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Process Design: Some Practical

Tips

P.K.Mukhopadhyay
Indian Oil Corporation Ltd.

Points to be covered
Basics of Fractionation column Design
Crude Oil Distillation : Atmospheric & Vacuum
Distillation of components defined by narrow cuts
e.g. Naphtha Stabilization & Naphtha Splitter
Energy Improvement Opportunities & Heat Exchanger
Network design in Process plants
Case Studies

SOME BASICS
Section above feed point - Rectifying /Enrichment section.
Section Below feed
Reflux ratio R

- Stripping section.
= Flow

returned as reflux
Flow of top product distillate

Minimum reflux Rmin :- Reflux below which stage


required is infinity.
Optimum reflux ratio typically lies between 1.2 to 1.5
times the minimum reflux ratio
Relative Volatility ij = Pi / Pj = Ki / Kj
y = x /(1+ (1)x) for construction of y-x diagram

McCabe Thiele B-T

McCabe Thiele B-T

Stage 30, feed stage 12, QR=16.4 Gcal/ hr; Qc =15.2 Gcal/hr; Feed Temp = 80 Deg C

Feed Tray Location for separation of B-T-PX


COLUMN T1
1 E3

B EN ZEN E / TOLU E NE

Separation Factor defined as Log XLK /XHK

S ep arati o n F actor

1 E2

1 E1

1 E0

1 E- 1

1 E- 2
0

6 .0

1 2.0

1 8.0

2 4.0

3 0.0

T ray Number

Stage 30, feed stage 12, QR=16.4 Gcal/ hr; Qc =15.2 Gcal/hr; Feed Temp = 80 Deg C

Separation Factor Vs stage

Feed Tray Location


COLUMN T1
1.00

Liquid Fraction of BENZENE


Liquid Fraction of TOLUENE
Liquid Fraction of PXYLENE

0.80

Fraction

0.60

0.40

0.20

0
0

6.0

12.0

18.0

24.0

Tray Number

Composition Vs Stage (Feed At 12th Stage)

30.0

Better Feed Tray Location for separation of


B-T-PX
COLUMN T1
1E3

Separation Factor defined as Log XLK /XHK

BENZENE / TOLUENE

1E2

Separation Factor

1E1

1E0

1E-1

1E-2
0

6.0

12.0

18.0

24.0

30.0

Tray Number

Stage 30, feed stage 18, QR=13.26, Qc=12.03; R/R= 1.64 Feed Temp = 80 Deg C

Separation Factor Vs stage

Better Feed Tray Location for separation of


B-T-PX
COLUMN T1
1.00

Liquid Fraction of BENZENE


Liquid Fraction of TOLUENE
Liquid Fraction of PXYLENE

0.80

Fraction

0.60

0.40

0.20

0
0

6.0

12.0

18.0

24.0

Tray Number

Composition Vs Stage (Feed At 18th Stage)

30.0

What is Crude Oil?


Crude is a mixture of hydrocarbons mainly.

Characterized by narrow cuts.

The mid point of the cuts is used to determine


the average boiling point of the cut.

Crude Oil Distillation


Crude oil distillation is an open art technology .
The crude oil is distilled at atmospheric
pressure and separated into various fractions as
desired in Crude oil distillation unit .
The reduced crude oil is further fractionated
under vacuum to produce vacuum gas oil
(VGO)as a feed to Hydrocracker or FCCU in a
Fuel type Vacuum Unit , or distilled to produce
Lube oil feed stock in a Lube type Vacuum
Unit.

Basic Process and Fractions


SEPERATION BY BOILING POINT DIFFERENCE.
CRUDE ASSAY/TBP PROVIDES ESTIMATES OF VARIOUS
PRODUCTS OBTAINABLE FROM A PARTICULAR CRUDE.
TYPICAL PRODUCTS OF CRUDE OIL FRACTIONATION:
UNSTABILIZED NAPHTHA

: IBP 1200C

HEAVY NAPHTHA
KEROSENE
LIGHT GAS OIL
HEAVY GAS OIL
REDUCED CRUDE OIL

: 1200 1400C
: 1400- 2700C
: 2700-3200C
: 3200- 3700C
: 3700C +

Basic Process and Fractions


RCO is further fractionated into (Fuel Type)

Gas Oil

VGO ( 370oC 550oC)

VR ( 550oC + )
Lube Type

Gas Oil

Spindle Oil

Light Oil

Inter Oil

Heavy Oil

VR

Distillation Column Design


The design of distillation column can be divided into the following steps

Specify the degree of separation : Set product specification.

Select the operating conditions : Operating pressure and temperature.

Determine the stage and reflux requirement : the no. of equilibrium stages.

Select the type of contacting device : Plates or packing.

Size the column : Diameter, number of actual trays.

Design the column internals : Plates, distributors, packing supports etc.

Mechanical Design : Vessels and internal fittings.

Separation Criteria
DEGREE OF SEPARATION :
 DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ASTM 5 % POINT OF
HEAVIER DISTILLATE & ASTM 95% POINT
OF LIGHTER DISTILLATE.
 DEGREE OF DIFFICULTY OF SEPARATION :
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ASTM 50% POINT OF
THE DISTILLATE FRACTIONS IN QUESTION.

Separation Criteria
It can be derived from the above.
FOR A FIXED NUMBER OF TRAYS TO GET
DESIRED DEGREE OF SEPARATION, REFLUX
REQUIREMENT IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL
TO THE DEGREE OF DIFFICULTY OF
SEPARATION.

Manual computation Method


Mark the cut points in the TBP curve of the crude and note
the yields.
Consider defined ASTM GAP/ Overlap as basis to
develop TBP/ASTM of each fraction by modification of
the tail.
Convert ASTM Gap/Overlap to TBP GAP/Overlap with
reference of charts.
Superimpose the TBP GAP/Overlap using parallelogram
method.
The TBPs of each fraction is now available.
Convert them to ASTM.
The EFV can also be drawn.

Manual computation of cut points

SELECTION
OF
COLUMN PRESSURE

Selection of column pressure


Pressure to be adequate that dew point (for the composition of top
product) is more than cooling hot water temperature , to be around
450C + T(15 0C) = 600C with cooling water inlet temperature of
330C with condensate temperature of 400 - 450 can be obtained
with consideration of 100 150 T . The column pressure to be
adequate that bubble point of the top product is 400- 450.
n

KiXi =1 at column pressure and drum temp of 450.

i=1

or

Pt = pi
i=1

pi calculated at 450C for all components


pi = xi.Pi or yi Pt = xi Pi.

For crude distillation column


The top product is a mixture of light end and top Naphtha (C5-1400).
The naphtha TBP is subdivided 10 0C or 200C cuts e.g. 700-800, 800-900,900-1000 etc.
and midpoints are tabulated .
Kvalues are estimated from De Priester chart

Comp./Cut range(TBP) B.P.T Ki at 450,1.6 Kg/cm2g Xi

Ki Xi

C1

B1

K1

X1

K1 X1

C2

B2

K2

X2

K2 X2

C3

B3

B4
B5
800
1000
1150
1400

:
:

:
:
:

:
:
:

C4
C5
700- 900
900-110 0
1100-1300
1300-1500

:
:
:
Kn

:
:
:
:
: :
:
:
:
Xn Kn Xn

i=1

K i X i =1

It KiXi =1 then the pressure is O.K.


if not 1 then repeat trial with another value of pressure till KiXi is 1.
Same method is applied for discrete components and mixture of pure component
and fixes the reflux drum pressure.

Typical calculation for top pressure determination


11-V-02 pr. Deternination [ Determination of Bubble point process]
11-V-02 liq. Temp. assumed 450C =1130F
Pr. assumed 450C =28.4 pisa = 2 Kg/cm 2 abs

ComponentsNormal Boiling pt 0F

C2
C3
iC4
nC4
45-55
55-65
65-75
75-85
85-95
95-105
105-115
115-125
125-135
135-145
145-155
155-165.5

122
140
158
176
194
212
230
248
266
284
302
322.25

Ki

Xi x 100

KXi

20
8.5
2.8
2
0.46
0.3
0.23
0.17
0.12
0.079
0.056
0.04
0.027
0.017
0.013
0.008

0.79
5.54
3.73
12.69
9.75
7.74
7.42
6.77
6.11
6.41
6.86
6.42
6.22
5.33
4.49
3.73

15.8
36.01
10.444
25.38
4.485
2.322
1.78
1.151
0.733
0.506
0.384
0.257
0.168
0.091
0.058
0.03
99.589100

Trial assumed found O.K.


For K determination [ Pcv = 3100 psia]
Defference API Data Book
So 11-V-2 Pressure = 2 Kg/cm 2 (abs)

Top temperature estimation

Top temperature is dew point of top vapor at column


top pressure.
Once reflux drum pressure is fixed PD(say) the column
top pressure is estimated after adding the pressure drop
across condenser /OH line . Typically 0.3 Kg/cm2
0.5 Kg/cm2 is taken as pressure drop.
Column top pressure = PD+ 0.5 Kg/cm2g
Again the same calculation is performed for
determining the dew point . Assume top temperature
and calculate
yi / Ki till it becomes 1.

Typical calculation for top temperature determination


0

Components Normal Boiling pt F

C2
C3
iC4
nC4
45-55
55-65
65-75
75-85
85-95
95-105
105-115
115-125
125-135
135-145
145-155
155-165.5

122
140
158
176
194
212
230
248
266
284
302
322.25

Yi x 100

Ki @
2480F&
29.3 psia

100 x Xi =
(Yi x 100)/
Ki

0.79
5.54
3.73
12.69
9.75
7.74
7.42
6.77
6.11
6.41
6.86
6.42
6.22
5.33
4.49
3.73

38
17
10
8
2.5
2.2
2
1.7
1.15
1.05
0.8
0.63
0.5
0.35
0.258
0.225

0.3
0.4
1.6
3.9
3.5
3.7
4
5.3
6.1
8.6
10.2
12.4
15.2
17.4
16.6
x i =106.5

Trial assumed O.K.


Top temp of the column =1200C
Top per =1.5 Kg/cm2(g)

Kirkbride equation is used for feed tray location.


log [Nr / Ns] = 0.206 log [(B/D) ( x f. LK / x d.HK )2]
where

(Kirkbride equation )

Nr = number of stages above the feed, including any partial


condenser,
Ns = number of stages below the feed, including the reboiler.
B = molar flow bottom product.
D = molar flow top product.
x f. HK = concentration of the heavy key in the feed.
x f. LK = concentration of the light key in the feed.
x d. HK= concentration of the heavy key in the top product.
x b. LK = concentration of the light key in the bottom product.

In simulation method is known as short cut method.

Configuration
There are several configuration commonly deployed in Crude
Distillation Unit.




Without pretopper.
With a pretopper.
With a preflash drum.

The unit with Pre-topper is sometimes more energy efficient


than the conventional (with only Topper and Pre-flash drum)
as Pre-topper is operated at lower reflux ratio than Topper and
Pre-topped Naphtha alone is fed to stabilizer resulting in lower
requirement of its re-boiler duty so this configuration calls for
lower heat requirement.
Typically, the Crudes having higher Naphtha yield needs
pretopper to limit the topper diameter and stabilizer diameter.

Configuration contd
Adding a Pre-topper is a best configuration for
debottlenecking /revamping of Crude Distillation Unit
as this configuration reduces the diameter requirement
of topper and stabilizer.
Additionally, if furnace mass velocity is limiting,
installation of Pre-topper or Pre-flash drum helps in
debottlenecking the same.
The other configuration deployed is an Atmospheric
& Vacuum Unit combined (AVU). Wherein the RCO
is fed directly to the Vacuum Furnace then to the
Vacuum Column. This is considered to be the most
energy efficient configuration.

Heat integration Opportunity in


Crude distillation unit

Heat integration in crude distillation unit:


The basic art of a Crude Distillation Unit lies not only in designing the
unit for desired products with desired separation but also for better Heat
exchanger synthesis and heat integration for achieving maximum heat
recovery from hot products. Crude units having integration with Vacuum
unit is a heat surplus environment. The heat supplied by two Furnaces
are available to crude.
Maximum preheat attainable with this configuration on gulf crude is
around 2950C-3000C. Rest of the heat is typically utilized for utility
heating/steam generation.
It is often felt that crude with low RCO yield would result in much lower
preheat. But often recoverable heat from pumparounds are high, and this
provides opportunity to the designer to configure the heat exchanger
train to recover full potential of pumparound heat. Traditionally, Gujarat
ANK/SG (with RCO yield ~20%) processing used to deliver a preheat
of~2300C but with reorientation of the train along with maximization of
PA, preheat can be enhanced to 2750C in one revamped crude unit.

Overhead heat integration


Options: Introduce a Top Pump around in Topper.
Integrate Pre-topper Overhead along with crude
Integrate Topper Overhead along with crude.
It is worth mentioning that,
o Introducing a top pump around is the easiest and cheapest
way to integrate Overhead heat. This is achieved by
reducing the reflux ratio; thereby lowering heat rejection
to Overhead Condenser/ coolers.
o A Pre-topper Overhead integration is also a good option
and safe from the point of view of corrosion.

Overhead heat integration- Contd


o The Overhead integration of topper is somewhat cumbersome
from the viewpoint of corrosion as Overhead System will
contain Cl- and H2S. H2S is known as chloride corrosion
accelerator as it combines with Iron Chloride (a product of
corrosion) to produce FeS and regenerate HCl for further
attack.
2 HCl + 2 Fe + 2 H2O FeCl2 + Fe (OH) 2 + H2
FeCl2 + H2S (Vapor phase) FeS + 2 HCl
Introduction of a Top PA in the column design and integrating it
with crude for heat recovery can be a preferred option when the
unit does not have a Pre-topper in its configuration.

Integrated Crude Vacuum Unit (AVU): Crude Column

Vacuum Column

Vac.Diesel
SR Distillate
Vac. Distillate

Vacuum Slop

VR

AVU contd.
This configuration is most energy efficient
where in RCO from Crude Column is fed
directly to Vacuum heater then to Vacuum
Column, as no heat of RCO is lost in air
cooler/tempered water coolers.

CASE STUDIES

Case Study-1
Capacity Augmentation of a Crude unit:

Often, when Pump around duties need to be


increased with augmentation of throughput; two
Pumparounds can be configured instead of one. An
example is the revamp configuration envisaged for
AU-5 of Gujarat Refinery. In the existing unit there
is single Topping column having provision for three
side cuts, viz., Heavy Naphtha, Kerosene, Gas Oil
and correspondingly three pumparounds, viz., Top
PA, SK PA, GO PA.

Case Study-1 Contd.


The same column thus could be used with splitting of
Pumparound & Product draws as per above arrangement.
The old train of 3.0 MMTPA has been retained by
allocating Pump-arounds & products of similar flows in the
train.
A new parallel train was added to take the heat duties of
additional Pump-around & products.
Also RCO stream was split into two. One part routed the
old train the balance routed to the new train.

Case Study-2

Plant Configuration in Process Design


Selection of Correct configuration is the essence
of any plant for achieving targeted product yield
and quality and energy efficiency
Sub optimal design does not pay anything rather
cause damage to profitability and hence
sustenance.

Case Study-2 Contd


One very old crude unit was in operation abroad. The unit was
originally designed by Foster Wheeler Corp. This had a pre-flash
drum, and had a unique configuration of Naphtha splitter located
upstream of stabilizer. The off gas was being compressed and put to
the fuel gas system.
On simulation it was found that no gas is bled at operating pressure of
the crude column. The gas and LPG components were getting
released from Naphtha splitter top and being compressed and put in
fuel gas system.
The Pre-flash drum was operating at low temp of around 900C due to
low heat pick up and not vaporizing enough hydrocarbons. Thus,
mass velocity through the feed furnace was high and at its limit.
Consequently, the pressure drop through furnace was high and
increasing throughput was not possible.

Original configuration of the unit


Comp

Pre
Flash
Drum

Atm.
Column

Nap.
Splitter

Stabilizer

Stab Naphtha

Case Study-2 Contd


The heat exchanger train was reorganized and
pre-flash drum temperature increased to
around 2000C to separate Naphtha and thus
reduce the feed to the furnace and maintain the
Mass velocity stipulation through it and
allowed capacity augmentation. Further, the
stabilizer was placed upstream of Naphtha
splitter and the compressor was eliminated.

Vacuum Distillation Unit:


The primary objective of a vacuum distillation is to
produce either feedstock for FCCU or HCU. This type
of vacuum distillation units are termed as Fuel Type
Vacuum Unit. The other kind of vacuum distillation
unit is a Lube Type Vacuum Unit and deployed for
production of fractions for Lube Oil Base stocks.
In a Fuel Type Vacuum distillation Unit the VGO
TBP cut point is controlled for Maximizing
profitability while containing the level of
contaminants acceptable by downstream secondary
Units.

Vacuum Distillation Unit- contd:

5500
VGO Cut Point
5300

Temp

TBP Crude

0C

100 %
Vol %

Different Configuration of Vacuum Column:


1.

Dry (no stripping, no coil steam).

2.

Wet (Pre-condenser limiting column overhead pressure to


cooling water temperature limitations).

3.

Dump column without stripping steam(no precondenser, coil steam used to adjust flash zone oil partial
pressure).

4.

Dump column with stripping steam (no pre-condenser, coil


and stripping steam used).

Different Configuration of Vacuum Column

- contd:

* The first one operates typically at 8-12 mm Hg (a) at top. The


vapour directly goes to ejectors.
* The second type operates at 60-70 mm Hg (a) at top and have
a precondenser, the non-condensable are pulled by ejector.
* The third type of operation is done at 18-25 mm Hg (a) at top.
Without stripping steam has a booster ejector followed by
condenser.
* This fourth type again operates with a top pressure of 18-25
mm Hg (a) and uses stripping steam and Coil steam both. This type
is considered best to increase cut point of VGO limiting the
contaminants like V, Ni etc. in VGO with same number of stages in
wash section as compared to other configurations.

Revamp of Vacuum Distillation Unit (VDU):


Case Study-3

In Fuel type vacuum column, revamp design for capacity


augmentation can be undertaken by
- increasing number of side products
- introducing additional pumparound(s)
Outcome!
Increased heat recovery in feed resulting in higher
preheat
Capacity increase limited by Fired heater Mass
velocity criterion

Revamp of Vacuum Distillation Unit (VDU): Case Study-3


One very old fuel type Vacuum unit having a capacity of 0.8
MMTPA was revamped to 1.2/1.5 MMTPA. The unit was operating
with 3 side cuts namely Heavy Diesel,VGO, Vacuum Slop and with
two Pumparounds, viz., Heavy Diesel PA and VGO PA. In revamp a
fourth draw HVGO was introduced along with Pumparound and good
amount of heat in Heavy Diesel PA which was getting rejected to
water cooler has been shifted to LVGO/ HVGO Pumparounds
making them recoverable to preheat the feed.
In wash section Mellagrid packing equivalent to two stages has been
installed. As a result of this modification, the preheat temperature got
increased from 2500C to 3150C and VGO cut point increased
considerably. Besides, improvement in quality and yield of VGO,
there was reduction in P of column to a level of 8 to 10 mm Hg.

Case Study-3 contd:


VDU:- Old Configuration

Hvy Diesel

VGO

Slop
Feed

VR

Case Study-3 contd:


VDU:- New Configuration

Heavy Diesel
LVGO

HVGO
Vacuum slop
Feed

VR

Case Study-4
FPU-2(Hydrocracker Feed Preparation Unit):
Capacity revamp of a Vacuum Distillation unit generating
VGO for Hydrocracker feed is constrained by feed quality
requirement w.r.t Ashphaltene, metals, N.
Higher load in wash zone makes the washing poor.
Introduction of extra heavy VGO (HHVGO) draw will
relieve the wash section and hence quality of VGO.
However, this approach is successful if the refinery has a
FCC, which take this HHVGO with higher Ashphaltene,
metals and N.

Case Study-4 contd:


Typically, two stages are provided in vacuum tower wash zone. Often
three stages are also provided in wash section to improve the quality of
VGO. This would need higher amount of wash oil so that bottom of the
wash bed dont get dried and form coke. A minimum wash oil rate
required is 0.5 M3/hr per M2 of the column at the bottom of the wash
bed. The wash oil flow at the top of wash bed should be adequate to
ensure a wash rate of 0.5 M3/hr per M2 of cross section of the column at
bottom of the bed to avoid coking of wash bed. This is best measured by
vacuum slop draw rate.
Thus, the wash oil flow & vacuum slop flow are very important for
maintenance of the health and operation of a Vacuum tower.
Pressure drop measuring devices are provided across each bed to
indicate the performance with respect to flooding /coking etc. Typically,
Vacuum tower internals are either random or structured packing.

Case Study-4 Contd


The FPU-2 was originally designed to produce feedstock for
Hydrocracker (HCU) and had a capacity of 2.5 MMPA. Design
preheat was 2980C. It was observed that the asphaltene and N
content of VGO used to go up often with change in feedstock. The
HCU was originally designed to process a VGO feed stock having
asphaltene content of maximum 100 ppm (n-Heptane insoluble
Chevron method) and N content of 800 ppm max.).
It was desired to augment the unit capacity beyond 2.5 MMTPA
to the maximum level feasible without any change in the existing
charge heater. The study showed that there was requirement of
preheat increase to process more feed within designed furnace
duty. So emphasis was given to enhance preheat and increase
VGO cut point maintaining the asphaltene & N content within
stipulated level.

Case Study-4 Contd:


A third VGO withdrawal as HHVGO below HVGO draw off zone was
introduced in the revamp. The routing envisaged was:
VGO (LVGO + HVGO) HCU Feed
HHVGO FCCU Feed

Wash section was located below HHVGO tray. Thus, it was possible to
contain VGO asphaltene & N within stipulated limit and reduce VR by
pulling HHVGO. High N content of HHVGO was getting diluted by
VGO obtained from RCO of HS origin (low in Nitrogen) from other
Vacuum Unit. Thus, it helped in increasing distillate (LVGO+HVGO+
HHVGO) cut point and reduction of VR from vacuum column.
The preheat could be increased to ~ 3200C by splitting of RCO train
and recovering HVGO rundown product heat in feed which in earlier
configuration was used for LP steam generation.
The unit operates at 3.3 MMTPA delivering the revamp objectives.

Case Study-4 contd:


Old Configuration

Heavy Diesel
LVGO
HVGO

Vacuum Slop
Feed

VR

Case Study-4 contd:


New Configuration

Heavy Diesel
LVGO
HVGO
HHVGO

Feed

Vacuum slop

VR

Design deficiency : Case of Two column Atmospheric


Distillation
Original configuration: Fractinator Column, Stabilizer
Revamp Configuration: Prefractionator, Fractionator, Stabilizer

Crude Distillation Unit Configuration Change in


revamp:
- Single column Configuration:
Sub-cooled Reflux at 450C for minimum Fractionator pressure
- Two Column Configuration:
Pre-fractionator reflux to be sub-cooled for minimum pressure
operation
Fractionator reflux to be at bubble point otherwise reflux drum is
likely to be under vacuum. Fuel gas make up required for positive
pressure, that makes overhead Naphtha unstable requiring its
processing in Stabilizer Extra energy consumption

Two column Atmospheric Distillation Design mistakes

Modification of Fractionator overhead system

Case study -5

62

Preheat improvement of HR CDU-1

Design Basis:

Crude TPut 3.5 MMTPA

Crude Considered:

HS : Basra Light

Naphtha Splitter idling

63

Preheat improvement of HR CDU-1

64

Preheat improvement of HR CDU-1

65

Preheat improvement of HR CDU-1

66

Preheat improvement of HR CDU-1

Preheat Improvement Study:


 Present Preheat temperature of CDU-1 (Actual)  265 Deg C


Achievable Preheat with Present configuration  272 Deg C

Achievable preheat by idling of Naphtha Splitter  282 Deg C


and adding exchangers in Gas oil/Crude circuit


Naphtha Splitter cannot be idled at present due to surface area


limitations in existing preheat exchangers 11-E-05 A-D




Two new exchangers in Gasoil/crude service also required.

Benefit : Savings of 2.9 Gcal/h


67

Preheat improvement of HR CDU-1

68

Preheat improvement of HR CDU-1

69

Preheat improvement of HR CDU-1

70

NAPHTHA SPLITTING UNIT CONFIGURATION


Case study- 6
MR PX-NSU ENERGY OPTIMIZATION STUDY
PX feed preparation unit consists of two column arrangement with
overhead vapor heat of Second column ( HP) supplying part heat to
the re-boiler of the first column( LP) ( Heat Coupling Arrangement).
Required C8 specified in PX feed : 60 % purity of C8 with min 85%
recovery
Both single column and two column configuration were studied to
achieve the desired specification with minimum energy
consumption, minimum outage of unit with easy execution.

71

MR PX-NSU EXISTING CONFIGURATION

72

MR PX-NSU SINGLE COLUMN WITH SIDE CUT

73

MR PX-NSU:TWO COLUMN TCDS ARRANGEMENT

74

MR PX-NSU ENERGY OPTIMIZATION STUDY


Summary of important results shows:
Single column operation would not give the purity and recovery
specification of 60 wt % and 85wt % respectively.
PDEC additionally introduced TCDS feature to further conserve
energy in the existing arrangement and also to get advantage of
existing hardware & achieve specifications of PX Feed.

Thus savings of ~6.0 Gcal /hr can be achieved by proposed


scheme.
75

Case study-7
Case of salt deposition in reactor effluent cooler and
corrosion in top section of Stripping column in a
DHDT unit:
DHDT units typically are with two separator drums
CHPS & CLPS
Energy reduction endeavor pushes designers to
adopt 4-drum system HHPS,HLPS,CHPS &
CLPS
HHPS temperature is critical as Rx effluent contains
76
NH4CL and NH4HS chances of solidification

DHDT UNIT : EXISTING UNIT CONFIGURATION


(FEED + EFFLUENT CIRCUIT+ STRIPPER)
30

28

27

79

2013 Indian Oil Corporation Ltd.


All rights reserved

DHDT UNIT : NEW CONFIGURATION BY PDEC


(FEED + EFFLUENT CIRCUIT+ STRIPPER)
To
Packinox
3900C

Wash Water
460C

5.0 Gcal

Air Cooler
AC-01

NNF

Train-A

28A

30

CW
HM-3

1380C

NOTE-1

RG To Amine
Absorber

1800C

HM-1 12.5 Gcal/hr

RG
QUENCH

1110C

41

24.0 Gcal/hr

41A

365 C

3710C

E-01
Packinox

F-01
Existing R1/R3 4050C
5.0 Gcal

Packinox
3860C

41.5 Gcal

21-E-03
4.9 Gcal

Make up H2+
Recycle Gas

KOD
V-04

Wash Water
460C

Stripper
Feed

V-03 CHPS
108.2 kg/cm2g

28

450C

700C

2350C

Rx.
Effl.

Feed

LC

Feed+RG
1700C

41B
25

390 C

V-02
Train-B

HP SEPARATOR
DRUM(HHPS) Wash Water
109 kg/cm2g

460C

2350C
LC
26

RG
QUENCH

1110C

1.7 Gcal/hr

2350C

3650C

371 C

Make up H2+
Recycle Gas

R2/R4 4050C
3860C

22-E-04
4.9 Gcal
Stripper
Feed

NOTE-2

27

CLPS Vapor
22.0 kg/cm2g
600C

V-07

53
Packinox

41.5 Gcal
PRT

Feed+RG

Air Cooler
AC-02

HLPS Vapor

New

(H2+H2S)

Rx.
Effl.

F-01
Existing
5.0 Gcal

2350C

E-02
Packinox

550C

9.37 Gcal

LC

V-08
7.7 kg/cm2g
1490C

CLPS

1700C

1830C

P-01A/B/C
Feed Pump
V-08

Sour
Water

HLPS DRUM

To LP Amine
Absorber
6.8 kg/cm2g
0
45 C

600C
1630C

20.0 kg/cm g

16.6
Gcal/hr

2350C

3860C

STRIPPER

2230C

255 C

#6

Sour
Water

Packinox

NOTE-3
LC

Stripper
Bottom
54

Rx. Eff.
4050C

C-02

450C

245 C

To
Packinox

26
1800C

LEGEND
54A

Existing
Proposed

80

12.5 Gcal

2750C

MP
Steam

HM-2
To Diesel
R/D Circuit

2420C
Feed

P-05A/B

HDT Wild
Naphtha
To stab

Product yield problem


Case study-8:

Yield loss of desired product due to feed quality


change in Naphtha ISOM unit for MS production

ISOM Unit Isomerate Yield Problem Case study-9


ISOm unit of an Indian refinery experienced Isomerate RON drop
from design number because of change in feed characteristics
Limitation in OH condenser of DIH column was experienced
Necessity of performance improvement of DIH column to
alleviate the problem
Feed Quality:
Present operation, wt% Design, wt%
Naphthenes, MCP,CH

~ 35

~12

C5 / C6 Paraffin ratio

~ 0.9

~0.42

Iso Pentane

13-14

~8.0

ISOM Unit Problem Contd


Higher Naphthene content in feed to Rx inhibits isomerization
reaction of n-C5 / n-C6 and affects RON
Higher C5/C6 ratio in feed lowers Isomerate RON
Higher i-Pentane in feed reduces n-Pentane conversion
DIH recycle stream Quality:
Present operation, wt% Design, wt%
2- Me Pentane

33.9

18.4

3-Me Pentane

21.2

13.5

N-Hexane

14.5

11.1

Total

69.6

43.0

High MCP, CH content in feed increases Naphthene load in DIH


recycle thus resulting in poor conversion in Rx
Effect is lowering Isomerate RON

CASE STUDY-9

TROUBLESHOOTING OF CRUDE
COLUMN INTERNALS FOR
PREHEAT IMPROVEMENT

2009 Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. All rights


reserved

88

Column Internals Troubleshooting:Atmospheric and Vacuum distillation unit at one IOCL Refinery is totally
integrated with each other i.e RCO ex Crude distillation unit directly enters
the vacuum unit for better heat integration.
Crude oil gets preheated by both Atmospheric and Vacuum distillation
column circulating refluxes and rundown products.
Crude column is provided with three nos of PA namely LGO PA, Heavy
Kero PA and ATF PA.
Unit was designed to achieve 272C preheat for the CDU COT of 365 C
(BH Case) i.e. T across CDU furnace is 94 C.
Design preheat could not be achieved and the unit was operating with low
preheat of 255 C for a CDU COT of 355 C (BH Case) i.e. T across CDU
furnace is 100 C against the design of 94 C.
Reason for low preheat is attributed to low ATF Pump around (PA) flow as
the PA flow couldnt be increased to the desired level.

Problems associated due to Lower ATF PA flow


Low crude preheat of 250 deg c.
Low ATF yield.
Reduced desalter inlet temperature.
Lowering of high potential Heavy kero and LGO pump around
flows necessitated to maximise ATF production resulting in
further loss of crude preheat.
In 2007 S/D, the crude column was opened and inspected for
suspecting ATF chimney tray damage, but internals were
found in perfect condition.

Approach
Step By Step Methodology Adopted:

Modelling & Simulation Of The Plant

Existing Preheat Train Adequacy Check

Test Run

Chimney Tray Design Adequacy

Foolproof Chimney Tray Design

General Arrangement Of ATF CR

Chimney Tray Design Adequacy




Problem of Low ATF flow was Zeroed in to the design of ATF Chimney
Tray & it was critically examined

Tray configuration was an overflow & partial draw off type (Ref fig1)

Inadequate cross section of the central channel may obstruct the


liquid Flow path as chimney length was oriented in the direction of
withdrawal channel

Draw off Sump Area was small, Chimney Tray Itself can work as sump but
may result In higher Liquid build up

Withdrawal nozzle size found Inadequate

 The obstruction to liquid flow path may result in very high liquid
gradients

Chimney Tray Design Adequacy


Open segmental weir for internal reflux may result in
possibility of Inadvertent high flow of IR from the
chimney tray from side down comers from both sides
No hood is provided above down comer area and approx
10% liquid is designed to flow directly to the next tray
beneath chimney tray
Such Down comer arrangement is however theoretically
OK if liquid falling through open segmental down comers is
less than 75% of IR required
But above criterion may not hold good as likelihood of
channeling of liquid on the packing above can not be
eliminated and can result in much more liquid dropping
through down-comer

Earlier ATF Chimney Tray design with overflow weir arrangement Fig 1)

Fool proof chimney Tray design


To bridge the deficiencies, a unique design (Refer Fig 2A) of
chimney tray with minimum modification for obtaining the desired
flows of the Pump around was proposed.
Key is to first satisfy withdrawal needs
Increasing withdrawal sump area
Withdrawal nozzle size Increase in line with self venting
requirement
Sealing of the down comer and provision of piped down
comers
The fool proof chimney tray will even handle mal-distribution of
liquid in the packing above chimney tray which it is a frequent
phenomenon in actual operation, the amount of liquid raining
down to next tray is much more.

Fool-proof Chimney Tray with pipe down comers


Proposed by PDEC (Fig2A)

Installation/ Validation of Fool proof chimney Tray

New improved chimney tray with pipe downcomers for controlled internal reflux to avoid
direct raining through the sectional down comers,
Refer Fig 2A ) in line with PDECs design was
installed in July 2009 shutdown
Working fine meeting all the requirement such
as higher PA flows thereby higher preheat, lower
overhead condenser load and desired yields of
products

Fool-proof Chimney Tray with pipe down comers


installed (Fig2B)

Benefits


Increase in Crude Pre-heat temperature by 10 deg C. This is


equivalent to a savings of about 4800 SRFT / year resulting in

a
net savings of about Rs 9.3 Crores /year.
 Significant load reduction in the fractionator overhead air fin
coolers
 Better fractionation in ATF and HN cut resulting in reduction
of
HN yield by 1.5 wt% with equal increment in ATF yield.
 Improvement in Desalter performance due to increase in
desalter inlet temperature

Conclusion: The basic configuration adopted during the design of a Unit plays
major role in efficient & trouble free operation of the unit.
During operation maintaining column top temperature to avoid
water dew point corrosion needs to be continuously monitored.
Further ensuring prescribed wash oil reflux to wash section is the
key to trouble free and efficient operation of crude & vacuum
distillation units.
Energy improvement design study needs to be done in conjunction
with the process optimization to achieve most optimal solution
With new feed to the unit, Simulation may be carried out to
determine the most optimum operating condition and the unit needs
to be operated in accordance to the same.