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Design of column

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Session Objectives

At the end of this session students would have understood,

About columns

Failures in the columns

Euler`s criteria

Buckling of columns

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Session Topics

In this session the topics covered are

Introduction to column.

Failure of a column.

Euler column theory.

Rankine theory for column.

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Introduction

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called a strut.

A strut may be horizontal, inclined or even vertical. But a

vertical strut is known as a column, pillar or stanchion.

The machine members that must be investigated for

column action are piston rods, valve push rods,

connecting rods, screw jack, side links of toggle jack etc

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Failure of a Column

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a compressive load and the load is gradually increased, a stage

will reach when the column will be subjected to ultimate load.

Beyond this, the column will fail by crushing and the load will be

known as crushing load.

It has also been experienced, that sometimes, a compression

member does not fail entirely by crushing, but also by bending i.e.

buckling.

Short columns fail due to their crushing.

The load, at which the column tends to have lateral displacement

or tends to buckle is called buckling load, critical load, or

crippling load

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important conditions are shown

1. Both the ends hinged or pin jointed as shown in Fig. (a),

2. Both the ends fixed as shown in Fig. (b),

3. One end is fixed and the other hinged as shown in Fig. (c),

4. One end is fixed and the other free as shown in Fig. (d ).

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columns, was made by Mr. Euler.

Derived an equation, for the buckling load of long

columns based on the bending stress

While deriving this equation, the effect of direct stress is

neglected.

Eulers formula cannot be used in the case of short

columns, because the direct stress is considerable, and

hence cannot be neglected.

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theory :

1. Initially the column is perfectly straight, and the load applied is

truly axial.

2. The cross-section of the column is uniform throughout its

length.

3. The column material is perfectly elastic, homogeneous and

isotropic, and thus obeys Hookes law.

4. The length of column is very large as compared to its crosssectional dimensions.

5. The shortening of column, due to direct compression (being

very small) is neglected.

6. The failure of column occurs due to buckling alone.

7. The weight of the column itself is neglected.

M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

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Eulers Formula

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(Wcr) under various end conditions is represented by a

general equation,

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Slenderness Ratio

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slenderness ratio.

It may be defined as the ratio of the effective length

of the column to the least radius of gyration of the

section.

It may be noted that the formula for crippling load is

based on the assumption that the slenderness ratio l /

k is so large that the failure of the column occurs only

due to bending, the effect of direct stress

(i.e. W / A) being negligible

M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

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The above equation will show that the crippling stress will

be high, when the slenderness ratio is small.

the crushing stress of the column material.

Eulers formula will give the value of crippling stress of

the column corresponding to the slenderness ratio.

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N/mm2 and Youngs modulus for mild steel is 0.21 106

N/mm2.

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formula for a mild steel column is not valid.

Sometimes, the columns whose slenderness ratio is

more than 80, are known as long columns, and those

whose slenderness ratio is less than 80 are known as

short columns.

M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

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written as

Where

L is the equivalent length or effective length of the column.

conditions is the length of an equivalent column of the same

material and cross-section with hinged ends to that of the

given column

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long columns.

very long to short ones.

fact whether the column is a long one or short one.

M.S. Ramaiah School of Advanced Studies, Bengaluru

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Summary

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Column

Types of failure in columns

Application of Euler`s formula for short column

Short coming of Euler`s formula

Rankine formula

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