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Course:

Lecturer:

GPY 453 WATER RESOURCES MANAGEMENT


Iroye, Kayode Ademola
Ph.D. Geography (Unilorin); M.Sc.; B.Sc. (Hons); PGDE
(UNAD).

Address:

Department of Geography & Environmental Management.


Faculty of Business and Social Sciences
University of Ilorin, Ilorin
Kwara State, Nigeria.

E-mail:

iroyekayode@yahoo.com

Office Address:

Ground Floor,
Department of Geography & Environmental Management.
University of Ilorin, Ilorin.
1.00pm -2.00pm Tuesdays and Thursdays

Consultation hour:

Course Content
Water as a strategic resource. Worlds water resource inventories and
surveys. Use of water for industrial, domestic, commercial and agricultural purposes.
Harnessing of water for rural and urban use, - boreholes, wells, dams etc case
studies of water supply in Nigeria. 45h (T), PR: GPY 324, EL
Course Justification
Water is essential for both life and livelihood. It is required for consumption by
humans and animals alike, bringing with it essential micronutrients such as iron and
fluoride. Water is also required for personal hygiene such as washing, bathing,
laundering, sewerage and cleaning. Water is essential for agricultural and industrial
production. While its availability in-terms of quantity and quality determine rate of a
country growth and development; its management level and control also determines
whether it will constitute a blessing or curse. Thus knowledge acquire by students in
this course will help in managing and developing water as a resource rather than
hindrance

Course Objectives
The general objective of the course as an integral part of the B.Sc.
(Geography and Env. Mgt.) is to be able to identify different sources of water,
management techniques that can be adopted in their development and problems
associated with each of the management techniques. At the end of the course, the
students will be able to:
i.
identify water as a resource
ii.
describe on a global scale, different sources of water
iii.
explain the different management techniques of water resources
iv.
identify problems associated with each of the management techniques, and
v.
describe ways of solving problems associated with each of the management
techniques
Course Requirement
Hydrology is a perquisite for this course; thus students in this class are
expected to have taken and passed GPY 324 in 300 level. Students in the class are
also expected to participate in all the course activities and have minimum of 75%
attendance to be able to write the final examination. Each student is also expected
to present a term paper of a case study on water supply in Nigeria.
Method of grading
Number Item
1
Term paper
2
Test
3
Final
examination
Total

% score
10
20
70
100

Course Delivery Strategies


The lecture will be delivered through face to face method using lecture note.
Students will be advised to read around the topics. Though additional materials will
be provided on the board; students will also be encouraged to read relevant journal
articles.
Reading List
Ayoade, J.O. (2003), Tropical Hydrology and Water Resources Macmillan and Agbo
Areo Publishes, Ibadan 275pp.
Balek, J. (1983), Hydrology and Water Resources in Tropical Regions, Elsevier,
Amsterdam
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Knapp, B.J. (1979), Elements of Geographical Hydrology, George Allen and Unwin,
London 80pp.
Oyegun, R.O. (1983), Water Resources in Kwara State Matanmi and Sons Printing
and Publishing, Ilorin 113pp.
Todd, D.K. (1980), Groundwater Hydrology John Wiley, New York.
Wards, R.C. (1978) Flood; A Geographical Perspective Macmillan, London 224pp.

LECTURES
Week 1:
Water as a Resource
Objective: The students will be able to explain the importance of water in the
ecosystem of man.
Description: Uses to which water can be put will be discussed such as irrigation,
HEP generation, fishing, industrialization, navigation, wildlife
conservation, recreation, healthful living, pollution abatement and
control.
Study Questions:
1.
Explain the properties possessed by water which enhances its resource
value.
2.
List 10 illnesses and diseases which have linkage with water
3.
Identify 5 countries whose success stories in agricultural practice is due to
provision of water by irrigation
Reading List
Ayoade, J.O. (2003), Tropical Hydrology and Water Resources Macmillan and Agbo
Areo Publishes, Ibadan 275pp.
Biswas, A.K. (1878), Water Development and Environment, Geojournal 3(5) 7-12
Mitchell, B. (1979), Geography and Resources Analysis, Longman, London
Week 2:
Worlds Water Inventory
Objective: The students will be able to identify different sources of water
Description:Global water resource inventory will be taken such as oceanic water,
rivers, lakes, water aloft, life fluid of vegetative kingdom, biological
water, unseen reservoiur and global refrigeration system. Challenges
facing each of these sources will also be examined.

Study Questions
1.
List 5 different sources of fresh water
2.
Highlight the importance of groundwater in hydrological process
3.
Identify the largest single item in the worlds water budget outside the ocean
and its equivalent volume.
Reading List
Biswas, A.K. (1878), Water Development and Environment, Geojournal 3(5) 7-12
Lvovitch, M.I. (1973), The Worlds Water, Mir Publishers, Moscow
Ward, R.C. (1975), Principles of Hydrology McGraw Hill, London.
Week 3:
Domestic Water Demand
Objective: The students will be able to explain different uses of water
domestically.
Description: Difference process of estimating domestic water demand will be
explained and factors affecting differences in domestic demand
examined.
Study Questions
1.
Make a list of 5 uses to which water can be put domestically
2.
Provide estimate per-capital consumption of the above uses in developed
world.
Reading List
Oyegun, R.O. (1983), Water Resources in Kwara State Matanmi and Sons Printing
and Publishing, Ilorin 113pp.
Ayoade, J.O. and Oyebande, B.L. (1978) Water Resources, In: J.S. Oguntoyinbo,
O.O. Areola and M.O. Filani (eds) A Geography of Nigerian Development,
Heinemann, Ibadan, pp 40-56
Burkalow, V.A. (1959), The Geography of New York City Water Supply: A Study of
Interactions, Geographical Rev. 49 (3) 369-386

Week 4:
Industrial Water Demand
Objectives: Students will be able to explain variety of industrial uses of water
Description:Variability in quantity and quality of water required by different industrial
processes will be discussed.

Study Questions
1.
Examine 4 factors which determine the volume of water used in a given
industry
2.
Explain the reason why industries in the tropics consume much less water
than industries in the temperate region.
Reading List:
Ayoade, J.O. (1981), A note on Industrial Water use in Nigeria, Water Supply and
Management, 5 (4/5) pp 373-375
Rees, J.A. (1973), The Demand for Water in Southeast England, Geographic
Journal 139: 20-36
Week 5:
Irrigation Water Demand
Objective: The objective of the lecture is to describe controlled supply of water to
agriculture through irrigation
Description: Though agricultural activities in most parts of the world is mainly rainfed with the exception of semi-arid and arid areas, irrigation agriculture
is of crucial importance because of unreliability of rainfall and high
variation in its incidence, duration and amount from year to year.
Physical and cultural factors affecting types of irrigation to be adopted
will be discussed. Modern and primitive types of irrigation will be
explained. The lecture will also discussed various problems created by
irrigation practice such as creation of cone of depression, subsidence,
salinicity, ecological disturbance etc.
Study Questions
1.
Examine the ways by which evaporation losses in irrigation practice can be
minimized.
2.
Examine the need for irrigation practice in the tropics despite the fact that
agriculture is still mainly rain-fed in the region.
Reading List
Ayoade, J.O. (1977), Perspective on the Recent Drought in the Sudano-Sahelian
Zone of West Africa with particular reference to Nigeria. Archiv
Fumeteorologic Geophysik and BioKlimatologie, Series B No 25, pp 67-77
Ayoade, J.O. (2003), Tropical Hydrology and Water Resources. Macmillan and Agbo
Areo Publishers pp. 219 225

Week 6:
Forecasting Water Demand
Objective: The objective of the lecture is to explain model generation in
forecasting water demand.
Description: The lecture will explain different forecasting techniques and factors
that can be uses in forecasting water demand.
Study Questions:
Explain the two basic forecasting techniques use in water demand analysis
Reading List
Ayoade, J.O. (2003), Tropical Hydrology and Water Resources, Macmillan and Agbo
Areo Publishers 275pp.
Overman, M. (1968), Water: Solution to a Problem of Supply and Demand, Aldus
Books, London.
Week 7:
Origin, Occurrence and Storage of Groundwater
Objective: The students will be able to know the origin, mode of occurrence under
variety of conditions and forms and rock properties affecting
groundwater storage.
Description: Explanation of precipitation as main origin of groundwater. Other
sources include connate and juvenile water. Groundwater occur as
springs and water in permanent frozen ground while rock micro and
macro properties affect groundwater storage.
Study Questions
1.
Examine three ways by which groundwater can be naturally discharge from
the ground
2.
Differentiate between diffuse seepage and spring
3.
Define the following terms
a.
Aquifer
b.
Aquifuge
c.
Aquiclude
Reading List
Todd, D.K. (1980), Groundwater Hydrology, John Wiley
Walton, W.C. (1970), Groundwater Resource Evaluation, McGraw Hill, New York.

Week 8:
Types of Aquifer
Objective: Students will be able to know the different types of aquifers
Description:Criteria used in classifying aquifer include yield, geological
characteristics, source of replenishment, manner of occurrence and
presence or absence of a water table.
Study Questions
1.
Classify aquifers into four categories based on manner of occurrence
2.
Differentiate between artesian aquifers and artesian wells
Reading List:
Faniran, A. and Omorinbola, E.O. (1980), Evaluating the Shallow Groundwater
Reserves in Basement Complex Areas: A Case Study of South Western
Nigeria, Journal of Mining and Geology 17(1) pp 65-79.
Omorinbola, E.O. (1980), Refraction Seismic Determination of some Aspects of the
Groundwater Condition of Nigeria Basement Complex Regoliths, Nigerian
Geographical Journal, Vol. 23, pp 65-82
Week 9:
Groundwater Movements
Objective: Students will be able to know different types of groundwater
movements
Description: Explanation of movements in both horizontal and vertical plane.
Theoretical and practical methods of examining the pattern of
horizontal movement
Study Questions
1.
Tracers can be used to show the direction and rates of groundwater flow.
Examine five properties of an ideal tracer
2.
Make a list of four components each of groundwater recharge and discharge.
Reading List
Ayoade, J.O (2003), Tropical Hydrology and Water Resources. Agbo Areo and
Macmillan Publishers 275pp
Week 10: Groundwater Quality
Objective: The students will be able to know factors influencing quality of
groundwater.

Description: Quality of groundwater will be compared with surface water and its
advantages over surface water will be discussed, especially for the use
of rural dwellers
Study Questions
1.
List 5 disadvantages of groundwater as a source of water supply
2.
List 5 relative advantages of developing groundwater over surface water,
especially for the use of rural dwellers
Reading List
Todd, D.K. (1980), Groundwater Hydrology, John Wiley
Walton, W.C. (1970), Groundwater Resource Evaluation, McGraw Hill, New York.
Week 11: River Storage
Objective: The objective of the lecture is to explain the use of dam in meeting the
water requirement of man
Description: The lecture will explain the use of dam as a means of water storage in
urban areas. Advantages and disadvantages of dam as system of
storage will be discussed
Study Questions
1.
List 5 advantages of dam
2.
List 5 environmental consequences of dam as water control project
Reading List
Ayoade, J.O. (2003), Tropical Hydrology and Water Resources, Macmillan and Agbo
Areo Publisher 275pp
Barrow, C.J. (1983), The Environmental Consequences of Water Resources
Development in the Tropics In: O.J. Bee (ed) Natural Resources in Tropical
Countries; Signapore University Press
Week 12: Ocean Storage
Objective: The objective of the lecture is to explain the use of ocean in meeting up
the water requirement of man
Description: The lecture will explain the challenge facing man in his attempt to use
ocean water as a supply option. Methods of overcoming the challenge
and prospects will also be discussed.

Study Questions
1.
Explain any two methods that can be used in removing salt from ocean water
2.
List four energy source for the above desalination processes.
Reading List
Biwas, A.K. (1978), Water Development and Environment; Geojournal 3(5)
Overman, M. (1968), Water: solutions to Problem of Supply and Demand, Aldus
Book, London.
Week 13: Estuarine Storage
Objective: The objective of the lecture is to explain the use of estuarine in meeting
the water requirement of man.
Description: The lecture will explain process of developing estuarine storage and
development challenges associated with the use of estuarine storage
as water supply option.
Study Questions
1.
Examine the implication of developing an estuarine for water supply on fish
farming
2.
List the problems limiting the use of estuarine as source of water supply for
man
Reading List
Biwas, A.K. (1978), Water Development and Environment; Geojournal 3(5)
Overman, M. (1968), Water: Solutions to Problem of supply and Demand, Aldus
Book.
Week 14: Problems of water resource management in Nigeria
Objective: The students will be able to explain the general problems confronting
water resource management in Nigeria
Description: Discussion on problem of water resource management such as data
problems,
physical
and
environmental
problems,
cultural,
institutional/political and management problems will be carried out.
Study Questions:
1.
Examine physical constraints as problem of water resource management in
Nigeria
2.
To what extent do you consider cultural factor a significant problem in water
resource management in Nigeria?
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Reading List
Faniran, A. (1991), Water Resources Development in Nigeria. University of Ibadan
Lecture Series 95pp
Oyegun, R.O. (1983), Water Resources in Kwara State Matanmi Printing and
Publishing, Ilorin 113pp.
Sule, B.F. (2003), Water Security; Now and the Future 65th Inaugural Lecture,
University of Ilorin, Unilorin Press 69pp,
Week 15: Revision
Description: Students will be expected to ask question on any difficult concept or
topic treated during the course
Study Questions:
1.
Examine the view that provision of improved water supply is the major key for
the development of any geographical region
2.
Attempt a typology of aquifers
3.
Distinguish between confined and unconfined aquifers and describe the
conditions under which they occur
4.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of surface water storage
5.
Describe two methods that can be used in removing salt from water
6.
Review the activities of your state government in the area of water resources
development and management in the last one decade
7.
Examine the factors which determine the relative importance of groundwater
over surface water especially for the use of rural dwellers
8.
Examine the properties of ideal tracer
9.
Examine the physical characteristics of a region that constitute problem in
water resource management
10. Examine the need for irrigation agriculture in the tropics despite its climatic
location.

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