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Here, one can find numerous informations about atomic structures

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Objectives of Chapter

The goal of this chapter is to describe the

underlying physical concepts related to the

structure of matter.

To examine the relationships between

structure of atoms-bonds-properties of

engineering materials.

Learn about different levels of structure i.e.

atomic structure, nanostructure,

microstructure, and macrostructure.

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

Chapter Outline

2.1 The Structure of Materials:

Technological Relevance

2.2 The Structure of the Atom

2.3 The Electronic Structure of the

Atom

2.4 The Periodic Table

Section 2.1

The Structure of Materials:

Technological Relevance

Nanotechnology

Micro-electromechanical (MEMS)

systems-Airbag

sensors

Nanostructures

Figure 2.1

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

Level of Structure

Atomic Structure

Example of Technologies

Diamond edge of

cutting tools

Long-Range Order

[Pb(Zrx Ti1-x )] or PZT

(LRO)

gas igniters

Atomic Arrangements: Amorphous silica - fiber

Short-Range Order

optical communications

(SRO)

industry

Figures 2.2 2.4

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

Level of Structure

Example of Technologies

Nanostructure

Nano-sized particles of

iron oxide ferrofluids

Microstructure

Mechanical strength of

metals and alloys

Macrostructure

for corrosion resistance

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

Section 2.2

The Structure of the Atom

The atomic number of an element is equal to the

number of electrons or protons in each atom.

The atomic mass of an element is equal to the average

number of protons + neutrons in the atom.

The Avogadro number of an element is the number of

atoms or molecules in a mole.

The atomic mass unit of an element is the mass of an

atom expressed as 1/12 the mass of a carbon atom.

The effect hold the atoms together nuclear force

The effect hold atoms around atoms electrostatic force

Forces

Electrons negative

Protons positive

Neutrons neutral

The electrical charge that electrons and protons have,

is equal= 1,610-19 C (Coulombs)

Masses

Protons and neutrons have equal mass= 1,610-27 kg

Mass of Electrons = 9,1110-31kg

Mass of electron is omitted in atomic mass calculation

Electron charge cloud constitutes approximately all

volume of atom. However, contitutes extremly small

amount of mass

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

In a neutral atom the number of protons equal to

number of electrons

Each of the element has specific atomic number.

Atomic number introduce the element

Mass of Atom (M) = no. of protons + no. of neutrons

= atomic number(Z)+no. of neutrons

Isotopes are the atoms that the neutron numbers are

diferent in the nucleus.

terms of grams of the atoms that equal to

Avogadro number (NA) Unit= gr/mol.

NA (Avogadro number)= 6,02 1023 atom/mol

(It is 1/12 th of the carbon atom that atomic

mass is 12)

Example: One mole iron (Fe) contains

6,021023 atoms and its mass is 55,847 gr

or 55,847 a.m.s.

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

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10

Example 2.1

Calculate the Number of Atoms in Silver

Calculate the number of atoms in 100 g of silver.

Example 2.1 SOLUTION

23 atoms

mol)

The number of silver atoms is = (100 g )(6.023 10

(107.868 g mol)

=5.58 1023

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Example 2.2

Nano-Sized Iron-Platinum Particles

For Information Storage

Scientists are considering using nano-particles of such

magnetic materials as iron-platinum (Fe-Pt) as a

medium for ultrahigh density data storage. Arrays of

such particles potentially can lead to storage of

trillions of bits of data per square incha capacity that

will be 10 to 100 times higher than any other devices

such as computer hard disks. If these scientists

considered iron (Fe) particles that are 3 nm in

diameter, what will be the number of atoms in one

such particle?

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12

The radius of a particle is 1.5 nm.

Volume of each iron magnetic nano-particle

= 1.4137 10-20 cm3

Density of iron = 7.8 g/cm3. Atomic mass of iron

is 56 g/mol.

Mass of each iron nano-particle

= 7.8 g/cm3 1.4137 10-20 cm3

= 1.102 10-19 g.

One mole or 56 g of Fe contains 6.023 1023

atoms, therefore, the number of atoms in one

Fe nano-particle will be 1186.

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

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Example 2.3

Dopant Concentration In Silicon Crystals

Silicon single crystals are used extensively to make

computer chips. Calculate the concentration of silicon atoms

in silicon, or the number of silicon atoms per unit volume of

silicon. During the growth of silicon single crystals it is often

desirable to deliberately introduce atoms of other elements

(known as dopants) to control and change the electrical

conductivity and other electrical properties of silicon.

Phosphorus (P) is one such dopant that is added to make

silicon crystals n-type semiconductors. Assume that the

concentration of P atoms required in a silicon crystal is 1017

atoms/cm3. Compare the concentrations of atoms in silicon

and the concentration of P atoms. What is the significance of

these numbers from a technological viewpoint? Assume that

density of silicon is 2.33 g/cm3.

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

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14

Atomic mass of silicon = 28.09 g/mol.

So, 28.09 g of silicon contain 6.023 1023

atoms.

Therefore, 2.33 g of silicon will contain

(2.33 6.023 1023/28.09) atoms = 4.99

1022 atoms. Mass of one cm3 of Si is 2.33 g.

Therefore, the concentration of silicon atoms in

pure silicon is 5 1022 atoms/cm3.

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Significance of comparing dopant and Si atom

concentrations: If we were to add phosphorus (P)

into this crystal, such that the concentration of P is

1017 atoms/cm3, the ratio of concentration of

atoms in silicon to that of P will be

out of 500,000 atoms of the doped crystal will be

that of phosphorus (P)! This is equivalent to one

apple in 500,000 oranges! This explains why the

single crystals of silicon must have exceptional

purity and at the same time very small and

uniform levels of dopants.

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of the Atom

Quantum numbers are the numbers that assign electrons

in an atom to discrete energy levels.

A quantum shell is a set of fixed energy levels to which

electrons belong.

Pauli exclusion principle specifies that no more than two

electrons in a material can have the same energy. The

two electrons have opposite magnetic spins.

The valence of an atom is the number of electrons in an

atom that participate in bonding or chemical reactions.

Electronegativity describes the tendency of an atom to

gain an electron.

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an electron on a specific

energy level, electron can

jump to a upper energy level.

e.i. For shifting of an electron

to an energy level of E2, the

necessary energy for the

electron which is stable at the

energy level of E1, received

energy is:

Photon

Absorbed energy

E = E2-E1

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

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However,

since

the

electron is unstable in the

E2 level it can not be

hosted forever in this

energy

Electron returns in the E1

level and it emits received

E energy in the form of

electromagnetic radiation

to the environment.

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Photon

Yaylan

Emittedenerji

energy

the frequency of emitted specific amount of

energy wave () in the form of radiation

(photon) is proportional with E energy:

E = h

h: Planck constant (6,63x10-34 Js)

The wavelength of the emitted radiation with the

speed of light (c=3x108 m/s) wave ();

c=

Then the energy becomes

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

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hc

E

20

representing that a single

electron

is

rotating

around a proton.

Model was developed in

1913 by Niels Bohr.

Bohr equation explaining

the

model

gives

approximate energy at

the

permitted

energy

level

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Electron:

Charge e

Mass m

Velocity v

Orbital radius

R= 0.05 nm

Proton

Charge +e

Electron

orbital

2 2 m e 4

13,6

E

2 eV

2 2

n h

n

e: Electron charge

m: Electron mass

n: Main (primary) quantum number

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Continiuty

Base condition

13,6 eV.

If the hydrogen atom excited to higher energy levels its energy

raised and numerical value decreased.

For completely separating an electron from hydrogen atom the

required energy is 13.6 eV and this is the ionization energy of

hydrogen atom..

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

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BOHR ATOM

electrons:

n = principal

quantum number

1

n=3 2

Nucleus:

Callister 6e.

Z = # protons

= 1 for hydrogen to 94 for plutonium

N = # neutrons

Atomic mass A Z + N

n labels shells; shells are composed of sub-shells: s, p, d, f,

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

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Electron Configurations

An electron configuration describes the distribution of

electrons among the various orbitals in the atom.

Electron configuration is represented in two ways.

The spdf notation uses

numbers to designate a

principal shell and letters (s,

p, d, f) to identify a

subshell; a superscript

indicates the number of

electrons in a designated

subshell.

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Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

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orbital within subshells, and arrows represent

electrons. The arrows directions represent electron

spins; opposing spins are paired.

N:

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

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ELECTRONC CONFGURATON

Electrons

are arranged

Energy Levels

or

the arrangement

of theinelectron

in the atom.

Shells around the nucleus of an atom.

nl

no.of

Sub electrons

Main

energy energy

level level

nucleus

f

1 2 p3 d 4 d

p

p

s

s s

s

2e- 8e18e-

f = 7x 2 = 14

d = 5x 2 = 10

32e-

p = 3x 2 = 6

s = 1x 2 = 2

Atomic orbital

27

1 Atomic

27

orbital

=2e

Transition Elements

The electon strucutre for some of the elements may not be

fitted with the sequential rules that expalined previously.

In some of the elemnts electrons can be placed on the up

energy levels. These types of elemnts so called Transition

Elements.

In the iron (Fe) that atomic number is 26, there are 26

electrons. The expected quantum numbers team is:

1s2 2s2 2p63s23p63d8

I fact, 8 electrons must be placed at the 3d shell. But,

2 electrons from 3d shell move to 4s level and new

replacement is

1s2 2s2 2p63s23p63d64s2.

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Electrons...

tend to occupy lowest available energy state.

Maximum electrons

In sub-shells

s=2

p=6

d = 10

f = 14

Maximum electrons in

nth shell = 2n2

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

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STABLE ELECTRON

CONFIGURATIONS

Stable electron configurations...

have complete s and p sub-shells 8 electrons (octet)

tend to be unreactive.

Callister 6e.

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SURVEY OF ELEMENTS

Electron configuration

1s1

1s2

(stable)

1s22s1

1s22s2

1s22s22p1

Adapted from Table 2.2,

Callister 6e.

2

2

2

1s 2s 2p

...

1s22s22p6

(stable)

1s22s22p63s1

1s22s22p63s2

1s22s22p63s23p1

...

1s22s22p63s23p6

(stable)

...

1s22s22p63s23p63d10 4s246

(stable)

Valence (outer) shell usually is not an octet.

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

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Electrons have different energy levels in the

atoms

Each of electron has a specific energy and there

can not be more than two electrons that have

similar energy level in an atom.

Each of the energy levels belong to electrons

determined by four quantum numbers. These

are:

Primary (principal) quantum number

Magnetic quantum number

Spin quantum number

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

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Shows the basic energy level of the

electron. In an energy shell that has

n quantum number, there can be

maximum 2n2 electrons.

can be shown with K, L, M, N,...

symbols.

n=1=K shell, 2 e

n=2=L shell, total 8 e

n=3=M shell, total 18 e

n=4=N shell, total 32 e

Basic quantum

numbers

Symbols (Letters)

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11, showing the electrons in the K, L, and M quantum shells

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

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Define secondary energy levels inside the basic energy levels

and there can be as much as (n-1).

l number can takes the values of 0,1,2,3,...,n-1.

These are shown by s, p, d, f letters instead of numbers.

l= 0 for s

l= 1 for p

l= 2 for d

l= 3 for f

Specific numbers of electrons can be existed in each s, p, d, f

orbitals.

In s orbital 2 e,

In p orbital 6 e,

In d orbital 10 e

In f orbital 14 e

Secondary

Quantum numbers

Letters

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Electrons move at different directions on atoms

around and have different angular momentum.

If the movement is in positive direction at secondary

quantum shell (+), in negative (-), the movement

direction is indefinite (0).

The value that the magnetic quantum number can

take is 2l+1.

l=1 for ml =3 number ml = -1, 0, +1

l=2 i for ml =5 number ml = +2, -1, 0, +1, +2

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In an orbital and energy level there can not be

more than two elctrons that move opposite

directions (Pauli exclusion principle)

Electrons have two different rotating directions

one is at the clockwise and the other is anticlockwise.

Rotating can takes +1/2 and -1/2 values for

determining different spins.

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of the 11 electrons in sodium

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

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39

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relative to the position of the elements in the periodic table

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

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s orbitals

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p orbitals

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2s orbital

Nucleus

2p

orbitals

1s orbital

3s orbital

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

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Example 16.9

Comparing Electronegativities

Using the electronic structures, compare the electronegativities

of calcium and bromine.

Example 2.4 SOLUTION

The electronic structures, obtained from Appendix C, are:

Ca: 1s22s22p63s23p6

4s2

Br: 1s22s22p63s23p63d10

4s24p5

has seven electrons in its outer 4s4p orbital. Calcium, with an

electronegativity of 1.0, tends to give up electrons and has low

electronegativity, but bromine, with an electronegativity of 2.8,

tends to accept electrons and is strongly electronegative. This

difference in electronegativity values suggests that these

elements may react readily to form a compound.

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

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III-V semiconductor is a semiconductor that is based on

group 3A and 5B elements (e.g. GaAs).

II-VI semiconductor is a semiconductor that is based on

group 2B and 6B elements (e.g. CdSe).

Transition elements are the elements whose electronic

configurations are such that their inner d and f levels

begin to fill up.

Electropositive element is an element whose atoms want

to participate in chemical interactions by donating

electrons and are therefore highly reactive.

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Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

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Electronegativity

some elements

Valance:

It is of

related

with chemical activity of an

atom with another element and generally is

determined by outer the electron number of

combined sp level.

Al: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 [3s 2 3p 1 ] Valance:3

Ge: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 3d 10 [4s 2 4p

] Valance:4

tendency of an atom and varies between 0-4,1

48

Prof. Dr. Hatem AKBULUT

48

structures are similar are arranged one under the

other.

The equal quantum shell number elements are listed in

a same row.

Columns are ranged in the horizontal direction in

terms of electrons numbers and take group numbers.

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