured by the meter furthest downstream is allocated to the
loads on the sections downstream from it. That demand is
subtracted from the demand measured by the next meter
upstream from it. The difference in demand is allocated to the
loads on the sections between the two meters. There should be
no connected loads upstream of the meters.

Demand: Select the Demand Type among either kVA-PF, Amp-PF, kW-PF
or kW-kVAR). Enter the required data per phase. Power Factor is given in
percent, not in a decimal form.
The Downstream Information group box displays the total three-phase and
the per phase connected kVAs, actual kWh, consumption kWh, fixed kW and
kVAR, shunt capacitor kVAR, and other relevant values related to the
downstream meter or the source node. Click on the Details button to obtain
the following:

You may enter a power factor of 0 % at the meter(s) if you follow Step 4.
Note that the information displayed is related to the Allocation Method
selected. For example, if the method selected is Consumption kWh, the
values will be displayed in kWh rather than in kVA.

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Notes:

If you check the box marked "Total" ( ) the appearance of the


dialog box will change slightly, and you will be required to enter
only the total demand.
You may enter a negative value to denote a leading power factor
(e.g., -98.6.)
When the meter or the source node demand is unbalanced
(DemandA <> DemandB <> Demandc) and that one or more
downstream loads are 3-phase, no convergent solution
possible. If the demand is more likely unbalanced, the
downstream 3-phase loads can be converted to balanced perphase loads. To modify several loads, use the Database > Load
Database Maintenance dialog box and select the Remove invalid
loads option(s) required and use the Convert option applicable.
(Refer to the chapter about the Database menu in the CYME
Reference Manual for more information). Otherwise, it is
recommended to use a balanced demand when there is at least
one balanced load downstream a meter or a source node.

Step 3

Click on the Factors button to allocate Power Factors and Utilization


Factors to the different customer types. (The customer type is specified as a
setting for each load. This optional control is applied to the analysis if the
Override checkbox is checked (;).

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The utilization factors are applied to the kVA (connected or actual, see Step
6.) before allocating the demand proportionally. Doing this accounts for the
fact that different types of consumers make more or less use of the capacity
of the installed transformers that supply power to them.
You may define a characteristic power factor (PF) for each type of
consumer (e.g., all residential loads have 90% p.f.) and set the power factor
at the meter location(s) to 0.0%. CYMDIST will allocate the demand kVA,
ensure the desired power factor at every load, and compute the resulting
power factor at each meter.
Alternatively, you can force CYMDIST to respect the power factors at the
meter location(s) by setting those and defining the characteristic power factor
of all consumer types except one. The power factor of the consumer type
(that is actually connected in the feeder) must be set to 0.0 to give the
calculation a degree of freedom. The load allocation will find the power
factor for this consumer type.
Step 4

You may select another (or more) feeder and/or meter that you wish to use
as meter location(s), by repeating 2. to 4 for each of those points.

Step 5

In the Allocation Method group box, select a method to use:

Connected kVA divides the metered demand among the loads in


proportion to each ones transformer capacity (adjusted for utilization
factor, see Step 4).

Connected kWh divides the metered demand among the loads in


proportion to each ones energy consumption.

REA divides the metered demand among the loads according to the
kWh and the number of consumers each load type represents.

Actual kVA divides the metered demand among the loads in proportion
to the kVA defined for each load. This is Useful if you keep the peak load
on each section in your load database. Then, in your study, you can reallocate the load to correspond with demand metered at some time other
than peak demand.

With all of the above methods, the original load kVA is of course replaced by
the new allocated value, but only within the study.
Note:

Step 6

Ensure that all loads have the same sort of data defined for them, be
it kWH, kVA or number of consumers and kWh.

Click on the Parameters button. Type in the Tolerance field the desired
accuracy for the calculation. This information is required since the Load
Allocation is an iterative Power Flow calculation. Type a value in the Initial
Losses field; this is an approximation of the losses in kW and in kVAR.
In the Load Adjustments group box, if the Adjust the loads using voltage
drop calculation option is checked, the loads will be adjusted to reach the
target demand (s), indicated in steps 1 and 2, using the voltage drop
calculations. In other words, if this option is not checked, the load allocation
calculation considers only the initial losses without considering the network
losses and voltage drops results provided by the voltage drop analysis.
Unchecking this option facilitates a converging load allocation. It is however
less rigorous. This option is checked by default.

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The options in the Device Options group box, provides the capability to
consider or to ignore some devices in the analysis.

The option Unlock All Fixed Loads allows to unlock all the network
loads that were previously locked in order to use them in the
calculations.

The option Unlock All Initially Fixed Loads allows to unlock only the
loads that are defined as Initially Locked in the Load Properties.

The option Compute Diversity Factors of Transformers automatically


computes the diversity of the demand metered at a transformer based on
the total demand of metered at downstream meters connected to this
transformer.

Note:

If the load on certain sections is well defined, then you can protect it
from being modified by the load allocation module by modifying its
Status to Locked in the corresponding Section Properties dialog
box. Spot and distributed loads may be individually protected.
The Load Allocation Module sums up the entire load which is
protected by the Lock, subtracts that total from the metered
demand, and allocates the remainder to the loads which are not
locked. The connected KVA, KWH or customers on the section
that is defined for the Locked loads are not used in the allocation.
The Options group box includes a convenient option to unlock all
such fixed loads before running the Load Allocation.

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Step 7

Click on Run.
When the calculation is complete, the allocated load (kW and kVAR) are
populated in the Load Properties dialog box of every section, except those
where the allocated load has been defined and is being protected by the
Lock option. The connected kVA, kWH or number of customers is not
affected.
The Lock options for load allocation are found in the Settings group box of
the Properties dialog box.

Note:

If no solution is found within the allowed number of iterations:


Try increasing the Maximum number of iterations or adjust your

load data and try again.


Do not specify an unbalanced demand upstream of a D-Y/ Y-D

transformer.
Try running with only 10% of the actual demand. If it still does

not converge, look for abnormally high impedance or long


conductor lengths.
If using multiple metering points, try removing one meter at a

time.
You may request a Load Allocation report. Use the Report > On Calculation menu
command. Select Load Allocation in the Show drop-down list to see all the related reports
available. Click on the Properties hyperlink adjacent to the report name to display the
corresponding dialog box where you can customize the report.
5.1.1

Summary of the Connected kVA Method


Let s and k denote section and phase respectively.

TKVA (k ) = Connected _ KVA( s, k ) ( Load Factor )


s

Connected _ KVA( s, k ) ( Load Factor )


KW _ Alloc ( s, k ) = KWdem(k )

TKVA(k )

1
1
KVAR _ Alloc ( s, k ) = KW _ alloc( s, k )
PF (k )

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5.1.2

Summary of the kWH Method


Let s and k denote section and phase respectively.

TKWh (k ) = kWh( s, k ) ( Load Factor )


s

KWh( s, k ) ( Load Factor )


KW _ Alloc ( s, k ) = KWdem(k )

TKWh(k )

1
1
KVAR _ Alloc ( s, k ) = KW _ alloc( s, k )
PF (k )
5.1.3

Summary of Actual kVA Method


Let s and k denote section and phase respectively.

TKVA(k ) = Actual kVA(s, k ) x ( UtilFactor)


s

1
1
KVAR _ Alloc ( s, k ) = KW _ alloc( s, k )
PF (k )
5.1.4

Summary of the REA Method

A(s, k) = C(s, k) 1 0.4 C(s, k ) + 0.4 C2 (s, k) + 40

0.885
B(s, k) = 0.005925 ( kWH(s, k)/C(s,k))

kWrea(s, k) = A(s, k) B(s, k)


Where:

kWH(s,k) is the billing kWH for section s, phase k.

C(s,k) is the number of consumers on section s, phase k.

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TKWrea(k) = kWrea(s, k)
s

kWalloc(s, k) = kWdem(k)

kVARalloc(s, k) = kWalloc(s, k)

kWrea(s, k)
TKWrea(k)

PF(k)

Where:

kWdem(k) is the demand kW on phase k.

PF(k) is the source power factor on phase k.

Example:

This very simple feeder consists solely of three-phase sections. It exhibits four unknown
loads. However, the billing kWh is known for each, as follows:
Section ID

Billing kWh per phase

N101

100

N102

200

N103

300

N104

400

Total

1000

The measured demand will be divided among the loads in proportion to their billing kWh.
For example, based on the total feeder demand, section N103 gets:
Share of demand = 100% x [300 kWh / (100 + 200 + 300 + 400) kWh] = 30 %.
Let us point out that sections N101 and N102 will share the difference between the two
metered values (1000 700 = 300 kVA per phase). Also note that Sections N103 and N104 will
now share the 700 kVA per phase measured at the meter on section N103.

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This implies that section N103 share would be:


Share for N103 = 700 kVA x [300 kWh / (300 + 400) kWh] = 300 kVA per phase.

This is the same proportion (30%) as if the total feeder demand were being divided
among the loads (i.e., no meters defined, just the feeder demand at the substation).

However, if the meter on section N103 had a reading of only 500 kVA per phase
instead, then the share of the load that would be assigned to section N103 would be:

Share for N103 = 500 kVA x [300 kWh / (300 + 400) kWh] = 214.3 kVA per phase.

This is 21.4% of the total feeder demand, down from 30%. Sections N101 and N102
would share the remaining 500 kVA (= 1000 500) kVA per phase.

This little example illustrates the increased detail that is possible with multiple
metering points. Note that the measured power factor could be different at each
meter.

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Chapter 6

Load Balancing Calculation

The Load Balancing analysis will determine which loads can be reconnected to different
phases so as to minimize kW losses or balance the current, the load, or the voltage. It reports a
series of individual changes to the network and the objectives improvement with each change.
The load balancing option can be activated from the analysis menu Analysis > Load
Balancing or from the Simulation toolbar.
The load flow analysis module will run a voltage drop analysis for each change made. It
then retains the change that reduces the losses the most or that balances the load, the current,
or the voltage the best; and repeats the whole process to find the subsequent change and so on.
The process will continue until no change can further optimize the solution.
The simulation progress is displayed in a separate report window by displaying the
names of the sections it is evaluating. When the calculations are complete, this window
disappears and the results of the findings can be found in the Result tab of the Load Balancing
Analysis dialog box or in the Load Balancing Report. These results contain which loads can be
reconnected and what is the effect on the network.
Note that capacitors can affect the results of the Load Balancing analysis. You might
want to try Load Balancing with all the capacitors temporarily turned off, just to compare the
results. To do so select the menu command Analysis > Load Flow, go to the Controls tab, and
exclude the capacitors by removing the check marks.

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6.1.1

Location Tab

The Location tab shows the main analysis window of the Load Balancing Module which
allows you to define the load balancing study parameters.

Select
Location(s)

Find
Objectives

98

Contains a tree-structured list of all locations loaded in memory that


can be balanced. One or more locations in this list must be selected
by clicking the appropriate check box (;). Disconnected or open
devices and 1-phase sections cant be balanced and are not
available in the list.
Note: When more than one location is selected, all locations that
belong to the same network or dependant networks are
optimized at the same time. Networks are dependant if they
are directly connected (looped) or if they connect through
other networks. For example, feeders from a same substation
will be dependant only if the substation itself is loaded in
memory. So, loading only the minimum networks may
considerably decrease the processing time when multiple
locations are selected.
The command Find searches and highlights an item in the tree.
Type a complete or partial text string and click Find.
This group box offers four analysis objectives on which the selected
locations will be evaluated. They are:
Minimize the KW losses: minimize the total loss on all
involved network.
Balance loads (KVA): minimize the kVA unbalance
factor. For a location, the factor is the highest of all
phases and for each phase the factor is:

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Restrictions

Balance currents: minimize the current unbalance factor.


The formula for this factor is:

Balance voltages: minimize the voltage unbalance factor.


For 3-phases locations, the formula is:

Restrictions can be used to reduce the number of steps (and the


processing time) by stopping when the improvements are sufficiently
small. The optimization for a location will stop if one of the restriction
for the selected objective is met:
The last steps loss reduction in kW is lower than
Minimum kW loss reduction;
The reduction on all locations of the average kVA
unbalance, current unbalance factor or voltage
unbalance factor is lower than Minimum kVA average
unbalance, Minimum current unbalance factor or
Minimum voltage unbalance factor, respectively;
The current (or voltage) differences on all phases of all
locations are all lower than Minimum Current (or
Minimum Voltage).
You can reduce the processing time of the load balancing analysis by
de-selecting single-phase, two-phase or three-phase sections
options. For example, by de-selecting three-phase sections, the
program will not try at all to reconnect loads to different phases within
three-phase sections.
When Ignore Rephasing is checked, all sections selected in the
Ignored Rephasing list wont be considered when trying to find the
best rephasing.

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Hint:

6.1.2

When the analysis is running, if the Stop button is clicked, all rephasing found
up to date will be kept.

Display Tab

To define the colors and the content of the rephasing information tag that will be
displayed in the one line diagram after a load balancing analysis.

Tag Applied rephasing (and Unapplied rephasing): to select text, background and
border colors, click on the down arrow to unfold the color palette.
Hint:

Use different sets of colors to distinguish between the applied and unapplied
rephasing tags.

Tag Information, click to mark the checkbox for the information you want to display.
Uncheck those you do not want to appear.
Display the load balancing report will automatically display the report when the dialog
is closed if the analysis completed successfully. Its the same report that can be manually
selected in the Reports dialog.
The iteration report display all rephasing tested during the analysis and the result of
each step.

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6.1.3

Result Tab

Once the analysis is completed, the Result tab of the Load Balancing dialog box will be
filled automatically. It will show you which loads to reconnect to different phases so as to meet
the objective you have selected. It reports a series of individual changes (steps) and the kW
reduction due to each change.

Balancing Locations displays the results (if any) in a tree structure list and in order of
recommended operation, (step 1, step 2, step N).
The first level of the tree is network groups and they are simply numbered. All locations in
these networks have rephasing that can impact other locations in the group. The reports are
separated the same way and the list of networks in each group is displayed in these reports.
Click on each recommended rephasing step to see the changes and the result each will
have on the target location. To apply a specific step, select it in the list and click the Apply
button; once applied, the name of the step will appear in boldface.
Hint:

Right click in the Balancing location frame to access a context sensitive menu
where you can perform a Apply and or Undo operations.

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6.1.4

Load Balancing Report


To view the load balancing report, select the menu command Report > On calculation.

Sample Load Balancing Report (Spreadsheet)

Location summary column definitions:

Ineutral (A): The neutral current at the location.

Total Losses (KW): Indicates the total losses at the location that could be obtained
by the recommended rephasing.

Average KVA Unbal.: Indicates the average kVA unbalanced percentage at the
location.

Current Unbal. Factor: Indicates the unbalanced current factor percentage at the
location.

Voltage Unbal. Factor: Indicates the unbalanced voltage factor percentage at the
location.
Hint:

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Alternately, based on the report information, you can use the


Edit > Reconfigure sections command to implement the recommended
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The Recommended Rephasing section of the report displays results as was reported in
the Result tab.
The report options are available in the Reports dialog when clicking on Properties :

Include all networks in the same report determine if one report is created for all
locations or if one is created for each network group as defined in the Result tab.
If Only display reports that includes rephasing is checked, reports that dont contain
any recommended rephasing wont be displayed.
Report Mode allows selecting the destination of the report: Excel or report tab in CYME.
These options are used if the reports are displayed because Display the load balancing
report is checked in the Display tab.

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Chapter 7

Capacitor Placement Calculation

The menu command Analysis > Capacitor Placement > Execute will place capacitors
on a desired feeder to reduce kW losses and maintain a desired power factor.
You have control over the size, the number and the rating of capacitor banks to be
recommended, and whether (or not) to install the recommended capacitors.
Note:

7.1

Although the module always suggests placing a capacitor at the load end of
the section; you have the option to change the location before installing the
capacitor.

Objectives Tab

The feeders in the study are listed on the left part of the dialog box. Click on the
checkbox next to their names to select them (as shown below). To select all feeders connected
to a substation, click on the square next to that substation.
Hint:

Click on the

and

symbols to expand and collapse the list.

Three objectives are offered: Minimize kW losses, Improve system voltage, and
Iterative Search. Depending on the objective selected, optional restrictions are enabled for
selection.

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Minimize kW losses provides the following options:

Minimum loss reduction allows you to prevent the analysis from suggesting
capacitors that do not reduce losses by at least this amount.

Maximum voltage rise allows you to prevent the analysis from suggesting
capacitors that would cause the voltage to rise too much when they are connected.

% Deviation =

Vwith .capacitor Vwithout


100%
Vwithout

Improve system voltage allows you to define:

Threshold voltage, below which the voltage is unacceptable

Target voltage which is the voltage CYMDIST will try to obtain at every initially
unacceptable location.

Iterative Search is used to find an exhaustive list of all possible capacitor placement
solutions. Both objectives to minimize kW losses and improve the system voltage apply.
Looped networks with unbalanced operating voltages are also taken into account by this
method. Specify:

7.2

Capacitor Equipment is the capacitor defined in the Equipment database that is to


be used

Number of Installations is the desired number of the capacitor selected to be


installed in the network

Search Step specifies a distance at which the possibility of installing a capacitor is


to be examined. If the user specifies 500m, then the analysis will only analyze the
possibility to add a capacitor at every 500m. Should the user wishes to take into
account all sections in the network, input 0.

Restrictions Tab

Depending on the objective selected, additional constraints will be enabled for selection.
The additional restrictions one can apply are:

Minimum distance from substation sets the minimum distance away from the
substation for the installation of a capacitor.

Minimum distance between capacitors

Maximum Power factor at the capacitor location.

Maximum fault current prevents installation where the fault level is too high.

Overcompensation Limit

Apply Loading/Voltage Limits as defined in the Load Flow analysis.

You may prevent CYMDIST from suggesting capacitors for certain locations as well. If
so, in the Ignored Sections block, choose to ignore underground sections, single-phase, twophase and/or three-phase lines.

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Enable Ignore Specific locations to eliminate specific sections from consideration.


Click on the Edit button and choose the sections from the pop up dialog box.

7.3

Capacitor Banks Tab

You may specify the capacitor(s) to be used from the equipments in the Equipment
Database when select the option Select from the Equipment database. That is, use only
certain standard capacitor types. Select which of the types of capacitors are to be installed.
(Click to select ;)

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The Install in this order option forces CYMDIST to use up the specified quantity of each
selected type before installing any of the next type from top to bottom in the list. (This is
optional.) If the option is not checked, CYMDIST will select the ones that give the best results.
Change the order by selecting a type and clicking Move Up or Move down. Enter the
quantity for the selected type at the bottom and click on the

button.

You may include or ignore all capacitor banks that are already in service.

Hint:

You can disregard specific capacitors by disconnecting them temporarily before performing a capacitor placement calculation. See the Section
Properties dialog box (double-click on the section on the one-line to display it).

When the option Select from the Equipment database is not selected, you may then
specify restrictions on the size and number of capacitor banks. Specify:

Minimum capacitor bank size that will justify an installation.

Maximum capacitor bank size that can be installed in one location.

Increment capacitor bank size that may be added to a capacitor bank. (If you do
not activate this option, then the increment size is the same as the minimum size.)

Number of installation(s) per feeder, to limit the number of separate capacitors.

You can also choose to ignore existing capacitor banks here as well.

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7.4

Load Levels Tab

The purpose of this set of parameters is to help CYMDIST decide which of the
recommended capacitors should be fixed (manual) and which should be switched by automatic
controls. Sometimes it will suggest a combination.
You may define up to three loading levels. For each level, define a global multiplier
(Loading) for all loads on the feeder, a Power Factor desired at the substation and the portion of
the year (Time at Loading) for which this condition applies.
Hint:

Enter Time at loading = 0 for any load condition you do not want to define.
The sum of the Times at loading must equal 100%.

CYMDIST optimizes the capacitor placement for the condition that applies for the longest
time first (usually Normal load). It then optimizes for the other conditions. Any recommended
capacitor that is not needed at a lighter load condition will be recommended as switched, as will
any additional capacitors needed at a heavier load condition. The others will be recommended
as fixed (manually controlled).
Hint:

Enter a negative value (e.g., -99%) to define a P.F. Any additional capacitor
required to correct the P.F. at the substation beyond 100% will be reported as
an amount of kVAR to be installed at the substation.

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7.5

Results Tab

Click on the Run button to perform the analysis. When the calculation is completed, the
commands in the Results tab will be enabled automatically.
Under Optimal Location(s), click on the and symbols to expand and collapse the list
of results. This will allow viewing the report on sections where capacitors have been
recommended. For each feeder, there will be one list for each load level.
At the bottom right, you will see the information pertaining to any section you select.

You will see the kVAR total (not per phase) recommended for Fixed (Manual control)
and Switched (Automatic control) capacitors on the section. Also reported are the kW Loss
reduction when this particular capacitor is connected, and the per-cent Voltage (dV) rise at the
capacitor location.
Notes:

The indication switched or fixed is only for information. Any recommended


capacitor that you apply will be installed with Manual control, unless you first
use Modify Capacitor.
It is not possible to install two types of capacitors on the same section.

If you click on a load level in the Optimal Location(s) tree view control (ex: Light Load
60.0 %), you will see the totals of kVAR and loss reduction for the entire feeder, as well as the
desired and corrected power factors.
Note:

You may find that the desired power factor was not achieved. This may be
due to the parameter settings under the Restrictions tab.

CYMDIST recommends capacitors starting further away from the substation and then at
locations closer to the substation.

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To examine, or change, the parameters of the recommended capacitor select a section


ID in the Optional location(s) list and click on Modify Capacitor. The associated Capacitor
Properties dialog box will be displayed.
For example, you may wish to change the control type from manual to voltage control,
etc. (See also the Section Properties dialog box; double-click on the section on the one-line to
display it).

Note that the Capacitor Id will be USERDEFINED if you were not using standard
capacitors from the equipment database.
Click OK to return to the Results tab.
Click Apply Capacitor to install the selected capacitor followed by Close to exit the
capacitor placement dialog box. By default, the option Highlight the capacitor(s) is enabled
which will highlight the installed capacitors on the One Line diagram as shown below.

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7.6

Iterative Search

7.6.1

Iterative Search Results

When the Iterative Search option is selected as the Objective in the Objectives Tab
(see 7.1), the results are displayed in visualization tool upon completion of the capacitor
placement simulation. The Iterative Search Results dialog box displayed provides a number of
options to view the various combinations possible. Click on the Display button to show the
Results.

The dialog box contains the following elements and filters:


Networks

Zones

112

Filter allowing to view the results of specific networks. Note that if a


substation is loaded with other feeders or if lines are identified as
sub-systems, this filter does not allow to view a line in particular
since the software considers connected lines as one element.
Filter allowing to view the results related to pre-defined zones. Zones
are a network property.

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Options

Display

Filtering options including by network, zone, loss reduction and


voltage increase. Filtering can be done in ascending order or in
descending order.
A two-level filtering is provided, and is done on the first option
selected, then on the second one.
To reduce the size of the report, the user can select the Number of
Results to be displayed.
Finally, when the option Apply Loading/Voltage Limits is selected in
the Restrictions Tab (see 7.2), it is possible to display only the results
that do not violate these conditions by selecting the option Display
Results with Abnormal Conditions.
Click on the Display button to display the results based on the filters
selected. Twenty-five results are displayed at a time in the Results
group box. Navigation tools are provided to go through the results.

Clicking on the Report button generates a tabular report of all the results in memory
based on the filters selected. The tabular report is displayed at the bottom of the main display of
the application. It includes the following columns:
Network

Zones
Location Cap

Elements of the network simulated : lines or groups of connected


lines. For example, if two lines are dependent, the name of the
network will be Line1-Line2 and considered as one element.
Pre-defined areas or group of areas that contain one or more
capacitor. The order is random.
Network section where the capacitor has been simulated.

Loss
Reduction
(kW)

This value is calculated based on the simulation of the capacitor(s) at


the locations defined.

Loss
Reduction (%)

Ratio between the loss reduction with capacitor and the total network
losses after the placement of the capacitor(s).

Worst Voltage
Location

Section where the lowest voltage of the sub-system was found.

Voltage
Voltage
Increase (V)

Minimum voltage on the network after the application of the


capacitor(s).
Increase of the minimum voltage on the network (in Volts) after the
application of the capacitor(s).

Voltage
Increase (%)

Increase of the minimum voltage on the network (%)after the


application of the capacitor(s).

Circle

To place a circle on the location of the capacitor on the one-line


diagram display in order to view it.
To add the capacitor(s) on the section(s).

Apply

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Note:

7.6.2

It is possible to display several reports by changing some of the filters


parameters and clicking on the Report button to generate a report. For
example, a report can be created with the results filtered in ascending order.
Then, the results can be filtered by zones and a second report created and
displayed in a second tab in the report pane below the main display of the
application.

Iterative Search Color Coding

When the Iterative Search option is selected as the Objective in the Objectives Tab
(see 7.1), the results can be displayed by coloring the locations on the one-line display.
Each section where the placement of a capacitor was attempted is allocated a color that
corresponds to the Loss Reduction or to the Voltage Increase when the capacitor was placed
on that section.

To obtain a dynamic coloring, activate the Use Auto-Scaling checkbox. Note that the
coloring will be applied to sections where only one capacitor is installed. In the case where there
are more, the section will not be colored.

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Index
Actual kVA Method ....................................93

Iterative Search....................................... 112

ANSI Parameters Tab ...............................47

Iterative Search Color Coding ................ 114

ANSI Short-Circuit Analysis.......................46

Iterative Search Results.......................... 112

Asymmetry Factor .....................................41

kWH Method ............................................. 93

Calculation Methods ..............................3, 13

Line-to-Line Fault...................................... 41

Calculation Options .....................................3

List of Motors and Parameters ................. 79

Capacitor Banks Tab ...............................107

Load Allocation ......................................... 87

Capacitor Placement Calculation ............105

Load and Generation Scaling Factors ........ 4

Charts ..................................................29, 63

Load Balancing Calculation ...................... 97

Connected kVA Method.............................92

Load Balancing Report ........................... 102

Controls Tab ..............................................18

Load Flow Analysis..................................... 1

Conventional Short-Circuit Analysis ..........38

Load Levels Tab ..................................... 109

Convergence Issues..................................32

Loading / Voltage Limits Tab .................... 19

Convergence Parameters ...........................3

Location Tab ............................................. 98

Display Tab..............................................100

Locked Rotor Analysis Sample Output..... 83

Display: Color by Voltage Dip....................84

Locked Rotor Motor Start Analysis ........... 79

Double-Line-to-Ground Fault.....................40

Locked Rotor Starting Assistance Methods


.............................................................. 82

DUTY Type ................................................48


Exponent Model.........................................11
Fast-Decoupled .........................................16
Fault Analysis ............................................65
Fault Current Type.....................................54
Fault Locator Analysis ...............................75
Fault Parameters Tab................................39
Fault Types ................................................39
Flicker Table ..............................................80
Gauss-Seidel .............................................14
Gauss-Seidel, Fast Decoupled and NewtonRaphson Methods..................................33
IEC Default R/X Ratios and Impedance
Correction Factors .................................55
IEC Parameters Tab..................................53
IEC Short-Circuit Analysis .........................52
Include Contributions From .......................50

INDEX

Machine Status ......................................... 57


Maximum Start Size Analysis ................... 85
Mixed: ZIP and Exponent Model............... 11
Motor Starting Analysis............................. 79
Network Fault Analysis ............................. 70
Networks Tab............................................ 17
Networks with Abnormal Voltages............ 34
Newton-Raphson ...................................... 15
Objectives Tab ........................................ 105
One-Line Diagram Coloring ................ 31, 64
One-Line Diagram Tags ........................... 30
Other Calculation Parameters .................. 42
Output Tab ........................ 21, 45, 51, 59, 68
Parallel Operation of Generators.............. 35
Parameters Tab .................. 2, 66, 70, 73, 76
Peak Factor............................................... 42
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REA Method ..............................................93

Short-Circuit Analysis ............................... 37

Report by Individual Section................27, 61

Shunt Fault Analysis ................................. 65

Report Tags ...............................................64

Shunt Fault Results .................................. 69

Reports ................................................25, 60

Single-Line-to-Ground Fault ..................... 41

Restrictions Tab.......................................106

Solving the Load Flow .............................. 23

Result Tab ...............................................101

Three-phase Fault .................................... 39

Results.............................. 25, 60, 71, 74, 77

Voltage and Frequency Sensitivity Load


Model....................................................... 8

Results Tab..............................................110
Running and Viewing the Results of a
Locked Rotor Analysis ...........................82
Running the Analysis and Viewing the
Results ...................................................85

116

Voltage Drop Calculation Technique ........ 13


Voltage Drop Method................................ 32
Voltage Sag Analysis................................ 73
ZIP Model.................................................. 10

INDEX