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Composite Materials

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

COMPOSITE CONSTITUENTS
Ceramics

Metals

Composites
Polymers

Glasses

Elastomers

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

Composite materials Introduction


Definition: any combination of two or more
different materials at the macroscopic level.
OR
Two inherently different materials that when
combined together produce a material with
properties that exceed the constituent materials.
Reinforcement phase (e.g., Fibers)
Binder phase (e.g., compliant matrix)

Advantages
High strength and stiffness
Low weight ratio
Material can be designed in addition to the structure

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

Applications

Straw in clay construction by Egyptians


Aerospace industry
Sporting goods
Automotive
Construction

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

Where are composites used??????

CFRP carbon fiber


reinforced composite.

GFRP glass fiber


reinforced composite
Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

Composites in industry
Engineering applications
Aerospace
Automobile
Pressure vessel and pipes

Any place where high performance materials are desired

Turret
Shield

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

Industrial
Spring

Medical Table
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Bullet
proof
shields
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Automotive Lightweighting
Materials Technical Approach
Lightweight Glazing

Magnesium Alloy

Thermoplastic
Composites

Metal Matrix
Composites
50% weight reduction

30% weight reduction

Reduces mass by 60%

Aluminum Tailor
Welded Blanks
Powertrain components 40% weight reduction

Hydroforming

Superplastic Forming

40% weight reduction / 50%


reduction in part count

35% weight reduction /


reduction in part count
Photo: Courtesy of GKN Aerospace

40% weight reduction / 10 X


reduction in part count

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

Fig. The U. S. Air Force B-2 advanced stealth bomber, which is


constructed to a large extent of advanced composite materials
Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

Types of Composites
Matrix
phase/Reinforcement Phase
Metal

Metal

Ceramic

Polymer

Powder metallurgy
parts combining
immiscible metals

Cermets (ceramicmetal composite)

Brake pads

Ceramic

Cermets, TiC, TiCN


Cemented carbides
used in tools, Fiberreinforced metals

SiC reinforced
Al2O3
Tool materials

Fiberglass

Polymer

Kevlar fibers in an
epoxy matrix
Fiber reinforced
metals
Auto parts
aerospace

Elemental
(Carbon, Boron,
etc.)

MMCs
Metal Matrix Composites
Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

Rubber with carbon


(tires)
Boron, Carbon
reinforced plastics

CMCs

PMCs

Ceramic Matrix Comps.

Polymer Matrix Comps

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Most widely accepted classification type of composites


Classification in terms of matrix material

COMPOSITE
MATERIALS

METAL
MATRIX

POLYMER
MATRIX

CERAMC
MATRIX

CARBONCARBON

NANO
COMPOSITES
Each of the different class of composites has its own
nanocomposite type
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Costs of composite manufacture


Material costs -- higher for composites
Constituent materials (e.g., fibers and resin)
Processing costs -- embedding fibers in matrix
not required for metals Carbon fibers order of
magnitude higher than aluminum

Design costs -- lower for composites


Can reduce the number of parts in a complex
assembly by designing the material in
combination with the structure

Increased performance must justify higher


material costs

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Types of Composite Materials


There are five basic types of composite materials:
Fiber, particle, flake, laminar or layered and filled
composites.

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A. Fiber Composites
In fiber composites, the fibers reinforce along the line of their
length. Reinforcement may be mainly 1-D, 2-D or 3-D. Figure
shows the three basic types of fiber orientation.

1-D gives maximum


strength in one direction.
2-D gives strength in two
directions.
Isotropic gives strength
equally in all directions.

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Longitudin
al direction

Fiber Alignment

Transverse
direction

aligned
continuous
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aligned
random
discontinuous
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Composite strength depends on following factors:


Inherent fiber strength,
Fiber length, Number of
flaws
Fiber shape
The bonding of the
fiber (equally stress
distribution)
Voids
Moisture (coupling
agents)

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Good bonding

Poor bonding
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B. Particle Composites
Particles usually reinforce a composite equally in all directions
(called isotropic). Plastics, cermets and metals are examples of
particles.
Particles used to strengthen a matrix do not do so in the same
way as fibers. For one thing, particles are not directional like
fibers. Spread at random through out a matrix, particles tend
to reinforce in all directions equally.
Cermets
(1) OxideBased cermets
(e.g. Combination of Al2O3 with Cr)
(2) CarbideBased Cermets
(e.g. Tungstencarbide, titanium
carbide)
Metalplastic particle composites
(e.g. Aluminum, iron & steel, copper
particles)
Metalinmetal Particle Composites
and Dispersion Hardened Alloys
(e.g. Ceramicoxide particles)
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C. Flake Composites - 1
Flakes, because of their shape, usually reinforce in
2-D. Two common flake materials are glass and
mica. (Also aluminum is used as metal flakes)

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C. Flake Composites -2
A flake composite consists of thin, flat flakes held
together by a binder or placed in a matrix. Almost
all flake composite matrixes are plastic resins. The
most important flake materials are:
1. Aluminum
2. Mica
3. Glass

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C. Flake Composites -3
Basically, flakes will provide:
Uniform mechanical properties in the plane of
the flakes
Higher strength
Higher flexural modulus
Higher dielectric strength and heat resistance
Better resistance to penetration by liquids and
vapor
Lower cost

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D. Laminar Composites - 1
Laminar composites involve two or more layers of
the same or different materials. The layers can be
arranged in different directions to give strength
where needed. Speedboat hulls are among the very
many products of this kind.
(a) Tapes containing
aligned fibers can be
joined to produce a
multi-layered different
orientations to produce
a quasi-isotropic
composite. In this
case, a 0/+45/90
composite is formed.

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D. Laminar Composites - 2
Like all composites laminar composites aim at
combining constituents to produce properties that
neither constituent alone would have.
In laminar composites outer metal is not called a
matrix but a face. The inner metal, even if stronger,
is not called a reinforcement. It is called a base.

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D. Laminar Composites - 3
We can divide laminar composites into three basic types:
Unreinforcedlayer composites
(1) AllMetal
(a) Plated and coated metals (electrogalvanized steel
steel plated with zinc)
(b) Clad metals (aluminumclad, copperclad)
(c) Multilayer metal laminates (tungsten, beryllium)
(2) MetalNonmetal (metal with plastic, rubber, etc.)
(3) Nonmetal (glassplastic laminates, etc.)
Reinforcedlayer composites (laminae and laminates)
Combined composites (reinforcedplastic laminates well
bonded with steel, aluminum, copper, rubber, gold, etc.)

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D. Laminar Composites - 4
A lamina (laminae) is any
arrangement
of
unidirectional or woven
fibers
in
a
matrix.
Usually this arrangement
is flat, although it may
be curved, as in a shell.
A laminate is a stack of
lamina arranged with
their main reinforcement
in at least two different
directions.

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Figure. (a) A hexagonal cell honeycomb core, (b) can be joined to


two face sheets by means of adhesive sheets, (c) producing an
exceptionally lightweight yet stiff, strong honeycomb sandwich
structure.
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Figure. Schematic diagram of an aramid-aluminum laminate,


Arall, which has potential for aerospace applications.

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E. Filled Composites
There are two types of filled composites. In
one, filler materials are added to a normal
composite result in strengthening the
composite and reducing weight. The second
type of filled composite consists of a skeletal
3-D matrix holding a second material. The
most widely used composites of this kind are
sandwich structures and honeycombs.

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F. Combined Composites
It is possible to combine
several
different
materials into a single
composite. It is also
possible
to
combine
several
different
composites into a single
product. A good example
is
a
modern
ski.
(combination of wood as
natural fiber, and layers
as laminar composites)

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Forms of Reinforcement Phase


Fibers
cross-section can be circular, square or hexagonal
Diameters --> 0.0001 - 0.005
Lengths --> L/D ratio
100 -- for chopped fiber
much longer for continuous fiber
Particulate
small particles that impede dislocation movement (in
metal composites) and strengthens the matrix
For sizes > 1 mm, strength of particle is involves in
load sharing with matrix
Flakes
flat platelet form

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Fiber Reinforcement
The typical composite consists of a matrix holding
reinforcing materials. The reinforcing materials, the
most important is the fibers, supply the basic
strength of the composite. However, reinforcing
materials can contribute much more than strength.
They can conduct heat or resist chemical corrosion.
They can resist or conduct electricity. They may be
chosen for their stiffness (modulus of elasticity) or
for many other properties.

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Types of Fibers
The fibers are divided into two main groups:
Glass fibers: There are many different kinds of
glass, ranging from ordinary bottle glass to high
purity quartz glass. All of these glasses can be
made into fibers. Each offers its own set of
properties.
Advanced fibers: These materials offer high
strength and high stiffness at low weight. Boron,
silicon, carbide and graphite fibers are in this
category. So are the aramids, a group of plastic
fibers of the polyamide (nylon) family.

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Fibers - Glass
Fiberglass properties vary somewhat according to the type of glass
used. However, glass in general has several wellknown
properties that contribute to its great usefulness as a
reinforcing agent:

Tensile strength
Chemical resistance
Moisture resistance
Thermal properties
Electrical properties

There are four main types of glass used in fiberglass:

Aglass
Cglass
Eglass
Sglass

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Fibers - Glass
Most widely used fiber
Uses: piping, tanks, boats, sporting goods
Advantages
Low cost
Corrosion resistance
Low cost relative to other composites:

Disadvantages
Relatively low strength
High elongation
Moderate strength and weight

Types:
E-Glass - electrical, cheaper
S-Glass - high strength

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Fibers - Aramid (kevlar, Twaron)


Uses:
high performance replacement for glass fiber
Examples
Armor, protective clothing, industrial, sporting
goods
Advantages:
higher strength and lighter than glass
More ductile than carbon

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Fibers - Carbon
2nd most widely used fiber
Examples
aerospace, sporting goods
Advantages
high stiffness and strength
Low density
Intermediate cost
Properties:

Standard modulus: 207-240 Gpa


Intermediate modulus: 240-340 GPa
High modulus: 340-960 GPa
Diameter: 5-8 microns, smaller than human hair
Fibers grouped into tows or yarns of 2-12k fibers

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Fibers -- Carbon (2)


Types of carbon fiber
vary in strength with processing
Trade-off between strength and modulus
Intermediate modulus
PAN (Polyacrylonitrile)
fiber precursor heated and stretched to align structure
and remove non-carbon material

High modulus
made from petroleum pitch precursor at lower cost
much lower strength

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Fibers - Others
Boron
High stiffness, very high cost
Large diameter - 200 microns
Good compressive strength

Polyethylene - trade name: Spectra fiber

Textile industry
High strength
Extremely light weight
Low range of temperature usage

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Fibers -- Others (2)


Ceramic Fibers (and matrices)
Very high temperature applications (e.g.
engine components)
Silicon carbide fiber - in whisker form.
Ceramic matrix so temperature resistance
is not compromised
Infrequent use

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Fiber Material Properties

Steel: density (Fe) = 7.87 g/cc; TS=0.380 GPa; Modulus=207 GPa


Al: density=2.71 g/cc; TS=0.035 GPa; Modulus=69 GPa

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Fiber Strength

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Matrix Materials
Functions of the matrix
Transmit force between fibers
arrest cracks from spreading between
fibers
do not carry most of the load
hold fibers in proper orientation
protect fibers from environment

mechanical forces can cause cracks that allow


environment to affect fibers

Demands on matrix
Interlaminar shear strength
Toughness
Moisture/environmental resistance
Temperature properties
Cost
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Matrices - Polymeric
Thermosets
cure by chemical reaction
Irreversible
Examples
Polyester, vinylester
Most common, lower cost, solvent resistance

Epoxy resins
Superior performance, relatively costly

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Matrices - Thermosets
Polyester
Polyesters have good mechanical properties, electrical
properties and chemical resistance. Polyesters are
amenable to multiple fabrication techniques and are
low cost.
Vinyl Esters
Vinyl Esters are similar to polyester in performance.
Vinyl esters have increased resistance to corrosive
environments as well as a high degree of moisture
resistance.

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Matrices - Thermosets
Epoxy
Epoxies have improved strength and stiffness
properties over polyesters. Epoxies offer excellent
corrosion resistance and resistance to solvents and
alkalis. Cure cycles are usually longer than polyesters,
however no by-products are produced.
Flexibility and improved performance is also achieved
by the utilization of additives and fillers.

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Matrices - Thermoplastics
Formed by heating to elevated temperature
at which softening occurs
Reversible reaction
Can be reformed and/or repaired - not common
Limited in temperature range to 150 oC

Examples
Polypropylene
with nylon or glass
can be injected-- inexpensive

Soften layers of combined fiber and resin and


place in a mold -- higher costs

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Matrices - Others
Metal Matrix Composites - higher temperature
e.g., Aluminum with boron or carbon fibers

Ceramic matrix materials - very high

temperature
Fiber is used to add toughness, not necessarily
higher in strength and stiffness

Carbon matrix materials - very high strength

and stiffness
C is penetrated into Carbon fiber network for
high heat conductivity, thermal shock resistance

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Figure. Comparison of
the yield strength of
dispersion-strengthened
sintered aluminum
powder (SAP) composite
with that of two
conventional two-phase
high-strength aluminum
alloys. The composite
has benefits above about
300C. A fiber-reinforced
aluminum composite is
shown for comparison.

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Mechanics of Composite Materials


2
1
3

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Fiber Reinfroced Composites

Isostrain
condition

Longitudinal
direction

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Pc Pm Pf
c A c m A m f A f
For isostrain condition ( c m f )
E cc A c E mm A m E f f A f
Am
Af
Ec Em
Ef
Ac
Ac

Ec m E m f Ef
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The stress-strain curve for a fiber-reinforced


composite. At low stresses (region l), the modulus
of elasticity is given by the rule of mixtures. At
higher stresses (region ll), the matrix deforms and
the rule of mixtures is no longer obeyed.
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Figure. The influence of volume percent boron-coated SiC


(Borsic) fibers on the properties of Borsic-reinforced aluminum
parallel to the fibers.
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Rule of Mixtures (ROM)

Xc m X m f Xf
The change of mechanical properties depending
on the reinforcement content explained by the
Rule of Mixtures (ROM)

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Fraction of load carried by fibers

Pf f A f E f f A f E f

f
Pc c A c E c c A c E c

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Isostress
condition
Transverse
direction

c m f
L c L m L f

Lm A m Lc

L c L m L f

Lc
Lc
Lc
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Lf A f Lc
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L c A m L m A f L f

Lc
Lm
Lf
c mm f f
For isostress condition ( E c c E m m E f f ),

m
f
Ec
Em
Ef
1 m f

Ec Em Ef
EmEf
Ec
mEf f Em
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XmXf
Xc
mXf f Xm
Rule of Mixtures
perpendicular to fibers
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Strength analysis in continuous fiber composites,

Parallel f f 1 f m
f and m = Strength of fiber and matrix
If

m > f ;

m
If f >m

Parallel f f 1 f m

Parallel f f 1 f m

f = The strength of fiber at the matrix strain


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Example-TD-Nickel Composite
Suppose 2 wt% ThO2 is added to nickel. Each ThO2 particle
has a diameter of 1000 . How many particles are present
in each cubic centimeter?
Example - SOLUTION

The densities of ThO2 and nickel are 9.69 and 8.9 g/cm3,
respectively. The volume fraction is:
Therefore, there is 0.0184
cm3 of ThO2 per cm3 of
composite. The volume of
each ThO2 sphere is:

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Cemented carbides - Particulate composites containing hard


ceramic particles bonded with a soft metallic matrix.

Electrical Contacts - Materials used for electrical contacts in


switches and relays must have a good combination of wear
resistance and electrical conductivity.

Microstructure of tungsten
carbide20% cobalt-cemented
carbide (x1300).
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Example-Cemented Carbides
A cemented carbide cutting tool used for machining contains 75
wt% WC, 15 wt% TiC, 5 wt% TaC, and 5 wt% Co. Estimate the
density of the composite.
Example - SOLUTION

First, we must convert the weight percentages to volume


fractions. The densities of the components of the composite are:

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Example - SOLUTION (Continued)

From the rule of mixtures, the density of the composite is

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The steps in producing a silver-tungsten electrical composite: (a)


Tungsten powders are pressed, (b) a low-density compact is
produced, (c) sintering joins the tungsten powders, and (d) liquid
silver is infiltrated into the pores between the particles.

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Example Silver-Tungsten Composite


A silver-tungsten composite for an electrical contact is produced by
first making a porous tungsten powder metallurgy compact, then
infiltrating pure silver into the pores. The density of the tungsten
compact before infiltration is 14.5 g/cm3. Calculate the volume
fraction of porosity and the final weight percent of silver in the
compact after infiltration.
Example - SOLUTION
From the rule of mixtures:

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Example - SOLUTION (Continued)


After infiltration, the volume fraction of silver equals the
volume fraction of pores:

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Figure. The effect of clay on the properties of polyethylene.

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Figure. Microstructure of an aluminum casting alloy reinforced


with silicon carbide particles. In this case, the reinforcing
particles have segregated to interdendritic regions of the
casting( 125).

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Example -Boron Aluminum Composites


Boron coated with SiC(or Borsic) reinforced aluminum containing
40 vol% fibers is an important high-temperature, lightweight
composite material. Estimate the density, modulus of elasticity,
and tensile strength parallel to the fiber axis. Also estimate the
modulus of elasticity perpendicular to the fibers.

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Example - SOLUTION
The properties of the individual components are shown
below.

From the rule of mixtures:

Perpendicular to the fibers:

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Characteristics of Fiber-Reinforced Composites


Many factors must be considered when
designing a fiber-reinforced composite,
including the length, diameter, orientation,
amount, and properties of the fibers; the
properties of the matrix; and the bonding
between the fibers and the matrix.
Aspect ratio - The length of a fiber divided by
its diameter.
Delamination - Separation of individual plies of
a fiber-reinforced composite.

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Figure. Increasing the length of chopped E-glass fibers in an


epoxy matrix increases the strength of the composite. In this
example, the volume fraction of glass fibers is about 0.5.

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Figure. Effect of fiber


orientation on the
tensile strength of Eglass fiber-reinforced
epoxy composites.

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Example-Design of an Aerospace Composite


We are now using a 7075-T6 aluminum alloy (modulus of
elasticity of 10 106 psi) to make a 500-pound panel on a
commercial aircraft. Experience has shown that each pound
reduction in weight on the aircraft reduces the fuel consumption
by 500 gallons each year. Design a material for the panel that
will reduce weight, yet maintain the same specific modulus, and
will be economical over a 10-year lifetime of the aircraft.
Example - SOLUTION
lets consider using a boron fiber-reinforced Al-Li alloy in the T6
condition. The specific modulus of the current 7075-T6 alloy is:

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Example - SOLUTION

If we use 0.6 volume fraction boron fibers in the


composite, then the density, modulus of elasticity, and
specific modulus of the composite are:

If the specific modulus is the only factor influencing


the design of the component, the thickness of the part might
be reduced by 75%, giving a component weight of 125
pounds rather than 500 pounds. The weight savings would
then be 375 pounds, or (500 gal/lb)(375 lb) = 187,500 gal
per year. At about $2.00 per gallon, about $375,000 in fuel
savings could be realized each year, or $3.75 million over
the 10-year aircraft lifetime.
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